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Brushed DC Motor

Microcontroller PWM Speed Control


with Optical Encoder and H-Bridge
Brushed DC
Motor with
L298 Optical Encoder &
Full H-Bridge Load Inertia

HEF4071B Flyback
OR Gate Diodes

Arduino Arduino
Microcontroller Microcontroller
for for
Encoder Decoding Speed Control
& Velocity Output Implementation
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Pittman DC Servo Motor
8322S001
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Pittman DC Servo Motor
8322S001

Wire Function Color Pins


1 GND Black GND
Encoder 2 Index Green -
500 counts/rev 3 CH A Yellow
4 Vcc Red 5V
5 CH B Blue
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L298
Dual Full Bridge Driver

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Topics
Brushed DC Motor
Physical & Mathematical Models, Hardware
Parameters
H-Bridge Operation
Feedback Control Design
MatLab / Simulink Design and Auto-Code
Generation

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Brushed DC Motor
Pittman DC
Servo Motor

Schematic
Brushed DC Motor
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For a permanent-magnet
DC motor if = constant.

Physical Modeling

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Physical Modeling Assumptions
The copper armature windings in the motor are
treated as a resistance and inductance in
series.
The distributed inductance and resistance is
lumped into two characteristic quantities, L and R.
The commutation of the motor is neglected. The
system is treated as a single electrical network
which is continuously energized.
The compliance of the shaft connecting the load to
the motor is negligible. The shaft is treated as a
rigid member.
The total inertia J is a single lumped inertia, equal
to the sum of the inertias of the rotor and the
driven load.
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There exists motion only about the axis of rotation of
the motor, i.e., a one-degree-of-freedom system.
The parameters of the system are constant, i.e., they
do not change over time.
The damping in the mechanical system is modeled as
viscous damping B, i.e., all stiction and dry friction are
initially neglected.
The optical encoder output is decoded in software.
Position and velocity are calculated and made
available as analog signals for control calculations.
The motor is driven with a PWM control signal to a H-
Bridge. The time delay associated with this, as well
as computation for control, is lumped into a single
system time delay.
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Mathematical Modeling Steps
Define System, System Boundary, System Inputs
and Outputs
Define Through and Across Variables
Write Physical Relations for Each Element
Write System Relations of Equilibrium and/or
Compatibility
Combine System Relations and Physical
Relations to Generate the Mathematical Model
for the System

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Physical Relations
di
VL L L VR RiR TB B
dt
TJ J J J J J
motor load

Tm Kt im Vb Kb
Pout Tm K t im Pin Vb im Kb im
P K
out t
P K
in b

P P Kt (oz in / A) 1.3524Kb (V / krpm)


out in
Kt (Nm / A) 9.5493 10 3 Kb (V / krpm)
K t K b Km
Kt (Nm / A) Kb (V s / rad)
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System Relations + Equations of
Motion

Vin VR VL Vb 0

Tm TB TJ 0

KVL
iR iL im i Newtons Law
V di J d B Kti 0
in Ri L dt Kb
0 dt
Kt 0
d B
J J
dt Vin
R i 1
di K L

b L L
dt
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Steady-State Conditions
di 0
V Ri L K
in b
dt
V
T
in R Kb 0
Kt
K K K
T t V t b

R in R
Ts Kt V Stall Torque
R in
V No-Load Speed
0 in

Kb
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Transfer Functions
di 0 Jd B K i 0
V Ri L K
in b t
dt dt
Vin s (Ls R)I(s) Kb (s) 0 Js B (s) Kt I(s) 0

(s) Kt Kt

Vin (s) Js B Ls R Kt Kb JLs2 BL JR s BR Kt Kb


Kt
JL
2
B R s
BR K Kb
s
t

J L JL JL

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Block Diagram

V Tm
in 1 i Kt 1
Ls R Js B

Kb

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Simplification m J >> e L

B R
t
V Ri K 0 Jd B K i 0
in b dt
d 1 Kt
J B K t i Kt Vin Kb Vin Kb
dt R R
KK K
d t b B t V
in

dt RJ J RJ
d 1 1 Kt V
in

dt motor m RJ
d 1 Kt V since
m motor
in

dt motor RJ
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MatLab M-File

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H-Bridge Operation
For DC electric motors, a power device configuration
called H-Bridge is used to control the direction and
magnitude of the voltage applied to the load. The H-
Bridge consists of four electronic power components
arranged in an H-shape in which two or none of the
power devices are turned on simultaneously.
A typical technique to control the power components is
via PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) signal. A PWM signal
has a constant frequency called carrier frequency.
Although the frequency of a PWM signal is constant,
the width of the pulses (the duty cycle) varies to obtain
the desired voltage to be applied to the load.
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The H-Bridge can be in one of the four states: coasting,
moving forward, moving backward, or braking, as shown
on the next slide.
In the coasting mode, all four devices are turned off and
since no energy is applied to the motor, it will coast.
In the forward direction, two power components are
turned on, one connected to the power supply and
one connected to ground.
In reverse direction, only the opposite power
components are turned on supplying voltage in the
opposite direction and allowing the motor to
reverse direction.
In braking, only the two devices connected to ground
are tuned on. This allows the energy of the motor to
quickly dissipate, which will take the motor to a stop.
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The four diodes shown in anti-parallel to the
transistors are for back-EMF current decay when all
transistors are turned off.
These diodes protect the transistors from the
voltage spike on the motor leads due the back-EMF
when all four transistors are turned off. This could
could yield excessive voltage on the transistor
terminals and potentially damage them.
They must be sized to a current higher than the
motor current and for the lowest forward voltage to
reduce junction temperature and the time to dissipate
the motor energy.

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Diodes for back-EMF
protection are shown.
The solid line is the
current flow when the
transistors on the upper
left corner and on the
right lower corner are
turned on. The dashed
line shows the motor
current when all
transistors are turned
off.

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The approach shown next to generate the PWM
command for an H-Bridge was developed for the
Dual Full Bridge Driver L298 from STMicroelectronics
Each bridge contains two inputs (IN1 and IN2 for the
bridge A and IN3 and IN4 for bridge B) and an enable
for each bridge (ENA for one bridge and ENB for the
other bridge).
The operation of this bridge is shown in the table
below for bridge A. The operation for bridge B is
identical.
Enable Inputs Function
EN = 1 IN1 = 1, IN2 = 0 Forward Move
IN1 = 0, IN2 = 1 Reverse Move
IN1 = IN2 Motor Fast Stop

EN = 0 IN1 = X, IN2 = X Motor Coast


1 = High, 0 = Low, X = Dont care

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Block diagram of L298 (Dual Full Bridge Driver)

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This approach to generate the PWM command for
the L298 consists of three steps:
Split the analog torque command to the motor into
two PWM signals (one for each input of one of the
bridges of the L298)
Logics to control inputs and enable the L298
Motor connection and protection of the bridge

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Step A
The torque command from the control system can be split
into two PWM signals for an Arduino board as shown
below.
255/8 Pin 3
Torque Command > 0.1

DeadBand Product Analog to 8 bits PWM FWD Direction


Control System
-255/8 Pin 6
< -0.1

DeadBand Product
Analog to 8 bits PWM REV Direction

Dead Zone Control Splitting Command to H-Bridge

A dead-band control is used to avoid short circuits on the


bridge with inductive loads while switching direction, as
the transistor that is commanded to turn off stays
conducting for a short period of time due the motor back-
EMF when the other transistor on the same branch may
be commanded to turn on for the switching in direction.

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Thus, if the torque command is within the dead-band, all
four transistors are turned off. If the torque command is
positive and higher than the dead-band threshold, a
signal is applied to the PWM FWD Direction output as
shown. Similarly, if the torque command is negative and
lower than the dead-band threshold, signal is applied to
the PWM REV Direction output.
The gains 255/8 converts the torque command of a
maximum of 8 Nm in this example into a digital signal of
8
8 bits (2 = 256) which is the resolution of an analog
output on Arduino boards.
The analog output on the Arduino is actually a PWM
signal of approximately 490 Hz. Thus, there is no need
for generating PWM signal from the analog torque
command using Arduino because the analog output is
PWM.

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If the torque command is a symmetric sinusoid with
amplitude of 8 Nm, the outputs PWM FWD Direction
and PWM REV Direction would be as shown below.

Torque Command
10
0

-10

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2

6
PWM FWD Direction

0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2
00

6
PWM REV Direction

0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2
00

Time (sec)

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Step B
The logic to control inputs and enable the L298
consists of a single OR gate that allows disabling
all transistors of the H-Bridge when the command
PWM signals are at zero. This logic located
between the Arduino board and the H-Bridge is
shown below.

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Step C
The motor is connected to the outputs of the bridge.
Depending on the type of H-Bridge used, internal
protection to the transistor of the bridge may not exist. In
this case, external protection circuitry needs to be
provided. This protection consists of diodes connected in
anti-parallel to the transistors. Shottky diodes are preferred
for inductive loads. The motor rated voltage needs to be
supplied to the bridge in order to allow the motor to
develop rated torque. If the bridge is supplied with voltage
higher than the motor rated voltage, damage may occur to
the motor. A sensing resistor (Rs) can be used to monitor
the motor current and shutdown the transistors if the motor
rated current or the bridge maximum current is exceeded.
The connection of the motor to the bridge and the diodes
to protect the transistors are shown on the next slide.

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Feedback Control Design &
Implementation
Feedback speed control of the DC motor can be
accomplished using several approaches.
The Single-Output, Single-Input (SISO) MatLab tool is
typically used to design classical feedback control
systems. A combination of the root locus approach and
the frequency response approach is most effective.
Once a controller, e.g., PI or PID, is designed, the block
diagram shown can then be used in Simulink with the
Code Generation to create and download to the Arduino
microcontroller the control code for the motor.

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Control Implementation
with
DC-Motor - Closed Loop Velocity Control Arduino and Simulink
Code Generation
Sine Wave rps PI(s) In1

PID Controller
Saturation
12V to -12V H-Bridge Control
10 Velocity
Offset
Feedback
(rev/sec) SampleTime = 0.020 seconds for
Velocity data monitoring
In1

In2

Plot data Pin 0 50/512 1


Digital to rps rps
Velocity
Motor Speed
(1023=50rps

5V = 1023 = 50 rev/sec 512 = 0rps


0=-50rps)

2.5V = 512 = 0 rev/sec


512

0V = 0 = -50 rev/sec Constant 10-bit A/D

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H-Bridge Control Subsystem

1 > 0.1 255/12 Pin 9


In1 Product
DeadBand1 PWM FWD Direction
Analog to 8 bits

< -0.1 -255/12 Pin 10


Product1
DeadBand PWM REV Direction
Analog to 8 bits

Dead Zone Control Splitting Command to H-Bridge

H-Bridge Control Block


It contains a dead band control to avoid two transistors on
the same side of the H-bridge turning on at the same time and
damaging the H-bridge. It also contain the logic to split the
signal from the PID controller into forward and reverse
direction for the transistors of the H-bridge.
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Plot Data Subsystem 9600 baud rate
uint8('A') Serial Config
Serial Write
Header
1 10 From Analog InTo Serial Serial Write Launch
host side
In1 Convert to
Convert int16 to uint8 Array
int16
2 10

From Analog InTo Serial


These blocks show how you can send multiple bytes by
In2 Convert to combining different signals into a vector using the Mux
block. In this case we are adding a Header and
Convert int16 to uint8 Array1
Terminator character to our message.
int16
We are also using the Convert block to take the int16
uint8(0) value we get from the Analog Input and convert it to a
2-element uint8 vector.
Terminator

Since the serial Use the "Serial Configuration" block to make sure that the used serial port is the one to which the arduino is
connected.
port only reads
A value coming from analog "In1" will also be received and displayed.
integers, this
gain adds a COM19
decimal point to 9600
Display 8,none,1
the readings. But Serial Configuration
the signal will be
10 times the COM19 Data Launch
target side
actual value. Serial Receive Scope

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Steps to Use the Plot Data Subsystem
Plot Data: This block reads any data from the Simulink code
and plots it on a Scope. The steps to use this feature are as
follows:
1. Connect the Arduino board to the USB port of your
computer
2. Run the command in the MatLab Command Window:
comPorts=arduino.Prefs.searchForComPort
3. This command will show the number of the COM port that
the Arduino board is connected.
4. Open the block called Launch host side
5. Open the Serial Configuration block and set the
Communication Port to the port number identified in Step
2.
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6. Open the block Serial Receive and set the
Communication Port to the port number identified in
Step 2.
7. Run the following command in the Command Window:
SampleTime = 0.02.
8. Download the code to Arduino
9. Hit Play on the
demo_arduino_serial_communication_host

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Double click on the
Scope to start
monitoring the data.

The time to capture


data on the Scope can
be changed as shown.
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