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Wind Turbine Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

DEEPANSHU NIGAM [1], Dr. T.S.DESMUKH [2]

[1]

Scholar, Civil Engineering Department, [2] Professor, Civil Engineering Department, MANIT, Bhopal

[1]

deepanshunigam50@gmail.com

ABSTRACT.

In this paper analysis of flow over airfoils - NACA 4412, NACA 23012, EPPLER 637 and NREL S801 was

performed using the ANSYS 16.1 CFD software ICEM 16.1 and CFX 16.1. The software obtained the flow by solving the

governing equations of continuity, momentum and energy conservation combined with the standard k- and SST turbulence

models. The angle of attack (AOA) was kept constant at 0 degrees and analysis was performed for two cases of flow velocity

11 and 15 m/s. It is observed that the effect on the aerodynamic characteristics of various airfoils is associated with their shape.

They behave differently under same conditions in terms of lift and drag.

KEYWORDS- Aerodynamic Characteristics, Airfoils, Lift, Drag, AOA, Wind Turbine, CFD, Renewable Energy.

I. INTRODUCTION

Energy derived from wind power is amongst the most abundant sources of renewable energy. Wind energy has an added advantage of low cost

in comparison to the conventional source of energy like coal, petroleum etc. In the present scenario the world is struggling with the problem of

energy crisis and climate change, as such wind energy can prove to be most useful. A wind turbine is basically a machine that converts wind

power into electrical energy. The main part of a wind turbine which is responsible for energy conversion is the rotor blades. The blades are made

up of airfoil sections. Hence, performance of the wind turbine depends to a large extent on the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoil sections

selected. Computational analysis of various airfoil sections is essential for selecting a suitable wind turbine blade. Numerical simulation using

CFD is a good means for assessing the performance of airfoils.

II. AIRFOIL

The aerodynamic cross section of a body such as a wing that creates lift as it moves through air or fluid is called as an airfoil or aerofoil. An

airfoil shape body when oriented at a suitable angle, and moved through a fluid medium such as air results in a force on the airfoil. This force is

known as aerodynamic force and can be resolved into two components, Lift and drag. The component of this force perpendicular to the direction

of motion is called lift (L). The component parallel to the direction of motion is called drag (D). This "turning" of the air in the vicinity of the

airfoil creates curved streamlines which results in lower pressure on one side and higher pressure on the other. This effect can be utilized for

rotating the blades of wind turbine to produce wind electricity or wind power.

L = 0.5**CL*A*V2

D = 0.5**CD*A*V2

Where,

Density of air (at 250C, 1.1839 Kg/m3)

CL Coefficient of Lift

CD Coefficient of Drag

A Area of airfoil

V Velocity of wind (air)

NACA 4412

To Cite This Article: DEEPANSHU NIGAM and Dr. T.S.DESMUKH,. Comparative Performance Analysis of

NACA, NREL, EPPLER Airfoils for Wind Turbine Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Advances in

Natural and Applied Sciences ;Pages: 173-180

174. DEEPANSHU NIGAM and Dr. T.S.DESMUKH ,. Comparative Performance Analysis of NACA, NREL, EPPLER

Airfoils for Wind Turbine Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences;

Pages: 173-180

NACA 23012

EPPLER 637

NREL S801

Ji Yao et.al. [1] 2012, performed the numerical simulation and analyzed the aerodynamic performance of wind turbine airfoil NACA0018 by

obtaining the lift and drag coefficient of the airfoil under different turbulence models at angle of attack between -80 and 130, which was then

compared with the experimental data. Also, the applicability of the turbulence models for the different airfoils numerical simulation was

investigated, and the flow field structure was analyzed. The computational results provided a reference for the research and development of wind

turbine airfoils. Mahindra Agrawal et.al. [2] 2013, analyzed the basic aerodynamic theory of wings followed by the experimental result obtained

from the wind tunnel testing of a NACA4412 and the analysis of the data. It was observed that lift increases as the angle of attack increase and at

certain point it become maximum. After that if the angle of attack was increased further, drag become the dominant factor and the wind enters

the stall mode. M. Vega Del Carmen et.at. [3] 2015, carried out the aerodynamic design of a 1 MW horizontal axis wind turbine for electricity

generation on large scale. In the aerodynamic design, Strip theory was used to get the final geometry of the blades. Model test for the designed

rotor were performed at Applied Thermal and Hydraulic Engineering Laboratory on a scaled down rotor of 80 cm diameter. The test was

conducted to get the behavior of the turbine in terms of power generated with the variation of the pitch angle for different tip speed ratios. The

best power coefficient was achieved for a tip speed ratio of 8.5 and at a pitch angle of 0. N. Rostamzadeh et.al. [4] 2012 performed an

experimental and computational study of Flow over a NACA 0021 Airfoil with Wavy Leading Edge Modification. It was employed to modify a

NACA 0021 airfoil for wind tunnel pressure measurement tests in the transitional flow regime. Computational fluid dynamics study was

performed using the SST transitional model in the context of unsteady RANS at several attack angles. The results from the numerical

investigation were in reasonable agreement with those of the experiments. P.Prabhakara Rao, et.al. [5] 2014, carried out the CFD analysis on

airfoils at high angles of attack, the geometry was modeled in CATIA V5 R19, pre-processing was done in ANSYS ICEM CFD 14.0 and

simulations were carried out in ANSYS FLUENT 14.0. The overall aim of the project was to improve airfoil performance at high angles-of-

attack by obtaining the optimum position for placing Dimple and cylinder (grooves and extended surfaces) for enhancing airfoil performance.

Sarfaraj Nawaz Saha et.at. [6] 2015, studied the experimental characteristic graph of NACA 2415 from the book, Theory of wing section by

IRA H. ABBOTT and compared it with simulation results of CFD and Java foil under same conditions of flow as they are in the experiment. It is

found that the theoretical results of CFD are closest to the experimental values as compared to those in Java foil.

The present study is aimed at studying the lift characteristics of asymmetric airfoil profiles at zero degree angle of attack. Four profiles have

been selected for analysis namely NACA 4412, NACA 23012, EPPLER 637 and NREL S801. The mass conservation equation, full Navier-

Stokes equation, and energy equations are the governing equations used for analyzing the flow. The simulation has been performed for two

turbulence models, the standard k- and SST turbulence model.

175. DEEPANSHU NIGAM and Dr. T.S.DESMUKH ,. Comparative Performance Analysis of NACA, NREL, EPPLER

Airfoils for Wind Turbine Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences;

Pages: 173-180

The various airfoils are created in ICEM CFD 16.1. The domain for analysis is defined such that the inlet at a distance twice the length of airfoil

and the outlet at a distance four time the length of airfoil from the leading edge. While, top and bottom surfaces are kept at distances equal to

twice the length of profile. The geometry was created and meshed in ICEM CFD 16.1 taking global size element 0.49 and 0.01 as part size

element for airfoil. The simulations were carried out at zero degree angle of attack for two cases, inlet velocity 11 m/s and 15 m/s.

GEOMETRY

MESH

CFX PREVIEW

The flow simulations were performed for all the profiles (NACA 4412, NACA 23012, EPPLER 637 and NREL S801) at two inlet velocities (11

m/s and 15 m/s) and two turbulence models (k- and SST) for all the four profiles. The flow was analyzed on the basis of pressure and velocity

contours. The pressure contours for the four airfoils are shown in Fig. 3.

EPPLER 637

176. DEEPANSHU NIGAM and Dr. T.S.DESMUKH ,. Comparative Performance Analysis of NACA, NREL, EPPLER

Airfoils for Wind Turbine Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences;

Pages: 173-180

NACA 23012

NACA 4412

NREL S801

Comparison of all the four airfoil profiles for same flow velocity and turbulence model:

A closer look at the pressure contours as shown in Fig. 3 explains the reason behind difference in coefficient of lift for various profiles for

similar condition i.e. for a particular wind speed and turbulence model. The pressure difference at upper and lower surfaces of airfoils, pressure

difference at leading and trailing edges and density of a particular pressure value in a region dominating in one and lagging in another around

airfoils are main cause of this difference.

General observation one can see is that in case of EPPLER 637 and NACA 23012 airfoils the low pressure region is concentrated above the front

portion of airfoil profile and specifically on the upper surface. While, on the other hand it is distributed almost over the entire upper surface of

NREL S801 and NACA 4412 airfoils. This creates more pressure gradient from bottom to top surface in the latter pair of airfoils as compared to

the former, around 50 Pa more. Due to this more lift is generated for NREL S801 and NACA 4412 airfoils and hence better lift characteristics

are obtained.

A detailed comparison of EPPLER 637 and NREL S801 airfoil profiles in the light of above discussion can be worked out using their pressure

contours with specific regions marked as shown in Fig. 4. In NREL S801 airfoil the low pressure region i.e. region 1 is far stretched as compared

to that in EPPLER 637 airfoil. Also, in region 2 the pressure difference is negligible and at the very tip of the trailing edge in EPPLER 637

airfoil rendering it useless while in NREL S801 airfoil it is somewhat at the lower surface beneath trailing edge and has a magnitude of nearly

100 Pa, hence contributing towards more lift. Moreover, region 3 and 4 are at low pressure in NREL S801 airfoil as compared to that in

EPPLER 637 airfoil which are adding more to lift force as direction of forces are not conflicting unlike EPPLER 637 airfoil.

177. DEEPANSHU NIGAM and Dr. T.S.DESMUKH ,. Comparative Performance Analysis of NACA, NREL, EPPLER

Airfoils for Wind Turbine Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences;

Pages: 173-180

EPPLER 637

NREL S801

Fig. 4 Comparative Pressure Contours for EPPLER 637 and NREL S801.

Comparison of a single airfoil profile for same flow velocity but different turbulence models:

Observing the pressure contours of NACA 4412 airfoil for 15 m/s flow velocity and both turbulence models i.e. k- and SST which is taken as

example to carry out above mentioned comparison, it can be explained that the high pressure zone in case of SST turbulence model is

considerably large as compared to that in k- turbulence model at lower surface of airfoils i.e. region 1 as shown in Fig 5. The pressure

difference between lower and upper surfaces i.e. higher and lower pressure surfaces are 200 Pa in case of SST turbulence model while in case of

k- turbulence model it is 150 Pa. Due to this more upward force is generated in case of SST turbulence model creating more lift.

k- Turbulence Model

Fig. 5 Pressure Contours for NACA 4412 at 15m/s and Both Turbulence Models.

178. DEEPANSHU NIGAM and Dr. T.S.DESMUKH ,. Comparative Performance Analysis of NACA, NREL, EPPLER

Airfoils for Wind Turbine Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences;

Pages: 173-180

In region 2 of SST turbulence model the pressure is 101400 Pa which is higher than 101300 Pa as that of k- turbulence model hence more

upward force even from the trailing edge side of airfoil and therefore more lift in SST turbulence model. The above observation is because of

ability of SST turbulence model to solve the flow near to the wall in boundary layer i.e. in the viscous sub-layer and buffer layer more accurately

than k- turbulence model which only solve the flow away from the wall in boundary layer where fully turbulent flow is developed. In the

present work boundary layer is developed on airfoil surface and it acts as a wall. The corresponding graphs for above discussion are shown in

Fig. 6 and Fig. 7. Coefficients of lift for all the cases are presented in a tabulated form in Table 1.

0,60

0.53063868

0,55

0,54124797

0,50

0.47084192

0.47071557

0,45

0,40

Coefficient of Lift

0.32350635

0,35

0.30501864

0,30

0.29111671

0,25

0.26123353

0,20

0,15

0,10

0,05

0,00

EPPLER 637 NACA 23012 NREL S801 NACA 4412

Airfoil Profiles

Fig. 6 Coefficient of lift for flow velocity 11 m/s and 0 degree angle of attack.

0,60

0.53624649

0,55

0.54795919

0,50 0.48193259

0.48365571

0,45

Coefficient of Lift

0,40

0.32669726

0,35

0.30919766

0,30

0,29675592 0.26912520

0,25

0,20

0,15

0,10

0,05

0,00

EPPLER 637 NACA 23012 NREL S801 NACA 4412

Airfoil Profiles

Fig. 7 Coefficient of Lift for flow velocity 15 m/s and 0 degree angle of attack.

179. DEEPANSHU NIGAM and Dr. T.S.DESMUKH ,. Comparative Performance Analysis of NACA, NREL, EPPLER

Airfoils for Wind Turbine Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences;

Pages: 173-180

CL

Turbulenc

Profile

e Model

11 m/s 15 m/s

k- 0.29111671 0.2967559

EPPLER 637

SST 0.32350635 0.3266972

k- 0.26123353 0.2691252

NACA 23012

SST 0.30501864 0.3091976

k- 0.47071557 0.4836557

NREL S801

SST 0.54124797 0.5479591

k- 0.47084192 0.4819325

NACA 4412

SST 0.53063868 0.5362464

From above graphs and table it is observed that as we increase the wind speed, coefficient of lift will increase for all airfoils. Also, SST

turbulence model gives a higher value of coefficient of lift for a particular profile as compared to that obtained from k- turbulence model for a

constant wind speed and also for a constant angle of attack which is kept at 0 degree in this work. This is also evident from the pressure contours

discussed above.

VII. CONCLUSION

In this work numerical simulations were performed to study the lift performances of NACA 4412, NACA 23012, EPPLER 637 and NREL S801

airfoil profiles. Results of the study show that asymmetric airfoils can create considerable lift even at zero (0) degree angle of attack. NREL

S801 airfoil among the all airfoils taken for study in this paper has best lift characteristics for flow velocities of 11 and 15 m/s and both

turbulence models i.e. k- and SST turbulence models. SST turbulence model gives a higher value of coefficient of lift.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

I am greatly indebted to my esteemed institution, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. I extend my

gratitude for the assistance provided by department faculty professor Dr. T.S.Desmukh. The privilege of working on this project using CFD lab

facilities remains memorable.

REFERENCES

[1] Ji Yao, Weibin Yuan, Jianliang Wang, Jianbin Xie , Haipeng Zhou , Mingjun Peng, Yong Sun, Kunming University of Science and

Technology, Kunming 650024 China, Numerical simulation of aerodynamic performance for two dimensional wind turbine airfoils,

International Conference on Advances in Computational Modeling and Simulation, Procedia Engineering 31 (2012), pp. 80 86, 2012.

[2] Mahendra Agrawal, Gaurav Saxena, Department of mechanical engineering SRCEM banmore, RGPV University, India, Analysis of wings

using Airfoil NACA 4412 at different angle of attack, International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER), Vol. 3,Issue. 3, pp-

1467-1469, May-June 2013.

[3] M. Vega Del Carmen, M. Toledo Velzquez, J. Abugaber Francis, A. Reyes Len, O. Pineda, D. Almazo, Laboratory of Thermal Engineering

and Applied Hydraulics (LABINTHAP), Experimental Test of a Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine with Variable-Pitch Blades, 15th National

Engineering Congress Electromechanical and Systems (CNIES 2015), article no. 36, pp. 1-6, October 13-17 2015.

[4] N. Rostamzadeh, R.M. Kelso, B.B. Dally, An Experimental and Computational Study of Flow over a NACA 0021 Airfoil with Wavy Leading

Edge Modification, 18th Australasia Fluid Mechanics Conference Launceston, Australia, 3-7 December 2012.

[5] P.PrabhakaraRao and Sri Sampath.V, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kakatiya Institute of Technology& Science Warangal-

506015, CFD Analysis on Airfoil at High Angles of Attack, International Journal of Engineering Research, Volume No.3, Issue No.7, pp.

430-434, 01 July 2014.

180. DEEPANSHU NIGAM and Dr. T.S.DESMUKH ,. Comparative Performance Analysis of NACA, NREL, EPPLER

Airfoils for Wind Turbine Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences;

Pages: 173-180

[6] Sarfaraj Nawaz Saha, M. Sadiq A. Pachapuri, M S Sheshgiri College of Engineering and Technology (KLECET), Karnataka, India, NACA

2415-Finding Lift Coefficient Using CFD, Theoretical and JAVAFOIL, International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology,

Volume: 04 Issue: 07, pp. 1-6, July 2015.

BIOGRAPHY

Deepanshu Nigam, Student M.Tech Hydropower Engineering, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal,

Completed B.Tech in Mechanical Engineering in 2014. He is currently working on the final phase of M.Tech dissertation.

Dr.T.S.Desmukh, Professor, Civil Engineering Department, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal,

specialized in CFD has 26 years of teaching experience in the field of Hydropower, Water resource Engineering and CFD.

During the course of this time she has published and presented research papers in various national and international level

journals and conferences. She is a member of ISTE and various other professional bodies.

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