Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 3

1 The Nature of Analytical Chemistry

Analytical chemistry: separating, identifying and determining the relative amount


of the components.
Qualitative analysis: reveals identity of the elements and compounds in a sample
Quantitative analysis: indicates the amount of each substance in a sample
%, concentration
* Complete analysis
* Elemental analysis
* Partial analysis

1A The Role of Analytical Chemistry


Chemistry
Biology Biochemistry
Inorganic Chemistry Physics
Botany
Genetics Organic Chemistry Astrophysics
Geology Microbiology Physical Chemistry Astronomy Engineering
Geophysics Molecular Biology Biophysics
Civil
Geochemistry Zoology Chemical
Paleontology Electrical
Paleobiology Mechanical

Medicine
Environmental Clinical Chemistry
Sciences Analytical
Medicinal Chemistry
Ecology Chemistry Pharmacy
Meteorology Toxicology
Oceanography

Agriculture
Agronomy
Animal Sciences Materials science
Crop Sciences Social Sciences Metallurgy
Food Sciences Polymers
Horticulture Archeology
Solid State
Soil Sciences Anthropology
Forensics

Figure 1-1 The relationship between analytical chemistry, other branches of chemistry
and the other sciences. The central location of analytical chemistry in the diagram
signifies its importance and the breadth of its interactions with many other disciplines.

1
1B Quantitative Analytical Methods
Gravimetric methods: mass of analyte or compound chemically related to it
Volumetric methods: Titration method
Spectroscopic methods: interaction between electromagnetic radiation and
analyte atoms or molecules or on the production of
such radiation by analyte.
Electroanalytical means: voltage, current, resistance and quantity of electrical
charge.

1C A Typical Quantitative Analysis


Select method

Acquire sample

Process sample

Is No Carry out
Sample soluble chemical
? dissolution
No Yes
Change Measurable property ?
chemical form
Yes
Eliminate interferences

Measure property X

Calculate results

Estimate reliability of
results
Fig. 1-2 Flow diagram showing the steps in a quantitative analysis. There are a
number of possible paths through the steps in a quantitative analysis. In the simplest
example represented by the central vertical pathway, we select a method, acquire and
process the sample, dissolve the sample in a suitable solvent, measure a property of
the analyte, calculate the results, and estimate the reliability of the results. Depending
on the complexity of the sample and the chosen method, various other pathways may
be necessary.

2
1. Choosing a method
accuracy desired
economic factors
complexity of the sample and the number of components in the sample

2. Acquiring the sample


Assay: the process of determining how much of a given sample is the material
indicated by its name.
Sampling: the process of collecting a small mass of a material whose composition
accurately represents the bulk of the material being sampled.

3. Processing the sample


Preparing laboratory samples
Defining replicate samples
Preparing solutions: physical and chemical changes

4. Eliminating interferences
Specific method: measure the desired substance accurately in the presence of any
possible combination of foreign substances.
Selective method: determine any of a small group of ion or compounds in the
presence of certain foreign ions or compounds.
Separation technique:
Precipitation
electrodeposition
solvent extraction
ion exchange
chromatography

5. Calibration and measurement


6. Calculating results
7. Evaluating results by estimating their reliability

1D In Integral Role For Chemical Analysis Feedback Control


Systems
measurement, comparison and control