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Yangon City Development Committee

Yangons Policy on Transport

Toe Aung, Urban Planning Division, Yangon City Development Committee


Republic of the Union of Myanmar
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Yangon City Development Committee

Asian Highway and GMS Network in and around Myanmar

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Yangon City Development Committee

Source: ESCAP
Trans-Asian Railway Network 3
Yangon City Development Committee

Road Network in Myanmar Gateways to National Road Network 4


Yangon City Development Committee
Background and Objectives
Yangon City, with a population of about 5.2 million as
of 2014, is the largest economic center of the nation,
and experiences rapid urbanization and motorization
as the nations economic growth.
The current rapid urbanization and motorization put
more and more pressure on the existing transport
infrastructure in Yangon City and its surrounding
areas.
The deteriorating urban transport situation has
become a serious concern socially, politically and
environmentally.
The objective is to ensure mobility and accessibility to
urban services for the Greater Yangons people and
society by an efficient and sustainable public
transport system and road network.

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Yangon City Development Committee

Connectivity with Ports, Logistic Facilities and Industrial Areas

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Source: Based on the information from the Yangon Region Traffic Regulation Control Committee
Yangon City Development Committee

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Yangon City Development Committee

Share of daily transportation in Yangon


Taxi
2% Own Car
8%

Buses-79% Circular Railway Ferry


1% 7%
Rail-4% Circular Railway +Bus
3%
Private cars +Taxis 10% Bus 3 Steps
4% Bus one step
48%

Bus two steps


27%

According to the survey conducted by Urban Planning Division, there are 48% of one-stage
buses transportation, 27% in 2 stage, 4% in 3 stage. 3% using buses and railway transportation
and only 1% for railway transportation. According to this, 79% uses buses for transportation
mode which is indicating that most people use public transportation than any other countries.
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Yangon City Development Committee

Public Transportation system


Administration
Secure and Smooth Transport Supervisory Committee
(SSTSC)
Yangon Division Bus Control Committee (YDBCC) other
organizations, Such as Shwe Ae' The , Bandoola Transport,
Than Myan Thu, Adi Padi (Approximately20Org..)

Bus Lines
400 Bus Lines in Total
8,000 Buses in Total ( Approximately )
5,800Buses Daily Run ( Approximately 73 % of total)
20,000 Trips per day ( Approximately)
YDBCC operated 134 Bus lines with 2530 different type
of buses/4,453 Drivers and 6,371 Conductors employed.

Source: YDBCC 9
Yangon City Development Committee

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Yangon City Development Committee
Responsibilities of each Government Agency

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Source: YUTRA Report
Yangon City Development Committee

The daily routine problems of the people of Yangon


are facing as daily basis is traffic congestion and
unappropriated public transportation system.
The problems between the buses and the private
cars have counter affects upon each two different
modes. The problem is the number of vehicles in the
Yangon City jump to over 300,000 in June, 2013 after
the Government permit import of vehicles from
abroad since the last two years. For now, the
registered vehicles increased to over 600,000 in
August, 2014.

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Yangon City Development Committee

Cost comparison of different modes in Yangon


Cost of travelling in Yangon (Kyats per mile) without capital
cost
900
800 800
800
700
600
500
500
400
300
200
100 10 50
0

Circular trains Buses Sidecars (Tri- Taxis Own cars


Shaw)
Cost of travelling in Yangon (Kyats per mile)
When we come to the calculation part of the transportation expenses, averagely the expense is
about 10 kyats/per mile for circular trains, 50 kyats for buses, 500 kyats for trishaws, 800 kyats
for Taxies, 800 kyats for private vehicles. So its about 2000 kyats for the back and forward
transportation from Workplaces to home and vices versa without including the capital costs and
tire expenses. ( 1 kyat= US $ 0.001)
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Yangon City Development Committee

Travelling speed of transport modes in Yangon


12.0 The main reason for using private cars are speed & comfort
10.0
10.0 9.0
8.0
8.0
6.0 5.0
4.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.5
2.0
0.0
Own Car Taxi Bus one Bus two Bus 3 Circular Circular Walking
step steps Steps Railway Railway
+Bus
Speed Mile/hr (door to door)

According to the survey results, people who use private vehicles, taxies and buses transportation
mode reach only 3 miles per hour and which is the same as walking. From the Urban Planning
Aspects, though its a good sign that people use public transport, mostly people are not willing
for delays and traffic jams.

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Yangon City Development Committee
New solutions are necessary
40.00

35.00 35.51

The increase of 30.00

Total Vehicles (0 000)


28.00
vehicles is inversely 25.00
24.00 23.66
25.60
26.84
22.92
22.00
proportional to 20.00
18.06
20.00
18.00
17.00
decrease of speeds 15.00 16.00
15.00

10.00

5.00

0.00
Y 2007 Y 2008 Y 2009 Y 2010 Y 2011 Y 2012 Y 2013
(June) (Jan)
Years

Total Vehicles in Yangon (0 000)


Yangon's average speed with private cars at peak hours (miles/hr)
Yangon's average speed with buses at peak hours (miles/hr)

When the line indicating the numbers of vehicles increase, the line
indicating the average speed proportionally decreases and at last we are
having only option which is just simply walk.
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Yangon City Development Committee

Based on OD survey, 33% of people work in CBD, 43% in Inner City, amounts to 76
%, 0r 2.3 mill. People working in 22% of city area
According to this OD pattern, 23% of the
population coming in to the CBD daily and
about 33% coming into inner city zone.

Total 77% of travels are towards inner city Zone & CBD

43% in and to Inner City

33% in and to CBD

Moreover, 10 % of the population living in the CBD and 10 % living in the inner city and 56% of
daily travelers, totally 76% of the population are working around this small area which
accounts only 22% for the whole Yangon City. This explains travelling affects the land uses.
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Yangon City Development Committee

Current issues
Traffic Safety
Driver's manners are comparatively good in case of passenger cars.
The traffic accident rate of buses per 10,000 vehicles is extremely high.
The reason of high accident rate of buses are due to their operation system to pick up/
drop passengers on road side, higher driving speed, and overloading of passengers.

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Yangon City Development Committee

Source: YUTRA Project Team


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Congested Intersections and Road Sections in CBD
Yangon City Development Committee

Source: YUTRA Project Team


Congested Intersections and Road Sections 19
Yangon City Development Committee

Source: YCDC
Location of Existing Signalized Intersections (Outside the CBD)
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Yangon City Development Committee

Source: YUTRA Project Team


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Designed Truck Routes
Yangon City Development Committee

Source: YUTRA Project Team


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Current Railway Network in Yangon
Yangon City Development Committee

Source: YUTRA Project Team


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National Level Transport Systems
Yangon City Development Committee
Road Area of Metropolitan Cities

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Yangon City Development Committee

Composition of Number of Lanes

Source: YUTRA Report 25


Yangon City Development Committee
Proposed Typical Cross Section for Elevated Inner Road

Source: YUTRA Report

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Yangon City Development Committee

Proposed Typical Cross Section for BRT

Source: YUTRA Report

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Yangon City Development Committee

Travel Demand

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Yangon City Development Committee
2013 Assigned Traffic Volume on Current transport Network

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Yangon City Development Committee

2018 Assigned Traffic Volume on Current transport Network

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Yangon City Development Committee
2025 Assigned Traffic Volume on Current transport Network

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Yangon City Development Committee

2035 Assigned Traffic Volume on Current transport Network

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Yangon City Development Committee
Objectives and Strategies
A. Promotion of Social Understanding about Urban Transport Problems and Issues
No transport policy and project would work effectively unless a wide and profound
understanding of transport problems, issues and future directions is shared by the
society. To achieve this objective the following five strategies are suggested:
A1. Conduct of consecutive transport campaigns;
A2. Expansion of transport education;
A3. Strengthening of transport studies;
A4. Information disclosure.
B. Effective Management of Urban Growth and Development
Defining a vision of the future is highly important in the study area because a fast
increasing population and economy will have huge impact on urban development and
peoples lives. The transport sector is a critical part of urban growth and management.
To achieve this objective, the following five strategies are suggested:
B1. Policy coordination within the Greater Yangon area;
B2. Authorization of City and Transport Master Plans;
B3. Development of hierarchical road network and road classifications to guide design
(and parking provision);
B4. Promotion of integrated urban and transport development, particularly Transit-
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Oriented Development (TOD).
Yangon City Development Committee

C. Promotion and Development of Attractive Public Transport


Without public transport, the citys future is untenable. Future public transport must be provided in
sufficient quantity and quality. An attractive public transport system is the only solution which both city
authorities and the people expect. Suggested strategies are:
C1. Development of a hierarchal mass transit system;
C2. Early introduction of an integrated public transport system (BRT) in the effort to maintain public transport
share;
C3. Upgrading the present rail system;
C4. Development and improvement of bus transport system, including reform of management systems and
the business model;
C5. Promotion of public transport use and expansion of services.
D. Efficient Traffic Control and Management
The current road capacity is not efficiently utilised due to widespread on-road parking, various types of
encroachments and poor traffic control and management. Infrastructure capacity is largely dependent on
how it is operated, managed and maintained. Better traffic management will improve capacity as well as
improve safety, amenity, and environment of the city and its people. It is also reliant on better regulation,
management and enforcement combined with facility improvement and ICT technology. Suggested strategies
are:
D1. Establishment of comprehensive traffic management system balanced with better
facilities for essential NMT modes such as cycling and walking;
D2. Strengthening of traffic regulation, enforcement and management;
D3. Management of freight transport;
D4. Establishment of parking policy and controls;
D5. Development of well-coordinated traffic control system.
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Yangon City Development Committee
E. Effective Transport Demand Management (TDM)
The problem of traffic congestion should not be addressed merely from the supply
side, i.e. expansion of infrastructure capacity. To ensure smooth traffic as well as share
in amore equitable manner the cost and benefit of traffic and transport among
stakeholders, various demand management measures (TDM) would need to be
introduced, such as:
E1. Integrating urban development and transport (TOD);
E2. Providing efficient public transport alternatives;
E2. Regulating motorized vehicle access and proper charging of road use and parking.
F. Comprehensive Development of Transport Space and Environment
Transport infrastructure provides important public space for the use of traffic
comprising different modes including walking and for various urban services and
activities. For this, it is important to design and develop transport infrastructure and
services comprehensively to enhance the quality of urban areas and activities.
Suggested strategies are:
F1. Improvement of a safe transport environment for pedestrians and cyclists;
F2. Redistribution of transport space and improvement of traffic environment in the
city centre;
F3. Establishment of township transport development strategy.
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Yangon City Development Committee

G. Enhancement of Traffic Safety


Worsening traffic safety and an increase in traffic accidents are threatening the
wellbeing of the city and its inhabitants; especially pedestrians. Road safety is also a
priority issue at union government level. Suggested actions include:
G1. Establishment of traffic safety audit system;
G2. Elimination of traffic accident black spots;
G3. Improvement of licensing and vehicle inspection system;
G4. Strengthening of traffic enforcement system;
G5. Strengthening of first aid response system.
H. Strengthening of Transport Sector Administrative and Management Capacities
The tasks to be accomplished for the citys present and future are enormous and
require a comprehensive and coordinated approach involving a wider range of
players. The role of the related authorities in leading the process is very important.
Suggested measures are:
H1. Reform of transport- related organizations;
H2. Promotion of private sector participation;
H3. Strengthening of planning and management capacity;
H4. Securing of development funds.
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Yangon City Development Committee

Main Features and Strategies of Yangon Urban Transport Plan

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Yangon City Development Committee

Introduction to BRT system


With BRT(Bus Rapid Transit) system getting public transport that meets the
increasing demands on capacity, environmental sustainability, quality and
safely. Its also one of the most effective ways of cutting carbon dioxide
emissions.

BRT is a complete system which, in addition to articulated buses or bi-


articulated buses offering high passenger capacity, also encompasses
separate bus lanes, traffic control and passenger information.

BRT offers many advantages .For travellers it is a faster alternative than the
car thanks to separate bus lanes and priority at crossings.

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Yangon City Development Committee

High passenger capacity Benefits of BRT system


Shorter travel time
Significantly reduced emissions and fuel consumption
Free more space in the city

Flexible compared with light

railway and subway systems

Safe thanks to separate bus

lanes and platform-based

embarkation and

disembarkation

Profitable within a very short time


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Yangon City Development Committee

7 corridors and 11 BRT routes introduced in the Comprehensive


Urban Transport Plan of the Greater Yangon

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Source: YUTRA Project Team
Recommended BRT Routes 41
Yangon City Development Committee

Phase 1- BRT Implementation

Corridor 1, 2 Route 1, 2, 3

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Yangon City Development Committee

Phase 2- BRT Implementation

Corridor 3, 4 Route 4, 5, 6

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Yangon City Development Committee

Phase 3- BRT Implementation

Corridor 4, 5 Route 7, 8, 9

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Yangon City Development Committee

Phase 4- BRT Implementation

Corridor 7 Route 10, 11

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Yangon City Development Committee

Schematic Image of Station Improvement for Multi-Model Facility Integration

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Yangon City Development Committee
Comparison of development Model and
Sequence for Existing Railway Modernization

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Yangon City Development Committee
Proposed Double Deck Road (Waizayantar Road)

Source: YUTRA Report

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Yangon City Development Committee
Transit Oriented Development

Development Policy

Utilize workshop area for


development
Introduce following facilities;
business offices,
commercial facilities
residential apartments,
park & ride facility
Integrate Inter-modal facilities
(Railway, BRT, Feeder Bus,
Taxi, Car)
Connect buildings by
pedestrian deck
Separate pedestrians and
vehicles
Introduce enough green space
Source: YUTRA Project Team inside development area
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Yangon City Development Committee

Draft Conceptual Plan and Perspective Image for Insein Workshop Redevelopment

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Yangon City Development Committee
Proposed Organizational Structure for Yangon Urban Transportation Authority

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Yangon City Development Committee

Environmental Concerns

Affordable and socially acceptable transport infrastructure


and facilities are needed to provide to become environment
and people friendly urban transportation.
EST is not only to improve the human health through the
reduction of urban air pollution but also to reduce the
greenhouse gas emission, the reduction of deaths and injuries
from road accidents, the reduction of harmful noise levels and
the reduction of traffic congestion levels.
Establishing EST, national and local level polices, strategies
and programmes are needed to adopt and implement widely.
Aspects of EST is also to become the accomplishment changes
In policies, investment decisions and personal behaviour.

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Thank you
for your kind attention
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