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Taylor Currie

Ms. Chawkat

Independent Research GT

22 November 2016

Annotated Bibliography

Heckman, Paul E. and Montera, Viki L. (2001, May). From School Choice to Student Voice.
School Administrator, 58(5), 40. Retrieved from
Throughout this text, new scenarios are discussed that would give students more of a say

in what happens in their school; one scenario that is brainstormed is mass and niche markets. In

this scenario, parents are able to choose their schools and their academic programs. School

systems hope that this will increase commitment and interest in school. They are basing the

expected success on how well this method has worked in our economy. Another possible

scenario is mass production. Standardization is necessary for mass production to occur. The

inputs must be the same with very little variation in order to have consistent outputs. This takes

away the student and parents ability to choose the course they would like to take. Another

scenario is market education. This is a scenario that attends to the variability of human beings. It

gives students a choice between entirely different paths instead of a choice between small topics

under a broad umbrella. All of these scenarios have one common goal: to exploit student

knowledge and generate a customized classroom environment.

The authors of this text, Paul Heckman and Viki Montera, are both vetted authors from

the Gale database. All of the information in the database has also been vetted so I can confirm

that this current source has accurate information. Both authors are college professors from UC

Davis and Sonoma State University respectively. For this reason, the article is written in a
teacher point of view with no evidence that parents or students were consulted with this topic.

The article is written for other professionals in the education field. Additionally, parents and

students can benefit from understanding the content of the text. Lastly, the article is well covered

because it contrasts the qualities of other, similar scenarios under each scenario. The author uses

words such as rather than and regardless to show this contrast.

Sherman, Morton (2015, November). Personalized education on the systems level: a district wide
transformation for student learning involves more than a schedule adjustment or a new
grading scheme. School Administrator, 72(10), 22+. Retrieved from
This article explores the possibility for personalizing the classroom at all levels of

schooling. Different techniques are explored from North Carolina, Salt Lake City, and

Philadelphia. All of the cases have some common factors. One example is the agreement that

change needs to happen on the systemic level. There needs to be an established common core

that enables consistent testing throughout the district. Students will be measured on application

not just memorization. More than one subject will begin to be incorporated into other subjects.

Technology is a major factor because it allows people to do different things at the same time.

Teaching would be done in subgroups based on test scores. For this approach to be successful,

counselors, social workers, and psychologists must be involved. These professionals would

replace guidance counselors within the schools. High school would focus more on college and

career training. Parents would participate in a parents academy to be able to help their children at

home. The main focus of this approach would be to get students ready for later levels of their

careers. Some educators have already starting integrating personalized education but it will take

flexibility and willingness from all teachers and administrators.

This current source by Morton Sherman, associate executive director of leadership

services and awards at AASA, explores the opportunities of personalized education. The author

only rights the positive aspects of this technique and neglects to use contrasting words like

however or on the other hand. For this reason, this source is extremely biased. By design, it

is written for at least collegiate level educated individuals who are interested in education. Since

the source was found in the Gale database, the information has been vetted and is reliable.

Additionally, the author has been vetted and has other articles and journals in the Gale database.