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FOR CLASS 11 AND CLASS 12

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Published by:
M. L.
Contact:
E-mail ID: rajibul.manga.world@gmail.com
WORDS FROM THE AUTHOR
This e-book contains sample observation of all the experiments
to be done in class XI and class XII. But the students should
never copy the sample readings given in this e-book. The
experiments should be properly done in school laboratory.
Students as well as teachers can use this e-book as reference.
The graphs are not included in this e-book. This e-book only
contain AIM, OBSERVATION, CALCULATION, RESULT. This
e-book does not contain PROCEDURE, PRECAUTION etc.
1. Use of Vernier Caliper. ----- 1-6

2. Use of Screw Gauge. ----- 7-11

3. To determine the radius of curvature of a given


spherical surface by a spherometer. ----- 12-15

4. To determine the mass of two different objects using


a beam balance. ----- 16-17

5. To find the weight of a given body using


parallelogram law of vectors. ----- 18-19

6. Using a simple pendulum, to plot L-T and L-T2


graphs and hence find the effective length of seconds
pendulum using appropriate graph. ----- 20-22

7. To study the relationship between force of limiting


friction and normal reaction and to find the coefficient
of limiting friction between a block and a horizontal
surface. ----- 23-24
8. To find the downward force along an inclined plane, acting
on a roller due to gravitational pull of the earth and study its
relationship with the angle of inclination() by plotting a
graph between force and sin . ----- 25-26

9. To determine the Youngs modulus of elasticity of given


wire by using Searles apparatus. ----- 27-29

10. To find the spring constant of a helical spring from load


extension diagram. ----- 30-31

11. To study the variation in volume with pressure for a sample


of air at constant temperature by plotting graphs between P
and V, and between P and 1/V. ----- 32-33

12. To determine the surface tension of water by capillary rise


method ----- 34-36

13. To determine the coefficient of viscosity of a given viscous


liquid by measuring the terminal velocity of given spherical
body. ----- 37-40

14. To study the relationship between room's temperature of a


hot body and time by plotting a cooling curve. 41-42

15. To determine specific heat of a given solid by method of


mixtures. ----- 43-44

16. To determine the specific heat of given liquid by


method of mixture. ----- 45-46

17.
i) To study the relation between frequency and length of a given
wire under constant tension using sonometer.
ii) To study the relation between the length of given wire and
tension for constant frequency using sonometer. ----- 47-49

18. To find speed of sound in air at room temperature using a


resonance tube by two resonance positions. ----- 50

19. To determine resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a


graph of potential difference versus current. ----- 52-53

20. To find resistance of a given wire using meter bridge and


hence determine the resistivity of its material. 54-55

21. To verify laws of combination of resistance (Series &


Parallel) using meter bridge. ----- 56-57

22. To compare e.m.f. of two given primary cells using


potentiometer. ----- 58-59

23. To determine the internal resistance of given primary cell


using a potentiometer. ----- 60-61

24. To determine resistance of a galvanometer by half deflection


method and to find its figure of merit. ----- 62-63

25. To convert the given galvanometer into


I. Voltmeter of desired range
II. Ammeter of desired range
and verify the same. ----- 64-66
26. To find the frequency of the AC mains with a
sonometer. ----- 67-68

27. To find the value of v for different values of u in case of a


concave mirror and to find the focal length. ----- 69-72

28. To find the focal length of a convex mirror, using a convex


lens. ----- 73-74

29. To find the focal length of a convex lens by plotting graphs


between u and v or between 1/u and 1/v. ----- 75-78

30. To find the focal length of a concave lens using a convex


lens. ----- 79-80

31. To determine angle of minimum deviation for a given prism


by plotting a graph between angle of incidence and the angle
of deviation. ----- 81-82

32. To determine the refractive index of a glass slab using


travelling microscope. ----- 83-84

33. To find the refractive index of a liquid by using convex lens


and a plane mirror. ----- 85-86

34. To draw the I-V characteristic curve of a p-n junction in


forward bias and reverse bias. ----- 87-90

35. To draw the characteristic curve of a Zener diode and to


determine its reverse breakdown voltage. ----- 91-93
36. To study the characteristics of a common emitter n-p-n or p-
n-p transistor and to find out the values of current and
voltage gains. ----- 94-98
PART I
CLASS XI
PHYSICS

1
EXPERIMENT 1
AIM
Using Vernier Callipers find
1.Diameter of a small spherical/cylindrical
body
2.Dimension of a given regular (say
rectangular) body of known mass and hence
find its density.
3.Internal diameter and depth of a given
calorimeter/beaker and hence find its volume.

OBSERVATIONS
1 main scale division
1. Vernier Constant =
no. of vernier scale division
1
= 10 = .1 mm = 0.01 cm

2. Zero error of Vernier calipers = 00 cm.


3. Zero correction = 00 cm.

2
TABLES

1. DIAETER OF SPHERE/CYLINDER
Main Scale Vernier
S. Reading (M) Scale
No. (cm) Reading n V.C. Di= M + (n
Divisions (cm) V.C.)
coinciding
(n)
1. 1.3 9 .09 D1= 1.39
2. 1.3 8 .08 D2= 1.38
3. 1.3 9 .09 D3= 1.39

Mean Diameter = 1.39 cm.

3
2. DIMENSION OF THE BLOCK
Main Vernier scale reading D=M+
Side Scale (n V.C.)
Reading Divison n V.C.
(M) (cm) Reading
Length
1. L1 7.4 5 0.05 7.45
2. L2 7.4 2 0.04 7.42
3. L3 7.4 4 0.04 7.44
Breadth
1. B1 5.2 5 0.08 5.25
2. B2 5.2 9 0.09 5.29
3. B3 5.2 7 0.07 5.27
Height
1. H1 6.5 3 0.03 6.53
2. H2 6.5 1 0.01 6.51
3. H3 6.5 4 0.04 6.54

Mean Length, L = 7.44 cm.

Mean Breadth, B = 5.27 cm.

Mean Height, H = 6.53 cm.

CALCULATION
Volume = Length (L) Breadth (B) Height (H)
4
= (7.44 5.27 6.53) cm3
= 256.03 cm3

Given Mass = 35 g.

Mass
Density = = 0.1367 g/cm3
Volume

3. INTERNAL DIAMETER OF
CALORIMETER/BEAKER

Main Scale Vernier


S. Reading (M) Scale
No. (cm) Reading n V.C. Di= M + (n
Divisions (cm) V.C.)
coinciding
(n)
1. 5.7 5 0.05 D1= 5.75
2. 5.7 7 0.07 D2= 5.77
3. 5.7 4 0.04 D3= 5.74

5
4. DEPTH OF CALORIMETER/BEAKER

Main Scale Vernier


S. Reading (M) Scale
No. (cm) Reading n V.C. Hi= M + (n
Divisions (cm) V.C.)
coinciding
(n)
1. 9.8 9 0.09 H1= 9.89
2. 9.8 6 0.06 H2= 9.86
3. 9.8 8 0.08 H3= 9.88

Mean Diameter = 5.75 cm.

Mean Height = 9.88 cm.

Volume d 2h
4
3.14 5.75 5.75 9.88

4
256.426 cm 3

6
EXPERIMENT 2
AIM
Using Screw Gauge find
1.Diameter of a given wire
2.Thickness of a given sheet.
3.Internal diameter and depth of a given
calorimeter/beaker and hence find its
volume.

OBSERVATIONS
1.Pitch of the screw gauge = 1 mm.
Pitch
2.Least count = Divisions on circular scale

1
= = 0.01 mm = 0.001 cm.
100

3. Zero error = 00 cm.

7
TABLES

1. DIAMETER OF THE GIVEN WIRE

S. Diameter in one directionDiameter in perpendicular Observed Diameter


No. direction
Pitch Circular d1 = M + Pitch Circular d1 = M +
Scale Scale n1 L.C. Scale Scale n2 L.C. d1 + d2
(M) (n1) (M) (n2) Di =
(mm) (mm) 2
1. 0 67 0.067 0 60 0.064 0.0655
2. 0 62 0.062 0 69 0.066 0.0640
3. 0 65 0.065 0 67 0.067 0.0660

The Diameter of the given wire = 0.0652 cm.

8
2. THICKNESS OF A GIVEN SHEET

Main Scale Circular Scale Reading


S. Reading Observed Value
No. (M)
(mm) divisions n L.C. Ti = M + n L.C.
(n)

1. 0 87 0.087 0.087
2. 0 84 0.084 0.084
3. 0 86 0.086 0.086
4. 0 81 0.081 0.081
5. 0 85 0.085 0.085
6. 0 86 0.086 0.086
7. 0 83 0.083 0.083

T1+T2+T3+T4+T5+T6+T7
Mean Thickness = 7

= 0.0846 cm.

9
3. THICKNESS OF THE IRREGULAR LAMINA

Main Circular Scale Reading Observed Value


S. No. Scale
Reading division n L.C. Ti = M + n L.C.
(M) (n) (mm) (mm)
1. 0 76 0.76 0.76
2. 0 72 0.72 0.72
3. 0 75 0.75 0.75
4. 0 78 0.78 0.78
5. 0 77 0.77 0.77
6. 0 75 0.75 0.75

Number of Complete squares within the boundary


of lamina = 89
Number of half/more than half squares within the
boundary of lamina = 19
Total squares = 108
Area of lamina = 27 cm2 = 2700 mm2.

10
Mean thickness of lamina = 0.76 mm.

Volume of lamina
= Surface area thickness
= 2700 mm2 0.76 mm.
= 2038.5 mm3
= 2.0385 cm3

11
EXPERIMENT 3
AIM
To determine the radius of curvature of a given
spherical surface by a spherometer.

FORMULAE USED

l2 h
R= +
6h 2

l = side of equilateral triangle at whose vertices, the


legs of spherometer lie.
h = the distance by which the central leg has to be
lowered or raised.
R = radius of curvature of the given spherical
surface.

12
OBSERVATIONS
Pitch of the spherometer = 1 mm.

pitch
Least count of the spherometer =
Circular scale divisions
= 0.01 mm = 0.001 cm.

Distance between legs of spherometer


l1 = 4.4 cm
l2 = 4.4 cm
l3 =4.4 cm

l1+l2+l3
Mean distance l =
3
= 4.4 cm.

13
TABLES
1. MEASUREMENT OF SAGITTA (h)
(a) Type of surface: convex

Reading of Reading of plane glass slab


S. Circular scale Fractional h = pitch
No. (on spherical rotation m + Least
surface) No. of Circular n = |C1 C2| count n
(C1) rotations scale reading (cm)
(m) (C2)
1. 51 1 59 8 0.108
2. 53 1 60 7 0.107
3. 52 1 61 9 0.109
4. 56 1 62 6 0.106
5. 55 1 62 7 0.107

14
CALCULATION
Mean value of h = 1.074 mm = 0.1074 cm.

l2 h
R= + = 30.074 cm.
6h 2

Substituting the values for l and h in the above


formula and solving, we get R = 30.074 cm.

RESULT
The radius of curvature of the given spherical surface
= 30.074 cm.

15
EXPERIMENT 4
AIM
To determine the mass of two different objects using a
beam balance.

OBSERVATION
1. Mass of the brass sphere:
Standard masses = m1 = 4 g.
Fractional masses = m2 = 824 mg.
= 0.824 g.
Total mass = m = m1 + m2 = 4.824 g.

2. Mass of the iron bob:


Standard masses = m1 = 5 g.
Fractional masses = m2 = 53 mg.
= 0.053 g.

16
Total mass = m = m1 + m2
= 5.053 g.

RESULT
Mass of the brass sphere = 4.824 g.
Mass of the iron bob = 5.053 g.

17
EXPERIMENT 5
AIM
To find the weight of a given body using
parallelogram law of vectors.

FORMULAE USED
R = F12 +F22 +2F1F2cos

F1 and F2 represent the forces exerted due to weight


arrangements on both sides.
OBSERVATION
Selected scale for drawing the parallelogram
= 5 g wt = 1 cm.
S. F1 F2 Length Length Diagonal Unknown
No. (g wt) (g wt) OA (cm) OB (cm) OC (cm) weight (W)
(g wt)
1. 30 35 6 7 6.75 33.75
2. 40 45 8 9 6.75 33.75
3. 50 55 10 11 6.73 33.65

18
W1 W2 W3
Mean value of weight of the body, W =
3
= 33.72 g wt.

19
EXPERIMENT 6
AIM
Using a simple pendulum, to plot L-T and L-T2
graphs and hence find the effective length of seconds
pendulum using appropriate graph.

OBSERVATIONS
Vernier Callipers:
Vernier Constant = 0.01 cm.
Zero error = 00 cm.
Hook length of pendulum = 1.7 cm.

PENDULUM BOB
S. No. Observed Diameter (cm) Radius (cm)
1. 2.2 1.1
2. 2.2 1.1
3. 2.2 1.1

Mean radius = 1.10 cm.


20
TABLE FOR THE TIME TAKEN TO
COMPLETE 20 OSCILLATIONS
t
S. No. Effective Pendulum Length Time Taken for 20 T= s T2 (s2)
(L) (cm) oscillation (t) (s) 20

1. 80 36 1.8 3.24
2. 90 38 1.9 3.61
3. 100 40 2 4
4. 110 42.1 2.1 4.41
5. 120 44 2.2 4.84
6. 130 45.8 2.3 5.29

CALCULATION
1. The L-T graph is plotted by taking effective length
of pendulum along x-axis and time period of
oscillation along y-axis. The graph comes out to be a
parabola.
2. The L-T2 graph comes out be a straight line.
3. Drop a perpendicular from a point on L-T2 graph
where T2 = 4, to meet x-axis. The point on the x-axis
where the perpendicular from the graph falls is the
length of the seconds pendulum.

21
RESULT
Effective length of the seconds pendulum is 100 cm.

22
EXPERIMENT 7
AIM
To study the relationship between force of limiting
friction and normal reaction and to find the coefficient
of limiting friction between a block and a horizontal
surface.

FORMULA USED
According to the law of limiting friction,
Force of friction
Coefficient of limiting friction () = Normal reaction

OBSERVATIONS
Table 1: Weight of the block and Pan
Object Observed Weight ( g wt)
Block 1. 36
2. 36
3. 36
Pan 1. 32
2. 32
3. 32

23
Mean weight of the block = W1 = 36 g wt.
Mean weight of the Pan = Wp = 32.5 g wt.

Table 2: Normal reaction and limiting friction


S. Weight Total normal Weights in F
No. placed on reaction, N = the Pan = W F = (Wp +W ) =
N
block (W2) W1 + W2
(g wt.) (g wt.) (g wt.) (g wt.)
1. 289 315 119.2 151.7 0.482
2. 365.3 401.3 163.5 196 0.788
3. 458.7 494.7 203.5 236 0.477
4. 659.3 695.3 287.3 319.8 0.460

Mean value of = 0.47675

RESULT
The graph between limiting friction and normal
reaction is a linear graph which implies F N.

24
EXPERIMENT 8
AIM
To find the downward force along an inclined plane,
acting on a roller due to gravitational pull of the earth
and study its relationship with the angle of
inclination() by plotting a graph between force and
sin .

OBSERVATIONS

Table 1: Weight of the Pan and Roller


Object Observed Weight ( g wt)
Roller 1. 56
2. 56
3. 56
Pan 1. 12.5
2. 12.5
3. 12.5

Mean weight of the block = WR = 56 g wt.


Mean weight of the Pan = WP = 12.5g wt.
25
Table 2: For force F and Angle of Inclination
Weights in pan for F-W
S. motion F = P F = P F= F1+F2 Sin W Sin Sin
No. Downwards Upwards + W + W 2 (g
P1 P2 (g (g (g wt.) (g wt.) wt.)
wt.) wt.)
1. 30 18.7 12.6 31.2 25.1 28.15 0.5 28 0.15
2. 40 26.5 20.3 39 32.8 35.9 0.64 35.84 0.06
3. 45 30.7 23.9 43.2 36.4 39.8 0.71 39.76 0.04
4. 50 34 27.3 46.5 39.8 43.15 0.77 43.12 0.03
5. 55 37.9 29.3 50.4 41.8 46.1 0.82 45.92 0.18

RESULT
1. The downward force F acting along the
inclined plane on roller on account of
gravitational force of earth is F = mg sin .

2. The graph between F and sin is linear and


between F and is a sine curve.

26
EXPERIMENT 9
AIM
To determine the Youngs modulus of elasticity of
given wire by using Searles apparatus.

OBSERVATIONS
Length of the experimental wire, l = 100 cm.

For radius of wire:


Pitch of screw gauge = 1 mm.
Least count of the screw gauge = 0.01 mm.
Zero error of screw gauge = 0 mm.

27
Table 1: Diameter of Wire

S. Diameter
No. M.S.R. Circular Scale d1 = S1 + (C1 L.C.)
(S1) (C1)
1. 0 20 0.2
2. 0 19 0.19
3. 0 21 0.21

Mean diameter = 0.02 cm.


Mean radius = 0.01 cm.

Weight in Micrometer Reading Mean extension


S. hanger (l)
No. (Kg wt.) Loading Unloading Mean

1. 0.5 1.24 1.24 1.24 0


2. 1.0 2.06 2.06 2.06 0.82
3. 1.5 2.88 2.88 2.88 1.64
4. 2.0 3.71 3.71 3.71 2.47
5. 2.5 4.53 4.53 4.53 3.29

28
CALCULATION

mgl
Y= 2 = 1.897 108 N/m2
r l

RESULT
For the given material of wire,
Calculated Youngs modulus = N/m2
Value of Y from the table of constants = N/m2
Percentage error = .

Since the F-l graph is a straight line, it also proves


Hookes Law.

29
EXPERIMENT 10
AIM
To find the spring constant of a helical spring from
load extension diagram.
OBSERVATIONS
The graph is plotted with load on x-axis and scale
reading on y-axis.

S. No. Load Pointer Reading (cm)


m (g wt.)
1. 100 60.74
2. 200 61.21
3. 300 61.54
4. 400 61.98

30
CALCULATION
Force Constant of the spring,

9.8
m N
k
F
1000
l l
1
m
100
9.8 1000
= Slope of the curve 1 100 N / m

9.8 1000
= 0.80798 N/m
1 100
= 0.794 N/m

RESULT
The value of spring constant for the given helical
spring = 0.794 N/m

31
EXPERIMENT 11
AIM
To study the variation in volume with pressure for a
sample of air at constant temperature by plotting
graphs between P and V, and between P and 1/V.
OBSERVATIONS
Room temperature
Initial reading, T1 = 28
Final reading, T2 = 28

T1 T2
Mean room temperature, T = T
2
= 28
Barometer readings
Initial height of mercury, h1 = 76 cm.
Final height of mercury, h2 = 76 cm.
h1 h2
Mean barometric height of mercury H =
2
= 76 cm.

32
Table 1: Volume and Pressure Measurement
S. Hg level Hg level Pressure Enclosed air Volume
No. in tube in tube head pressure of the 1/V PV
A B h=ba P=Hh air
= a (cm) = b (cm) (cm) (cm) Enclosed
V (mL)
1. 24.5 43.2 +18.7 94.7 5.5 0.182 520.85
2. 35.7 50.5 +14.8 90.8 5.8 0.172 526.64
3. 53.5 53.5 0 76 6.9 0.145 524.4
4. 55.5 45 -10.5 65.5 8 0.125 524
5. 77 60.5 -16.5 59.5 8.8 0.114 523.6

A graph is plotted between enclosed air pressure (P)


and volume of enclosed air (V), with P along x-axis
and V along y-axis.
Another graph is plotted between P and 1/V.

RESULT
1. PV is constant (within experimental error).
2. The graph between P and 1/V is a straight line
which implies that P 1/V.

33
EXPERIMENT 12
AIM
To determine the surface tension of water by capillary
rise method
FORMULA USED

rh g
T
2

Where,
T = surface tension of water
r = internal radius of capillary tube
h = height by which liquid column rises up the
capillary tube
g = gravitational acceleration
= density of liquid

34
OBSERVATIONS
At room temperature:
Density of water, = 1000 Kg/m3
Room Temperature = 25
Vernier constant of travelling microscope
along vertical axis = 0.001 cm.
along horizontal axis = 0.001 cm.
Table 1: Height of water column
S. Reading of meniscus Reading of needle tip (y) height
No. (x) h= x y
MSR VSR Total MSR VSR Total (cm)
(cm) (cm)
1. 5.9 14 5.914 3.6 30 3.630 2.280
2. 5.9 39 5.939 3.6 80 3.680 2.259

Mean value of h = 2.269 cm.


= 0.02269 m.

35
Table 2: Radius of Capillary Tube
S. Horizontal diameter Vertical diameter mean mean
No. Left Right Diameter Upper Lower Diameter diameter radius
end end D1 (cm) end end D2 (cm) D = (D1+D2)/2 r = D/2
1. 1.649 1.775 0.126 5.49 5.368 0.130 0.128 0.064
2. 1.632 1.762 0.129 5.503 5.372 0.131 0.130 0.065

Mean radius r = 0.064 cm.

CALCULATION
Surface Tension, T rh g
2
0.00064 0.02269 1000 9.8

2
0.071156 N/m

RESULT
Surface tension of water at 25 = 0.071156 N/m.

36
EXPERIMENT 13
AIM
To determine the coefficient of viscosity of a given
viscous liquid by measuring the terminal velocity of
given spherical body.

FORMULA USED

2r 2 g

9v
where,
r = radius of spherical ball,
= density of spherical body
= the density of the liquid
v = the terminal velocity of the spherical body
g = acceleration due to gravity
= coefficient of viscosity
37
OBSERVATIONS
Temperature of glycerin = 28
Density of the material of the ball, = 7.71 g/cm2
Density of the fluid, = 1.26 g/cm2
Least count of the screw gauge, L.C. = 0.001 cm.
Acceleration due to gravity, g = 980 cm/s2
Distance, l = 80 cm.
Table 1: Diameter of the Spherical Ball
S. Diameter of the ball
No. Radius
Pitch Circular D = M + n L.C. R = D/2
Scale Scale (cm) (cm)
(M) (n)
1. 7 45 0.745 0.372
2. 7 41 0.741 0.370
3. 7 49 0.749 0.374

Mean radius = 0.372 cm.

38
Table 2: Terminal Velocity
S. No. Time Taken to cover distance l Velocity
(l = 80 cm) v= l/t
(cm s-1)
1. 3.6 22.4
2. 3.6 22.4
3. 3.5 22.6

Average Velocity, v = 22.47 cm s-1.

CALCULATION

Coefficient of viscosity of glycerin is calculated as


2r 2 g poise.
9v
2 0.372 0.372 (7.71 1.26) 980

9 22.47

= 8.65 poise.

39
RESULT
At room temperature 28, the value of coefficient of
viscosity of glycerin is 8.65 poise.

40
EXPERIMENT 14
AIM
To study the relationship between room's temperature
of a hot body and time by plotting a cooling curve.

OBSERVATIONS
Room temperature = 30.
The initial temperature of water enclosed, T1 = 30 .
The final temperature of water enclosed, T2 = 30.
Mean value of Temperature of water, To = 30.

S. No. Time T () T To () log (T To)


(t) (min)
1. 0 70 40 1.60
2. 1 68 38 1.58
3. 2 66 36 1.56
4. 3 64 34 1.53
5. 4 62 32 1.51
6. 5 61 31 1.49
7. 6 60 30 1.48
8. 7 59 29 1.46
9. 8 58 28 1.45

41
10. 9 56 26 1.42
11. 10 54 24 1.38
12. 12 53 23 1.36
13. 14 51 21 1.32
14. 16 49 19 1.29
15. 18 46 16 1.20
16. 20 44 14 1.15
17. 25 42 12 1.08
18. 30 38 8 0.90
19. 35 36 6 0.78
20. 40 35 5 0.70
21. 45 34 4 0.60

RESULT
Graph between time (t) and temperature (T) is an
exponential curve.
Graph between log (T To) and time (t) is a straight
line.

42
EXPERIMENT 15
AIM
To determine specific heat of a given solid by method
of mixtures.

FORMULA USED

m1s1 (m2 m1 ) s2 (t t1 )
s
( m3 m2 )(t2 t )

Where,
m1 = mass of calorimeter
m2 = mass of calorimeter after being filled with water
m3 = mass of calorimeter with water and solid.
t = final temperature of the calorimeter.
t1 = initial temperature of water when kept in calorimeter.
t2 = temperature of the solid when kept in the calorimeter.
s = specific heat of the solid (lead).

43
s2 = specific heat of the water.

s1 = specific heat of copper material.

OBSERVATIONS
Room temperature = 28.
m1 = 45.2 g.
m2 = 118.5 g.
m3 = 403.3 g.
t1 = 28.
t2 = 90.
t = 34.
s1 = 380 J Kg-1 -1 = 0.091 cal g-1 -1
s2 = 1.00 cal g-1 -1
CALCULATION
Specific heat of solid (lead),
m1s1 (m2 m1 ) s2 (t t1 )
s
( m3 m2 )(t2 t )

= 0.030968674 cal g-1 -1

44
EXPERIMENT 16
AIM
To determine the specific heat of given liquid by
method of mixture.

FORMULA USED

s2 ( m3 m2 )(t2 t ) m1s1 (t t1 )
s
( m2 m1 )(t t1 )

Where,
m1 = mass of calorimeter
m2 = mass of calorimeter after being filled with water
m3 = mass of calorimeter with water and solid.
t = final temperature of the calorimeter.
t1 = initial temperature of water when kept in calorimeter.
t2 = temperature of the solid when kept in the calorimeter.

45
s2 = specific heat of the solid (lead).
s1 = specific heat of copper material.
s = specific heat of the liquid.

OBSERVATIONS
Room temperature = 28 .
m1 = 45.2 g.
m2 = 118.5 g.
m3 = 403.3 g.
t1 = 28.
t2 = 90.
t = 34.
s1 = 380 J Kg-1 -1 = 0.091 cal g-1 -1
s2 = 130 J Kg-1 -1 = 0.031 cal g-1 -1
CALCULATION
s2 ( m3 m2 )(t2 t ) m1s1 (t t1 )
s
( m2 m1 )(t t1 )

= 1.068061846 cal g-1 -1

46
EXPERIMENT 17
AIM
i) To study the relation between frequency and length
of a given wire under constant tension using
sonometer.
ii) To study the relation between length of given wire
and tension for constant frequency using sonometer.

OBSERVATIONS
i. At constant tension (T) and m:
Length of wire, L = 120 cm.
Value of load used = 4 Kg wt.
Tension = 39.2 N.

47
Table I
S. Frequency of Resonant length (l)
No. tuning fork l1 (cm) l2 (cm) l l 1/l l
l 1 2
(Hz) 2 (cm-1) (Hz cm)
1. 256 50.1 49.9 50 0.020 12800
2. 288 44.6 44.4 44.5 0.022 12816
3. 320 40.2 40 40.1 0.025 12832
4. 384 33.5 33.3 33.3 0.030 12787.2
5. 480 26.9 26.5 26.7 0.037 12816
6. 512 25.2 25 25.1 0.040 12851.2

ii. At constant and varying T:


Frequency of the tuning fork, = 256 Hz.

Table II
S. Hung T = mg Resonant Length l
No. load (N) (cm) l l l2 T/ l2
(Kg) increasing decreasing l 1 2 (cm2) (N/cm2)
l l
2
1. 4.0 39.2 50.1 49.9 50 2500 0.01568
2. 3.5 34.3 46.9 46.7 46.8 2190.2 0.01566
3. 3.0 29.4 43.4 43.2 43.3 1874.9 0.01568
4. 2.5 24.5 39.6 39.4 39.5 1560.3 0.01570
5. 2.0 19.6 35.6 35.2 35.4 1253.2 0.01564
6. 1.5 14.7 30.8 30.4 30.6 936.4 0.01570
7. 1.0 9.8 25.1 24.9 25 625 0.01568

48
RESULT
a. Frequency of vibration is inversely proportional
to its length for a given string subjected to
constant tension.
b.Length of string is directly proportional to square
root of tension in it for a given frequency of
vibration of string.

49
EXPERIMENT 18
AIM
To find speed of sound in air at room temperature
using a resonance tube by two resonance positions.

OBSERVATIONS
Room Temperature = 28 .

Frequency Water level (cm) Speed


of Tuning S. No. V = 2(l2 - l2)
fork (Hz) Trial 1 Trial 2 Mean m/s

1. l1. 25 23 24 341
341 l2. 73 75 74
2. l1. 17.7 17.6 17.75 337.44
480 l2. 53.1 52.8 52.9
3. l1. 16.6 16.7 16.65 342.016
512 l2. 50 50.1 50.05

mean speed = 340.152 m/s

50
PART II
CLASS XII
PHYSICS

51
EXPERIMENT 1
AIM
To determine resistance per cm of a given wire by
plotting a graph of potential difference versus current.

OBSERVATIONS
Length of the resistance wire, l = 25 cm.
Range of the given ammeter = 30 A
Range of the given voltmeter = 10 V

Table: Voltmeter and Ammeter Reading


S. Ammeter Voltmeter V/I = R
No. Reading I (A) Reading V (V) (ohm)
1. 3.8 2 0.526
2. 7.6 4 0.526
3. 11.5 6 0.522
4. 15.3 8 0.523
5. 19.1 10 0.524

52
Mean Value of Resistance, R = 0.5242 ohm.

CALCULATION
Graph between V and I is plotted which comes to be a
straight line.

From the graph resistance = cot ( is the angle the


curve makes with x axis.)

RESULT
1. Resistance per cm of the wire = 0.021 cm-1

53
EXPERIMENT 2
AIM
To find resistance of a given wire using meter bridge
and hence determine the resistivity of its material.

OBSERVATIONS
Length of the resistance wire, l = 30 cm.

Table 1: Unknown Resistance


S. Resistance Length Length Unknown
No. from l (100 l) Resistance
resistance (100 l )
X R
box l
1. 1 36.2 63.8 1.76243
2. 2 53.1 46.9 1.76648
3. 3 62.9 37.1 1.76948

Mean Resistance = 1.76613 ohm.

54
Table 2: Diameter of the wire
S. Diameter in one directionDiameter in perpendicular Observed Diameter
No. direction
Pitch Circular d1 = M + Pitch Circular d1 = M +
Scale Scale n1 L.C. Scale Scale n2 L.C. d1 + d2
(M) (n1) (M) (n2) Di =
(mm) (mm) 2
1. 0 6 0.06 0 6 0.06 0.06
2. 0 6 0.06 0 6 0.06 0.06
3. 0 6 0.06 0 6 0.06 0.06

Mean Diameter = 0.006 cm = 0.00006 m.

CALCULATION

D2
Specific Resistance, X.
4L

= 1.6645 10-8 ohm-m.


RESULT
1. Value of unknown resistance, X = 1.76613 ohm
2. The resistivity of the material of the wire, =
1.6645 10-8 ohm-m.

55
EXPERIMENT 3
AIM
To verify laws of combination of resistance (Series
& Parallel) using meter bridge.

OBSERVATIONS

Resistance S. Resistance Length Length Resistance


Coil No. from l (100 l) Mean
(100 l )
resistance X R
box (R) l
(ohm)
R1 1. 2 45.4 54.6 2.41
2. 3 55.6 44.4 2.40 R1 = 2.41
3. 5 67.5 32.5 2.41
R2 1. 2 38.5 61.5 3.19
2. 3 48.4 51.6 3.20 R2 = 3.19
3. 5 61.2 38.8 3.17
R1 & R2 in 1. 5 47.2 52.8 5.59
series 2. 10 64.1 35.9 5.6 RS = 5.6
3. 12 68.2 31.8 5.6
R1 & R2 1. 1 42 58 1.38
in parallel 2. 2 59.2 40.8 1.38 RP = 1.38
3. 3 68.2 31.5 1.38

56
CALCULATION
1. Experimental value of RS = 5.6 ohm.
Theoretical value of RS = R1 + R2 = 5.6 ohm.
2. Experimental value of RP = 1.38 ohm.

R 1R 2
Theoretical value of RP = = 1.37 ohm
R 1 +R 2

RESULT
Experimental value and theoretical value of RS & RP
are almost equal (within limits of experimental
error)

57
EXPERIMENT 4
AIM
To compare e.m.f. of two given primary cells using
potentiometer.

OBSERVATIONS
Range of the given ammeter = 15 A
Range of the given voltmeter = 10 V
Least count of the given ammeter = 0.5 A
Least count of the given voltmeter = 0.2 V
e.m.f. of battery eliminator = 0-10 V
e.m.f of Leclanche cell, E1 = 1.45 V
e.m.f of Daniel cell, E2 = 1.08 V

58
Table: Lengths
Balance point when Balance point when
S. Ammeter Leclanche cell is in Daniel cell is in the E l
No. Reading the circuit (l1) circuit (l2) 1
1
(A) 1 2 Mean 1 2 Mean E2 l2
l1 l2
1. 0.25 179 178 178.5 126 126 126 1.41
2. 0.20 222 220 221 154 157 155.5 1.42
3. 0.15 272 272 272 195 194 194.5 1.39
4. 0.10 340 340 340 261 261 261 1.41

E1
Mean 1.4075
E2

RESULT

E1
The ratio of e.m.fs., 1.4075
E2

59
EXPERIMENT 4
AIM
To determine the internal resistance of given
primary cell using a potentiometer.

OBSERVATIONS
Range of the given voltmeter = 0-3 V
Least count of the given voltmeter = 0.05 V
E.M.F. of the battery = 4 V
E.M.F. of the cell = 1.5 V

60
Table: Lengths

Position of the null point (cm) Shunt Internal


S. Ammeter Resistance Resistance
No. Reading
Without Shunt With Shunt R l l
(ohm) r 1 2 .R
1 2 Mean 1 2 Mean l2

1. 0.05 384 383 383.5 170 171 170.5 2 2.5


2. 0.15 272 272 272 157 158 157.5 4 2.9
3. 0.20 220 224 222 146 148 147 6 3.1
4. 0.25 179 177 178 123 127 125 8 3.4

RESULT
The internal resistance of the given cell is 2.5 - 3.4
ohm.

61
EXPERIMENT 5
AIM
To determine resistance of a galvanometer by half
deflection method and to find its figure of merit.

OBSERVATIONS

Table 1: Resistance of galvanometer


S. Resistance Deflection in Shunt Half Galvanometer
No. R Galvanometer resistance Deflection Resistance
(ohm) S R.S
(ohm) G
2 RS

1. 3200 28 47 14 47.70
2. 5050 18 45 9 45.40
3. 8200 12 50 6 50.31

Mean resistance = 47.8033

62
Table 2: Figure of Merit
Resistance from Deflection Figure of Merit
S. e.m.f. of the resistance box (R) () E
No. battery (ohm) (div.) k
( R G )
1. 2.5 5000 20 0.00002476
2. 5 15000 14 0.00002373
3. 7.5 12000 25 0.0000249

Mean value of k = 0.00002446

RESULT
1. Resistance of the galvanometer is 47.8033
2. Figure of merit of the given galvanometer is
0.00002446.

63
EXPERIMENT 6
AIM
To convert the given galvanometer into
1. voltmeter of desired range
2. ammeter of desired range
and verify the same.

OBSERVATIONS
Resistance of the given galvanometer, G = 47.80 ohm.
Figure of merit, k = 0.00002446
Number of division in the galvanometer scale, n = 30
Current for full deflection, Ig = n.k = 0.0007338 A
Range of conversion (to voltmeter), V=3V
Range of conversion (to ammeter), I=3A

64
VRIFICATION
Table 1: For Voltmeter
Reading of converted galvanometer into
S. voltmeter Standard Difference
No. V voltmeter V2 - V1
Deflection V1 = reading
()
n V2
1. 15 1.5 1.5 0
2. 20 2.0 2.0 0
3. 25 2.5 2.5 0

Table 1: For Voltmeter


Reading of converted galvanometer into
S. ammeter Standard Difference
No. I ammeter I2 - I1
Deflection I1 = reading
()
n I2
1. 5 0.5 0.5 0
2. 10 1.0 1.0 0
3. 15 1.5 1.5 0

65
RESULT
As the difference in actual value and measured value
of current and voltage are very small, the conversion
is accurate.

66
EXPERIMENT 7
AIM
To find the frequency of the AC mains with a
sonometer.

OBSERVATIONS
Length of the sonometer wire L = 130 cm.
Mass of the wire, m = 2.5 g
Linear density, M = m/L = (2.5/130) g/cm = 0.0019 Kg/m

S. Load Tension Resonant length of the mean


No. on the produced wire (cm) length 1 T Current
l = (l1 + n
wire on the increasing Decreasing l2)/200 2 L M frequency
M wire l1 l2 (m) n=n/2
1. 1.5 14.7 39.5 39.7 0.396 0.396 110.39
2. 2.0 19.6 51.2 51.2 0.512 0.512 98.58
3. 2.5 24.5 53.2 53.0 0.531 0.531 106.28

mean current frequency, n = 52.54 Hz

67
RESULT
The frequency of A.C = 52.54 Hz

68
EXPERIMENT 8
AIM
To find the value of v for different values of u in case
of a concave mirror and to find the focal length.

FORMULAE USED

1 1 1

f v u

u.v
We have, f
uv

OBSERVATIONS
Rough focal length of the given concave mirror = 16 cm.
Actual length of the knitting needle, x = 25 cm.
The observed distance between the mirror and object needle
when the knitting needle is placed between them, y = 25 cm.
The observed distance between the mirror and image needle
when the knitting needle is placed between them, z = 25 cm.

69
Index correction for object distance u, x y = 0 cm.
Index correction for image distance v, x z = 0 cm.

1
Table: u, v 1and ,
u v
Position of (cm) Observed Focal
S. Distance Length
No. Concave Object Image PO = u PI = v
1 1
u.v
Mirror needle needle (cm) (cm) u v f
P O I uv
1. 10 30.5 66.9 20.5 55.9 0.0488 0.0179 15.29
2. 10 32.5 53.8 22.8 43.8 0.0439 0.0228 14.99
3. 10 35.6 46.2 25.6 36.2 0.0391 0.0276 15
4. 10 37.2 43.4 27.2 33.4 0.0368 0.0299 14.99
5. 10 39.1 40.9 29.1 30.9 0.0344 0.0324 14.99

CALCULATION
Calculation of focal length from graph
i) u-v graph: A graph is plotted between u and v ( u
along x-axis and v along y-axis and same scale is
selected for both axis). The graph comes out to be a
rectangular hyperbola.
Now, a line is drawn from origin making an angle of
45 with either of the axis meeting the cure at a point
A. Draw perpendicular AM and AN on x-axis and y-
axis.

70
The values of u and v will be same for the point A. As
for a concave mirror, u and v are equal only when the
object is placed at the center of curvature i.e., the
coordinates of A must be (2f, 2f).

OM ON
Hence, f= or =
2 2

1 1
ii) and graph :
u v
1 1 1
A graph is plotted between and ( along x-
1 u v u
axis and along y-axis and same scale is selected
v
for both axis). The graph comes out to be a straight
line.

The straight line cuts both the axis at an angle of 45


at points P and Q respectively and makes equal
intercepts of the axis.
1 1
Focal length, f = =
OP OQ

71
RESULT
The focal length of the given concave mirror
u.v
i. focal length calculated from f = 15.052
uv
cm.

ii. from u-v graph f = 15.14 cm.

1 1
iii. from - graph f = 15.12 cm.
u v

72
EXPERIMENT 9
AIM
To find the focal length of a convex mirror, using a
convex lens.

OBSERVATIONS
Rough focal length of the convex lens = 15.5 cm.
Actual length of the knitting needle, x = 25 cm.
Observed distance distance between image needle I
and back of the convex mirror, y = 25 cm.
Index correction = x y = 0 cm.
S. Position of Radius of curvature Focal
No. (R) length
Convex Image Observed Corrected f = R/2
mirror needle PI PI
P I (cm) (cm)
1. 26 56.2 30.2 30.2 15.1
2. 20 49.8 29.8 29.8 14.9
3. 15 45.1 45.1 30.1 15.1

73
Mean value of f = 15 cm.

RESULT
The focal length of the given convex mirror = 15 cm.

74
EXPERIMENT 10
AIM
To find the focal length of a convex lens by plotting
graphs between u and v or between 1/u and 1/v.

OBSERVATIONS
Rough focal length of the given concave mirror = 15.3 cm.
Actual length of the knitting needle, x = 25 cm.
The observed distance between the lens and object needle when
the knitting needle is placed between them, y = 25 cm.
The observed distance between the lens and image needle when
the knitting needle is placed between them, z = 25 cm.

Index correction for object distance u, x y = 0 cm


Index correction for image distance v, x z = 0 cm.

75
1 1
Table: u, v, v
and u
Position of (cm) Corrected Focal Length
S. Distance
1 1 u.v
No. Concave Object Image u v f
Mirror needle needle uv
P O I
u v
1. 26.5 50 91.5 23.5 41.5 0.0426 0.0241 15
2. 28.5 50 99.6 21.5 49.6 0.0465 0.0202 15
3. 25.5 50 86.7 24.5 36.7 0.0408 0.0272 14.7
4. 23.5 50 84.6 26.5 34.6 0.0377 0.0289 15
5. 21.5 50 81.7 28.5 31.7 0.0351 0.0315 15

CALCULATION
Calculation of focal length from graph
i) u-v graph: A graph is plotted between u and v ( u
along x-axis and v along y-axis and same scale is
selected for both axis). The graph comes out to be a
rectangular hyperbola.
Now, a line is drawn from origin making an angle of
45 with either of the axis meeting the curve at a point
A. Draw perpendicular AM and AN on x-axis and y-
axis.

76
The values of u and v will be same for the point A. As
for a concave mirror, u and v are equal only when the
object is placed at the center of curvature i.e., the
coordinates of A must be (2f, 2f).

OM ON
Hence, f= or =
2 2

1 1
ii) and graph :
u v
1 1 1
A graph is plotted between and ( along x-
1 u v u
axis and along y-axis and same scale is selected
v
for both axis). The graph comes out to be a straight
line.

The straight line cuts both the axis at an angle of 45


at points P and Q respectively and makes equal
intercepts of the axis.
1 1
Focal length, f = =
OP OQ

77
RESULT
The focal length of the given convex lens
u.v
iv. focal length calculated from f 14.94 cm.
u v

v. from u-v graph f = 15.05 cm.

vi. from 1 1 f =15.10 cm.


- graph
u v

78
EXPERIMENT 11
AIM
To find the focal length of a concave lens using a
convex lens.

OBSERVATIONS
Rough focal length of the convex lens = 15.2 cm.
Actual length of the knitting needle, x = 25 cm.
Observed distance distance between image needle I
and the concave lens when knitting needle is placed
between them, y = 25 cm.
Index correction = x y = 0 cm.

79
Table: u, v and f
Position of (cm) Corrected Focal
S. Distance 1 1 Length
No. Object Convex Image Concave New
u.v
needle lens needle lens Image
u v u v f
needle
uv
O O1 I O2 I
1. 26.8 40 74 50 90 24 40 0.0417 0.0250 15
2. 25.7 40 76 50 85.4 26 35.4 0.0385 0.0283 14.9
3. 24.8 40 78 50 82.4 28 32.4 0.0357 0.0309 15.1

Mean value of f = 15 cm.

RESULT
The focal length of the given concave lens = 15 cm.

80
EXPERIMENT 12
AIM
To determine angle of minimum deviation for a given
prism by plotting a graph between angle of incidence
and the angle of deviation.

FORMULAE USED

A Dm
sin
n 2
A
sin
2

Where,
n = refractive index of the material of the prism.
Dm = angle of minimum deviation.
A = angle of prism.

81
OBSERVATIONS
Angle of prism A = 30

S.
No. Angle of incidence i Angle of deviation D
1. 35 43.2
2. 40 39.5
3. 45 38.2
4. 50 38.3
5. 55 39.4
6. 60 42

CALCULATION
A graph is plotted between the angle of incident i
and angle of deviation D (i along x-axis and D
along y-axis).
The lowest point of the curve gives the angle of
minimum deviation.
RESULT
Angle of minimum deviation, Dm 38
Refractive index of the material of the prism, n = 1.85
82
EXPERIMENT 13
AIM
To determine the refractive index of a glass slab using
travelling microscope.

FORMULAE USED

real thickness of slab


n
apparent thickness of slab

Where, n = refractive index of the material of the slab

83
OBSERVATIONS

Reading on vertical scale of the


travelling microscope
S. Real Apparent Refractive
No. Cross- Cross Lycopodium Thickness Thickness Index
mark mark Powder (R3 R1) (R3 R2)
without with slab R R1
n 3
slab R3 R2
R1 R2 R3
1. 4.397 4.991 6.455 2.058 1.484 1.405
2. 4.397 4.851 5.898 1.501 1.047 1.434
3. 4.397 4.899 5.512 1.115 0.813 1.371

Mean value of n = 1.403

RESULT
The refractive index of the glass slab = 1.403

84
EXPERIMENT 14
AIM
To find the refractive index of a liquid by using
convex lens and a plane mirror.

FORMULAE USED
1 1 1

f 2 F f1
f1 = focal length of the convex lens.
f2 = focal length of the liquid lens.
F = focal length of their combination.

R
n 1
f2
Where,
n = refractive index of the liquid.
R= radius of curvature of the convex lens.

85
f = focal length of the convex lens.
OBSERVATIONS
Rough focal length of the convex lens = 15.1 cm.

Distance of the needle tip


Focal
Length
From lens From plane
x1 x2 x
surface mirror Mean x (cm)
x1 (cm) x2 (cm) 2

Without 14.8 15.2 15 f1 = 15


liquid

with liquid 11.9 12.3 12.2 F = 12.2

CALCULATION

1 1 1

f 2 F f1

f2 = 65.357 cm

R
& n 1 = 1.45
f2

86
EXPERIMENT 15
AIM
To draw the I-V characteristic curve of a p-n junction
in forward bias and reverse bias.

OBSERVATIONS
For forward-bias
Range of voltmeter =5V
Least count of voltmeter = 0.1 V
Zero error of voltmeter =0V
Range of milli-ammeter = 30 mA
Least count of milli-amtmeter = 0.5 mA
Zero error of milli-ammeter = 0 mA

87
Table: Forward bias voltage and forward current
Serial No. Forward-bias voltage Forward current
VF (V) IF
(mA)
1. 0 0
2. 0.1 0
3. 0.2 0
4. 0.3 0
5. 0.4 0.5
6. 0.6 1
7. 0.8 2
8. 1.0 3
9. 1.2 5
10. 1.4 7.5
11. 1.6 10
12. 1.8 15
13. 2.0 20
14. 2.2 25
15. 2.4 30

For reverse-bias
Range of voltmeter = 30 V
Least count of voltmeter = 0.5 V
Zero error of voltmeter =0V
Range of micro-ammeter = 50 A
Least count of micro -ammeter = 1 A
Zero error of micro -ammeter = 0 A

88
Table: Forward bias voltage and forward current
Serial No. Reverse-bias voltage Reverse current
VR (V) IR
(A)
1. 0 0
2. 5.0 1
3. 7.0 2
4. 9.0 3
5. 11.0 4
6. 13.0 5
7. 15.0 7
8. 17.0 9
9. 19.0 11
10. 21.0 13
11. 23.0 15
12. 25.0 25

CALCULATION
For forward-bias, a graph is plotted between
forward-bias voltage VF(along x-axis) and forward
current IF(along y-axis).

From graph, for change from point P to Q


89
VF = 2.4 2.0 = 0.4 V
IF = 30 20 = 10 mA.
VF .4 V
junction resistance, r = = = 40 ohms
I F 10 mA

For reverse-bias, a graph is plotted between reverse-


bias voltage VR(along x-axis) and reverse current
IR(along y-axis).

From graph, for the change from point P to Q


VR = 7 5 = 2 V
IR = 2 1 = 10 A.
VR 2.0 V 6
junction resistance, r = I = 1 A = 210 ohms
R

RESULT
Junction resistance for forward-bias = 40 ohms.
Junction resistance for reverse-bias = 2 106 ohms.

90
EXPERIMENT 16
AIM
To draw the characteristic curve of a Zener diode and
to determine its reverse breakdown voltage.

FORMULAE USED
V0 = VI - RI.II
Where,
V0 = output voltage (its constant value gives the
reverse breakdown voltage)
VI = input voltage
RI = input resistance
II = input current

91
OBSERVATIONS
Least count of voltmeter (V1) = 0.5 V
Zero error of voltmeter (V1) =0V
Least count of voltmeter (V2) = 0.2 V
Zero error of voltmeter (V2) =0V
Least count of micro-ammeter = 0.5 A
Zero error of micro -ammeter = 0 A

Table: VI, II and V0


Serial No. Input Voltage Input Current Output Voltage
VI (V) II (mA) V0 (V)
1. 1 1 0.8
2. 2 1.5 1.2
3. 3 2.0 1.8
4. 4 3.0 2.4
5. 5 3.5 3.0
6. 6 4.0 3.4
7. 7 5.0 4.0
8. 8 5.5 4.8
9. 9 6.0 5.4
10. 10 6.5 6.0
11. 10.5 7.0 6.2
12. 11.0 7.5 6.4
13. 11.5 8.0 6.4
14. 12.0 8.5 6.4
15. 12.5 9 6.4
16. 13.0 9.5 6.4

92
CALCULATION
A graph is plotted between output voltage (along x-
axis) and input current (along y-axis)

RESULT
The reverse breakdown voltage of given Zener diode
is 6.4 V.

93
EXPERIMENT 17
AIM
To study the characteristics of a common emitter npn
transistor and to find out the values of current and
voltage gains.

OBSERVATIONS
Range of voltmeter, V1 = 0-1000 mV
Least count of voltmeter (V1), = 20 mV
Range of voltmeter, V2 = 0-10 V
Least count of voltmeter (V2) = 0.2 V
Range of the milli-ammeter, = 0-25 mA
Least count of the milli-ammeter, = 0.5 mA
Range of micro-ammeter, = 0-250 A
Least count of micro-ammeter, = 5 A

94
Table 1: base voltage and base current
S. Base voltage Base current (Ib) for collector voltages
No. Vb
(V) Vc = 0 V Vc = 10 V Vc = 20 V Vc = 30 V
1. 0 0 0 0 0
2. 100 0 0 0 0
3. 200 0 0 0 0
4. 300 0 0 0 0
5. 400 0 0 0 0
6. 500 15 0 0 0
7. 520 20 0 0 0
8. 540 30 0 0 10
9. 580 75 5 5 15
10. 600 95 10 10 20
11. 640 175 30 35 55
12. 700 out of range 100 125 out of range

Table 2: collector voltage and collector current


S. Collector Collector current (Ic) for base current
No. voltage
Vc Ib = 25 A Ib = 50 A Ib = 75 A Ib = 100 A
(V)
1. 0 0 0 0 0
2. 1 4 9 14.5 20.5
3. 2 4 9 14.5 21
4. 3 4 9 15 22
5. 4 4 9 15 21
6. 5 4 9.5 15 21
7. 6 4 9.5 15 21.5
8. 7 4 9.5 15 21.5
9. 8 4 9.5 15.5 21.5
10. 9 4 9.5 15.5 21.5

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CALCULATION
1. Calculation for input resistance (RI)
a graph is plotted between base voltage Vb (along
x-axis) and base current Ib (along y-axis).

The reciprocal of slope gives us the input


resistance.

Vb
RI = 5.6 ohm.
I b

2. Calculation for output resistance (Ro)


a graph is plotted between collector voltage Vc
(along x-axis) and base current Ib (along y-axis)

The reciprocal of the slope gives the value of


output resistance.

Vc
Ro = 0.25 ohm.
I c

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3. Calculation for current gain ()
a graph is plotted between base current Ib (along
x-axis) and corresponding collector current Ic
(along y-axis).
The resulting graph is a straight line.

The slope the graph gives the value of current


gain,

I c
= 0.2446
I b

4. Calculation for voltage gain Av:

Ro
Av = 0.1092
RI

RESULT
For the given common emitter transistor,

97
Current gain, = 0.2446
Voltage gain, Av = 0.1092

98