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Michael Dawson

Python
Programming
for the Absolute Beginner
rd Edition

," COURSE TECHNOLOGY


t CENGAGE Learning

Australia Brazil Japan Korea Mexico Slngapore Spaln United lngdom United States

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2014
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ISBN 978-1435455009 . 2010Couse Technology, part of Cengage Learning


, 2014
,
, 2014

.............................................. 2s

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n 1. . Game Over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

n 2. , -.
r ................... 43

n . , while .
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n 4. for, .
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n s. . ................. 134
n 6. . - .................. 165
n 7. . r ............. 194
n 8. r.
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n 9. r- .
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10.
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11. . ................308
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. livewires .................... 388
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1. . Game Over ............... 30


Game Over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Python ................................ 31
Python ........................ 31
Python - ............................... 32
Python - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Python - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Python . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Python . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Python - . . . . . 33
Python Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Python . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
IDLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
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Game Over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
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2. , -.
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Game Over 2.0 .................... 44


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s- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
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input() ............................. 59
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9

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m . . . . . . . . . . . 69

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moon_weight sun_weight ............. 70


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. , while .
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random ................................. 74
randint() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
randrange() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
if . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
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, if ................... 77
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if else . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
else . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
elif . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

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elif . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
10

while. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
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while ......................... 85
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break . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
continue .................. 93

break continue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
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not . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
and . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
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random . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
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11

4. for, .
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for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
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for ......................... 106
for. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
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:
. . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . .. .. . . 109
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len() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
in ............................. 111
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None .................................. 121
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12

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2.0 .............. 126
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len() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
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jume. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
word . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
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5. . ................. 134
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3.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
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len() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
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13

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2.0 .................. 145
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14

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6. . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
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display_instruct() .............................. 185
ask_yes_no() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
ask_numer() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
pieces(). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
new_oard() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
display_oard() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
legal_moves() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
winer() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
human_move() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
computer_move() .............................. 188
next_turn() .................................. 191
congrat_winner() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
mai() ................................ 192
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7. . ............ 194
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3 ..................... 201
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3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
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16

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try/except . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
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.................. 211
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else . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
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open_file() .................................. 214
next_line() ................................... 215
next_lock() ................................. 215
welcome() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
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main() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
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8. .
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Critter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
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9. - .
- ................................. 245
- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
18

...... 247
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
.................................... 249
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
Hand ................... 250
- ..................... 251
- Hand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
. . . . . . . . . . 252
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
2.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
3.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
............ 259
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
. . . . . . . . . . . 265
- .............................. 266
cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
............................ 267
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
cards games . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
BJ_card. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
J_Deck. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
BJ_Hand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
BJ_Player. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
19

J_Dealer
..................................... 272
.....................................
J_Game 273
main() .................................. 275
............................................ 276

10. .
.............. 211
. .. . . .. . . . .. 277
GUI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
- . . . . . . . . . . 280
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
GUI .................... 281
tkinter ................................. 282
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
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, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
........... 286
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
GUI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
- 2. . . . . . . . . 288
tkiter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
- ..................... 288
, . . . . . . . 289
Applicatio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
. . . . . . . . 290
............... 290
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
20

.......................... 291
.................................. 291
. Grid ............ 291
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293

Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
: ........ 295
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
..................... 297
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
. . 297
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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
-2 .................... 300
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
............................ 301
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
................................ 303
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
tkinter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
- Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
create_widgets() Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
tell_story() Application. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
.............................................. 307

11. . ................ 308


....................... 308
pygame livewires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
................................. 310
. . . . . . . . 310
games ................................. 311
21

............. 312
......................... 312
............................... 313
.............. 313
........................... 313
.................................. 315
......................... 315
.................................... 315
- ................. 317
....................... 318
................................ 318
........................... 319
...................................... 320
! .......... 320
color .................................. 321
Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
..................................... 323
...................... 323
color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
....................................... 325
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
Sprite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
update() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
........................ 330
........... 330
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
............................ 331
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
22

. ... ........ .. 332


.. . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . 332
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
. . . . . . . . . 333
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
...................... 335
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
Pizza . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
Chef . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
main(). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
.......................................... 342

12. , , .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
. ....................... 343
....................................... 345
. . . . . . . 345
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
.......................... 347
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
............. 347
angle ........... , . . . . 349
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
.................. , . . . . 349
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
............................. 350
.......................... 351
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
23

.......................... 357
.. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
- 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
Asteroid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
main() ...................................... 361
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
- 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
Ship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
Ship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
- 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
math .................................. 364
Ship . . . . . . . . . . 364
upclate() Ship. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
- 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
upclate() Ship. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
Missile ....................................... 367
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
- 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
Ship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
- Ship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
update() Ship. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
................................... 371
- 6 .................... 371
upclate() Missile ................. 371
die() Missile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
update() Ship. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
die() Ship. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
Asteroid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
die() Asteroid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
- 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
Wrapper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
24


Collider . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
Asteroid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
Ship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
Missile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
Explosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
, , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
- 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
Game . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
Asteroid. . . . . . . . . 383
- Asteroid ............ 383
die() Asteroid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
Ship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
- Ship . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
update() Ship. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
die() Ship. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
main() ...................................... 385
................................................. 385

. - .............................. 387
. livewires.................... 388
livewires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
games ...................................... 388
Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
Sprite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390
Text. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
Mouse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
Music. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
games . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
games. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396
color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
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121

start = (inut("\n : "))


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123
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nuu
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> inventory =(". "". "". " ")


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inventory[OJ = " "
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130 4. for, .

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Chapter 5. hero' s _i nventory. .
# 3.0
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inventory = ["". "". "". " "]
print("\na. :")
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pri nt ( item)
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input("\nHae Enter. .")


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chest = ["". " "]
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pri nt ( i nventory)
input("\nHae Enter. .")

- inventory[4] inventory[5] -
" ".
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140 5. n.


de l,
:

#
print("B v.")
del inventory[2J
print("Bo :")
print(inventory)
input("\nHae Enter. .")

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del i nventory[: 2]
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(courseptr.com/downloads) Chapter 5. high_scores. .

#
#
scores = []
choice = None


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142 5. .

while choice '= "":


print(

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1 -
2 -
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print(score)


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score scores.
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#
elif choice == "2":
score = int(input("Bne : "))
scores.append(score)
143


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score = i nt ( i nput( " ?: "))
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scores.remove(score)
else:
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scores. , remove( ).
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score, .
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score. remove()
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if score in scores:
scores.remove(score)


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scores.sort(reverse=True)
sort() . ,
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numbers.sort()


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rint(". ". choice)


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input("\n\nHae Enter. .")

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> nested =["" , ("" . "") , ["". "". ""]]


>>> print(nested)
[''. ' ' , ''), [''. ' ' . ']]

, nested .
- " " , - " ". ""), - [ " ".
"". ""].
,
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> scores = [ "" . 1000). "". 1500). "". 3000) J


>>> printCscores)
[('. 1000). (''. 1500). (''. 3000)]

scores . - ,
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147

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3000.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

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nested =("", ("". ("". " ")))

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r, scores.

1
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> scores =[("". 1000). ("". 1500). ("". 3000)]


>>> printCscores[OJ)
(''. 1000)
>>> print(scores[l])
(''. 1500)
>>> printCscores[2J)
(''. 3000)

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>>> a_score = scores[2J


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(''. 3000)
>>> printCa_score[OJ)

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>>> print(scores[2][0])

scores[2J[OJ ,
scores 2 ( (" " . 3000) ), ,
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148 5. . 8

> name. score =(" ", 175)


> print(name)

>>> print(score)
175
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4~,
whi 1. ,
. - (courseptr.com/
downloads) Chapter 5. high_scores2.py.
# 2.0
#
scores = []
choice = None
whi le choice '= "":
pri nt(

2.
-
1 -
2 -

choice = input("Ba : ")


print()
#
if choice =="":
pri nt( " .")

1, scores
score name,
.

# 1
elif choice == "1":
print("Peop\n")
pri nt ("\ t ")
for entry in scores:
149

score. name = entry


pri nt(name. "\ t". score)


2,
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( score ),
, ( name ).
,
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scores , 1, .
# add score
el if choice == "2":
name = inut(" : ")
score = int(input("Bne : "))
entry = (score. name)
scores.append(entry)
scores.sort(reverse=True)
scores = scores[:5J # 5

w
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else:
rint(". ". choice)


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input("\n\nHae Enter. .")


2 , .
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150 5. . ~

language

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> mike = [" ". " ". ""]


>>> mr_dawso = mike
> h = mike
> prit(mike)
[ . ' '. '' J
>>> prit(mr_dawso)
[' '. ' '. '']
>>> prit(hoey)
[ ' , ' '. '' J
- mi ke, mr_dawso h -
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~ 151

mike------.

mr dawson -+ " " " " ""

ho~ey _____.
. 5.9. mike, mr_dawson honey

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> honey[2J = " "
>>> printChoney)
[' '. ' '. ' ' J
, . 2 , 1<0
honey, "", " ".
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2 honey,
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:

> printCmike)
[' ' , ' ' . ' ' J
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[' ' . ' ' . ' ' J
2 , mi ke mr_dawson,
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> mike = [" ". " ". ""]


>>> honey = mike[:J
> honey[2J = " "
>>> printChoney)
[ '. ' '. ' ' J
> print(mike)
[' ' . ' '. '']

honey - mi ke. honey


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honey, mi ke.
152 5. n.

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Chapter 5. geek_translator.py.
#
#
geek = {"404": " . . 404 '
'.".
"Googling": "'. n -.".
153

"Keyboard Pl aque" : ". .".


"L ink Rot" : " - . " .
"Percussive Maintenance" : " . - -
.".
"Uninstalled" : " -.
1990-2000- . "}

. 5.1 . :

geek. .
, , : "Keyboard Plaque" : ".
".
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Plaque" - , ". " -
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154 5. .

r
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" . . 404 ' '."
> geek["Link Rot"J
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> geek["Danc;ng Baloney"J


Traceback (most recent call last):
File "<pyshell#l>", line 1. in <module>
geek["Dancing Baloney"J
KeyError: 'Dancing Baloney'
"Dancing 8aloney", (r, -
-
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in
,

. , , ,
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> if "Dancing Baloney" in geek:
print(" . Dancing Baloney. ")
else:
print(" . Dancing Baloney.")
. Dancing Baloney.
"Danc~ng Baloney", "Dancing Baloney" in
geek .
m 155

i n , .
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> print(geek.getC"Dancing Baloney"))
None


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geek ,
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choice = None
while choice != "":
print(


-
1
2
3
4

choi = i nput " : ")


156 5. .

pri nt ()
#
if choice == "":
print("o .")


1,
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(), . ,
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#
1if choi == "1" :
term = input("Kao ? ")
i f term in geek:
definition = geek[term]
print("\n". term. "". definition)
else:
print("\nY. :", term)

-
- ; ,
. 2,
:

#
elif choice == "2":
term = input("Kao ? ")
if term not in geek:
definition = inut("\n : ")
geek[termJ = definition
print("\nTep". term. " .")
else:
print("\nTao ! .")

.
,

. :
geek[termJ definition
=

geek , term - , defi ni ti on -


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#
elif choice == "":
term = input("Kao ? ")
if term in geek:
definition = inut(" : ")
geek[termJ = definition
print("\nTep". term. ".")
else:
print("\nTaoo ! .")

,
:

geek[termJ = definition
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Pytho ( )
. , , ,
. ,
.

-
4, l i f:
#
elif choice == "4":
term = input("Kao ? ")
if term i n geek:
del geek[termJ
print("\nTep". term. ".")
else:
print("\nHe . ". term. " .")

,
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del geek[termJ
158 5. .

( term ) geek.
. de 1,
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import random


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160 5. .

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HANGMAN (
, ).

#
HANGMAN = (

1
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1
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161

1
1 / -+- /

1
1 / -+-/
1

1
1 /-+-/
1
1

1
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1 1
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"'"')

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AX_WRONG = len(HANGAN) - 1
162 5. .

, HANGMAN.
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HANGMAN ,
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WORDS = "OVERUSED". "CLAM". "GUAM". "TAFFETA". "PYTHON")


. random. choi ( )
WORDS word.
#
word = random.choiceCWORDS) 1

- so_fa r - ,
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so_far = "-" * lenCword) # . -

wrong .
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wrong = # .

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:

used = [] 1 .


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:
print("opo ''. !")
while wrong < MAX_WRONG and so_far != word:
printCHANGMAN[wrong])
printC"\nB :\n". used)
rint"\n :\n". so_far)
.
;
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163


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( , , ).
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used.
guess = inputC "\n\n : ")
guess = guess.upper()
while guess in used:
printC"B ". guess)
guess = input("\n\nBee : ")
guess = guess.upper()
used.appendCguess)


, , .
,
so_far, ,
.

if guess in word:
print("\na! '', guess. " !")
# so_far
new = "1'

for i in rangeClen(word)):
if guess == word[i]:
new += guess
else:
new += so_far[i]
so far = new
,
wrong .
else:
printC"\nK . ". guess. " .")
wrong += 1


, .
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<J .
164 5. .

, .
, .
if wrong == MAX_WRONG:
print(HANGMAN[wrong])
print("\nBac !")
else:
print("\nB !")
print("\no ". word)
input("\n\nHae Enter. .")

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pri nt (
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1 1 1 2

1 4 1 5

6 1 7 1 8
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print("o '-':")
i nst ruct i ons ()
printC"o :")
instructions()
print("Haec. .")
input("\n\nHae Enter. .")

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- (courseptr.com/downloads)
Chapter 6. recei ve_and_return. .
# -
#
def display(message) :
print(message)
def give_me_five() :
five = 5
return five
def ask_yes_no(question) :
"'"' '' ' ' . """
response = None
while response not in ("", "n") :
response = input(question) .lower()
return response
#
display("Ba . \n")
number = give me five()
print("Bo give_me_five() :" . number)
answer = sk_s_n("\n. 'n': ")
print( ". ". answer)
input("\n\nHae Enter. .")


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171

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def display(message):
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display() mssg " . \n",
display() :

display("Ba . \n")
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print(message)
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return five
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number = give_me_five()
printC"Bo give_me_five():". number)
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number. number
5 - give_me_five( ). ,
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return .

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

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173

response = None
while response not in ("", "n"):
response = input(question).lower()
wh i 1 ,
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return response
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answer
:

answer = sk_s_n("\n. '' 'n': ")


print("Cnaco. ". answer)


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. 6.6.

- (courseptr.com/
downloads) Chapter 6. i rthday_wi shes . .
#
#
#
def irthdayl(name. age):
pri nt( " . ". name . "!". " ". age. "
? \ n")
#
def birthday2(name = " ". age = 1):
pri nt( " ." . name. "'". " " . age . "
? \ n")
birthdayl("oap " . 1)
i rthdayl . " ")
175

i rthdayl( name ; " ". age ; 1)


i rthdayl(age ; 1. name ; " ")
i rthday2()
irthday2(name; "")
irthday2(age; 12)
i rthday2( name ; "". age ; 12)
i rthday2( "". 12)
input("\n\nHae Enter. .")

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:

def birthdayl(name. age):


, ,
:

irthdayl("oap ". 1)
,
, .
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name "
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i rthdayl(l. " ")

name 1, age - " ".


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irthdayl(name =" ". age; 1).
176 . . -

name " ", age - 1


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birthdayl(age = 1. name = " ")

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def irthday2(name = " ". age = 1):


, name ,
" ", age,
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i rthday2()
. ,
: . !
1 . ?.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

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. :

def monkey_around(bananas = 100. barrel of = "yes". uncle = "monkey's"):


- :

def monkey_around(bananas = 100. barrel_of. uncle):


, .
177

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-
. :

bi rthday2(name = "")

name, " ".


age - 1. : .
! 1 . ?.
:

birthday2(age = 12)
age, 12,
name - " ".
: . 1 12 . ?.
:

irthday2(name = "". age = 12)


: name " ", age -
12. : . ! 12 .
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i rthday2( "". 12)


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178 . . -

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def funcl () :
varialel
def func2():
variale2
varialeO

def fuc 1():


variale1

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variae2

variaeO

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funcl( ), - func2( ), -
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- ( courseptr.com/
downloads) Chapter 6. global_reach. .
#
#
def read_global():
print( " read_global () value ".
value)
def shadow_global():
value = -10
print("B shadow_global() value ",
value)
def change_global():
global value
value = -10
print("B change_global() value ". value)
#
180 . . r-

# value - .

value = 10
print("B value ".
value. "\n")
read_global ()
pri nt (" . va 1ue - ".
value. "\n")
shadow_global ()
print("Bepec . value - ".
value. "\n")
cha nge_g l l ()
print("Bepec . value ".
value)
input("\n\nHae Enter. .")


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: ,
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read_global ().
va 1ue.
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read_gl 1() - :
value += 1
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181

. shadow_gl obal ().


:

value = -10
va l ue -10, va l ue . ,
va l ue -10.
, , ,
:

print("Bepec . value - ".


value. "\n")
va l ue,
- 10.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

. :
, , .

.

gl l,
change_gl l ():
global value
va l ue
. :

value = -10
va l ue -10.
va l ue :

print("Bepec . value ".


value).
-10.
.

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184 6. . r-

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display_istruct()
ask_yes_o(questio) , .
, ''" ""
ask_umer(questio, low, .
high() , (low) (high) .
low high
pieces() -
.

ew_oard() .

display_oard(board) .
legal_moves(oard) . .

winer(board) . .
: " None
huma_move(oard, huma) , n .
.
computer_move(oard, . ,
computer, human) .

ext_tum(tur) . -
.
cograt_wier(the_winer, .
computer, huma) ,


,
. .
, .
- ( courseptr.com/
downloads) Chapter 6. tic-tac-toe. .
# -
# -
#
= ""
= ""
=
= ""
NUM_SQUARES = 9
- (" "), - ("").
.
, . I
. NUM_SQUARES - ~-.
r- 185

display_instruct()
. :

def di spl _; nstruct():


"'"' ."""
print(
-
.

"--
".
. 8.
- . :

1 1 1 2

3 1 4 1 5

6 1 7 1 8
. . -
. \n
)

ask_yes_no()
, 4 4.
"" "n".
.

def ask_yes_no(question):
""" '' ''."""
response = None
while response not in ("". "n"):
response = input(question).lower()
return response

ask_number()
, .
, ,

def ask_number(question. low. high):


""" ."""
response = None
while response not in range(low. high):
response = int(inputCquestion))
return response
186 6. . 111-

pieces()
, ,
, , .
.

def pieces():
""" ."""
go_first = ask_yes_no("Xoe ? (y/n): ")
if go first =="":
printC''\nHy . : .")
human = computer = else:
print("\nTo ." .")
computer = human = return computer. human
, - ask_yes_
no( ). : .

new_board()
- ,
, :

def new_board():
""" .'""'
board = []
for square in range(NUM_SQUARESJ:
board.appendCEMPTY)
return board

display_board()
. -
, "" "", print.
4-~.
.

def di spl ay_boardCboard):


""" > ."""
print("\n\t". board[OJ. "/". board[l]. "/". board[2J)
print("\t". "---------")
print("\t". board[J. "1". board[4]. "1 ". board[5])
print("\t". "---------")
print("\t". board[]. "/". board[7J. "/". board[8J. "\n")

legal_moves()
.
: human_move() - ,
- 187

, computer _
move() - .
- . ,
, , 4- .
,
[. 2. 6. 8] ( , . 6.9). ,
, . ,
, .
.

def l ega l _moves (board):


.
moves = []
for square in range(NUM SQUARES):
if board[square] ==-:
moves.append(square)
return moves

winner()
.
: - ; -
, ; ,
None - .
WAYS_TO_WIN,
.
- ,
. :
(0. 1. 2). , , 1 2.
- (3. 4. 5) - . .

def winner(board):
""" .
WAYS WIN = ((0. 1. 2).
- - (3. 4. 5).
(6. 7. 8).
(0. 3. 6).
(1, 4. 7).
(2. 5. 8).
(0. 4. 8).
(2. 4. 6))
for , ,
. if
,
. , , ,
.
wi nner,
.
188 6. . -

for row in WAYS WIN:


if board[row[OJJ == board[row[lJJ == board[row[2JJ != :
winner = board[row[OJJ
return wi nner
, .
, . , (
for ) .
i f not i n rd :
return
.
, , , ,

None.
return None

human_move()
-,
, .
.
, ,
, .
, .

def human_move(board. human):


""" . """
legal = legal_movesCboard)
move = None
while move not in legal:
move = ask_number("To . - 8):". . NUM
SQUARES)
if move not i n 1ega1 :
print("\nCeo ! . pyroe.\n")
ori nt( " ... ")
return move

computer_move()
computer_move() ,
, .

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

, , . , ,
,
. , ,
. ,
,
.
- 189

,
. , computer_move() -
, .
,
. (, .
.)
, ,
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5.
( ), ,
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:

def computer_move(board. computer. human):


'""' ."""
# . u

board = board[: J
-----------------------
, , .
, .

---------------------------
,
( ), ,
, , .
{) .
, { ), ,
. ,
. ,
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1. , ,
.

2. ,
, .

3.
.

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, - . ,
:
190 . . r-

#
BEST_MOVES = (4. . 2. 6. 8. 1. 3. 5. 7)
print(" ". end=" ")

. ,
, ( ,
) , . ,
; . ,
.

for move in legal_moves(board):


board[moveJ = computer
# .
if wi nner ( rd) == computer:
print(move)
return move
# 1 .
board[moveJ =
,
. , ,
. ,
( , )
, . ,
, ;
. ,
.

for move i n l ega l _moves rd):


board[moveJ = human
# .
if winner(board) == human:
pri nt (move)
return move
# 1 .
board[moveJ =
,
.
BEST_MOVES, ,
:
, .

# .
#
for move in BEST MOVES:
if move in legal_moves<board):
print(move)
return move
r- 191

- .
, ,
. , , .
, ,
, IBM Deep Blue, '
, . Deep Blue
200 . , , , , ,
1050. ,
Deep Blue 1 585 489 ( ,
15 ).

next_turn()
,
, , .
turn, , , 11 -
.

def next_turn(turn):
""" ."""
if turn == :
return else:
return .
. .

congrat_winner()
,
. ,
the_wi nner ,
, , .

def congrat_winner(the_winner. computer. human):


"""; ."'"'
if the winner != TIE:
print("Tp". the_winner. " !\n")
else:
print("H!\n")
if the_winner == computer:
print("Ka . ~. \n" \
" .
.")
elif the_winner == human:
print("O . ! - .
? \n" \
": . . !")
192 . . -

elif the_winner == TIE:


printC"Tee . : . \n" \
" ! -
. ")

main()
,
.
. , , ,
, .
mai n( ), - ,
, .
, . ,
:

defmain():
display_instruct()
computer. human = pieces()
turn = board = new_board()
display_board(board)
while not winner(board):
i f turn == human:
move = human_move(board. human)
board[moveJ = human
else:
move = computer_moveCboard. computer. human)
board[moveJ = computer
di spl ay _boardCboard)
turn = next_turn(turn)
the_winner = winner(board)
congrat_winner(the_winner. computer. human)


i n (,
, ):

#
main()
inut"\n\ Enter. .")

. ,
. ,
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193

, ,
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ask_numer() , -
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, ask_number().

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main(). ,
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computer_move(), .
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Python .
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1
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196 7. .

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- ( courseptr.com/downloads)
Chapter 7. read _i t. :
#
#
pri nt( " .")
text file = open("read it.txt". "r". encoding='utf-8')
text=file.close() -
print("\na .")
text file = open("read it.txt". "r")
print(text_file.read(l))
print(text file . read(5))
text_file .close()
print("\na .")
open( "read_ it . txt". "r". encodi ng= ut f-8 )
whole thing = text file.read()
print(whole_thing)-
text_file.close()
print("\na . ")
text_file = open("read_it .txt". "r". encoding='utf-8')
print(text_file . readline(l))
print(text_file . readline(5))
text_file .close()
197

print("\na .")
text_file = open("read_it.txt". "r". encoding='utf-8')
print(text file.readline())
print(text=file.readline())
print(text file.readline())
text_file.close()
print("\na .")
text_fi l = open( "read_i t. txt". "r". encodi ng=' utf-8' )
lines = text_file.readlines()
print(lines)
print(len(lines))
for line in lines:
print(line)
text_file.close()
print("\nepepa .")
text file = open("read it. txt", "r". encoding='utf-8')
for line in text file:-
print(line)
text_file.close()
input("\n\nHae Enter. .")


( ), ero
. ~:

> text_file = openC"read_it.txt". "r". encoding='utf-8')


open( ), ,
text _ fi l . :
, .
- "read_i t. txt" - .
, Python ,
. , r
, , .
"r". r Python ,
. , ,
.
. 7.1. 'ut f-8' r,
Unicode .
: Windows, Linux, OS r.

6111 7 .1.


rrrn . , Python
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,

#
198 7. .

116n 7.1 ()


" r . r,
. ,
11+11 . , Python

llw+" . ,
. ,
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text_file,
. ,
l ose ) ,
,

. closeC ):
>>> text_file.close()
, .


- , -
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readC) .
read () ;
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:

> text_file = open("read_it. txt". "r". encoding='utf-8')


>>> print(text_file.read(l))

read.
:

>>> print(text_file.read(5))

: , . Python ,
.
, read() ,
. ,
read() .
, .
:

>>> text_file.close()
> text_file = open("read_it.txt". "r")
199

,
.
, :

>>> whole_thing = text_file.read()


>>> print(whole_thing)
1
2
3
, em .
, , read()
. , :

>>> text_file.close()


.
readl i ne( ). <1
, .
, .
,
. , , :

> text file = open("read it.txt". "r". encoding='utf-8')


>>> print(text_file.readline(l))

>>> print(text_file.readline(5))

>>> text_file.close()
, readl i ne() read( ).
readl i neC) , read()
. readl i ne()
. :

> text file = open("read it.txt". "r". encoding='utf-8')


>>> printCtext_file.readline())
1
>>> printCtext_file.readline())
2
>>> print(text_file.readline())
; 3
>>> text_file.close()
,
. , s
"\n".
200 7. .


-
read l i nes (), ,
. :

> text_file = open("read_it.txt'". "r". encoding='utf-8')


>>> lines = text_file.readlines()
1i nes ,
:

>>> print(lines)
[ 1\n . ' 2\n' . ' 3\n' J
1i nes .
:

>>> print(len(lines))
3
>>> for line in lines:
pri nt l i ne)
1
2
3
>>> text_file.close()


, for
:

> text_file = open("read_it.txt". "r". encoding='utf-8')


>>> for line in text file:
print(line) -
1
2
3
>>> text_file.close()

, ( l i ne)
.
, - . .
.


,
. Python
, . .
201


~ ,
read _ i t. txt.
.
. 7.3.
- ( courseptr.com/
downloads) Chapter 7. write_it. .

. 7.3. ,


, ,
. :

#
#
print("Coa write() . ")
text_file = open("write_it .txt". "w" . encoding='utf-8')
wri te _i t .txt ,
. wri te _i t . txt ,
, .
write( ),
:

text file . write("Cpoa l\n")


text-file.write("o 2\n")
text=file.write("o 3\n")
write()
, . \n
202 7. .

, . ,
, .
, , \n.
, " 1\ n
2\n 3\n" -
wri te ( ) .
:

text_file.close()
, , ,
:

print("\na .")
text_file = open("write_it. txt". "r". encoding='utf-8')
print(text_file.read())
text_file.close()


wri te l i nes ()
. read l i nes ( ), wri te l i nes ( ) ,
: , .
:

pri nt ( "\n ; wri tel i nes (). ")


text_file = open("write_it.txt". "w". encoding='utf-8')
write_it. txt,
.
,
:

lines =[" l\n".


" 2\n".
" 3\n"J
,
.
1i nes wri te l i nes ( ):
text_file.writelines(lines)
:
text_file.close()
, ,
:

print("\na .")
text_file = open("write_it.txt". "r". encoding='utf-8')
print(text file.read())
text_file.close()
input("\n\nHae Enter. .")
r 203

, ,
. . 7.2.

7 .2.


dose() . J)'
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d([])
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204 7. .

. 7.4, -
( courseptr.com/downloads) Chapter 7. pi ck l _i t ..

. 7.4. ,


, , -
:

#
#
import pickle. shelve
pickle
, she l ve
.
: ,
, .
, :
- .
, :
rint(" . ")
variety =[" . "". ""]
shape = ["" . "". ""]
brand = ["" . "". ""]
:
f = open("picklesl.dat". "wb")
() ,
. pi ck l es 1. dat
, "wb".
205

, ,
. 7.3.

7 .3.

"rb" . 01 , Pytho
tlw" . , .
01 ,
"" . 01 ,
. 01 ,
"r+" . , Python

"wb+" . ,
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"+" n . 01 ,
. ,

- vari ety, shape brad -


picklesl .dat pickle.dump().
: , .

pickle.dump(variety. f)
pickle.dump(shape. f)
pickle.dump(brand. f)
f.close()
, ,
variety. , picklesl.dat
. ,
shape brand. .
, :
;



pi ck 1.1 oad ().
: ,
.

rint("\n .")
f = open ( "pi ck 1es1. dat . "rb")
variety = pickle. load(f)
206 7. .

shape = pickle.load(f)
brand = pickle.load(f)
,
, ["". "". ""].
vari ety.
, ["".
"". "" J shape.
()
[ "". "". " "J,
brad.
, , :

print(variety)
print(shape)
pri nt(brand)
f .close()
. 7.4.

7 .4. pickle

dum(, . n -
, [,n]) True, , False -
, .
in = False
ld() -



. shel ve ( . )
, ,
.

.\1 s:
rint("\n .")
s = shelve.open("pickles2.dat")
she l ve. open () , open ),
, shelve.open() ,
.
s; ,
.

------------------------
shelve.open() Python
, .
207

she l ve. open () - . ,


. (
), "".
. 7.5.
:
s["variety"] = ["". "". ""]
s["shape"J = ["". "". ""]
s["brand"] = ["". "". ""]

s . 1 "variety"
<J ["". "". ""], "shape" -
["". "". ""], "brand" - ["".
"". ""]. ,
.
sync() -:
s.sync() #.

, , Python ,
. ,
, sync ().
cl ose( ).
-----------------------
, shelve
. ,
, .



, , ,
. : s
, :

rint("\n :")
rint(" -". s["brand"])
printC"op -". s["shape"J)
rint" -". s["variety"])
. :
s.close()
inputC"\n\nHae Enter. .")

611111 7.5.


"" r . ,
''n" . , -

"r'' . , Python
"w" . , Python
208 7. .

- ,
'l, n n . n m
n - XMl. n Pytho
n. http://www.pytho.org.


Python ,
. , ,
( exception ), ,
. , Python
.
Python:
> num = flt("!")
Traceback Cmost recent call last):
File "<pyshell#l>". line 1. in <module>
num = flt"!")
ValueError: could not convert string to float: !

Python
"!" . ,
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Python
. ,
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.t
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. 7.5. - (courseptr.com/
downloads) Chapter 7. handl e_it. .

try / except
( .t) -
try/except. try ,
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209

. 7.5. ! ,

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.
try except.
#
#
# try/except
try:
num = float(input("Bee : "))
except :
print("oxoe. !")

fl oat () - , - ,
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: .
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, , except,
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float( ),
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210 7. .

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IOError , r /
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TypeError , rr -

ValueError , r
,

ZeroDivisionError ,
r -

except ,
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except. ,
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#
try:
num = float(input("\nBee : "))
except ValueError:
print("o !")

print , ValueError.
,
: !. , try
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.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

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r,
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211

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> 1/0
Traceback (most recent call last):
File "<pyshell#O>". line 1. in <module>
1/0
ZeroDivisionError: int division or modulo zero
, ZeroDivisionError.
, .


.
, .
- except
, :
#
print()
for value in (None. "!"):
try:
rint(" : value. "-->" end=" ")
print(float<value))
except (TypeError. ValueError):
print("oxoe. !")

.
, . fl oat (None)
TypeError,
. flt("! ") ValueError, "
! "- , ( ).
except .
:
except. t ry
except:

print()
for value in (None. "!"):
try:
rint(" : value. "-->" end=" ")
print(float(value))
except TypeError:
print(" !")
except ValueError:
print(" . !")

.
None, TypeError :
212 7. .

" !". "


!" Va l ueError, : "
. !".
.v except
try.
, ,
.


, -
.
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, as.

:

#
try:
num = float(input("\nBee : "))
except ValueError as :
print("o ! :")
print(e)

else
except t ry
el se. , try
.

# try/except/else
try:
num = float(input( "\n : "))
except ValueError:
print("o !")
else:
print("B ". num)
input("\n\nHae Enter. .")

num ,
try, ,
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num .


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213

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tri vi . txt - (www.courseptr.com/
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214 7. .

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#
import sys
def open file(file name. mode):
"'"' .'"'"
try:
the_file = open(file_name. mode. encoding='utf-8')
except IOError as :
rint(" ". file_name. "
.\n". )
input("\n\nHae Enter. .")
215

sys .exit()
else:
return the file

next_line()
next_l i ne( ),
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def next_line(the_file):
""" .
line = the_file.readline()
line = line.replace("/". "\n")
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s- . , Pytho
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next_ock()
next _b1ock ( ) ,
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- ).

def next_ock(the_file):
""" ."""
category = next line(the file)
question = next=line(the=file)
answers = []
for i in range(4):
answers.append(next line(the file))
correct = next_line(the_file)
i f correct:
correct = correct[OJ
explanation = next_line(the_file)
return category, question. answers. correct. explanation
,
. , tr~ via. txt,
category "". category
, main() .
216 7. .

welcome()
we l come() .
;
.

def welcome(title):
""" ."""
print("\t\topo '' !\n")
print{"\t\t". title. "\n")

r
i n(),
. :
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.

def main():
trivia file = open file("trivia.txt". "r")
title: next lineCtrivia file)
welcomeCtitle) -
score =


, ,
whi le,
, category .
,
.

: (),
.

#
category, question. answers. correct. explanation = next_ock(trivia_file)
whi l category:
#
printCcategory)
print(question)
for i in range(4}:
print("\t". i + 1. " " ar1swers[iJ)

#
answer = input("Ba : ")
217


. ,
;

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( , ) .

#
if answer == correct:
print("\na!". end=" ")
score += 1
else:
print("\nHe.". end=" ")
print(explanation)
printC"Ce:". score. "\n\n")

n
next_ockO, ,
. , category
.

#
category. question. answers. correct. explanation = next_ock(trivia_file)

w
tri vi . txt
:

trivia_file.close()
print("o !")
print("Ha ". score)

main()
ma i n( ) :
main()
input("\n\nHae Enter. .")

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. 8.4.

. 8.4. talk() Critter,

- (courseptr.com/
downloads) Chapter 8. simple_critter. .
:

#
#
class Critter(object) :
""" """
def talk(self) :
rint(". - Critter.")
#
crit = Critter()
crit.talk()
input(" \ n \ nHae Enter. .")


- <1j>,
.
:

class Critter(object) :
1ass - Cri tter.
, .
, Python , .
.
, 223


object. object
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:

""" """


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def talkCself):
rint(". - Critter.")
, ,
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cri t . ta 1k ()
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. 8.5.

. 8.5. ,
225

- (courseptr.com/
downloads) Chapter 8. constructor_critter. .
#
# -
class CritterCobject):
""" """
def init Cself):
rint(" !")
def talk(self):
print("\npe. - Critter.")
#
critl = Critter()
crit2 = Critter()
critl.talk()
cri t2. ta l k()
input("\n\nHae Enter. .")

r
, , - -
( ):

def _init_Cself):
rint" !")

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Critter. , ,
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-------------------------
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#
critl = Critter()
crit2 = Critter()
. -
: !.
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226 8. .

critl. talk()
crit2.talk()
: "\n . -
Cri tter. ", - .



-.
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r

name.
Critter -,
name. , ,
, . . 8.6.

. 8.6. Critter name,


talk()

#
#
class Critter(object) :
""" """
def i nit se lf. name) :
rint(" !")
r 227

self.name = name
def ~str~Cself):
rep = " Critter\n"
rep +=": "+ self.riame + "\n"
return rep
def talkCself):
rint". ". self.name. "\n")
#
critl = CritterC"o")
critl.talk()
crit2 = Critter( "")
cri t 2. ta 1k()
print("Bo critl :")
print(critl)
rint(" critl.name:")
print(critl.name)
input("\n\nHae Enter. .")


, ~>, -
!, .
name,
name.
:

critl = CritterC"o")

Critter, nm "".
cri t.
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self. , self
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, name "". :
self.name = name
name name,
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228 8. .

crit.
, cri t name,
"". , !
:
crit2 = Critter("Myp")

. Critter
name, "", crit2.

r
, .
ta l k() , name
Critter: , .
, talk( ):
critl.talk()
sel f :
def talk(self):
pri nt . .
se l f. name name :
rint(". ". self.name. "\n")


:
crit2. talk()
ta l k() . ,
name cri t2 "".
,
, . ,
name critl:
print(critl.name)
.
, ,
: _. _.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

.
, ,
.


print(critl), Python
, :

<~main~.Critter object at 90>


229

,
Cri tter.
. , :
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,
name. :

print(critl)
:

Critter
:

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

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m . , , ,
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.
Cri tter tota l.
tota l
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230 8. .

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Critter,
, .
. 8.7.

. 8.7. !
,

- (courseptr.com/
downloads) Chapter 8. cl assy_critter. .
#
#
class Critter(object):
""" """
total =
@staticmethod
def status <) :
print("\nBcero " . Critter.total)
def init (self. name):
rint(" !")
self.name = name
Critter .total += 1
#
print("Haxoy Critter .total :". end=" ")
print(Critter .total)
print("\nCoa . ")
critl = rittr(" 1")
crit2 = rittr(" 2")
crit = rittr(" 3")
Critter .status()
print("\nOpaac :" . end=" ")
print(critl .total)
input("\n\nHae Enter. .")
231

total =

total Critter .
, (
) .
- Pytho11 .
, ,
, , ,
.


;
. total
Critter :

print Critter.total
status()
:

pri nt ( "\ nBcero " . Cri tter. tota l )


-
:

Critter.total += 1
-
, - tota l 1.
:
_._.
, ,
. :

print(critl.total)
tota l,
Critter, .
, : pri nt (cri t2. to-
ta l) print(crit. total ), .
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~-

,
. ,
.
232 8. .

r
status( ):
def status :
print("\nBcero ". Critter.total)
- . ,
se 1f. , status( ),
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. 8.8.
234 8. .

,
- (www.courseptr.com/downloads)
Chapte . pri vate_critter. .


,
. -
: :
#
#
class Critter(object):
""" """
def _init_(self. name. mood):
rint(" !")
self.name = name # ~
self ._mood = mood #

, ,
.
i ,
.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~



( , ~
). ta l k( )
_ mood:
def talk(self):
print("\nMe ", self.name)
print("Ceac ". self._mood. "\n")
,
.


Critter, . ,
, :

> crit = Critter(name ="". mood ="")


!
>>> print(crit.mood)
Traceback (most recent call last):
File "<pyshell#l>". line 1. in <module>
pri nt ( crit. mood)
AttributeError: 'Critter' object has no attribute 'mood'
235

AttributeError, Python , crit


mood.
, .
:

>>> print(crit. mood)


Traceback (most--ecent call last):
Fi 1 "<pyshel 1#2>". l i ne 1. i n <modul >
print(crit. mood)
AttributeError: 'Critter' object has no attribute ' mood'
Attri buteError:
, . ,
, ?
, . Python ; ,
, .
:

>>> print(crit._Critter~mood)

mood,
"".
,
? - . Python -
,
. , ,
.

-----------------------
,
.


,
: .
, :
def ~private_method(self):
print("o .")

. ,
( )
.


,
. u ic_method( ),
:
236 8. .

def puic_method(self):
print("o .")
self.~private_method()

.
.
,
.
private_method:
>>> crit.private method
Traceback (most recent call last):
Fi l "<pyshe 11#0>". l i ne 1. i n <modul >
crit.private method
AttributeError: 'Critter' object has no attribute 'private_method'
Attri buteError: Python
, crit (
).
, :

>>> crit.~private_method()
Traceback (most recent call last):
File "<pyshell#l>". line 1. in <module>
crit.~private_method()
AttributeError: 'Critter' object has no attribute ~private_method'

(
) .
:

>>> crit._Critter~private_method()
.

, ,
.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

:
.



. , :

#
crit = Critter(name ="". mood ="")
crit.talk()
crit.pulic_method()
input("\n\nHae Enter. .")
r 237

_i ni t _ () Cri tter,
, ,
. ta l k() cri t .
, publ ic_method() crit
. ,
.. .

. ,
?
, . ,
, ,
. Pytho
, ,
.

-----------------------
: , r
r ,
r , r .
n : r
r
.


, ,
. , , ,
, . Python
- , .
.




, - Critter.
, , -
, -
. . 8.9.
,
- (www.courseptr.com/downloads)
Chapter 8. property_critter. .
238 8. .

. 8.9. Critter


-
,
- . -
Critter, name,
_ name:
#
#
class Critter(object) :
""" "" "
def _init_(self. name):
rint(" !")
self . name = name
@property-
def name( se lf):
return self. name
, ,
( _name ),
@property. ;
name. name Critter
_name - ,
.
( name
).
, , ,
,
@property. .
239

- , , ,
( ).
, ~
, .
.
name _name
:

@name.setter
def name(self. new name):
if new name ==-
print( " .")
else:
self. name = new name
print(" .")

@name. setter. setter


name, , , ,
name 1
, : @,
, , , setter.
name,

. , , .
: - , .
new_name ,
. ,
_name ,
.
_name new_name , .
, - ,
.

r
name, ,
. :

def talk(sel f):


print("\npe. ". self.name)
#
crit = Critter("o")
crit.talk()
se1f. name name ,
_name.

Python,
. - ,~~. .
240 8. .

"". , name
, , :

rit("\ ". end=" ")


print(crit.name)
Critter, , ,
: cri t. name name Cri tter
, _ ( -
"").
:

pri t( "\ ".")


crit. = ""
crit.ame = "" m
,
_ . "".
, , _m " ",
..
:

prit("Mo ". d=" ")


print(crit.name)
" ".
:
rit"\ ".")
crit.ame = ""

, m
, _.
new_ame ,

: .,
_ cri t . ,
, name :
pri nt " ". end= " ")
print(crit.ame)
iut("\n\n Eter. .")
. - .


,
. ,

. ,
- (www.courseptr.com/downloads)
Chapter 8. critter_caretaker. .
241

Critter
, Critter - , m
. ,
.

-r
-
Critter: name, hunger boredom. , hunger boredom
, ,
.

#
# .
class Critter(object):
""" """
def _init_Cself. name. hunger =. boredom = 0):
self.name = name
self.hunger = hunger
self.boredom = boredom

. ,
Critter.
__pass_time()
Meo _pass_time() - ,
(hunger) (boredom) .
, , ; -
. , ,
, ,

- : , , .

def pass timeCself):


self.hunger += 1
self.boredom += 1
r mood
mood .
: hunger
boredom Critter, , ,
"", "", " " "".
, mood ,
, , Cri tter,
. mood - ,
.

@property
def moodCself):
242 8. .

unhappiness = self.hunger + self.boredom


if unhappiness < 5:
m = ""
elif 5 <= unhappiness <= 10:
m = ""
elif 11 <= unhappiness <= 15:
m = " "
else:
m = ""
return m talk()
ta 1k() mood Cri tter
. eo _pass_time( ).
def talk(self):
self.naire.
print("Me ". ". ". self.rood. "naw.\n")
self._pass_time()

eat()
eat () ,
food. , food
4. ,
. , , _pass_time( ).
def eat(self. food = 4):
pri nt ( "". ! ")
self.hunger -= food
if self.hunger < :
self. hunger =
self._pass_time()

play()
play() ,
fun. , fun
4. ,
. , , _pass_
time( ).
def play(self. fun = 4):
print("Y!")
self.boredom -= fun
if self .boredom < :
self.boredom =
self._pass_time()

w
ma i n( ).

Critter. hunger boredom -
243

,
.

def mainO:
crit_name = input("Ka ? ")
crit = Critter<crit_name)


.
, . 1,
ta l k( ). 2, eat ( ).
3, l ( ). ,
.

choice = None
while choice !="":
print \
( 1t 11"

-
1 -
2 -
3-
11 11 11)

choice = input("Ba : ")


pri nt ()
#
if choice == "":
print("o .")
#
el if choice == ':
cri t. ta 1k()
#
elif choice == "2":
crit.eat()
#
1 if choi == "3" :
crit. l ()
#
else:
print( ". ". choice)

nr1
main() .
, , .

main()
input("\n\nHae Enter. .")
244 8. .

,
. , oryr
( ) (),
. - ~
. -,
. , ,
. ,
, ,
. -
. , ,
, .
,

,' :
, ,
(
).

, .
, . ,
.

- 1
. , , ,
, ( Critter 1
_str_()).
, Critter,
.
, . , ,
: 1 , .
,
.

9
.
<<->>

.
, .
, ,
, , .

.

, :
;
;
;
;

;
.

n-
, ,
-- 1. :
, - ,
21 , . ,
, ; ,
10 , - 1 11 ( , ).
2 , .
,

. - . .
- . - . .
246 9. - . -

, . ,
. , ,
, .

. ,
21 . ,
, . ,
.
, .
, <~-~,
, 17 .
, - , ,
, . ,
, . (
) .
.

. 9.1.

. 9.1. ,


- - ,
- . ,
; .
, -
.
.
. , , , ,
.
247


w
,
. : ,
(, ,
).
. . 9.2.

. 9.2. ,

, hero - Pl ayer i nvader -


Alien. ast() hero
i nvader di () i nvader. ,
, ,
.
. 9.3.

hero.ast(invader)

. 9.3. hero Player invader Alien


248 9. - . -

, , ,
.
. /-
. - UML ( ),
, --
i __ _~_ ~_~-~- ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _

- (courseptr.com/
downloads} Chapter 9. al ien_blaster. :
#
#
class PlayerCobject):
""" -. """
def ast(self. enemy):
printC"po .\n")
enemy. di ()
class Alien(object):
""" - -. """
def die(sel f):
print("Teo . : ', .
. \n" \
" ... .
". \n" \
". . '")
#
print("\t\te \n")
hero = PlayerC)
invader = Alien()
hero.ast(invader)
input("\n\nHae Enter. .")


, ,
! :
Pl ayer, hero, l i en,
i nvader.
, .
hero.ast(i nvader) ast() hero
i nvader. st ) , ,
enemy. l ast ()
enemy l i en. ,
last() enemy.die() die() Al ien. ,
, Pl ayer l i en ,
die( ).
249


i nvader hero :
di () ,
.


. ,
, , ,
, : , , . .
: , .
, , , .
. ,
Drag_Racer, ;
engine, Race_Engine
(). Zoo, ,
ani ma 1s - ( Ani ma 1).
, , .

r
,
-
( , ).
(Hand),
; , -.
. 9.4.

. 9.4. Hand - Card


250 9. - . -

,
- (www.courseptr.com/downloads)
Chapter 9. 1ayi ng_ rds . .

Card
Card,
.

#
#
class Card(object):
. """
RANKS = ["". "2". "". "4". "5". "6". "7". "". "9". "10". "J". "Q". ""]
SUIS = ["". "d". "h". "s"J
def init (self. rank. suit):
self.rank = rank
self.suit = suit
def _str_(self):
rep = self.rank + self.suit
return rep
Card rank, -
. RANKS : (""),
2 10, ("J"), ("") ("").
suit, .
SUS: "" (lus)-, "d" (diamonds)-y
, "h" (hcarts)- , , "s" (spades) - .
, rank, "", suit, "d",
. ,
, _str _( ).

Hand
, , - Hand,
-:

class HandCobject):
""" : . """
def _init_Cself):
self.cards = []
def str Cself):
if seif .cards:
rep = ""
for card in self.cards:
rep += strCcard) + " "
else:
rep = "<n>"
return rep
251

def clear(self):
self.cards = []
def add(self. card):
self.cards.append(card)
def give(self. card. other_hand):
self.cards.remove(card)
other_hand.add(card)

Hand rds,
. , - ,
.
_str_() .
Card
. Hand ,
<>.

1 r ( ) : rds
. add() cards. gi ve()
cards, ,
Hand ( add( )).
, Hand Hand :
cards Card.

-

Card:
#
cardl = Card(rank = . suit ="")
print("Boy -:")
pri nt(cardl)
card2 = Card(rank = 2. suit ="")
card = Card(rank = "". suit ="")
card4 = Card(rank = "4". suit = "")
card5 = CardCrank = "5". suit = "")
print("\nBoy :")
pri nt rd2)
pri nt ( card)
print(card4)
print(card5)
Card rank "",
su i t - "" ( ). ;
.

- Hand
Hand, my_hand
:
252 9. - . -

my_hand = Hand()
print("\neaa . :")
pri nt (my_hand)
cards ,
<>.
my_hand Card
:

my_hand.add(cardl)
my hand.add(card2)
-hand.add(card)
my-hand.add(card4)
my-hand.add(card5)
print("\neaa . :")
pri nt (my_hand)
2 4 5.
Hand your_hand.
my_hand give( ), ~ ~
~ :

your_hand = Hand()
my_hand.give(cardl. your_hand)
my_hand.give(card2. your_hand)
print("\nepe .")
pri nt (" :")
print(your_hand)
print("A :")
pri nt (my_ hand)
, your _hand 2, my _hand - 4 5.
1 r ( ) my_ha nd
:

my_hand.clear()
print("\nY . :")
print(my_hand)
input("\n\nHae Enter. .")

<>.

- .
,
() .
, ,
!
253

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Python 1<, nr ;
r .
- r, .


,
. ,
.

.
, , Drag_Racer -
stop() go( ). ,
(
400 / ).
stop() go() Drag_Racer. ,
,
.

r 2.0
2.0 - ,
Deck ().
, , Deck
Hand. Deck
Hand. Deck , -, ,
, ,
. , <~: ,
. .
, . -,
, -,

. 2.0 ,
.

. 9.5.
, , , ,
.
,
- (www.courseptr.com/downloads)
Chapter 9. playing_cards2.py.


, .
- Card Hand - :
254 9. - . -

. '. l!ID~
3<\ KOJ10J1a.
IJur :
<)

JJ n11 .
r. :
Rc 2 3 4 5 & ? 8 9 HJt
.Jc Qc Ad 2d d 4d 5d &d ?d
l!d 9d 1d Jd Qd Kd /1 2h 311 411
5}1 6/1 ?11 811 911 1011 Jh Q!1 \1 As
2s s 4:; 5s 6s ?s 8s 9s 10s Js
Qs Ks
}(._. . 110na neper1catia.
rn :
Q/1 Qd . Js 511 Jc ?d ? 9d 9 ?11
l{d 2d /{ 311 8 2 211 Qc 4d
6<1 Sh s Ss 3 3s JJ1 4s Qs Rd
Ks 5s 2s 6 10h d 9s J(h Sd 10s
11<\ 1 4 Jd 4h 611 As 5 ?s !d
911 Al1
r1 l> 5 .
!:J:
Ql1 Js Jc ? 9
:
Qd ""511 ?d 9d ?h
:
! 2d 11 8 2 211 Qc 4d
d 811 s s s J]1 4s Qs Ad
1(, Ss 2" 6 1011 3<1 9s \1 5d 1fiJs
d 10 4 Jd 411 611 As 5 ?s 1fiJd
911 Ah
J<o11ona .
Bor . : ()

~r,r Ente". ._

. 9.5. Deck Hand

# 2.0
#
class Card(object):
.
RANKS = [ . 2. .. . 4.. "5.. "". 7 . . 9. 10. J.. . ]
SUIS = [ " " . "d". "h". "s"J
def _init_(self. rank. suit):
sel f. rank = rank
self.suit = suit
def _str_(self) :
rep = self.rank + self.suit
return rep
class Hand(object):
'' : .
def _init_(self) :
self.cards = [J
def str (self):
if self.cards :
rep =
for card in self .cards:
rep += str(card) + "\t"
else:
rep = "<>"
u 255

return rep
def clear(self):
self. cards = [ J
def add(self. card):
self.cards.appendCcard)
def give(self. card. other hand):
self.cards.remove(card)
other_hand.add(card)


Oeck.
, Hand:
class Deck(Hand):
Hand , Deck - ,
Hand.
Deck Hand. ,
, Deck
- :

_init_O;
_str _();
cl ear( );
add();
give().
, Hand
Deck.


, . .
Deck:
""" .
def populateCself):
self.cards = [ ]
for suit in Card.SUITS:
for rank in Card.RANKS:
self.add(Card(rank. suit))
def shuffle(self):
import random
random.shuffleCself.cards)
def deal(self. hands. per hand = 1):
for rounds in range(per_hand):
for hand in hands:
if se lf. rds :
top_card = self.cards[OJ
256 9. - . -

self.give(top_card. hand)
else:
print("He : !")

, , ,
:

populateO;
shuffleO;
deal .
, Deck :
Hand, Deck.
Deck ,
.

r
Deck:
#
deckl = Deck()
, , - Deck
. Oeck Hand,
Deck. ,
rds ;
$>.
deck 1.
, , . :

print("Coaa .")
print("Bo :")
print(deckl)
_ s t r _ ( ) Deck ,
Hand. ,
<>.
. ,
.

- . popul ate() deckl,


52 :
deckl.populate()
, : popul ate() -
, Deck. 52
( Card. SUIS Card. RANKS);
Card,
.
257

pri nt( "\nB .")


print("Bo :")
print(deckl)
52 . ,
, - . ,
:

deckl. shuffl ()
Deck shuffle(), random
random. shuffl ) cards .
, random. shuffle() ,
, , . ,
, - .

pri nt( "\n .")


print("Bo :")
print(deckl)
Hand,
hands:
my_hand = Hand()
your_nand = Hand()
hands = [my_hand. your_handJ
:

deckl.deal(hands. per_hand = 5)
dea l () - , Deck.
: , .

.
, : : !.
,
. ,
deckl my_hand your_hand.
, :

printC"\nMe 5 .")
pri nt( " :")
printCmy_hand)
pri ntC :")
printCyour_hand)
printC"Ocaoc :")
printCdeckl)
, ,
, 42.
258 9. - . -

deckl.clear()
pri nt ( "\ n .")

print("Bo :". deckl)


inputC"\n\nHae Enter. .")


, ,
. , ,
, .
. , :
,
.

Drag_Racer. , ,
stop() .
, ,
- , - Drag_Racer
Parachute_Racer stop( ).
stop( ), stop() Drag_Racer
(, , ),
.

r nti .
3.0 rd, ,
. ,
. ,
< >.
, .
.
, rd.
, .
. 9.6.
.1 ,
- (www.courseptr.com/downloads)
Chapter 9. playing_cards. .


, .
Card, ,
, :
259

. 9.6. _str _(),


- -

# 3.0
#
class Card(object) 1 :
.
RANKS = ["" . "2". "3". "4". "5" . "6". "7". "8". "9". "10". "J". "Q". ""]
SU IS = [ "" . "d " . "h" . "s " J
def init <self. rank. suit):
self.rank = rank
self.suit = suit
def _str_(self):
rep = self .rank + self .suit
return rep


Card , (
) . :
class Unprintae_Card(Card) :

, Unpri ntab l _ rd
rd. ,
. :

""" . . """
def _str_(self):
return "< >"

Python 3 object, 2- .
, object 2- .
object. - . . .
260 9. - . -

Unpri nta _ rd _st r_ ( ) rd. Unpri ntab l _


rd _st r _ ( ) , (
) . ,
, ,
, .
Unprintae_Card < >.
,
, -
. -.
, - rd -
.



. ,
rd. ,
, , .
, -, Card, ,
i s_face_up.
, , ,
ra nk su i t. rd :
, ,
rank suit .
,
.
Pos i t i ona _ rd:
cl ass Pos iti n _ rd(Card):
'"'" . n .
def init (self. rank. suit. face up = True):
super(Positionae Card. self).- init (rank. suit)
self.is_face_up = face_up - -
super() ,
r . super<Positionae_Card. sel f) ._init_(rank.
su i t) 1 _i ni t _ ( ) ~d, Pos i t i n _
rd . - _ i nit_ ( rank. suit) -
-
, rank suit.
Pos i t i ona _ rd (
) , Card:

def str (self):


if self. is face up:
rep = ~uperIPositionae Card. self). str ()

super() . - . . .
261

else:
rep = ""
return rep
_str_() is_face_
up. True, , .
,
_str_() Card,
Positionae_Card. , ,
, rd.
, , .

, :

def flip(self):
self.is_face_up = not self.is_face_up
, i s _face _up
. True, fl i ()
Fa 1se, , Fa 1se, fl i ()
True.


: - rd, -
Unprintae_Card, , - Positionae_Card:

#
cardl = Card("A". "")
card2 = Unprintae_Card("A". "d")
card = Positionae_Card("A". "h")
Card:
rint(" Card:")
pri nt ( rdl)
, .
Unpri ntab l _ rd:
print("\nneaa Unprintae_Card:")
print(card2)
rank "", suit -
"d", : <
>, Unprintae_Card
_str_() "< >".
Positionae_
Card:
pri nt( "\n Pos i t i n e_Card: ")
print(card)
262 9. - . -

(i s_face_up = True},
_str_) _str_) Card,
Ah.
fl i () Positiona e_Card:
rint" Positionae Card. ")
rd. fl i () -
, is_face_up .
Pos i t i n rd:

print("\neaa Positionae_Card:")
pri nt ( rd)
input("\n\nHae Enter. .")

,
.


,
.
, ,
,

. , Unpri nta _ rd rd, ,


_s tr _
Unpri nta _ rd, ,
()
_ st r_ ) rd.
, , ,
: Unprintae_Card Card.
_str_(),
.

,
, ,
.


random
" " 3.
Python , ,
.
.

-, , ,
. , , rd,Hand
Deck ,
,
.
263

-, ,
.
; , .
(
) .
, , .
, I-
.
-, , .
, , ,
, ,
Python.

r r
, , .
, ,

, ,
, . ;
- , .
,
. . 9.7.

. 9.7. ,


~ ~.
, ,
, .
264 9. - . -

, Python.
,
(, ), ,
, .
games
, .
- (courseptr.com/downloads) Chapter 9.
games . .
#
#
class PlayerCobject):
""" . """
def _init_Cself. name. score = 0):
self .name = name
self.score = score
def str Cself):
rep =self.name + ":\t" + strCself.score)
return rep
def ask_yes_no(question):
""" '' '."""
response = None
while response not in ("". "n"):
response = input(question).lower()
return response
def ask_numerCquestion. low. high):
""" ."""
response = None
while response not in range(low. high):
response = intCinputCquestion))
return response
if name == " ma i n " :
- - - -
printC"B . .")
input("\n\nHae Enter. .")

games,
games . .
. ; .

. Player
: name score, -. , ,
_str_), .
- ask _yes _no() ask _number() -
q "-" 6.
,
. i f _name_ == "_mai n_"
, .
, . ,
games . ,
, .
265


, games, <1
. ,
- (www.courseptr.com/downloads)
Chapter 9. simple_game. .
#
#
import games. random
import , ,
, . ,
.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

, , , ,
, Pytho . . ,
, , ,
, .
, .
, , .


<1
.
.
, :
printC"opo - !\n")
again = None
while again != "n":
players = []
num = games .ask_number(question = " ? (2 - 5): ". low = 2.
high = 5)
, ask_number()
games. , ,
: _. _.

1 100 ( randrange() random)
. ,
Pl ayer. games,
, .
- .
for i in range(num):
name = input(" : ")
score = random.randrangeC100) + 1
player = games.Player(name. score)
players.append(player)
266 9. - . -

print("\nBo :")
for player in players:
pri nt Cpl ayer)
ask_yes_no() games ,
:

again = games.ask yes n("\n ? (y/n): ")


input("\n\nHae ntr.- .")

&-
,
Python, , ~- .

- , , (,
).

cards
-~- ~
rds. Hand Deck , 2.0i-,
rd Pos i t i onab1_ rd 3.0i-.
- ( courseptr.com/downloads)
Chapter 9. cards. .
# cards
#
class Card(object);
"'"' . """
RANKS = ["". "2". "3". "4". "5". "". "7". "8". "9". "10". "J", "". ""]
SU 1TS = [ "" . "d" . "h" . "s" J
def ~init~(self. rank. suit. face_up = True):
self. rank = rank
self. suit = suit
self.is_face_up = face_up
def str (sel f):
if self.is face up:
rep = self.rank + self.suit
else:
rep = ""
return rep
def flip(self);
self.is face up = not self.is_face_up
class Hand(object): -
""" : .
def ~init~(self);
self.cards = []
- 267

def str (self):


if self.cards:
rep = ""
for card in self.cards:
rep += str(card) + "\t"
else:
rep = "<>"
return rep
def clear(self):
self.cards = [ ]
def add(self. card):
self.cards.append(card)
def give(self. card. other_hand):
self.cards.remove(card)
other hand.add(card)
class Deck(Hand):
'"'" .
def populate(self):
for suit in Card.SUITS:
for rank in Card.RANKS:
self.add(Card(rank. suit))
def shuffle(self):
import random
random.shuffle(self.cards)
def deal(self. hands. per_hand = 1):
for rounds in range(per_hand):
for hand in hands:
if self.cards:
top_card = self.cards[OJ
self.give(top_card. hand)
else:
print("He : !")
if name " main ":
print"'o . .")
input("\n\nHae Enter. .")


,
, . , ,
.
- . 9.1.
n 9.1. -

&

J_carc1 carcls.card -.
value - , -

.-
268 9. - . -

9.1 ()

&
IUl8CC
J_Deck cards.Deck -.
BJ_Card
J_Hand cards.Hand -. : name, -
, total,

J_Player J_Hand -
J_Dealer J_Hand ( -)
J_Game object -. : deck - -
J_Deck, dealer - J_Dealer players,
J_Player

, , ,
, ,
: ( ). r
,
.

,
, .
. 9.8.

cards.Card cards.Hand cards.Deck

BJ_Card BJ_Hand BJ_Deck

BJ_Player BJ_Dealer

. 9.8. -

, , . 9.8,
.


,
. ,
. :
- 269

2

f<



.


.


.

cards games
, , .
-),) :
cards games.
,
- (www.courseptr.com/downloads) Chapter 9.
ackjack. .

# -
# 1 7
import cards. games
games, , ,
.

B_Card
BJ _Ca rd rds . rd.
BJ_Card value, :
cl ass J_Card(cards. Card):
""" -. """
VALUE = 1
@property
def valueCself):
if self. is_face_up:
v = BJ_Card.RANKS.indexCself.rank) + 1
270 9. - . -

if v > 10:
v = 10
else:
v = None
return v
va l ue 1 1 - ,
. J _ rd. RANKS.
i ndex ( se1f. rank). rank -,
(, "6" ),
BJ _ rd . RANKS ( 5 ).
, ( ,
"6" 6). ,
1; 1
. is_face_up False,
None.

n J_Deck
BJ_Deck --.
rds. Deck.
, cards. Deck' s popul ate( ),
BJ_Deck BJ_Card:
class BJ_Deck(cards.Deck):
""" "-".
def populate(self):
for suit in BJ Card.SUITS:
for rank in BJ Card.RANKS:
self.cards~append(BJ Card(rank. suit))

n J_Hand
BJ _Hand, rds. Hand, - ~.
-~. cards .Hand,
name, ~:
class BJ Hand(cards.Hand):
""" 7 ': "-" .
def _init_Cself. name):
superCBJ_Hand. sel f) ._init_()
self.name = name
_str _(),
:
def _str_Cself):
rep = self.name + ":\t" + superCBJ Hand. self)._str_()
if self.total: -
rep += "(" + strCself.total) + ")"
return rep
- 271

name ,
cards. Hand _ str_ () . tota l
None, .
.
tota l,
. 4 , ,
None. ,
, , 4.

@property
def total(self):
# value None. None
for card in self.cards:
if not card.value:
return None
# . 1
t =
for card in self.cards:
t += card.value
#.
contains_ace = False
for card in self.cards:
if card.value == BJ_Card.ACE_VALUE:
contains = True
# 11. 11

if contains and t <= 11:


# 10.
t += 10
return t
,
va l ue, None ( , ).
, None.
. ,
. , ( ),
: 1 11.
BJ_Hand
i s_busted( ).

True, total 21.
Fal se.

def is_busted(self):
return self.total > 21
,
se l f. tota l > 21 ,
. return
(, )
.
272 9. - . -

, ,
True F l se. ,
( ,
). is (
i s_on () ).

BJ_Player
J _Pl ayer, J _Hand,
:

class BJ_Player(BJ_Hand):
""" "-".
def is hitting(self):
response = games.ask yes no("\n" + self.name +" ?
(Y/N): ")
return response == ""
def bust(sel f):
print(self.name. ".")
self.lose()
def lose(self):
pri nt (self. name. ".")
def win(self):
printCself.name. ".")
def push(self):
printCself.name. " .")

- i s_hitt i ng() - True ,


, Fa l se - . bust () ,
, lose() . , lose()
, , wi nC) - . ,
push() . bust(), lose(), win() push()
, .
,
, , (
- ,

).

BJ_Dealer
BJ_Dealer, BJ_Hand,
:

class BJ_Dealer(BJ_Hand):
""" "-".
def is hitting(self):
return self.total < 17
def bust(self):
pri nt ( se lf. name. . )
- 273

def flip_first_card(self):
first_card = self.cards[OJ
first_card.flip()
- i s_hi tt i ng ( ) - ,
. , 17 ,
, True, tota l
17, Fal se. bust() ,
. , fl i p_fi rst _ca rd()
.

BJ_Game
BJ_Game ,
(!-". play()
. , ,
,

_ add i t i ona l _ rds ( ),


, st i l l _p l ayi ng,
, .

_init_()
.
, .

class BJ_Game(object):
""" -. """
def _init_(self. names):
self.players = []
for name in names:
player = BJ_PlayerCname)
self.players.append(player)
self.dealer = BJ_Dealer("Dealer")
self.deck = BJ_Deck()
self.deck.populate()
self.deck.shuffle()

still_playing
sti l l_pl ayi ng ,
( ):

@property
def stil l_playingCself):
sp = [J
for player in self.players:
if not player.is_busted():
sp.appendCplayer)
return sp
274 9. - . -~

_additional_cards()
_additional_cards( ) .
player BJ_Player BJ_
i s_busted() Fal se,
Deal er.
i s_hitting() True, .
is_busted() True,
bust().
def additional cards(self. player):
while not player.is busted() and player.is hitting():
self.deck.deal(fplayer)) -
print(player)
if player.is_busted():
l ayer. bust ()

. -,
player. is_hitting() ,
player: J_Player J_Dealer. _additianal_cards() ,
. -, J _Pl ayer J _
Dea 1er bust (), l ayer. bust ()
.

play()
l ( )
:

def play(sel f):


# 2
self.deck.deal(self.players + [self.dealerJ. per hand = 2)
self. dea l er. fl i p_fi rst_card() # . .

for player in self.players:
print(player)
print(self.dealer)
#
for player in self.players:
self. additional cards(player)
self.dealer.flip first card() #
if nat self.still playing:
# . ""
print(self.dealer)
else:
#
print(self.dealer)
self. additional cards(self.dealer)
if self.dealer. is-busted():
# .-
for player in self.still_playing:
player.win()
else:
- 275

# . ;
for player in self.still playing:
if player.total > self.dealer.total:
pl ayer. wi n()
elif player.total < self.dealer.total:
pl ayer .1 ose()
else:
1ayer. push ()
#
for player in self.players:
pl ayer. cl ear()
self.dealer.clear()
. ,
, ,
. <11> .
,
. ,
<1~>.
. ,
17. ,
.
. ,
, , - , -
.

main()
ma i ( ) ,
BJ _Game, .
l ( ) ,
.

def main():
print("\t\topo -!\n")
names = []
number = games.ask_number("Coo ? (1 - 7): " low = 1. high
= 8)
for i in range(number):
name = iut(" : ")
names.append(name)
print()
game = BJ_Game(names)
again = None
while again != "n":
game. l ()
again = games.ask_yes_no("\nXoe ? ")
main()
iut("\n\ Enter. .")
276 9. - . -

. ,
.
. -
. ,
.
.
,
.
, .

' 'r '~


n- . .
n. n , n n n .
, n n.

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- , .

n - ,
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10
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<<
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, ,
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GUI. , :
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278 10. .

7~ 11 11 1! 1~,n...,i
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GUI 279

GUI
, GUI,
,
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wy nyew ~-11. not1Ctc:OD 1 :11. 1
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. d? , ~ ) .

. 10.4.

GUI Python,
GUI. ;
- Tkinter.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Windows, - ,
kinter , ,
. kinter Python: http://www.python.org/
topics/tkinter.

GUI - tki nter,


Tkinter. . 10.1 GUI,
. 10.4, tkinter.

n 10.1. GUI
n n tkinter n n
Frame GUI
Lael , -

.,
280 10. .

10.1 ()

llacc tkinter
Button n <r -

Entry
Text
Checkbutton
-
Radiobutton

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

. ,
.

GUI, , -. ,

. - () -
, .
GUI (, ),
- .
, ~
. ,
Python, ,
, ,
input( ). ,
, . .
, . ,
, GUI,
.
.

(, )
(, ).
. ~
( ), ,
( ).
, , .

, ,
. , U1',
.
,
.
GUI 281

,
. , ,
- .


- ,
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GUI , . <:<
~ ,
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GUI
GUI~ , ,
: . . 10.5.

' '"?-' npocreiiii GUI l 0 1@J lii4"'tJ '

. 10.S. - .
- , ?

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Tkiter IDLE, , IDLE .


, ; Windows
.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

,
: , ,
. Windows ,
,
. , ,
simple_gui.py, :

simple_gui.py
pause
, .
, , ( Word
WordPad). . . t (, simple_gui . t) .
, .t .txt.
.
- (www.courseptr.com/downloads) Chapter 10.
282 10. .

, . 10.5, GUI
( ) -
, . 10.6.

. 10.6.

, GUI,
. ( )
Tkinter ,
. , GUI
.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

GUI-, , ,
. Windows,
. .pyw.

- (www.courseptr.com/
downloads) Chapter 10. simple_gui . .

tkinter
!
GUI tkinter:
# GUI
#
from tkinter import *
tk i nter
. , -
GUI 283

, tki nter, .
, .

r
, Tk tk i nter:

#
root = TkO
, tkinter Tk
. , tk i nt.er .

,
, .

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~-

8 l<inter .
, , .

r
,
:

#
rt.titl(" GUI")
root. geometry( "200100")
title() . ,
.
" GUI ".
geomet ry ) .
( ) ,
.
200 , - 100 .

r r
mainloop(),
:
#
root. mai nl ()

,
. ,
. ,
, .
; simple_gui. bat.
284 10. < .


GUI . ,
, - / ,
. ~~
- , .
, :

, . ,
. ,
.

,
Labe1,
. . 10.7.

74 , '"'
' ~!

. 10.7. GUI

- (www.courseptr.com/
downloads) Chapter 10. labeler. .


: tki nter
.

# .
#
from tkinter import *
#
root = Tk()
root.title("o . ")
root .geomet ry ( 20050")


- ,
, .
, .
, :

#
= Frame(root)
285


,
, . -
Frame root. ,
.

grid() :

app.grid()
grid() . .
, .

,
.


u Label:
#
l = Label(app. text =" !")

Label .
, - .
.
."1,
. . ,
, text ! ",
!.
gridC) -:

l .grid()
GUI.


,
GUI:
#
root.mainloop()


, Button, -
- . , ,
.
286 10. .


~ , ,
, . -
. ,
. . 10.8.

. 10.8. :

- (www.courseptr.com/
downloads) Chapter 10. l azy_buttons. .


, , tki nter, :
#
#
from tkinter import *
#
root = Tk()
rt . titl(" ")
root. geomet ry ( 20085 )
#
= Frame(root)
app .grid()


, Button.
:

#
bttnl = Button(app . text = !")
bttnl .grid()
!.
- ; ,
.

,
, tk i nter . ,
GUI 287

, . ,
, , .
, .
:

#
bttn2 = ButtonCapp)
ttn2.grid()

, : -
. ,
. . ,
configure( ):
ttn2.configureCtext =" !")

text " ! ",


. configure()
.
.

#
ttn = Button(app)
ttn.grid()

text :

bttn["text"J =" !"

, text ,
. " ! ",
!. (~),
, .


, GUI
:

#
root. mai nl ()

GUI
,
.
. , ,
GUI-, .
288 10. .

r - 2
- 2 - ,
. , ,
.

. 10.9.

' 7~ 61113 ~ 2 [ =1
@J 1 d'

. 10.9. -. ,
,

- (www.courseptr.com/
downloads) Chapter 10. lazy_buttons2. .

tkinter
,
- :

# - 2
# tkinter
from tkinter import *

Application
Appl ication, Frame:
class Application(Frame):
GUI- .
Frame,
l i cat i on, .
, l i cat i on - .

-
l i cat i on :
def _init_(self . master) :
" . "
super(Application. self) ._init_(master)
self.grid()
self .create_widgets()
. l i -
cat i on ();
GUI 289

, . create _
widgets( ), .

, r

create_wi dgets ), :

def create_widgets(self):
""" . """
#
self.ttnl = Button(self. text = " !")
self.bttnl.grid()
#
self.ttn2 = Button(self)
self.ttn2.grid()
self.ttn2.configure(text =" !")
#
self.ttn = Button(self)
self.bttn.grid()
self.ttn["text"J =" !"

,
4 .
, bttnl, bttn2 ttn - 1i cat i on.
: se 1f,
, 4 1i cat i on.

Application
,
:

#
root = TkO
root.titleC"ecnoee - 2")
root .geometry( "20085")
l i t i on
root:
= Application(root)
1i cat i on root. -
create_widgets( ), , ,
1i cat i on .
, , ,
GUI:
root.mainloop()
290 10. .



GUI-, , .
,

. ,
, ~> .
GUI- ,
.


:~- : ,
. ,
()
. . 10.1.

7~ we1Nk0& 1 =1 @) \..,.--& .;,,J

11111 : s I

. 10.10. , ,
,

- (www.courseptr.com/
downloads) Chapter 10. cl ick_counter. .


- :

#
#
from tkinter import *
l i cat i on:

class Application(Frame):
GUI-. .
def _init_(self. master) :
""" . "'"'
super(Application, self) ._init_(master)
sel f .grid()
self.bttn_clicks = #
self .create_widget()
. ,
sel f . ttn_cl icks = , ,
.
. Grid 291


create_widget() :
def create widget(self):
""" . -
.
self .bttn = Button(self)
self.ttn["text"J= " : "
self.ttn["command"J = self.update count
self.ttn.grid() -
comand update_count ( ). ,
, li .
, " ( ) (
upda te_count ( ) ). comma nd
, -.


update_count ( ), :
def update count(self):
""" . '""'
self.ttn clicks += 1
self.ttn["text"J = " : " + str(self.bttn_clicks)

,
. , - .

#
root = Tk ()
root.title("Koeco ")
root. geometry( "20050")
= Application(root)
root.mainloop()
root, .
1i cati
root.
, GUI .

.
Grid
GUI- ,
- .
292 10. . r

. :
, ,
. ,
. ,
.

,
.
Grid, . Grid
GUI.
,
.


, 100 ,
secret.
.
, , ,
. . 10.11 10.12.

'7~ r:1G1<
l ::> 11;;] ~..,, .,,j

: ! !I
. 1
,

.

. 10.11. ,

'74 :
i=l!;;JJ..13 ,,
,

: /secret
. 1
100 ,
99,
.

. 10.12. , ,
,

- (www.courseptr.com/
downloads) Chapter 10. longevity. .
. Grid 293

r r
, :

#
# . Grid
from tkinter import *
class Application(Frame):
""" GUI - . . """
def _init_Cself. master):
""" . """
super(Application. self). init (master)
self.grid() - -
self.create_widgets()
tkinter Appl ication.
- l i cat i . ,
, create_widgets( ).


Grid
create_widgets()
:

def create_widgets(self):
""" . . """
# -
sel f. inst_l = Label (sel f. text = " .
")

, ?
Grid , :

self.inst_l.grid(row =. column =. columnspan = 2. s~icky = WJ


grid() .
: row, col umn, col umnspan sticky.
row 1umn
.
,
.
~, . . 10.13
,
.
row 1umn
. .
( :
), ,
. 1umnspan
294 10. .

, .
2,
: - , ,
- , 1 ( rowspan
).

7~ ~: "~ Grid = 11J l""'a,.J


row=O row=O rowO
column= column= 1 column 2
row= 1 row=I row= 1
column=O column= 1 column 2
row=-2 row=2 rowZ
column = column = 1 column = 2

. 10.13. ,
row column


- .
( ), sticky. ,
, - : (N), (S), ()
(W). ( ),
. W
sticky -,
- .

,
:

#
self.pw l = Label(self. text = " : ")
self.pw-l .gridCrow = 1. column = . sticky = W)


- Entry:
#
self.pw_ent = Entry(self)
, .
,
:

self.pw_ent.gridCrow = 1. column = 1. sticky = W)


- ,
:

#
self.submit_bttn = Button(self. text " " . command self .
reveal)
r r. Grid 295

revea l (),
, .
:

self.submit_bttn.grid(row = 2. column = . sticky = W)

r o6nacr
- Text:
# .
self.secret_txt = Text(self. width = 35. height = 5. wrap = WORO)
, wi dth hei ght,
. wrap ,
: - WORD, CHAR NONE.
WORD ,
, . CHAR
:
. , NONE
.
,
~ ~:
self .secret_txt.grid(row = 3. column = . columnspan = 2. sticky = W)

r : r
revea l (), ,
. ,
, , , .
, .
get() Entry:
def reveal(self):
~. """
contents = self.pw_ent.get()
get ( ) .
Entry, Text. , secret. ,

(, message)
, 100 .
, .

if contents == "secret":
message =" 100 . 99. " \
" ."
else:
message = " . "\
" ."
296 10. .

, , .
. ,
Text. delete( ):
self.secret_txt.delete(0.0. END)
.
: . 4"
,
: - ,
- . , ,
. , , ,
- - -
.
tk i nter , ,
END, . ,
. delete()
: Text, Entry.
, , :

self.secret_txt.insert(O.O. message)
i nsert () .
: .
, 4~ . , .
r message,
. i nsert () .
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

insert() , .
, delete().


,
. l i cat i , .
, , .

#
root = Tk()
rt.titl("")
root. geometry( "300150")
= Application<root)
root. mai nl ()



, .
297

,
.


~
: , , .
,
, . .
. 10.14.

i= l @Jl... ."J
7/J

, :

" >t

'
.
s .

. 10.14.

- (www.courseptr.com/
downloads) Chapter 10. movie_chooser. .


~ tki nter
l i cat i on:
#
#
from tkinter import *
class Application(Frame) :
""" GUI-. . """
def _init_(self. master):
super(Application. self)._init_(master)
sel f.grid()
self.create_widgets()

, :

def create_widgets(self) :
'"'" . . """
298 10. .

# -
LabelCself.
text = " ~ "
).grid(row =. colLmn =. sticky = W)
, , :
Label .
, ,
, . tkinter
Labe1, ,
. ,
, .
- .


. - ,
. Labe 1 ,
.

:
# -
LabelCself.
text = " . :"
).gridCrow = 1. column =. sticky = W)
,
.


- .
, .
, ,
.
~ BooleaVar tkinter.
~ BooleanVar
1i kes_comedy, :
# ""
self.likes_comedy = BooleanVar()

() - ,
. n . n-r w11 ,
.

CheckbuttonCself.
text ="".
variae = self.likes_comedy.
299

cornand = self.update_text
).grid(row = 2. column =. sticky = W)
, .
se l f. 1i kes _comedy va ri 1, ( <~:-.
<~:) l ikes_comedy. command self .up-
date_text( ), ( )
update_text ( ). .
, Checkbutton .
,
likes_comedy.
:
# " "
self.likes_drama = BooleanVar()
Checkbutton(self.
text = "".
variale = self.likes_drama.
cornand = self.update_:ext
).grid(row = 3. column =. sticky = W)
# " "
self.likes_romance = BooleanVar()
Checkbutton(self.
text = " ".
variale = self.likes_romance.
command = self.update text
).grid(row = 4. column =. sticky = W)
,
, update_text( ).
Checkbutton - ,
1i kes_drama, -
1i kes_romance.
, , -
:
#
self.results_txt = Text(self. width = 40. height = 5, wrap = WORD)
self.results_txt.grid(row = 5. column =. columnspan = 3)

r
update_text( ),
,
:

def update_text(self):
""" .
. """
likes = .".
i f se l f. l i kes _comedy. get ( ) :
300 10. < . <

likes += " .\n"


if self.likes_drama.get():
likes +=" .\n"'
if self.likes_romance.get():
likes +=" ."
self.results_txt.delete(O.O. END)
self.results_txt.insert(O.O. likes)
BooleanVar :
get ( ) . get ( )
1eanVa r, l i kes _comedy, ,
. True,
" . \n" ,
.
. ,
.


,
1i cat i , .

#
root = TkO
root.title("Koa")
= Application(root)
root. ma i nl ()


,
. , ,
.
.


-2
4'-2 .
, ,
, .
,
.
. 10.15.
- (www.courseptr.com/
downloads) Chapter 10. movi e_chooser2. .
301

' 71. t.-2 [!@ !!;~~~


r- R

i
- 11 .

. 10.1 S.

r
tki nter:
# -2
#
from tkinter import *
Appl ication. ,
1i cat i :

class ApplicationCFrame):
""" GUI -. . ."."
def _init Cself. master) :
""" . """
superCApplication. self) . init Cmaster)
self.grid() - -
self.create_widgets()
,
:
def create_widgets(self) :
."". . . ."".
# -
Labe 1 se lf .
text = " "
).gridCrow =. column = . sticky = W)
# -
Labe 1 se lf .
text =" :"
).grid(row = 1. column =. sticky = W)



, ,
, , , .
-
StringVar tkinter.
302 10. . <

. ,
, StringVar,
. favorite
set() None:
#
self.favorite = StringVar()
self.favorite.setCNone)
:

# ""
Radiobutton(self.
text = "".
variale = self.favorite.
value ="..
command = self.update_text
).grid(row = 2. column =. sticky = W)
va ri 1 se l f. favori te,
val ue , ,
. va l ue
". ", , ,
StringVar, self. favorite,
".".
:
# ""
RadiobuttonCself.
text = "".
variae = self.favorite.
value =".".
corrnnand = self.update_text
).grid(row = 3. column =. sticky = W)
# " "
Radiobutton(self.
text = " ".
variale = self.favorite.
value =" ..
command = self.update_text
).grid(row = 4. column =. sticky = W)
va ri l se l f. fa-
vori te, value- ".". ,
StringVar, self. favorite,
"."
.
,
:
#
self.results txt = Text(self. width = 40. height = 5. wrap = WORO)
self.results-txt.grid(row = 5. column =. columnspan = 3)
JJ 303


, get ( )
Stri ngVar:

def update_text(self):
"'"' . .
message = "
message += self.favorite.get()
, se 1f. favori te. get ()
".", - ".". ,
, sel f. favori te.get() " '1. ".
, , , ,
-
:

self.results_txt.delete(O.O. ENO)
self.results_txt.insert(O.O. message)


, 1i cat i on,
, GUI.
#
root = Tk()
root.title("Koa-2")
= ApplicationCroot)
root. mai nl ()



,
, ,
GUI. ~ ~
, .
(www.courseptr.com/downloads) Chapter 10.
mad_l ib. .

tkinter
, , , , tki nter,
:

#
#
from tkinter import *
304 10. .

- Application
,
Appl ication create_widgets( ):
class Application(Frame):
""" GUI-n. . """
def ~init~(self. master):
""" . """
superCApplication. self). init Cmaster)
self.grid() ~ ~
self.create_widgets()

create_widgets() Application
GUI .
, u,

, , text va 1ue:
def create_widgets(self):
""" .
.
# -
LabelCself.
text = " "
).grid(row =. column =. columnspan = 2. sticky = W)
#
LabelCself.
text = " : "
).grid(row = 1. column =. sticky = W)
self.person_ent = Entry(self)
self.person ent.grid(row = 1. column = 1. sticky = W)
#
Label Csel f.
text = " . . : "
).grid(row = 2. column =. sticky = W)
self.noun ent = Entry(self)
self.noun-ent.grid(row = 2. column = 1. sticky = W)
#
Label(self.
text =" :"
).grid(row = 3. column =. sticky = W)
self.verb_ent = Entry(self)
self.verb ent.gridCrow = 3. column = 1. sticky = W)
#
Label(self.
text =" (-):"
).grid(row = 4. column =. sticky = W)
# ""
self.is_itchy = BooleanVar()
Checkbutton(self.
305

text = "",
variae = self.is_itchy
).grid(row = 4. column = 1. sticky
= W)
# ""
self.is_joyous = BooleanVar()
Checkbutton(self.
text = "".
variale = self. is_joyous
).grid(row = 4. column = 2. sticky = W)
# "1"
self.is electric = BooleanVar()
Checkbutton(self.
text = "".
variale = self.is electric
).grid(row = 4. column = 3. sticky = W)
#
Label(self.
text = "Body rt:"
).grid(row = 5. column =. sticky = W)
# n.
se 1f. body_part = Stri ngVar()
self.body part.set(None)
# n
body parts = ["n". " ". "n "]
column = 1
for part in body_parts:
Radiobutton(self.
text = part.
variale = self .body_part.
value = part
).grid(row = 5. column = column. sticky = W)
column += 1
#
ButtonCself.
text = " ".
command = self.tell_story
).grid(row = 6. column =. sticky = W)
self.story txt = Text(self. width = 75. height = 10. wrap = WORO)
self.story=txt.grid(row = 7. column =. columnspan = 4)

tell_story() Application
, ,
- .
, , , ,
.

def tell_story(sel f):


"'"'
."""
306 10. .

# get values from the GUI


person = self.person ent.getC)
noun = self .noun ent~get()
verb = self.ver=ent.get()
adjectives = ""
if self.is_itchy.get():
adjectives += ". "
if self.is_joyous.get():
adjectives += ". "
if self. is electric.get():
adjectives += ". "
body part = self.body part.get()
# -
story = " "
story += person
story += " - -
. . . "
story += noun.titleC)
story += ". "
story += noun
story += " "
story += person + " . "
story += ". "
story += adjectives
story += " .
story +=" . "
story += person
story += " . " + body_part + " . "
story += " "
story += noun
story += " . "
story += person + " .
story += "? "
story += verb
story += ". ."
#
self.story txt.delete(O.O. ENO)
self.story=txt.insertCO.O. story)

r
.
l i cat i on,
mainloop() .

#
root = Tk()
rt.titl(" ")
= ApplicationCroot)
root. ma i nl ()
307

. ~
- -
.
, , , ,
. ,
, Gri d.
,
- . ,
- GUI.

,
>>,
11 .

3: .

, !.
, .
.
11 << >>

, ,
.
. ,
,
Python. :
;
;

;
;
, ;
.


, ,
. :
-
.
, :
.
.
,

, . . 11.111.2.

pygame livewires
pygame l i vewi res (
), Python
.
, , . .-
pygame livewires 309

. 11.1 .

. 11 .2. -
310 11. .

:
, . pygame 1i vewi res, r
, , ,
r

. r r.
r.
pygame, (Pete Shinners), - ,
.
Python .
, .

, l i vewi res - ,
r, , ,
pygame, .
1i vewi res
. 1i vewi res
pygame,
.
, ,
pygame l i vewi res.
- (www.courseptr.com/downloads) Software.
, .

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~-

UveWires (http://www.tivewires.org.uk),
, LiveWires livewires,
-. ,
. , ;
.

pygame, http://www.pyga-
me.org.


, 1 -
<11>, .



,
l i vewi res. <1 , ,
. . 11.3.

<1r :1> <11'J) :1>


. - . .
311

. 11.3. . ,

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

, n kinter,
livewires IDLE. Windows, ,
. ,
" GUI" 10.

- (www.courseptr.com/
downloads) Chapter 11. new_graphics_wi ndow. .

games
1i vewi res . games,
.
- ,
from. : from, , import (
, ).
games
1i vewi res:
#
#
from livewires import games
312 11. .

games ,
.

games . 11.111.2.
, .

6111 11.1. games


n

scree (graphics scree)- ,


, r
mouse r
keyboard r

6111 11.2. games



Sprite 01 - , -

Text Sprite. ,

Message Text. ,
r

games.init(screen_width = 640. screen_height = 480. fps = 50)


i ni t () games
. ,
screen _wi dth, , , screen_hei ght.
, .
, fps ( frames per second -
~), -
.

games.screen.mainloop()
games,
screen -
. mainloop() fps
. , ,
, 50 .
screen . 11.3,
- . 11.4.
313

11.. screen

width r

height
fps n ( )
back.ground
all ojects ,
event_grab , , n
. , True, - False

11.4. screen

add(sprite) Sprite ( )

d()
mainloop()
quit()



. - .
screen , Ji.


" ~ - " ~.
. 11.4,
.
4' ~. "
~. mainloop( ).
- (www.courseptr.com/
downloads) Chapter 11. background_image. .
#
#
from livewires import games
games.init(screen_width = 640. screen_height = 480. fps = 50)
wall image = games. load image("wall .jpg". transparent = False)
games.screen.background-= wall_image
games.screen.mainloop()


- ,
,
314 11. .

.
, :

wall _image = games. load_image("wall .jpg". transparent = False)

<~ pygame window

. 11.4. background screen


l oad_image() games,
wa l l . j pg -
wa l l _i mage.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

, , ,
, 7. , ,
, , .
, .

load_image() : () -
, () - transparent.
, , , transparent.
:
transparent = False.
, , ,
JG. l oad_ image() -
315

. ,
, GIF, PNG, TGA.


- -
, background screen.
:
games.screen.background = wall_image

- wa 11 _i mage.
i n1( ) ,
.

r
, , 640
480 ; .
.
640
480 . -
, . , r
, : ( ) (
). - .
,
, (; ).
, - . ,
, ,
(639; 479). . 11.5
.


, Game Over,
:
. ,
.


, ,
, , , ,
.
, .
!
316 11. .

. 11.5. :

,
. ,
, .
, <:< :
, - .

, .
. , I-
: - , Microsoft Office
. ,
. (!.
Microsoft , , Office 2007 .
: ,
, .

,
, :
.
01 317

-
-, ,
,
.
. 11.6.
- - ,
mainloop() ,
. -
(www.courseptr.com/downloads) Chapter 11. pizza_sprite.py.

. 11.6. - , ,
Sprite

# -
#
from livewires import games
games.init(screen width = 640. screen height = 480. fps = 50)
wall_image = games.load_image("wall .jpg". transparent = False)
games.screen.background = wall_image
pizza_image = games . load_image( "pizza .bmp")
pizza = games.Sprite(image = pizza_image. = 320. = 240)
games.screen.add(pizza)
games .screen .mainloop()
318 11. .


,
-:

pi zza_i mage = games .1 oad_image( "pi zza. bmp")


:
transparent. True,
.
, , .
- - :
, .
.
transparent,
, .
, , :
.
. 11.7 .

. 11.7. .

transparent,
, ( , ),
;
. . 11.8 ,
, ~ .
, ,
,
.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

, , ,
. ,
, , .

pizza = games.Sprite(image = pizza_image. = 320. = 240)


r 319

. 11.8. - trasparet, True, - False

Spri te
(320; 240 ), .
pizza. Sprite,
, () ().


, ,
. :

games .screen.add(pizza)
add() .

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

, . ,

- .
. , .
, .
, . , -
.
, , , ,
: ,
. ,
,
.
320 11. .

. 11.5 11.6 , Sprite,


, , .

11.5. Sprite
it

angle

dx

dy r

left ~

right 01

top

ottom 01

image -, 01
over1appig_sprites ,

is_collideae , , ,
-

n 11.6. Sprite

update() .
mainloop()
destroy()

r
- ,
, -
. : games
Text.

r
!
,
Text. 4 !,
4 ,
, , .
, . 11.9.
r 321

. 11.9. Text

- (www.courseptr.com/
downloads) Chapter 11. bi g_score. .
# !
#
from livewires import games . color
games .init(screen_width = 640. screen_height = 480. fps = 50)
wa 11 _i mage = games .1oad_ i mage( "wa 11 . jpg". transparent = Fa 1se)
games.screen.background = wall image
score = games .Text(value = 1756521.
size = 60 .
color = color.ack .
550.
=
= 30)

games.screen .add(score)
games.screen .mainloop()

color
livewires, games, color,
, .
, Text Message
322 11. .

( ,
l i vewi res ).
,
color.
i mport :
from livewires import games. color
l i vewi res 1or games.

Text
Text .
mai nl ( ), Text score:
score = games.Text(value = 1756521.
size = 60.
color = color.ack.
= 550.
= 30)

- Text
: , , , ,
.

val ue 17 56521. ,
(, va 1ue, Text
). s i ze 60 -
. , .
1or 1or.1 ack, l or.
, . ,
550 30,
(550; 30) - .

Text
,
:
games.screen.add(score)
mai nl () ,
score.
Text - Sprite,
, . ,
Text, . 11.7.
11.7. Text

value , r
color
323


, -
. , ,
~, , 7 .
Message.

r r
- .
Message mainloop( );
: !.
, , .
. 11.10.

.11.10. !

- (www.courseptr.com/
downloads) Chapter 11. you_won. .
#
#
from livewires import games . color
324 11. .

games.init(screen width = 640. screen height = 480. fps = 50)


wall_image = games. load_imageC"wall .jpg". transparent = False)
games.screen.background = wall_image
won_message = games.Message(value ="!".
size = 100.
color = color.red.
= games.screen.width/2.
= games.screen.height/2.
l i fet i me = 250.
after_death = games.screen.quit)
games.screen.addCwon_message)
games.screen.mainloop()

color
accaMessage, Text, color.
,
games l or:

from livewires import games. color

Message
Message, games.
- Text: ,
.
, .
- Message , Text,
: l ifetime after_death. l ifetime
, ma i n1( ),
. after _death
, r, Message .
after _death None,
- .
Message mainloop():
won_message = games.Message(value ="!",
size = 100,
color = color.red.
= games.screen.width/2.
= games.screen.height/2.
lifetime = 250.
after_death = games.screen.quit)
,
! ,
. Message
1i fet i me, 250, <1 ~
5 , mainloop() 50-.
01 325

games. screen. qui t (),


after_death.
.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

after_death ,
.


screen width, ,
height, .
,
.

, , Message ,
games. screen. width/2 games. screen. height/2.
, - ,
. ,

.

Message

:
games.screen.add(won_message)
Message - Text,
, . ,
Message, . 11.8.

6111 11.8. Message


6

lifetime , mainloop(),
.
. -

after_death , -
. None


, .
,
Spri te ,
.
326 11. .

r
- ~-1>.
,
- !
. 11.11.

. 11.11. , ,

- (www.courseptr.com/
down!oads) Chapter 11. movi ng_pi zza . .
#
#
from livewires import games
games.init(screen_width = 640 . screen_height = 480 . fps = 50)
wall_image = games.load_image("wall.jpg". transparent = False)
games .screen.background = wall_image
pi zza_ image = games . l oad_ i mage( "pi zza . bmp")
the_pizza = games .Sprite(image = pizza_image .
= games .screen.width/2.
= games.screen.height/2 .
dx = 1.
dy = 1)
games.screen.add(the_pizza)
games.screen.mainloop()
327

r r
, , , - ,
. -
dx dy:
the_pizza = games.Sprite(image = pizza_image.
= games.screen.width/2.
= games.screen.height/2.
dx = 1.
dy = 1)
Sprite dx dy,

(d - , ). , dx-
, ma i n1 ( )
dy - .
dx , - ;
dy , - .
- dx dy
. dx dy,
. ,
dx dy 1, ,
ma i nl ( ) , 1
() 1 ().

r
- , ,
.
, , .
,
. .
, -,
. -, (, ).
-, , . , -,
, , ,
. , , , .


, , , ,
, ,

, . , ,
, dy
, .
328 11. .

, dx. . 11.12
.

. 11.12. ,

- (www.courseptr.com/
downloads) Chapter 11. bounci ng_pi zza. .


- :

#
#
from livewires import games
games.init(screen_width = 640. screen_height = 480. fps = 50)
, games
.

Sprite
-,
: . Spri te . -
329

,
Pizza:
class Pizza(games.Sprite):
""" . '""'

update()
, Pizza
. ,
mai nl ( ), :
dx dy;
update() .

Spri te update(),
. update() Pi zza -
.

def update(self):
""" .
.

if self.right > games.screen.width or self.left <:


self.dx = -self.dx
if self.bottom > games.screen.height or self.top <:
self.dy = -self.dy
, mainloop()
. ,
.
ri ght, ,
games.screen. wi dth, -
. l eft, ,
, .
dx,
~ .

bottom, ,
games. screen. hei ght, - .
top, ,
, .
dy - .


,
:

def main():
wall_image = games.load_image("wall.Jpg", transparent = False)
games.screen.background = wall_image
330 11. .

pizza_image = games.load_image("pizza.bmp")
the_pizza = Pizza(image = pizza_image.
= games.screen.width/2.
= games.screen.height/2.
dx = 1.
dy = 1)
games.screen.add(the_pizza)
games.screen.mainloop()
#!
main() 1
. :
, Pizza, Sprite.
update(), , ,
",


l i vewi res, -
: .
.
l i vewi res .

r r
mouse games .
.
, ~.
, , .
. 11.13.
- (www.courseptr.com/
downloads) Chapter 11. . movi ng_pan. .

r r
, , :

#
#
from l i ve 1i res i mport games
games.init(screen_width = 640. screen_he;ght = 480. fps = 50)

main() :
if name _main_
main()
,
. main()
, - import . - .. . .
331

. 11.13.

, games
. i ni t () mouse,
.


Pan -:
class Pan(games.Sprite):
"""" . """
def update(self) :
'""' .
self .x = games .mouse.x
self.y = games.mouse .y
Spri te, mouse ,
, -
.
. update() Pan
, ( mouse ), ,
( mouse ). ,
.
332 11. .

main() ,
.
:

def mainO:
wal l_image = games. load_image("wall .jpg". transparent = False)
games.screen.background = wall_image
pan_image = games. l oad_i mage( "pan. bmp")
the_pan = Pan(image = pan_image.
= games.mouse.x.
= games.mouse.y)
games.screen.add(the_pan)
games . mouse. , -
games .mouse.y, Pan , .


ma i n <) i s_vi si l mouse,
.

games.mouse.is_visile = False
True,
, Fa l se, :
, .


main() event_grab screen,
( ) :

games.screen.event_grab = True
True,
, .
event_grab False,
: .

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

n , .
, Esc.


, , ma i n() ma i nl ( ) ,
, ma i n().
games.screen.mainloop()
# !
mai n()
333

mouse
. 11.9.

111611111 11.9. mouse

is_visie , , :
True - , False - . - True


.
,
;
. .
, .



- . ,
, ,
: .
,
.
. 11.14 11.15.
- (www.courseptr.com/
downloads) Chapter 11. s l i ppery_pi zza . .

#
#
from livewires import games
import random
games.init(screen_width = 640. screen_height = 480. fps = 50)
random - ,
,
.
334 11. .

. 11.14. , - ...

. 11 . 15. . ..
335


Pan,
:

class PanCgarnes.Sprite):
"""" . . '"'"
def update(self):
""" . .
self.x = games.mouse.x
self.y = games.mouse.y
self.check_collide()
def check_col l ideCself):
""" . .
for pizza in self.overlapping_sprites:
pizza.handle_collide()
update() check_collide(),
, , ,
overlapping_sprites Pan. ,
Pan .
handle_col l ide( ). , @~
.


Pi zza:
class Pizza(games.Sprite):
"""" . """
def handle_collide(self):
'""' . """
self.x = random.randrange(games.screen.width)
self.y = random.randrangeCgames.screen.height)
handl _ l l i de(),
Pi zza.


main( ):
def main():
wall_image = games.load_image("wall.jpg", transparent = False)
games.screen.background = wall_image
pi zza _image = games. l oad_imageC "pi zza. bmp")
pizza_x = random.rar.drangeCgames.screen.width)
pizza_y = random.radrange(games.screen.height)
the_pizza = PizzaCimage = pizza_image. = pizza_x. = pizza_y)
games.screen.addCthe pizza)
pan _image = games. l oad_ image( "pan. bmp")
336 11. .

the_pan = Pan(image = pan_image.


= games.mouse.x.

= games.mouse.y)
games.screen.add(the pan)
games.mouse.is_visible = False
games.screen.event_grab = True
games.screen.mainloop()
# !
main()
, , .
, Pi zza Pan.
, .
;
. ma i n( ) ma i nl ( ). r
mai n( ).


, l i vewi res,
,
.
,
. -
(www.courseptr.com/downloads) Chapter 11. pizza_
panic.py.

r
,
:

#
# .
from livewires import games. color
import random
games.init(screen_width = 640. screen_height = 480. fps = 50)
games , l or
. random ,
- . ,
i ni t ( )
games.


Pan - ,
. ,
337

: .
.


:
- image. ,
~>
- ,
ma i ().
class Pa(games.Sprite):

. .

image = games. l oad_i mage( ". bmp")

_init_()
-,
:

def _iit_(self):
""" Text -
.
superCPa. sel f) ._init_(image = . image.
= games.mouse.x.

bottom = games.scree.height)
self.score = games.Text(value = . size = 25. color = color.ack.
top = 5. right = games.scree.width - 10)
games.scree.add(self.score)

super() , - i i t ()
Sprite. score -
, . ,
.

update()
:

def update(sel f):


""" .
.

self.x = games.mouse.x
if self. left < :
se lf. l eft =
if self.right > games.scree.width:
self.right = games.scree.width
self.check_catch()
,
-. , l eft
338 11. .

, , ,
. ,
l eft .
, ri ght, , ,
games. screen. wi dth, .
, ri ght games . screen. wi dth
.
check_catch() . ,
:

def check_catch(self):
"'"' . .
for pizza i self.overlapping sprites:
self.score.value += 10 -
self.score.right = games.screen.width - 10
pizza.handle_caught()
, ,
10 . Text
1 - ,
. handle_caught() ,
.

Pizza
,
:

class Pizza(games.Sprite):
. .

image = games.load_image("pizza.bmp")
speed = 1
: image - speed -
. 1,
. -
Pi zza, .
_init_()
Pi zza:
def init Cself. . = 90):
-;;-;;-" Pi zza. "'"'
super(Pizza. self).~init~(image = Pizza.image,
= . = ,

dy = Pizza.speed)
,
Pi zza. , 90,
339

update()
:
def update(self):
. -
.

if seif.bottom > games.screen.height:


se lf. end game ( )
self. destroy()
- , .
, end_game( ), .
handle_caught()
,
Pi zza:
def handle_caught(self):
'"' . . "
se 1f. destroy()
, , , <m
. Pi zza destroy() -
.

end_game()
. ,
.

def end game(self):


"""- . """
end_message = games.Message(value = "Game Over".
size = 90.
color = color.red.
= games.screen.width/2.
= games.screen.height/2,
lifetime = 5 * games.screen.fps.
after_death = games.screen.quit)
games.screen.addCend_message)
Message, .
5 , .

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

end_game() , . ,
5 , , , ,
. 12 , ,
, ,
.
340 11. .

Chef
Chef - -, , ,
.

class Chef(games.Sprite):
. . -. .

i mage = games. 1oad_i mageC "chef. bmp")


image - .

_init_()
-:

def ~init~Cself. = 55. speed = 2. odds_change = 200):


"'"' Chef. "'"'
superCChef. self).~init~(image = Chef.image.
= games.screen.width / 2.
=,

dx = speed)
self.odds change = odds change
self.time-til drop = -
. image
Chef. image. ,
, - 55,
. dx
2.
: odds _change ti me_t i l _drop.
- odds_change - , ,
. , , odds _
change 200, 200,
. ,
update( ).
t i me_t i l _drop - i nl (),
.
; , Chef
. ,
check_drop( ).

update()
,
- :

def updateCsel f):


""" . . """
if self.left < or self.right > games.screen.width:
self.dx = -self.dx
341

elif random.randrange(self.odds_change) ==:


self.dx = -self.dx
self.check_drop()
,
~ ( ) .

. ,
: sel f. dx = -sel f. dx. odds_
hng- , .
, ,
- check_drop() Chef.

check_drop()
ma i nl (), , ,
, 50 :
def check_drop(self):
'""'
.
if self.time_til_drop >:
self.time til drop -= 1
else: - -
new_pizza = Pizza(x = self.x)
games.screen.add(new pizza)
# ""
30 %
self.time_til_drop = int(new_pizza.height * 1.3 / Pizza.speed) + 1
t i me_t i l _drop, , - ,
. , ,
, 1;
Pizza, time_til_drop .
, Chef (
), , ,
. t i me_t i 1_
drop ,
30%
. .

main()
ma i n( ) :
def main():
""" . """
wall image = games.load image("wall.jpg", transparent = False)
games.screen.background-= wall_image
the chef = ChefC)
games.screen.addCthe_chef)
342 11. .

the_pan = )
games.screen.add(the_pan)
games.mouse.is_visie = False
games.screen.event_grab = True
games.screen.mainloop()
#!
main()
.
- .
, ,
. ,
ma i nl ( ). ma i n( ) .

, l i vewi res
.
. , ,
. -
-
. ,
4'- ,
. ,
, .

, n .
n : /
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12 , ,

.
<< >>


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, .
, , :

;
;

,
.


, ,
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, , .
. , ,
, , .
, ,
.
, ,

. . 12.1 1 12.2.

. : N ASA, The
u Heritage Team - AURA/STScl.
344 12. , , .

~~ g wi~v

. 12.1. . ,

. 12.2.
345



i nput ( ) , . -
. , games ,
.

r

~
. ,
. , W , S-
, - , D- . ,
. ,
W D .
. 12.3.

.12.3. ,

- (www.courseptr.com/
downloads) Chapter 12. read_key . .
346 12. , , .


l i vewi res,
, :

#
#
from livewires import games
games.init(screen_width = 640. screen_height = 480. fps = 50)


- .
update() , , .
, .

class Ship(games.Sprite):
""" . """
def update(self):
""" . .
if games. keyboa rd. i s_pressed (games. K_w):
self .y -= 1
if games. keyboa rd. i s_pressed(games. K_s):
self.y += 1
if games.keyboard.is_pressed(games.K_a):
self.x -= 1
i f games. keyboard. i s_pressed(games. K_d):
self.x += 1
keyboard games.
( ) .
is_pressed() keyboard, True,
, Fal se - .
is_pressed() ,
,
W, S, D. W, ()
1 . S,
1 .
() 1, , D
1, .
i s_pressed()
,
, . , ,
D S :
update( ), ,
Shi .
games , .
i s_pres sed ( ).
W games. K_w, S - games. K_s, - games. _
347

D - games. K_d. . ,
, .

games. _.
,
. , , ,
games. _.
,
. , , 1, games. _1.

, . , ,
games. K_SPACE.
l i vewi res
.


ma i n ) .
,
mai nl ( ).
def mainO:
nebula_image = games.load_imageC"nebula.jpg", transparent = False)
games.screen.background = nebula_image
ship_image = games. load_image("ship.bmp")
the ship = Ship(image = ship image.
- = games.screen.width/2.
= games.screen.height/2)
games.screen.add(the ship)
games.screen.mainloopC)
mainO


11 , .
1i vewi res .
-.

<<
, ,
. -, ,
+--, . 1
0. 2
90, - (180),
4- 270,
. . 12.4.
348 12. , , .

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

,
, , .

.12.4. , ,

- (www.courseptr.com/
downloads) Chapter 12. rotate_sprite. .
#
#
from livewires import games
games.init(screen_width = 640. screen_height = 480. fps 50)
l ass Shi ( games. Spri te):
.
def update(self) :
'""' . . "
if games.keyboard .is_pressed(games.K_RIGHT):
self .angle += 1
i f games. keyboa rd. i s_pressed (games. K_LEF) :
self.angle -= 1
if games.keyboard.is_pressed(games.K_l):
self.angle =
if games .keyboard.is_pressed(games .K_2):
self .angle = 90
349

if games.keyboard.is pressed(games.K 3):


self.angle = 180- -
if games.keyboard.is_pressed(games.K_4):
self.angle = 270
def main():
nebula_image = games.load_imageC"nebula.jpg", transparent = False)
games.screen.background = nebula image
ship_image = games. load_image("ship.bmp")
the_ship = Ship(image = ship_image.
= games.screen.width/2,
= games.screen.height/2)
games.screen.addCthe_ship)
games.screen.mainloop()
main()

angle
angl .
( ).
, ,
, .

update() , -. ,
angle Ship , ,
1. ,
+-. , angl
1 .

: angl . 1
angle
0. 2 angl 90,
90.
3, angl 180 .
, 4, angle 270,
.


, -
. games
, - Animation.


~
. ,
. , , ,
350 12. , , .

.
. 12.5.

. 12.5. , , ,
n


- ( ),
.
, , ,
. . 12.6.
- (www.courseptr.com/
downloads) Chapter 12. l os i on. .


,
:

#
#
from livewires import games
games.init(screen_width = 640 . screen_height = 4. fps 50)
351

!i Ar<Sof! ~fioto$tud10 . IIJ@Jr8J

. 12.6. ,

nebula_image = games. load_image( "nebula .jpg" . transparent = 0)


games .screen.background = nebula_image


Ani mat i on -
, .
. ,
. 12.6:
explosion_files = ["explosionl .bmp".
"explosion2.bmp".
"explosion.bmp".
"explosion4.bmp".
"explosion5 .bmp".
"explosion . bmp".
"explosion7 .bmp".
"explosion8 .bmp" ,
"explosion9.bmp"J
352 12. , , .


u Ani mat i on :
explosion = games.Animation(images = explosion_files.
= games.screen.width/2.
= games.screen.height/2.
n_repeats = .
repeat_interval = 5)
games.screen.add(explosion)
Animation Sprite ,
. ,
.
,
.
,
, , .
(
) -. l osi on_fi l es
.

n_repeats (
, ).
, .
n_repeats . ; ,
,
.

repeat _i nterva l (
) .
, ; ,

, , . repeat _i nterva l
5. , , .
, mai nl () screen:
games.screen.mainloop()


.
, , ,
games.
, l i vewi res
, .


- , ,

353

, . . 12.7
( , ) .

. 12.7.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

f!:f .
, , 1.f .
, .

- (www.courseptr.com/
downloads) Chapter 12. sound_and_music . .


,
W -. W V ,
, .


:
#
#
from livewires import games
games.init(screen_width = 640. screen_height = 480 . fps = 50)
load_sound() games WV-.

#
missile_sound = games. load_sound("missile .wav")
- ,
. mi ss i l . wav epee
o mi ssi l e sound.
354 12. , , .

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

WV- load_sound().

#
games. musi . l oad( "theme .mid")
,
, .


,
5:
choice = None
while choice !="":
print(

-
1 -
2-
3 -
4 -
5 -
6-

)
choice = input( " : ")
pri nt ()
#
if choi == "":
pri nt (" .")
, .
1:

#
1 if choi == "1" :
missile_sound.play()
rint(" .")

, l ()
.
. , ,
. ,
pl () .
play() ,
,
, .
355


, 1 ) - ,
. , , 1 )
3,
( ). -1.
:
#
elif choice == "2":
1 = i ntC i nput( " ? ( -1 =
): "))
missile_sound.play(loop)
rint(" .")

,
,
pl () .

r
, ero
stop( ). ,
. stop() ,
, 1i vewi res .
, 3 ,
:

#
elif choice == "":
missile_sound.stop()
rint(" .")

1
1i vewi res , .
, -
. , ,
: , W AV,
, OGG MIDI. , , ,
.
, ,
.


, ,
. music games.
music ,
.
356 12. , , .

games .music. load( "theme.mid")


, IDI- theme.mid.
games. mus i . 1oad (),
- .
, , ,
.


:1 :
#
elif choice == "4":
games.music.play()
rint(" .")


theme. mi d. games. mus i . l () ,
.


, l ()
. , , games. mu-
s i . l ( ) 3, (
). -1.
:

#
1if choi == "5" :
loop = int(input("Coo ? (-1 =
): "))
games.music.play(loop)
rint("~ :. ")
,
,

play( ).

r
6,
:

# ~
elif choice == "6":
games.music.stop()
rint(" .")

, games. mu-
s i . s top (), . ,
, l i vewi res
.
357

#
else:
rint(". ". choice)
input("\n\nHae Enter. .")

r
, , - ~.
,
. ,
- : ,
.

r
,
( - ),
, .
,
.

-
, .
, ,
, ~ ,
.

- , ,
.

- , ,
.
, .

, -

, .

, , .
, .
.
358 12. , , .

,
, .~: .
,
.


, , ,
:
Shi - ;
Missile- ;
Asteroid - ;
l os i on - .

- . , Shi , Mi ss i l Asteroi d
games. Sprite, l os i on - games. Ani mat i on.
, ,
.

, , , ,
, ,
. :

- ;
- ;
;
, ;
, ;
;

, -;
.


, ,
. , ,
-. , , .
, , -
,
. , ,
, .
359

- 1
,
, ,
. ,
.
. 12.8.

. 12.8.

J - (www.courseptr.com/
downloads)" Chapter 12. astrocrashOl . .

r
:
# -1
#
import random
from livewires import games
games.init(screen_width = 640. screen_height = 480. fps = 50)
random ,
.
360 12. , , .

Asteroid
Asteroi d , :
class Asteroid(games.Sprite):
'""' . . '""'
SMALL = 1
MEDIUM = 2
LARGE = 3
images = {SMALL : games. load_image("asteroid_small .bmp").
MEDIUM: games.load imageC"asteroid med.bmp").
LARGE : games. load_image("asteroid_big.bmp") }
SPEED = 2
, , - , SMALL, MEDIUM LARGE,
.
, -
. , ,
. ,
SPEED,
.

_init()_
-:

def init Cself. . , size):


""" . """
super(Asteroid. self).~init~(
image = Asteroid.images[size].
=.=.

dx =random.choice([l. -1]) * Asteroid.SPEEO * random.random()/size.


dy =random.choiceC[l. -1]) * Asteroid.SPEEO * random.random()/size)
self.size = size
, size,
: Asteroid.SMALL, Asteroid.MEDIUM
Asteroid.LARGE. size :
i mage Spri te (
Asteroi d). ,
, Spri te.
- Asteroi d
, ,
, Spri te. ,
, ,

. Asteroid
s i ze.

update()
, ,
, :
361

def update( sel f):


""" .
if self.top > games.screen.height:
self.bottom =
if self .bottom < :
self.top = games.screen.height
if self.left > games.screen.width:
self.right =
if self.right < :
se l f. l eft = games. screen. wi dth

main()
, ma i n( )
:

def main():
#
nebul _image = games. l oad_image( "nebul . jpg")
games.screen.background = nebula image
# 8 -
for i in range(8):
= random.randrange(games.screen.width)
= random.randrange(games.screen.height)
size = random.choice([Asteroid.SMALL. Asteroid.MEDIUM. Asteroid.LARGEJ)
new_asteroid = Asteroid(x = . =, size = size)
games.screen.add(new_asteroid)
games.screen.mainloop()
# !
mai n()


- .
,
.
.

- 2
~ - 2 ~ - 1~.
,
. --+
, +- - .
. 12.9.
- (www.courseptr.com/
downloads) Chapter 12. astrocrash02. .
362 12. , , .

.12.9.

Ship
, , - Shi , :

class Ship(games .Sprite):


""" . """
image = games. load_image("ship .bmp")
ROTATION STEP = 3
def update(self):
""" .
if games . keyboard. i s pressed(games . LEF) :
self.angle -= Ship .ROTATION STEP-
if games .keyboard.is pressed(games.K RIGHT):
self .angle += Ship .ROTATION S-
~.
. . -, -
i mage . -,
, ,
ROTAION STEP.

Ship
, , -
Shi .
main( ):
363

#
the ship = Ship(image = Ship.image.
- = games.screen.width/2.
= games.screen.height/2 )
games.screen .add(the_ship)


.
j ,
, .
, ,
.

r -
~ - 3 ,
, ,
. . 12.10.

. 12.1.

- (www.courseptr.com/
downloads) Chapter 12. astrocrashO. .
364 12. , , .

math
:

import math. random


,
: ,
.

Ship
VELOCIY_
STEP Shi :
VELOCITY STEP = .03
,
; , , , .

sound,
- :

sound = games.load_sound("thrust.wav")

update() Ship
update() Ship ,
. :
t. , :
#
if games.keyboard.is_pressedCgames.K_UP):
Ship.sound.playC)
, , j, -
- dx dy Ship. ,
, ,
?
( , ,
). ,
, .
, :
#

ang1e = self.angle * math.pi / 180 #

- , , . Python math ,
( l i vewi res - , ),
, , ,
pi math, ~:~>.
365

, , sin() cos() math


,
1
dx dy :
self.dx += Ship.VELOCITY STEP * math.sin(angle)
self.dy += Ship.VELOCITY=STEP * -math.cos(angle)
, ma th . s i n( ng l ) ,
, -math.cos(angle) -
, 1 .
.
, : ~ . ,
update() Asteroid
Shi :
# ""
if self.top > games.screen.height:
self .bottom =
if self.bottom <:
self.top = games.screen.height
if self.left > games.screen.width:
self. right =
if self. right < :
self.left = games.screen.width
,
- .
.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

.
, ,
. , r
r r r ,
.


, .
,
. ,
; , ,
.

,
. - . .
, ,
, . - . .
366 12. , , .

- 4
- 41> , ,
. , , : ,
, 50 _r . ,
- , -
. - 4i.,
. 12.11.
- (www.courseptr.com/
downloads) Chapter 12. astrocrash04. .

. 12.11.

update() Ship
update() Shi , ,
. , :
367

# . ;:J
if games.keyboard.is pressed(games.K SPACE):
new_missile = Missile(self.x. self.y. self.angle)
games.screen.add(new_missile)
Mi ss i 1eCself. . self .. self. angl )
-, Mi ss i 1.

Missile
Mi ss i 1 , .
, :

class Missile(games.Sprite):
""" . .
image = games.load_image("missile.bmp")
sound = games.load sound("missile.wav")
BUFFER = 40 -
VELOCITY FACTOR = 7
LIFEIME = 40

i mage - ,
. sound ,
. BUFFER
( ,
, ). VELOCIY_FACTOR
. , LIFEIME -
(
, , ).

_init_()
:

def ~init~<self. ship_x. ship_y. ship_angle):


""" .

,
: ship_x,
ship_y ship_angle. : , -,
, -,
.
, - .
- :

Missile.sound.play()
, , ,
:

#
angle = shio_angle * math.pi / 180
368 12. , , .

#
buffer_x = Missile.BUFFER * math.sin(angle)
buffer_y = Missile.BUFFER * -math.cosCangle)
= ship_x + buffer_x
= ship_y + buffer_y

.
;
Mi ssi l . BUFFER.
.
-
- , Shi :
#
dx = Missile.VELOCITY_FACTOR * math.sin(angle)
dy = Missile.VELOCITY_FACTOR * -math.cos(angle)
Spri te :
#
superCMissile. self) ._init_Cimage = Missile. image.
=.=,

dx = dx. dy = dy)
( Mi ssi l )
l i fetime, .

self.lifetime = Missile.LIFETIME
update()
update( ). :
def update( se lf):
""" .
# " " .
self.lifetime -= 1
if self. lifetime ==:
self.destroy()
- , l i fet i
. , Mi ssi 1 .
updateC)
:

#
if self.top > games.screen.height:
self.bottom =
if self.bottom < :
self.top = games.screen.height
if self.left > games.screen.width:
self.rignt =
if self.right < :
self.left = games.screen.width
369

. ,
- .


,
50 . ,
, .
.

- 5
~ - 5i> :
, ,
. . 12:12.

.12.12.

- (www.courseptr.com/
downloads) Chapter 12. astrocrash05. .
370 12. , , .

Ship
,
Shi :
MISSILE DELAY = 25
MISSILE_DELAY - .
,

. ,
, .

- Ship
-:

def _init_(self. . ):
"'"' .
super(Ship. selfJ._init_(image = Ship.image. = . = )
self.missile wait =
,
- games . Spri te.
mi ssi l e_wait. mi ssi l e_wait
, .

update() Ship
Shi update() -
missi le_wait .
# . 1

if self.missile_wait > :
self.missile wait -= 1
, ,
:

# .
if games.keyboard.is_pressed(games.K_SPACE) and self.missile_wait ==:
new_missile = Missile(self.x. self.y. self.angle)
games.screen.add(new_missile)
self.missile_wait = Ship.MISSILE_DELAY
, , , missile_wait
,
. mi ssi le_wait
MISSILE_DELAY, .
371

r
,
.
. , - , ,
.
. : ,
, , .

r - 6
~ - ~
overl appi ng_spri tes, .
, :
, ,
.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

, ,
, ,
, . ,
.

. 12.13.
(www.courseptr.com/downloads) Chapter 12.
astrocrash06.py.

update() Missile
upda te ( ) Mi s s i l :
#
if self.overlapping_sprites:
for sprite in self.overlapping_sprites:
sprite.die()
self.die()
-
( ), ,
die( ). , Asteroid, Ship
Mi ss i 1.

die() Missile
Missile die() ,
. :
372 12. , , .

. 12.13. , , .
:

def die(sel f):


""" . """
self .destroy()
Mi ss i l di ( ) ,
.

update() Ship
update() Shi :

#
if self.overlapping_sprites:
for sprite in self .overlapping_sprites:
sprite .die()
self.die()
-
, , die( ). ,
update() Mi ssi 1.
, , .
.
373

die() Ship
, Mi s s i 1:
def die(self):
"'"' . '"'"
se 1f. destroy()
Ship die( ),
.

Asteroid
Asteroid :

SPAWN = 2
SPAWN - ,
.

die() Asteroid
di () Asteroi d :
def die(self):
""" . """
# .

if self.size != Asteroid.SMALL:
for i in range(Asteroid.SPAWN):
new asteroid = Asteroid(x = self.x.
- = self.y.
size = self.size - 1)
games.screen.add(new_asteroid)
self .destroy()
, , , Asteroi d.
SPAWN Asteroi d.
.
, -

. , ,
.


,
- . .
374 12. , , .

- 7
- 7 games. Ani mat i on,
. ,
, .
, , , - .
. 12.14.

. 12.14.

- (www.courseptr.com/
downloads) Chapter 12. astrocrash07. .

Wrapper
, : games . Spri te
Wrapper.

update()
Wrapper update( ),
, :
375

class Wrapper(games.Sprite):
""" . . . . .
def update(self):
""" .
if self.top > games.screen.height:
self.bottom =
if self.bottom < :
self.top = games.screen.height
1 f se lf. 1eft > games. screen. wi dth:
self. right =
if self.right <:
self.left = games.screen.width
, . ,
, Wrapper,
update( ), .

di()
die( ), :
def di se lf):
""" .
self. destroy()

Collider
. ,
Shi Mi ssi l . Wrapper
Col l ider, ,
, ,
- .

update()
update( ), :
class ColliderCWrapper):
""" n. . -
. 111111

def updateCself):
""". . . """
super(Collider. self).update()
if self.overlapping sprites:
for sprite in self.overlapping sprites:
sprite.die() -
self.die()
update() 11 i der update()
, Wrapper, .
.
376 12. , , .

- ,
die( ), .

di()
di (), 11 i der
- :

def die(self):
. """
new explosion = Explosion(x = self .x. = self .y)
games.screen.add(new explosion)
self .destroy()
, , Explosion.
1os i on, , -
.

Asteroid
Asteroi d Wrapper:
class Asteroid(Wrapper):
Asteroid Wrapper update(),
update() . !
, die()
As teroi d se1f. di ( ) :
super(Asteroid. self).die()
, di () Wrapper , Asteroi d
.

Ship
Shi 11 i der:

class Ship(Collider):
update() :

super(Ship. self).update()
, .
update() Collider ,
Shi . ,
update() , , update() ,
, Shi ,
. di ( ):
, Col l ider.
377

Missile
Mi s si l , l l i der:
class MissileCCollider):
update() :

super(Missile. self).update()
Shi , . update()
l l i der ,
updateC) Mi ss i l .
,
( Wrapper), die() (
Collider).
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

, ,
, - www.courseptr.com/
downloads.

Explosion
, Explosion ga-
mes. Ani mat i on.
class Explosion(games.Animation):
""" . ""
sound = games. l oad_soundC " l osi on. wav")
images = ["explosionl.bmp".
"explosion2.bmp".
"explosion.bmp".
"expl os ion4. bmp".
"expl osi on5. bmp".
"explosion.bmp".
"explosion7.bmp".
"explosion8.bmp".
"explosion9.bmp"J
sound .
- i mages - - ,
.
- - l os i on.

def _; nit_Cself. . ):
super(Explosion. self)._init_Cimages = Explosion.images.
= . =,

repeat interval = 4. n repeats 1.


is_collideae = False)
Explosion.sound.play()
378 12. , , .

,
. ( games . Ani ma t i on ),
,

, . , . i mages
. - l os i on. i mages.
n_repeats 1,
. repeat_ i nterva l,
, 4. , i s_
collideae False, , ,
<t ,
. - Explosion.so-
und.play().
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

, games.Aimation
, -.

, ,

,
- . , ,
,
. ,

.

- 8
, ,
, ,
. ,
, . 12.15.
- (www.courseptr.com/
downloads) Chapter 12. astrocrash08. .

color
. games l i vewi res
l or:

from livewires import games. color


color , Game Over
- .
, , 379

Q p~g~ window

. 12.1 S. , ,

Gm
Game - ,
. , ,
, . - ,
: , l () - , advance() -
, end ( ) - .
, game
. ,
, , ,
, game ,
. , , game
.
Game, ,
ma i n( ) .

_init_()
Game :

class Game(object) :
""" . """
380 12. , , .

def ~init~<self):
""" Game.
#
self. level =
# .
self.soud = games. load sound("level .wav")
# .
self.score = games.Text(value =.
size = 30.
color = color.white.
top = 5.
right = games.screen.width - 10.
is collideae = False)
games.screen.add(self.scorJ
# .
self.ship = Ship(game = self.
= games.screen.width/2.
= games.screen.height/2)
games.screen.add(self.ship)
1eve l . sound
, .
score ,
. i s_col l idea
F l se, ,
~ . , shi - ,
.

play()
play( ), .
def play(self):
""" . """
#
games. mus i . l oad( "theme. mi d")
games.music.play(-1)
#
nebula_image = games. load_image( "nebula .jpg")
games.screen.background = nebula image
# 1 -
se l f. advance()
#
games.screen.mainloop()
,
. ,
.
Game - advance( ),
, ( , ).
, games. screen. ma i nl ( ).
, , 381

advance()
advance() .
l evel, ~~ ,

.

-
:

def advanceCself):
'""' .
self. level += 1
. ?
,

. , , ,
- . . ; ,

. , , .

#
BUFFER = 150
#
for i i range(self. level):
# . BUFFER -

#
x_min = random.randrange(BUFFER)
min = BUFFER - min
# .

distance = random.randrange(x min. games.screen.width - min)
y-distance = random.randrange(y-min. games.screen.height - min)
#- . -
= self.ship.x + x_distance
= self.ship.y + distance
# .
%= games.screen.width
%= games.screen.height
#
new_asteroid = Asteroid(game = self.
=.=,

size = Asteroid.LARGE)
games.screen.add(new asteroid)
BUFFER
. ,
. _mi n
, ; _mi n -
.
random, x_min y_min BUFFER.
382 12. , , .

x_di stance -
. , , :
, x_mi n.
, y_di stance - .
, ,
_mi n .
,
x_distance. ,
:

.
: y_di stance.
,
.
.

, Asteroi d game.

Game, ,
Game. sel f.
advance()
:

#
level_message = games.Message(value =""+ str(self.level).
size = 40.
color = color.yellow.
= games.screen.width/2.
= games.screen.width/10.
lifetime = 3 * games.screen.fps.
is collideae = False)
games.screen.add(level message) -
# ( 1- )
if se 1f. 1eve l > 1 :
self.sound.play()

nd()
end () Game
Over, . 5
. .

def end(self):
'""' . """
# 5- 'Game Over'
end_message = games.Message(value = "Game Over".
size = 90.
color = color.red.
= games.screen.width/2.
= games.screen.height/2.
lifetime = 5 * games.screen.fps.
, , 383

after death = games.screen.quit.


is_collideae = False)
games.screen.add(end_message)


Asteroid
Asteroi d ,
. , , POINTS:
POINTS = 30
- ,
.
, .
,
, .
,
- tota l, , :

total =

- Asteroid
- , Asteroi d. tota 1
:

Asteroid.total += 1
Game,
.
Asteroi d:
def ~init~(self. game. . . size):
game , Game.
Asteroi d:

self.game = game
, Asteroi d
game - . As teroi d
Game, advance( ).

die() Asteroid
di () Asteroi d . -, ,
Asteroi d. tota 1 :
Asteroid.total -= 1
384 12. , , .

Asteroid.POINTS
, (
, ).
- . ri ght score
1 .

self.game.score.value += int(Asteroid.POINTS / self.size)


self.game.score.right = games.screen.width - 10
( )
Game. Asteroid
:

new_asteroid Asteroid(game = self .game.


=

di () Asteroi d. tota 1
: ? ,
advance() Game,
.

# .
if Asteroid.total == :
self.game.advance()

Ship
Ship . -,
VELOCIY_MAX, :
VELOC = 3

- Ship
Asteroid, Ship Game,
. - Asteroi d
Shi :
def _init_(self. game. . ):

game Game,
Shi :
self.game = game
, Shi game -
. Shi
Game, end( ).

update() Ship
update() Shi :
, dx dy, _VELOC I,
:
385

#
self.dx = min(max(self.dx. -Ship.VELOCITY ). Ship.VELOCITY )
self.dy = min(max(self.dy. -Ship.VELOCITY-AX).
- Ship.VELOCITY-MAX)
-
, dx dy -Sh i . VELOC I_
Sh i . VELOC I_.
min() max( ). min() ,
max() - . , , ,
, , ,
.

die() Ship
, .
Ship die( ), , , end()
Game, .

def die(self):
."". . """
self.game.end()
super(Ship. self).die()

main()
, Game, ma i n() .
, Game l (),
.

def main():
astrocrash = Game()
astrocrash.play()
# !
main()

,
, . , ,
,
. ,
, ,
. , ,
, .
,
- ,
.
386 12. , , .

, -
. , - <
: , J\
.

( - (Simo Says).
11 ,
.

- , n
.

. : -
.

-
- www.courseptr.com/downloads.
r, ,
.

. :
pye_source. zi - ,
, ;
pye _softwa re- ,
, Python 3.1.1 Windows.
. .1 pye_source.zip, . .2 -
pye_software.zip.

n8 .1. pye_source.zip


chapterOl 1
chapter02 2
chapter03 3
chapter04 4
chapterOS 5
chapterO
chapter07 7
chapter08 8
chapter09 9
chapterlO 10

chapterll 11, ,
chapter12 12, ,

n8 .2. pye_software.zip


pytho Pytho 3.1.1 Windows
pygame pygame 1.9.1, Python 3.1. Windows
livewires ( ) livewires

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

pygame Windows py3e_software.zip Python 3.1.,


Python 3.1 ( 3.1. 3.1.9).


livewires
,
1i vewi res, . -
;
1i vewi res .

livewires
1i vewi res - ,
, , . . .1.
l ivewi res, ,
pygame.

8.1. livewires
n
games ,
color

games
games ,
. . .2.

8.2. games
n
Scree ,

Sprite

Text r -
. Text - Sprite
Message , -
.
Message - Text
games 389

n
Animatio , -
. Aimatio -
Sprite
Mouse
d
Music

Screen
Screen . games. i ni t )
screen Screen; ,
. . .3
Screen, . .4 - .

8.3. Screen

:n n

width
height
fps
ackgroud

all objects ,
evet_grab , , -
. , True, - False

8.4. Screen
n
get_width()

get_height()
get_fps()
get_ackgroud()
set_ackgroud ew_ackgroud
(ew_ackgroud)
get_all_objects() 01 ,
get_evet_grab() , . ,
True, - False
set_evet_grab
(ew_status) ew_status. rue - , False -
add(sprite) - Sprite

remove(sprite) - Sprite

clear()
mailoop()
quit()
390 . livewlres

Sprite
Spri te
. . .5 Spri te, . .6 -
.

.5. Sprite
Coiicro
image - -
width
height
angle



position . (, )
top
ottom
left
right
dx
dy
velodty . (dx, dy)
overtapping_sprites ,
is_collideable , ,
. True, -
, False -
interval tick()

.6. Sprite

_init_(image [, agle] . image
[, ] [,] [, top] , .
[, ottom] [, left] [, right] angle, , , dx dy . top, ottom,
[, dx] [, dy] [, interval] left: right N.
[, is_collideable]) , -
. interval
1, is_collideable - True
get_image() -,
set_image{new_image) ew_image
get_height()
get_width()
get_angle()
set_angle{new_angle) new_angle

geLx()
set_x(new_x) new_x
get_y()
games 391


set_y(new_y) new_y
get_position() n
set__position , -
(new__position) new_position
get_top()
set_top(new_top) new_top
get_bottom()
set_ottom(new_bottom) new_ottom
get_left()
set_left(ew_left) new_left
get_right()
set_right( new_right) new_right
get_dx()
set_dx(new_dx) new_dx
get_dy()
set_dy(new_dy) new_dy
get_velocity()
set_velocity <0
(new_velocity) new_velocity
get_over1apping_sprites() ,

overlaps(other) True, other,
False . False,
is_collideae False
get_is_collideae() , . True ,
, False -

set_is_collideae new_status.
(new_status) True,
, False -
get_interval() tick()
set_interval tick()
(new_interval) new_interval

update() . ;
mainloop(). , Sprite,

tick() interval mainloop(). -
. , Sprite,

destroy()

t
Text -
Spri te. Text
. ,Text , Sprite. . .7
Text, . .8 - .
392 . livewires

n .7. Text

value ,

size

color . , -
color

text, size color -


.

8.8. Text

_init_(va\ue, size, co\or . n value - , -


[, angle] [, ] [, ] [, top] , size- , color - .
[, ottom] [, left:] [, right] angle, , , dx dy . n top, ottom,
[, dx] [, dy] [, interval] left right None. n
[, is_collideae]) , -
. n interval
1, is_co/lideae - True

get_va/ue() ,

set_value(new_value) new_value

get_size()

set_size(new_size) new_size

get_color()

set_color(new_color) new_color .
, color

Message
Message - Text. Message ,
. Message
,
.

Message , Text.
Message after _death.
(, ),
. - None.
ssg init (): init (value. size. color [. angle]
[. ] [.][. top] [. bottom] [. left] [~right] [.dx] [. dy] [. lifetime] [. is
col l ideaeJ [. after_death]). .
value - , , size - , color - .
angle, ,, dx dy . top, bottom, left right
None. ,
.
1i fet i me -
games 393

mai nl () , .
, .
l i fetime , i s_col l ideab le - True. after_death
None.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

lifetime Message , ,
lifetime, interval.

Animation
Ani mat i on -
Ani mat i on
Spri te.
, . Ani mat i on
, Spri te
, . .9.

8.9. Animation

images -

n_repeats , ,
. ,
. -

nimtin init (): init (images [. angle] [. ]


[.] [. top] [. bottom] [. left] [. rightJ[. dx] [.dy] [. repeat interval]
[. n_repeats] [. is_co'lidealeJ). .
images -,
, . angl , , , dx dy
. top, bottom, l eft ri ght
None. ,
. repeat _i nterva l
t i ck ) , ,
. 1. n_repeats ,
ais collideale-True.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

repeat_iterval Animation , ,
repeat_interval, interval.

Mouse
Mouse . games. init()
mouse Mouse,
. ,
. Mouse . .1 ,
- . .11.
394 . livewires

6n .10. Mouse
~

position . (, )
is_visile , ,
. True - , False - . True

n .11. Mouse

get_x()

set_x(new_x) new_x
get_y()

set_y(new_y) new_y
get_positio()

set_position , -
(new_position) new_position
set_is_visie . new_viSibllity
(new_visibllity) True, , False -
is_pressed , . True,
(button_numer) button_umber , False

Keyboard
rd . games. i ni t ()
keyboard Keyboard, .
,
.

i s _pressed ( key),
True, , Fa l se -
. ,
games.
, . .15.

Music
Music ,
,
. ,
. :
, WAV, , OGG MIDI. Music
. .12.
games 395

.12. Music

load(filename) filename . -
,

play([loop]) loop+l . -1,


.

fadeout(millisec) , millisec

stop()

games
games .
. .13.

.13. games

ilt([scree_width,] screen_width
[screen_height,] [fps]) screen_height, fps .
screen - games.Screen,
. mouse - . games.Mouse, -
r . kd - .
games.Keyoard, . ,
music, games.Music, -

load_image(filename -, filename.
[, trasparent]) transparet True ( ),

scale_lmage(image, -,
x_scale [, y_scale]) image, x_scale ,
y_scale . y_scale
, x_scale
.

load_sound(filename) , WV- filename

, l oad _sound (),


. . .14.

.14. Sound

play([loop]) loop+ 1 . -1,


.

fadeout(millisec) , millisec
stop()
396 . livewires

games
l or ,
. . .15.

.15. games
nw
K_REURN Retum
K_PAUSE Pause
K_ESCAPE Esc
K_SPACE
K_EXCLAIM
K_QUOEDBL
.
!

K_HASH #
K_OOLLAR $
K_AMPERSAND
K_QUOE
.
&

K_LEFPAREN (
K_RIGHPAREN )
K_ASERISK *
K_PLUS +
_ 1

K_MINUS -
K_PERIOD
K_SLASH /
_
K_l 1
_2 2
_
_4 4
_s 5
_ 6
_7 7
_8 8
_9 9
K_COLON :
K_SEMICOLON ;
K_LESS <
K_EQUALS =
K_GREAER >
K_QUESION ?
_ @
K_LEFBRACKE [
K_ACKSLASH \
games 397

w
_RIGR ]
_R
K_UNDERSCORE -
_
_

d D

f F
K_g G
K_h
K_i 1
K_j J
k
KI L
Km
K_n N
_
_

q Q
r R
s s
t
K_u u
K_v v
K_w w
_
_

z z
DELEE Delete
Keypad 1 0
_l Keypad 1
_2 d 2
_ d 3
_4 d 4
5 d 5
Keypad 6
7 d 7
_8 d 8
_9 d 9

. - . .
398 . livewlres

n 8.15 ()
nw
__PERIOD d Period
__DIVIDE Keypad Divide
K_KP_MULIPLY d Multiply

K_KP_MINUS d Mius
K_KP_PLUS d Plus
K_KP_ENTER Keypad Enter
__EQUALS Keypad Equals
K_UP Up Arrow
K_DOWN Down Arrow
K_RIG Right Arrow
K_LEF Left Arrow
K_INSERT Insert
_ Home
K_END End
K_PAGEUP Page Up
K_PAGEDOWN Page Down
K_Fl Fl
K_F2 F2
_F F
K_F4 F4
K_FS FS
_F F
K_F7 F7
K_F8 F8
K_F9 F9
K_F10 F10
K_F11 F11
K_F12 F12
K_NUMLOCK Num Lock
K_CAPSLOCK Caps Lock
K_SCROLLOCK Scroll Lock
K_RSHIF Shift
K_LSIF Shift
K_RCRL tl
K_LCRL Ctrl
K_RALT Alt
K_LALT Alt
K_LSUPER Windows
K_RSUPER Windows
K_HELP Help
K_PRIN Print Screen
K_BREAK Break
color 399

color
col or , 11-r
:
red - ;

green - ;

1ue - ;
ack - ;

white - ;

da rk_red - ;
dark_green - -;

dark_ue - -;

dark_gray - -;

gray - ;

l ight_gray - -;

yel l ow - ;

brown - ;

pi nk - ;

purp l - .

_additional_cards(), 274 add(),


(s- ) 50, 51 251
_pass_tie(), 241 319
@property, 238 advance(), 381
Python after_ death, 325
33 all_objects, screen 389
( ) 50, 51 and, 96
( ) 49, 52 angle, 320, 349, 390
( ) 55 Animation, 351, 389, 393
// ( ) 55 append(), 142, 144
/( ) 55 Application
% ( , 288
) 55 , 289
*( ) 53 SII- 48
+( ) 55 ask_numer(), 184, 185, 264, 265
> ( ) 78 ask_yes_no(), 172, 184, 185, 264
>= ( Asteroid.SPAWN, 373
) 78
Asteroid, 360
< ( ) 78
die(), 373, 383
<=(
_init_(), 360
) 78
update(), 360
!= ( )
77
376
== ( ) 77
- 383
+( ) 52, 65, 129
373
*( ) 55
383
/( ) 214
#( ) 41

( ) 49, 51, 199, 202
background, 313, 389
_( ) 234
BJ_ Card, 267, 269
BJ_Dealer, 268, 272
BJ_Deck, 268, 270
205 Bj_Game,
+ 205 _additional_cards(), 274
add(sprite), screen 313, 389 _init_(), 273
401

play(), 27 4 contlgure(), 287


still_playing, 273 congrat_,,inner(), 1!, 191
268, 273 cos(), 365
BJ_Hand, 268, 270 count(), 144
BJ_Player, 268, 272 create_widgets(), 289, 291, 304
BooleanVar, 300 Critter, 241
botto, 320, 390 eat(), 242
bust(), 273 d, 241
_pass_tie(), 241
play(), 242
capitalize(), 63 talk(), 242
cards, - 241
269 242
Card, #, 32
Hand ero
251
D
251
dea\(), 257
250
Deck, 253
check_catch(), 338
delete(), 296
check_drop(), 341
del, 140
Chet",
destroy(), 320, 339, 391
check_drop(), 341
display_board(), 184, 186
_init_(), 340
display_instruct(), 184, 185
update(), 340
display(), 170
340
dup, 206
clear(), screen 251, 313, 389
dx, 320, 390
close(), 198, 203
dy, 320, 390
Collider,
die(), 376
update(), 375
375 eat(), 242
color, elif, 80
321, 324, 378 else, 79, 83, 212
399 end_game(), 339
388 end{), 382
color, 322, 392 end, 47
colunspan, 293 s-

colun, 293 50

comand, 291 49
computer_ve(), 184, 188 r 49
402

49 Music, 394
50 Screen, 389
48 Sprite, 390
event_grab, 313, 389 Text, 391
except, 210, 212 269, 311
Explosion, 377 396
388

F 395

G, 379
fadeout(), 395
False, 89 advance(), 381
flip_first_card(), 273 end(), 382
t1oat(), 68 _init_(), 379
fps, screen 313, 389 play(), 380
geon1etry(), 283
get_all_objects(), screen 389
G get_angle(), 390
G Over 2.0,
get_background(), screen 389
44
get_bottorn(), 391
Garne Over,
get_color(), 392
35
get_dx(), 391
print(), 36
37 get_dy(), 391
36 get_event_grab(), screen 389
38 get_fps(), sc.reen 389
37 get_height(), 390
38 get_image(), 390
39
get_interval(), 391
r 38
get_is_collideale(), 391
38
get_left(), 391
42
get_overlapping_sprites(), 391
41
get_position(), 391, 394
30
get_right(), 391
42

41
get_size(), 392
gaes.init(), 336
get_top(), 391
garnes.init(), 312 get_value(), 392
games.load_image(), 314 get_ velocity(), 391
games, get_width(), 389
Animation, 393 get_x(), 390, 394
Keyboard, 394 get_y(), 390, 394
Message, 392 get(), 155, 158, 295
s, 393 give_me_five(),y 171
403

give(), 251 ]
grid(), 285, 293
Java32


handle_caught(), 339
Keyboard, 389, 394
handle_collide(), 335
keyboard, 312
nd,
KeyError, 210
Card 252
keys(), 158
height, 313, 390
Hello World, 30
L
human_move(), 184, 188
left, 320, 390
legal_oves(), 184, 186
1 \ifetie, 325
IDLE35
livewires,

color, 399
print(), 36
gaes, 388
35
308, 388
38
load_iage(), 314
37
37 load_sound(), 395
load(), 395
39 load, 206
38 lose(), 272
38 lower(), 62, 63
images, 393
image, 320, 390
import, 265 mainloop(), 283, 306
IndexError, 210 ,
index(), 144 313
init(), 395 math, 364
input(), 280 _ VELOCIY, 384
insert(), 144, 296 Message, 312
instruction(), 168 325
interval, 390 388, 392
IOError, 210 324
is_busted(), BJ_Hand 271 Missile,
is_collideale, 320, 390 die(), 371
. is_hitting(), 272 _init_(), 367
is_pressed(), 346, 394 update(), 368, 371
is_visile, 333, 394 372

items(), 159 367


404

mood, r 241 \, 264


moon_weight, 70 populate(), 256
Mouse, 389, 393 (), 144
nuse, 312 position, 390, 394
Music, 389, 394 private_method(), 235
pulic_method(), 235
N pygame, 31
NaeError, 210 Python 31
new_board(), 184, 186 r

33
next_ock(), 215, 217

next_line(), 215
32
next_turn(), 184, 191 31
not. 96 33
n_repeats, 352, 393

Windows33
34
odds_change, 340 Python Tuto, 33
open_file(), 214
open(), 197 Q
or, 97 quit(), screen 313
overlapping_sprites, 320, 390
overlaps(), 391 R
randint(), 74, 101

random.choice(), 130, 162


Pan, rando.randange(), 114
check_catch(), 338 rando.shuffle(), 257
_init_(), 337 random, 102
update(), 337 randint(), 74
337 randrange(), 75
pickle.dnp(), 205 74, 114, 359
pickle.load(), 205 7 4

pickle, 204 randrange(), 75, 265


pieces(), 184, 186 range(), 108
Pizza, 338 rb 205
cnd_gae(), 339 rb+ 205
handle_caught(), 339 read_global(), 180
_init_(), 338 read_it.txt, - 197
updatc(), 339 readlines{),
player.is_hitting(), 274 203
405

readline(), 199 set_y(), 391, 394


readline([)), 203 shadow _g\oba\(), 181
read(), 198 shelve.open(), 206
rd([]), shelve, 204
203 Ship,
remove(sprite), screen 389 die(), 385
reove(), 143, 144 update(), 364, 370, 372, 384
replace(), 63 376
revea\(), 295 - 370, 384
reverse(), 144 362, 370
right, 320, 390 364, 384
rowspan, 294 sin(), u 365
row, 293 size, 392
sort(), 143, 144
s Sprite, 312, 320, 388, 390
scale_image(), 395 status(), 231
Screen, 388, 389 sticky, 294
mainloop(), 389 still_playing. 21:i
screen, 312 stop(), 355, 395
self.update_text(), 299 StringVar, 302
se\f, 223, 227 strip(), 63
set_angle(), 390 str(), 68
set_background(), screen 389 sun_ \\:eight, 70
set_ottom(), 391 super(), u 337
set_color, 392 swapcase(), 63
set_dx(), 391 sync(), 207
set_dy(), 391 SyntaxError, 210
set_ event_grab(), screen 389 sys.exit(), 214
set_image(), 390
set_interva\(), 391
set_is_collidea\e(), 391 talk(), 223, 224, 234, 242
set_is_visi\e(), 394 tell_story(), 305
set_left(), 391 text_file, 197
set_position(), 391, 394 Text, 312, 391
set_right(), 391 Text,
set_size(), 392 322
sct_top(), 391 322
set_ value, 392 tick(), 391
set_velocity(), 391 time_ til_ drop, 340
set_x(), 390, 394 title(), 63, 283
406

tkinter, 279, 282, 288, 303


top, 320, 390
169, 172
total, 231

True, 83, 85, 88
98
TypeError, 210
99


99

UML ( 350
) 248
349
update_count(), 291
~ Animation 352
update_text(), 299
351
update(),
212
320, 391

upper(), 62, 63
37

v
387

ValueError, 210 228


values(), 159 228
value, 322
variale, 302 234
VELOCIY _MAX, 384 233
velocity, 390 234
227
w

W V, 353 231
wb205 229
231
wb+ 205
231
welcome(), 216
226
width, 313, 389
221
winner(), 184, 187
233
Wrapper, 374

die(), 375
239
update(), 374
238
writelines(),

202, 203

write(),
354
201, 203
353

z 355
50
ZeroDivisionError, 210 355
407

355 332
356 67
355
380 147
356
149
356
145
352
149
147
& 148
146
283, 285, 287 37
283 ,
tkinter 282 171
281 , 37
70
260 , 37, 55
255
259
258 72
11 178
91 182
break 93

continue 93
180
86

88
181
, r
182
88
177

178
78
180
101

86, 93
327
update() 329
Sprite 328

332 (GUI) 277
330

312
332 games 311
331 12
126 31
75 332
408


46
44
232
45
55
47
55

55
47
,

168
350

347
239


265
239
253
222
3
221
198
233


202
152
201

200
154
352, 353, 355, 357
in 154


152

46 287
176 285
101 286

, 37
174, 176
( fps) 312
41

204
, 115 30
r 175

, 111
color 399

games 396
172 117
232 159
172 378
167, 168, 169
, 106 224
225
225
if
50 77
409

77 55
79 Gid
78 grid(), 285
77 291
break 293
93 .'I
Entry 294
93 Text 295
continue 295
93
93 .'I
from 311 285
try 208, 212 284
285
149 284
125

128 62, 224


125

144 235
233
129

235
126
223
104
221
126
258
in 128
223
123

124
125 263
128 262
129 74

265



and 96
261
not96
, 346
or97

93

, 65

298
260
, 178
261
258

62 259
126 258
410

252 113
253 , 78
252 37
, 115 , 144, 149


178 282

86 170
171
else 212 .~ - ~
211 156
208 157
212 157
try/except 208 65
209
303
290 300
280 301
291 200
291
- 57
() 162
57
258 56
32 56
262 57
246 - 108
249 214, 215, 295
50 210
in
49
128
137 69
111 125
154 46

49

228
109

in 111 47
len() 110 312
77 173
411

365
38 280
121

175 199
174 198
262, 27 4 315
112
()96
58

, 105
153
,
152
111
<1< - 156
, 99
156
,
152
57
158
Tkinter 281
-
,
280
318


281
255
280
256, 261
221, 223, 362
255

246
268
323
98
248
99
249
68


, 284 138
206 351
149 138
205 135
, 285 108
in 137
len() 137
137
Python 34 138

-34, 387 138

58 183

139

239

238 142
412

144
140
194
144
,
141
Text 322
142
color 321

320
347
Text 322
325
Python 36
319
74, 265
r 318
r 88
316
315
328

318
86

85
119
86
122

139


r 91
232
r 88
229
89
232
77

93
335
77
335
94
333
Python

Windows 34
42
201

115

53

67

200
41
202
62 201
52 197
47, 169

, 37 204
203
61 206
62 205
413

t'or
194 106
197 106
198 200
200
107
200

107
296 108
299 109
298 109
while
313 84
315

313 85
86
168 86
265
games 395
169

165
55
168
53
169

37
randint(), 7 4

randrange(), 75
169 random 74
183 72
206 55

345
, 150 346
36



55
221
67

147
355
125
356
125
200

126
, 102 139
414

140
126 290
291
291
Button () 280
289
Chcckbutton () 280
284
Entry ( ) 280

Frae () 279
Grid 293
Label () 279
Radiobutto () 280
Text ( ) 280
295 32
.

Python
.

. 11
.
. r
.
.
.

, 192!02, -, . (. r), 3, , n. 7.

- 005-93, 2; 95 3005 - .

n n 30.01.14. 70, 100/16. Yc.n. n. . 33,540. 1000. 677.



R
142300, R , . , . , . 1
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