Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 5

1|Detection of Coliforms and Fecal Coliforms in Food

SOUTHERN LUZON STATE UNIVERSITY

BIO05: Food Microbiology (Laboratory)

Laboratory Report Number 7

Detection of Salmonella in Foods

April, 2017

Members:

Advincula, Laureen T.

Conde, Ryan Carlo P.

Crisostomo, Jane Leanne R.

Cueto, Ian Roi R.

Valencia, Kristle Mae Y.

Group No. 2

Bachelor of Science in Biology

May 8, 2017
2|Detection of Coliforms and Fecal Coliforms in Food

ABSTRACT

Coliforms were historically used as indicator microorganisms to serve as


a measure of fecal contamination, and thus potentially, of the presence of enteric
pathogens in food. Fecal coliform tests were developed. Based on the results of
the experiment, it is therefore concluded that fecal coliforms, as an indicator of
contamination in food was present in the commercially produced and street
vended food products specifically refrigerator cake, palamig and ice candy, as
the food samples analyzed in this experimentation. Analysis for fecal coliforms
should be applied to prevent diseases in humans.

INTRODUCTION

The coliform group includes a broad diversity in terms of genus and species, whether they
belong to the Enterobacteriaceae family. The coliform group includes species from the genera
Escherichia, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Citrobacter, and includes E. coli. Coliforms were
historically used as indicator microorganisms to serve as a measure of fecal contamination, and
thus potentially, of the presence of enteric pathogens in food. Although some coliforms are found in
the intestinal tract of man, most are found throughout the environment and have little sanitary
significance (Greenberg and Hunt, 1985). Coliforms are Gram-negative, rod-shaped facultatively
anaerobic bacteria. Identification criteria used are production of gas from glucose (and other
sugars) and fermentation of lactose to acid and gas within 48 h at 35C.
The presence of large numbers of coliforms in foods is highly undesirable, but it would be
almost impossible to eliminate all forms. Because they are easily killed by heat, coliform counts can
be useful when testing for post-processing contamination of cooked fish and fishery products.
Because coliform counts are inadequate to differentiate between fecal and non-fecal contamination,
a fecal coliform test was developed. Fecal coliforms are coliforms that ferment lactose in EC
medium with gas production within 48 h at 45.5C. With all shellfish isolates, an incubation
temperature of 44.5C (rather than 45.5C) is used. Fecal coliforms are considered to be more
directly associated with fecal contamination from warm-blooded vertebrates than are other
members of the coliforms. E. coli usually makes up 75-95% of the fecal coliform count in shellfish
growing areas, but at times can represent less than 1% of the coliform count.

Detection of coliforms is used as an indicator of sanitary quality of food or as a general


indicator of sanitary condition in the food-processing environment. Fecal coliforms remain the
standard indicator of choice for shellfish and shellfish harvest waters; and E. coli is used to indicate
recent fecal contamination or unsanitary processing. Most Probable Number (MPN) or Multiple
3|Detection of Coliforms and Fecal Coliforms in Food

Tube Technique involves the use of many tubes of liquid media and serial dilutions to extinction of
the water sample to be tested. The number of replicates for each dilution ranges usually from 3 to
10, depending on the source of water to analyze. After the incubation at the appropriate
temperature and for a specified duration, the number of positive and negative tubes is scored based
on characteristic changes in the medium such as acid or gas production (Nollet and De Gelder,
2007).

This experiment was performed and done at Hermano Pule Building in Southern Luzon
State University Lucban, Quezon last April, 2017

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In the experiment done, detection of coliforms was used as an indicator of enteric pathogen in
testing the quality of water. According to anonymous (20**) detection of coliform is a general
indicator of sanitary condition in the food-processing environment. It is also known for its
blahhh.. blahhhh.. blahhh (anonymous, 20**).

PICTURE/GRAPH/TABLE/FIGURE

Based on the results above, turbidity and presence of gas formation indicates the positivity of
coliform units. Whereas, absence of turbid and gas formation denotes negativity. In the experiment
done, e.g., test tubes one (1) to six (6) shows positivity to the coliform, while 7 and 8 was not.
Coliform units seen in test tubes 1 to 6, were probably belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae
since their product and colony was colored white which is a general characteristic of Escherichia
coli (E. coli) in a blank media. E. coli is a gram negative, facultative anaerobe bacteria that is found
in the environment, foods, and intestines of people and animals (CDC, 2016). Although most strains
of E. coli are not regarded as pathogens, others can still be an opportunistic pathogen that can cause
infections in host having compromised immune systems. Whereas, some kinds of E. coli, when
ingested can cause diarrhea, gastroenteritis, urinary tract infections, neonatal meningitis,
hemorrhagic colitis, and Crohns disease in healthy humans.

According to Odonkor and Ampofo (2013), monitoring the microbial quality of drinking water
heavily relies on the examination of indicator bacteria such as coliforms, Escherichia coli, and
Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Based on the work of Odonkor and Ampofo (2013), there are like two key
factors that have led to the trend of using E. coli as the preferred indicator of fecal contamination:
4|Detection of Coliforms and Fecal Coliforms in Food

first, was that the findings of some fecal coliforms were non-fecal in origin; second, was that the
accuracy, effectiveness, and testing methods was greatly improved in the past recent years. Another
is that fecal coliform definition has been revised to coincide better with the genetic make-up of its
members and now includes some environmental species. As a result, fecal coliform is now being
referred as Thermotolernt coliforms. (anonymous, 20**). At present, E. coli appears to provide the
best bacterial indication of fecal contamination in potable water. This is based on the prevalence of
thermotolerant coliforms in temperate environments as compared to rare incidence of E. coli,
another is that E. coli is abundant in human and animal feces and not usually found in other niches.
Furthermore, since E. coli could be easily detected by its ability to ferment glucose (later changed to
lactose), it was easier to isolate than known gastrointestinal pathogens. Hence, the presence of E.
coli in food or water became accepted as indicative of recent fecal contamination and the possible
presence of pathogens.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

Based on the results of the experiment, it is therefore concluded that fecal coliforms,
as an indicator of contamination in food was present in the commercially produced and
street vended food products specifically ref cake, palamig and ice candy, as the food samples
analyzed in this experimentation. Analysis for fecal coliforms in other food products, mainly
street vended food, must be implemented to identify potential contamination. Such methods
should be applied to prevent diseases in humans.
5|Detection of Coliforms and Fecal Coliforms in Food

REFERENCES CITED

American Public Health Association. 1992. Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological

Examination of Foods, 3rd ed. APHA, Washington, DC.

Feng, P., Weagant, S. D., Grant, M. A., Burkhardt, W., Shellfish, M., & Water, B. (2002). BAM:

Enumeration of Escherichia coli and the Coliform Bacteria. Bacteriological analytical , 13.

Conway, P.L. 1995. Microbial ecology of the human large intestine. In: G.R. Gibson and G.T.

Macfarlane, eds. p.1-24. Human colonic bacteria: role in nutrition, physiology, and
pathology. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.