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PRINCIPLES

OF FLIGHT
HOW DOES AN AIRPLANE FLY

Equal transit time Bernoullis theory - corrected by NASA (About 20% of lift)

Its true that the upper airflow is faster than the


lower, and from Bernoulli's equation there will
be a difference of pressure across the airfoil
producing lift, but in reality, the upper and lower
airflow do not converge at the trailing edge since
the upper airflow flows at a higher speed than
expected. The difference of pressure between
the upper and lower surfaces will be higher than
expected and thus more lift will be generated.

Newtons 3rd law (About 80% of lift - only if AOA greater than zero):

For every action (deflect air downward) there is an equal and opposite reaction
(upward force as lift). The lift of a wing is proportional to the amount of air
diverted down times the downward velocity of that air (F = m.a). In the
following picture: True airflow over a wing, showing upwash and downwash.


Coanda effect principle: Air has viscosity/stickiness and has de property of
following an airfoil surface. Thus an airfoil acts as an air scoop diverting most of
the air above (approx. its chord length in height)


FLAPS Spanwise flow+vortices

STALL DUTCH ROLL


TAB TYPES

Anti-balanced tab (PA28) all movable stabilitor

B737 Horizontal stabilizer with elevator.