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Advanced Training on LTE Planning and

Optimization (LTE-A)
EC0204

Istanbul, 16 20 January 2017

Trainer: Jacek Wszoek Ph.D.

Advanced Training on LTE Planning and Optimization


Course Agenda (5-day)

Introduction (LTE Worldwide development status)


LTE Functionality Overview
Selected LTE-A 3GPP Rel. 10 Enhancements
Selected LTE-A 3GPP Rel. 11 and Rel.12 Enhancements
Voice and Video Handling in LTE (VoLTE, ViLTE)
LTE RF Measurements
LTE Planning
LTE Optimization

EXPERTCONNECTION
Introduction
LTE Worldwide Market Update

EXPERTCONNECTION

Worldwide Market Update


3G/LTE deployment status October 2016 (Ref: GSA)

All 3Goperators has launched HSPA.


Over 70.7%launched HSPA+(435
HSPA+networksin221countries) 254operators(47.3%)in111
countriesuse
560 commerciallylaunchedLTEorLTE 1800MHzincommercialLTE
Advancednetworksin170countries, networks
1.453billionLTEsubscriptionsglobally:
Q22016
194DCHSPAnetworks(nearly
30%ofall).Two 63Mbps3CHSPA
networkslaunched.

GSApredicts over 2705Gnetworks


by2025
166launchednetworksare
2.202billionsubscriptions LTEAdvancedorLTE
includingHSPA/HSPA+and AdvancedProin76
DCHSPA+ (Q12016) countries

EXPERTCONNECTION
Worldwide Market Update
LTE Subscriptions Globally Q1 2016 (Ref: GSA)

EXPERTCONNECTION

Worldwide Market Update


LTE Networks per frequency band October, 2016 (Ref: GSA)

EXPERTCONNECTION
Worldwide Market Update
LTE Devices October 2016 (Ref: GSA)

LTE FDD
1800 MHz band 3 2,381 devices
2600 MHz band 7 2,083 devices
2100 MHz band 1 1,927 devices
800 MHz band 20 1,247 devices
800/1800/2600 tri-band 1,157 devices
AWS band 4 1,009 devices
850 MHz band 5 973 devices
900 MHz band 8 962 devices
700 MHz band 17 829 devices
1900 MHz band 2 803 devices
700 MHz band 13 545 devices
1900 MHz band 25 232 devices
APT700 band 28 260 devices
700 MHz band 12 188 devices

LTE TDD
2300 MHz band 40 1,269 devices
2600 MHz band 38 1,074 devices
2600 MHz band 41 998 devices
1900 MHz band 39 882 devices
3500 MHz band 42/43 56 devices

EXPERTCONNECTION

Network Evolution Trends


Voice/data domination versus CAPEX/OPEX

EXPERTCONNECTION
LTE Network Evolution
Business Drivers

ARPU
COST

EXPERTCONNECTION

LTE Network Evolution


Technology Drivers (1/2)

WCDMA
FDLTE
5G
TDSCDMA
TDLTE

MCCDMA
Efficiency
Spectral
Latency
Throughpu
t

EXPERTCONNECTION
LTE Network Evolution
Technology Drivers (2/2)

EXPERTCONNECTION

NetworkEvolutionTrends
AllroadsgotowardsLTE

2015

FlexiblebandwidthallocationforLTEallowstomanagerolloutrisksinall
deploymentstages(gradualrefarming)
LTEcanbedeployedpracticallyineverybandwidth(subjecttovendorcapability)and
withflexiblebandwidth(1.4MHz 20MHz)

EXPERTCONNECTION
Standardization and Network Evolution Paths
Release 99 -> Release 6

EXPERTCONNECTION

Standardization and Network Evolution Paths


Release 7 -> Release 10

EXPERTCONNECTION
Standardization and Network Evolution Paths
Release 11 -> Release 13 Rel.99,HSPA+:
smalldatatransmissionenhancement
downlinkenhancements
dualbanddualcellHSUPA
networkassistedinterferencecancelation
datacompression
multiflowenhancement

LTEAdvanced:
CarrierAggregationenhancementsbeyond
5Carriers
Increasedpeakdatarate,DL3Gbps,UL
1.5Gbps

Release 13
Release12
Release11
Release10
Release9
Release8
Release7
Release6
Release5
Release4
Release99

2016

EXPERTCONNECTION

Development of Data Rates


3GPP HSPA Roadmap vs available features on the market

RU20 / RU30 / RU40 / RU50 3GPP R11


3GPP R10
3GPP R9
3GPP R8
3GPP R7 336 Mbps
3GPP R6 168 Mbps
3GPP R5 84 Mbps
42 Mbps 8-carrier HSDPA
21-28 Mbps 4-carrier HSDPA + 64QAM
14 Mbps DC-HSDPA + 64QAM
14 Mbps DC-HSDPA, + MIMO (2x2)
64QAM or + 64QAM + MIMO
+ 64QAM or
+ MIMO (2x2)
16QAM MIMO 4-carrier HSDPA
(2x2) + 64QAM
+ MIMO (2x2) (2x2)
+ MIMO (4x4)

70 Mbps
23 Mbps
23 Mbps
11 Mbps DC-HSUPA
11 Mbps DC-HSUPA + 64QAM
5.8 Mbps DC-HSUPA + 16QAM
0.4 Mbps 16QAM + 16QAM + MIMO (2x2)
16QAM

EXPERTCONNECTION
3GPP List of
Specification Series

FDD and TDD Specification


Harmonisation:

The TDD mode is included


together with the FDD mode in
the same set of specifications

36 Series contains most part


of LTE related specifications
for Radio

EXPERTCONNECTION

3GPP List of Specification Series


LTE Air Interface Specifications

The LTE radio interface is standardized in the 36-series of 3GPP Release 8. The detailed physical
layer structure is described in five physical layer specifications.

LTE is standardised in the 36-series of 3GPP Release 8:


TS 36.1xx Equipment requirements (terminals, eNodeB)
TS 36.2xx Layer 1 (physical layer) specifications
TS 36.3xx Layer 2 and 3 specifications
TS 36.4xx Network signalling specifications
TS 36.5xx User equipment conformance testing
Physical layer specifications:
TS 36.201 Physical layer; General description
TS 36.211 Physical channels and modulation
TS 36.212 Multiplexing and channel coding
TS 36.213 Physical layer procedures
TS 36.214 Physical layer; Measurements

EXPERTCONNECTION
LTE Functionality Overview
LTE Physical Layer
OFDMA (DL) and SC-FDMA (UL)

EXPERTCONNECTION

LTE Physical Layer


Modulation
Think about modulation
as a process of
converging bits into
complex values (Ak).
The modulated symbols =
complex values represent
amplitude and phase shift
of OFDM subcarriers.

EXPERTCONNECTION
LTE Physical Layer
OFDM Multi carrier modulation
How to modulate many symbols into one symbol (1/2)

Each Ak value (complex value = modulated symbol) is sent on another subcarrier.


Example: 10 subcarriers, Ak values which are sent on different subcarriers are represented by
different heights of bars.
With the IDFT, the Ak values are transformed to the signal in time domain which is physically
transmitted within symbol time Tsymbol (time between samples is equal Ts =
The receiver performs an analogical opposite operation. The received time domain signal is
sampled every Ts, 10 time domain samples are collected (AN), which are then transformed
(with the use of DFT) to the frequency domain values Ak. The frequency domain values Ak
carry the information about bits which were transmitted.

EXPERTCONNECTION

LTE Physical Layer


OFDM Multi carrier modulation
How to modulate many symbols into one symbol (2/2)

EXPERTCONNECTION
LTE Physical Layer
Multi-Path Propagation and Inter-Symbol Interference

d1<d2< d3

+
Tt

BTS
Time0Ts
Time0TtTs+Tt

1.InterSymbolInterference

EXPERTCONNECTION

LTE Physical Layer


Multi-Path Propagation and Guard Band

TimeDomain
TSYMBOL Tg
(Direct 1 GuardPeriod(GP)
path)

TSYMBOL time

2 GuardPeriod(GP)

TSYMBOL time

3 GuardPeriod(GP)

time
EXPERTCONNECTION
LTE Physical Layer
Propagation Delay Exceeding the Guard Band

2
1

3
4
TimeDomain T Tg
SYMBOL

Obviously when time


the delay spread 2
of the multi-path
environment is time
greater than the
guard period 3
duration (Tg),
then we time
encounter inter- 4
symbol
interference (ISI) time

EXPERTCONNECTION

LTE Physical Layer


Cyclic Prefix (1/2)

2
1

3
Tcp Tsymb

1
CP symbol CP symbol CP symbol

time

2
CP symbol CP symbol CP symbol

3
CP symbol CP symbol CP symbol

EXPERTCONNECTION
LTE Physical Layer
Cyclic Prefix (2/2)

In LTE the slot of 500 s is subdivided in the (useful part of the) symbol
(grey) and CPs as follows:

For the extended CP slot structure the overall 500 s is kept but the
number of symbols is reduced in order to extent the cyclic prefix durations:

EXPERTCONNECTION

LTE Physical Layer


OFDM Transmitter Summary (1/2)

b10,b11, Modulation s0
Mapper

b20,b21, Modulation s1 cos(2fct)


Mapper
D
FrequencyDomain

I Low I
Binary Serialto Pass
Generation
CP/Guard

Codec Parallel x0,x1,,xN1 A


IQ RF
Data Converter . IFFT Split
(Bit . Time Q D
Distrib.) . Low Q
Domain
Pass
A
sin(2fct)

bN10 Modulation sN1


Mapper

EXPERTCONNECTION
LTE Physical Layer
OFDM Transmitter Summary (2/2)

OFDM
Transmitter

OFDM
Receiver

EXPERTCONNECTION

30

LTE Physical Layer


SC-FDMA - PAPR Challenge (1/2)
The transmitted OFDM signal should be seen as a sum of sinusoid
this results in high Peak-to-Average Power Ratio of the signal
This is not suited for a highly linear, power efficient terminal amplifier
The envelope needs to be with as low Peak-to-Average Ratio (PAR)
as possible
SC-FDMA (Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access) is
used to reduce the PAPR for lower RF hardware requirements
SC-FDMA is a new hybrid modulation scheme that cleverly
combines the low PAPR of single-carrier systems with the multipath
resistance and flexible subcarrier frequency allocation offered by
OFDM
This mechanism can reduce the PAPR of 6..9 dB compared to
normal OFDMA
OFDMA

SC-FDMA

EXPERTCONNECTION
LTE Physical Layer
SC-FDMA - PAPR Challenge (2/2)

In OFDM radio transmission, the


transmitted power is the sum of the
powers of all the subcarriers, hence
due to high number of subcarriers,
the peak to average power ratio
(PAPR) tends to be high
The higher the peaks, the greater the
range of power levels over which the
transmitter is required to work.
High Peak-to-Average Power Ratio
(PAPR) of the transmitted signal: this
results in requirements for expensive
non-linear power amplifiers, with low
power conversion efficiency
(especially on UE side).
Therefore, in the UL in LTE, OFDM is
not used, instead SC-FDM is
applied, where the PARP challenge is
mitigated.
EXPERTCONNECTION

LTE Physical Layer


SC-FDMA and OFDMA PAPR Comparison
OFDM: power and amplitude SC-FDMA: power and amplitude
12000 12000

10000 10000

8000 8000

6000 6000

4000 4000

2000 2000

0 0
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000

120 120

100 100

80 80

60 60

40 40

20 20

0 0
-120 -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 -120 -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120

-20 -20

-40 -40

-60 -60

-80 -80

-100 -100

-120 -120

Lower PAPR for


the SC-FDMA
33

LTE Physical Layer


UL Multiple access
Users multiplexed in frequency domain
Smallest uplink bandwidth = 180 kHz
Largest uplink bandwidth = 20 MHz

frequency

frequency

frequency

EXPERTCONNECTION

LTE Physical Layer


SC-FDMA and OFDM Comparison (1/2)
OFDMA transmits data in parallel across multiple subcarriers
SC-FDMA transmits data in series employing multiple subcarriers
In the example:
OFDMA: 6 modulation symbols ( 01,10,11,01,10 and 10) are
transmitted per OFDMA symbol, one on each subcarrier
SC-FDMA: 6 modulation symbols are transmitted per SC-
FDMA symbol using all subcarriers per modulation symbol.
The duration of each modulation symbol is 1/6th of the
modulation symbol in OFDMA

SC-FDM
OFDM EXPERTCONNECTION
35

LTE Physical Layer


SC-FDM and OFDM Comparison (2/2)

EXPERTCONNECTION

LTE Physical Layer


LTE-A (Rel. 10) - Enhanced SC-FDMA (1/2)
Rel. 10 introduces new clustered SC-FDMA technique for UL transmission. This is
also called as discrete Fourier transform spread OFDM (DFTS-OFDM)
The advantage in clustered SC-FDMA is that it allows non-contiguous groups
(clusters) of subcarriers to be allocated to one terminal.
This enables frequency selective scheduling, which in turn improves link performance
This feature also enables Carrier Aggregation in the UL (standardized in Rel. 10)

Pure OFDMA in the UL would result in significantly increased PAPR


Illustration of localized and clustered SC-FDMA techniques is presented below
As a consequence, PUCCH and PUSCH can also be transmitted simultaneously

LocalizedSCFDMA ClusteredSCFDMA

User1 User2 User3


User1 User2 User3

EXPERTCONNECTION
LTE Physical Layer
LTE-A (Rel. 10) - Enhanced SC-FDMA Enhanced SC-FDMA (2/2)

Ref:AgilentIntroducingLTEAdvanced
whitepaper EXPERTCONNECTION

Physical Layer Resource Allocation


OFDMA Bandwidth scalability
Channel bandwidth: DL bandwidths ranging from 1.4
MHz to 20 MHz
Data subcarriers: the number of data subcarriers
varies with the bandwidth
72 for 1.4 MHz to 1200 for 20 MHz

EXPERTCONNECTION
Physical Layer Resource Allocation
OFDMA Parameters in LTE

1.4MHz 3MHz 5MHz 10MHz 15MHz 20MHz

FrameDuration 10ms
10ms

SubcarrierSpacing 15kHz

SamplingRate(MHz) 1.92 3.84 7.68 15.36 23.04 30.72

DataSubcarriers 72 180 300 600 900 1200

Symbols/slot NormalCP=7,extendedCP=6

CPlength NormalCP=4.69/5.12s,extendedCP=16.67s.

EXPERTCONNECTION

Physical Layer Resource Allocation


Resource Block and Resource Element

Physical Resource Block or Resource Block ( PRB or RB)


12 subcarriers in frequency domain x 1 slot period in time domain.

EXPERTCONNECTION
Physical Layer Resource Allocation
PRB (Physical Resource Block)

12 subcarriers
In both the downlink and uplink
direction, data is allocated
.. .. to users in terms of
Frequency
resource blocks (RBs).

Resource 1 ms subframe or
block TTI

A resource block
consists of 12 consecutive
0.5 ms slot
subcarriers in the frequency
Time domain, that are reserved
for the duration of one 0.5
During each TTI, resource blocks for millisecond time slot.
different UEs are scheduled in the
eNodeB The smallest resource unit a
scheduler can assign to a
user are two consecutive
RBs (resource blocks)
EXPERTCONNECTION

Physical Layer Resource Allocation


OFDMA LTE Slot (6 or 7 symbols)
The LTE Slot carries:
7 symbols with short cyclic prefix
6 symbols with long cyclic prefix

Tcp Tsymbol

Tcp = 5.21 s CP Symbol

Tcp = 16.67 s CP Symbol

EXPERTCONNECTION
Physical Layer Resource Allocation
FDD LTE Frame Structure (time-domain)
OneLTEradioframe(10ms)=10subframes=20slots

#0#1#2#3#4#5#6#7#8 #9

Onesubframe(1ms)=2slots

Oneslot(0,5ms)=7OFDMsymbols

OneOFDMsymbol

TcpTu=66,7s EXPERTCONNECTION

Radio Protocol Structure Overview


Protocols Configuration Example
Email FTP
NAS UDP TCP
RRC IP IP
SRB1 SRB2 DRB1 DRB2

PDCP Integrity&ciphering Ciphering&ROHC

RLC AM AM AM AM

LogicalChannels DCCH1 DCCH2 DTCH1 DTCH2

MAC

TransportChannels DLSCH

PhysicalLayer

PhysicalChannels PDSCH
EXPERTCONNECTION
Radio Protocol Structure Overview
Data Flow Example

EXPERTCONNECTION

Physical Layer Channel Allocation


Logical Channels

EXPERTCONNECTION
47

Physical Layer Channel Allocation


Overview (DL and UL)
Upper Layers

DL UL

RLC

MCCH

MTCH
CCCH
BCCH

PCCH

DCCH

DTCH

CCCH

DCCH
DTCH
Logical channels

MAC

MCH
SCH
BCH

PCH

RACH
DL-

SCH
Transport channels

UL-
PHY

PCFICH

PDCCH
PDSCH

PHICH

PMCH
PBCH

PUCCH
PRACH

PUSCH
Air interface

Pure physical channels


= no higher layer data EXPERTCONNECTION

48

Physical Layer Channel Allocation


Overview (1/2)
The following downlink physical channels are defined:

Physical Downlink Shared Channel, PDSCH


This is intended for the user data (HS-PDSCH in WCDMA)

Physical Downlink Control Channel, PDCCH

Physical Multicast Channel, PMCH


Not supported by NSN LTE implementation

EXPERTCONNECTION
49

Physical Layer Channel Allocation


Overview (2/2)
Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH)
Carries the BCH (system information)

Physical Control Format Indicator Channel (PCFICH)


Indicates how many OFDM symbols (1 to 3) are used for
PDCCH(s)

Physical Multicast Channel (PMCH)


Carries MBMS (Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service) data

Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel (PHICH)


HARQ feedback for uplink packets

EXPERTCONNECTION

50

Physical Layer Channel Allocation


Location in OFDM resource grid - Downlink
Subframe 0 Subframe 1 Subframe 2 Subframe 3 Subframe 4 ..

SSS
Frequency
PSS

PBCH

PCFICH

PHICH

PDCCH

Reference signals

PDSCH UE1

PDSCH UE2
Slot No. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

EXPERTCONNECTION
LTE Control Information
Overview
CQI, PMI, RI,
ACK/NACK CQI, PMI, RI,
ACK/NACK
SR

DL control
configuration
1x per cell
RNTI
DL scheduling
UL Grant
UL Power Control
n x per cell

HARQ Info

CQI: Channel Quality Indicator ACK: Acknowledgement


PMI: Precoding Matrix Indicator NACK: Negative Acknowledgement
RI: Rank Indicator RNTI: Radio Network Temporary Indicator
SR: Scheduling Request HARQ: Hybrid Automatic Retransmission reQuest

EXPERTCONNECTION

53

Downlink synchronization signal


Overview
Synchronization Signal is allocated in the 1.08-MHz block (6
RBs) in the middle of downlink bandwidth to facilitate UE cell
search
Cell search procedure is not dependent on system BW

It consists of predefined code sequence to be used for cell


detection and initial time and frequency synchronization

Info is located in the last OFDM symbol of every 4th slot


Synchronization Signal can indicate 504 different values which
determine the location of cell specific reference symbols

EXPERTCONNECTION
54

Downlink synchronization signal


Location in OFDM resource grid
Frequency

6 RBs 72 subcarriers = 1.4 MHz


(minimum LTE Bandwidth)
SSS

PSS

Reference signals

Unused RE

5 ms repetition Time
period

10 ms Radio frame

One subframe (1 ms)

EXPERTCONNECTION

Reference Symbols
Location in OFDM resource grid

Channel estimation based on reference symbols


(Pilot Symbols).
Same as in 3G = CPICH was used (together with
reference symbols on DCH).
Reference symbols help the UE to keep the
synchronization with the network.
LTE cells can be distinguished by differed Physical
Cell IDs (PCI), which are defined by different
Reference Symbols.
In 3G cells are distinguished by scrambling codes
In 2G cells re distinguished by BCCH frequency
and BSIC

EXPERTCONNECTION
56

Reference Symbols
MIMO

Antenna port 0 Antenna port 1

Reference signal Unused symbol

EXPERTCONNECTION

OFDM Resource Mapping


Single Antenna Port and DL Reference Signals

EXPERTCONNECTION
OFDM Resource Mapping
2 Port DL Reference Signals, Normal TCP, MIMO 2x2)

EXPERTCONNECTION

59

PBCH Physical Broadcast Channel


Overview

PBCH Physical Broadcast Control Channel


In LTE PBCH transmits only MIB-Master Information Block
Remaining broadcast information is sent of PDSCH (different than
in 3G!)
Detectable without the knowledge of system Bandwidth
mapped to the central 72 subcarriers
over 4 symbols
during second slot of each frame
MIB (Master Information Block) content:
DL system Bandwidth
PHICH configuration (PHICH group number)
System frame number SFN
PBCH uses QPSK only

EXPERTCONNECTION
60

PBCH Physical Broadcast Channel


Location in OFDM resource grid
Slot 0 Slot 1

Frequency
Transmitted once in the

6 RBs 72 subcarriers = 1.4 MHz


entire LTE frame

(minimum LTE Bandwidth)


SSS

PSS

Reference signals

Unused RE

PBCH

Time

First subframe (1 ms)

EXPERTCONNECTION

61

PBCH Physical Broadcast Channel


Location in OFDM resource grid Repetition Pattern

one radio frame = 10 ms


72 subcarriers

Repetition Pattern of PBCH = 40 ms

EXPERTCONNECTION
PDCCH - Downlink Control Channel
Overview
Downlink Control Signalling
DL scheduling grants
UL scheduling grants
Occupies up to 4 OFDM symbols at the beginning of every
subframe
The width of the control region changes dynamically inline with
the number of scheduled UEs in the subframe (1 TTI = 1 ms)
The UE is informed about the width of the control region through
PCFICH that is transmitted always within 1st symbol of each
subframe.
Downlink Control Signalling is transmitted over the entire bandwidth
Scheduling information (DL scheduling assignment, UL scheduling
grant)
Individual per MAC ID
Convolutional coding, QPSK-modulated

EXPERTCONNECTION

63

PDCCH Physical Data Control Channel


Overview and Location in OFDM resource grid

One subframe (1ms)


PDCCH informs UE when
they are scheduled and
which Resource Blocks are Resource elements
intended to them. reserved for
reference symbols
12 subcarriers

(two antenna port case)


Moreover PDCCH informs
Frequency

UE whether the scheduled


transmission is a
retransmission and which
modulation and channel
codding is used.

Control Channel Time


Data Region
Region (1-3 OFDM symbols)

EXPERTCONNECTION
PDCCH - Downlink Control Channel
Resource Element Group

1CCE(ControlChannelElement)

1REG(RadioElementGroup)

1RE(ResourceElement)

1CCE=9*REGs=36*REs

EXPERTCONNECTION

Downlink control signalling


PDCCH Overview (1/2)

The PDCCH carries the UL & DL scheduling assignments and other


control information:
i) Downlink scheduling assignments indicating downlink transmission of
PDSCH
ii) Uplink scheduling grants, which include the following information:
PUSCH resource indication
Transport format (coding and modulation to apply by the UE)
HARQ related information
iii) Power control commands of groups of terminals, which complements the
power commands included in the scheduling decisions
Multiple PDCCHs can be transmitted in each subframe
PDCCHs are mapped on the first (up to 4) OFDM symbols in the beginning
of each subframe.
Location at the beginning of the subframe, allows UE to decode the DL
scheduling assignment from PDCCH prior the data arrival on PDSCH
(which is mapped to following symbols in the subframe).
UEs that are not scheduled in the subframe, may turn off its receiver for a
large part of the subframe, hence minimize power consumption.
EXPERTCONNECTION
Downlink control signalling
PDCCH Overview (2/2)

The size of the individual PDCCH is variable. Control information must be reliably transmitted to the UEs
located in various radio conditions. This is ensured by adaptive channel coding for PDCCH (Adaptive PDCCH
Aggregation).

EXPERTCONNECTION

67

PCFICH - Physical Control Format Indicator Channel


Size of the PDCCH Region

First subframe (1ms) Second subframe (1ms)


12 subcarriers

Control region
Control region - 3 OFDM symbols
1 OFDM symbol Loaded cell during this
Unloaded cell during this scheduling interval
scheduling interval Indicated by PCFICH

EXPERTCONNECTION
PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel
Overview

Contain the actual user data from DL-SCH

Use the available Resource Elements

Allocation is signaled by PDCCH

Also used for:


SIBs (System Information Block) of the system information
Paging
PDCCH acting like a Paging Indicator Channel in UMTS

EXPERTCONNECTION

69

PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel


Location in OFDM resource grid

Subframe 0 Subframe 1 Subframe 2 Subframe 3 Subframe 4 ..


Frequency

SSS

PSS

PBCH

PCFICH

PHICH

PDCCH

Reference signals

PDSCH UE1

PDSCH UE2
Slot No. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

EXPERTCONNECTION
70

PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel


SIBs System Information Blocks

Cellaccessrelatedinformation(PLMN,cellidentity,TrackingAreacodeetc.)
Informationforcellselection
SIB1
TDDconfiguration
InformationabouttimedomainschedulingoftheremainingSIBs
SIB2 Accessbarringinformation
Radioresourceconfigurationofcommonchannels(e.g.PCCH)
Frequencyinformation(ULUARFCN,uplinkbandwidth)
SIB3 Cellreselectioninformationthatiscommonforintrafrequency,interfrequencyand/orinterRATcell
reselection.
SIB4 Neighborcellrelatedinformationonlyforintrafrequencycellreselection.

SIB5 InterfrequencycellreselectionlikeEUTRANrelatedinformation
Interfrequencyneighboringcellrelatedinformation
SIB6 UTRAFDDandTDDfrequencyinformationforcellreselection
SIB7 InformationrelevantonlyforcellreselectiontotheGERAN
SIB8 Informationrelevantonlyforcellreselectiontothecdma2000system.

SIB9 HomeeNodeBidentifier
SIB10 EarthquakeandTsunamiWarningSystem(ETWS)primarynotification
SIB11 EarthquakeandTsunamiWarningSystem(ETWS)secondarynotification

EXPERTCONNECTION

72

LTE Physical Channels


Overview (DL and UL)
Upper Layers

RLC
CCCH

DCCH
DTCH

MAC
UL-SCH

RACH
UCI

PHY
PUCCH
PUSCH

PRACH

DRS
SRS

Air interface Pure physical channels = no


higher layer data

EXPERTCONNECTION
73

PUCCH and PUSCH Multiplexing


Location in SC-FDM resource grid

PUCCH
Bandwith
Total UL

PUSCH
Frequency

12 subcarriers

PUCCH

1 subframe = 1ms

Time

EXPERTCONNECTION

74

PUCCH Physical Uplink Control Channel


Overview
PUCCH contains UCI = UL Control Information
UCI could indicate:
Scheduling requests
HARQ ACK/NACK for DL transmission
CQI = Channel Quality Indicator

PUCCH format Modulation scheme Number of bits per Type of information


subframe
1 N/A N/A Scheduling Request

1a BPSK 1 ACK/ NACK


1b QPSK 2 ACK/ NACK
2 QPSK 20 CQI
2a QPSK+BPSK 21 CQI + 1 bit ACK/ NACK
2b QPSK+BPSK 22 CQI + 2 bits ACK/ NACK

3 (for CA) QPSK 48 ACK/NACK or SR+ACK/NACK

EXPERTCONNECTION
PUCCH mapping to physical resources
Mapping of PUCCH Formats

Format 2/2a/2b Format 2/2a/2b

Format 1/1a/1b Format 1/1a/1b

PUCCH

PUSCH

PUCCH

1 subframe = 1ms
Format 1/1a/1b Format 1/1a/1b
Time
Format 2/2a/2b Format 2/2a/2b

EXPERTCONNECTION

PUCCH Physical Uplink Control Channel 76

Scheduling Request Indicator

Challenge:
LTE standards define a special mechanism (contenion-based mechanism)

Procedure:
1. UE transmits a SRI (Scheduling Request Indicator)
2. eNodeB answers with an UL Scheduling Grant for a minimum assignment (e.g.
1 Resource Block)
3. UE sends the actual Scheduling Request and possibly some data

EXPERTCONNECTION
PUCCH Physical Uplink Control Channel
ACK/NACK and CQI

The ACK/ NACK are also transmitted on PUCCH (Formats 1a/1b and 2a/2b).
ACK/NACH is used to acknowledge the Downlink Transport Blocks on the PDSCH
ACK/ NACK frequency and resource allocation depends on the Node-B DL
scheduling decisions
If nothing is received by the UE on PDSCH -> nothing is transmitted (DTX =
Discontinuous Transmission)
ACK or NACK as information is using only 1 bit transmitted in 1 ms
(subframe)
This bit could be either BPSK or QPSK modulated

One CQI has 10 bits (transmitted in one subframe = 1ms)


QPSK is used -> 20 bits in total are sent

CQI could be transmitted:


Standalone (Format 2)
Together with ACK/NACK (Format 2a/2b)
EXPERTCONNECTION

PRACH Physical Random Access Channel


Overview
Initial Access procedure (Idle -> Connected) in LTE, is generally similar to 3G
To minimize interference / between other UL channels, certain UL resources are
served only for RACH/
RACH channel is employed to reduce the interference = enable initial UL
transmission with minimum possible power.
However, due to different multiple access mechanism in LTE, the e-NodeB is not able
to differentiate which UE sends the preamble. Hence, the contention-based
mechanism is implemented in LTE it will be discussed in the following part of this
training.
As a difference to 3G, RACH only carries the preambles -> no signalling or user data
(like in 3G)

Initial access, generally:


UEs selects randomly a preamble from the list of preambles broadcasted in the BCCH
UE calculates OLPC parameters ( Initial Tx Power)
Checks contention parameters (i.e. max. number of retries)
UE transmits initial RACH and waits for a response before retry. Open loop PC ensures that each retry
will be at a higher power level.
After reception of UL RACH preamble, eNB calculates power adjustment and timing advance
parameters together with the UL capacity grant
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79

PRACH Physical Random Access Channel


Location in SC-FDM resource grid

1ms-3ms depending on the selected


PRACH format

PUCCH

PRACH bandwidth
Total UL Bandwidth

(6 Resource Blocks
PRACH PRACH
= 1.08MHz)

PUSCH

PRACH slot period

PUCCH
Time

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80

Uplink Reference Signals (SRS and DRS)


Overview

Associatedwithtransmission
ofuplinkdataonPUSCHor
Demodulation PUCCH
ReferenceSignals Usedforchannelestimation
forcoherentdetectionand
demodulation(bothPUCCH
andPUSCH)

UE

eNodeB
NotassociatedwithULdata
Sounding transmissions
UsedforestimationoftheUL
ReferenceSignals channelqualitytoenablethe
channeldependent
scheduling

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81

Uplink Reference Signals


DRS Demodulation Reference Signal

Subframe 0 Subframe 1

Demodulation reference signal Slot 1 Slot 2

PUSCH transmission

36 Subcarriers
SC-FDMA symbol
number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

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82

Uplink Reference Signals


SRS Sounding Reference Signal (1/2)

Motivation to use SRS-Sounding Reference Signals (i.e. why


DRS-Demodulation Reference Signals are not sufficient for the UL?)
The DRS are only sent on the transmitted bandwidth (allocated bandwidth
by the NodeB for the UE to transmit)
NodeB needs estimation of the UL channel quality of the whole spectrum,
so that STS mat cover a different, often larger frequency width than
PUSCH allocated bandwidth
The SRS is not necessarily transmitted together with any other physical
channel.

SRS enables UL channel aware scheduling!


Thanks to SRS, NodeB learns the overall UL channel quality and can
assign the most appropriate band for UEs to use

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83

Uplink Reference Signals


SRS Sounding Reference Signal (2/2)
2 ms (SRS minimum
transmission periodicity)

s Subframe 0 Subframe 1 Subframe 2

16 RBs

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Connected Mode Procedures


DL Transmission

1. DL Reference signals
2. PUCCH Physical Uplink Control Channel (or PUSCH)
(CQI based on DL reference signals measurements)
3. PCFICH Physical Control Format Indicator Channel
(How many symbols (1,2,3) in the beginning of the sub-frame
are for PDCCH)

4. PDCCH Physical Downlink Control Channel


(Downlink assignment for PDSCH:
Modulation & coding, resource blocks)
5. PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel
(user data -> initial transmission)
6. PUCCH Physical Uplink Control Channel (or PUSCH)
(ACK/ NACK for HARQ)

7. PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel


(user data eventual re-transmission)

EXPERTCONNECTION
Connected Mode Procedures
UL Transmission

1. PUCCH Physical Uplink Control Channel (or PUSCH)

(UL scheduling request)


2. UL Sounding Reference Signal
(used by Node-B for channel dependent scheduling)
3. UL Demodulation Signal
(UL channel estimation, demodulation,
Like DPCCH in UMTS)
4. PDCCH Physical Downlink Control Channel
(UL grant capacity allocation)
5. PUSCH Physical Uplink Shared Channel

(user data initial transmission)


6. PHlCH Physical HARQ Indicator Channel
(ACK/ NACK for HARQ)

7. PUSCH Physical Uplink Shared Channel


(user data eventual re-transmission)

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86

LTE-Advanced
Features Overview

EXPERTCONNECTION
LTE-A (LTE-Advanced) Introduction
Background LTE Evolution Roadmap

IMT-Advanced => a term to identify mobile systems whose capabilities go beyond


those of IMT 2000
Mainly, high bit rate requirements: 100 Mbps for high and 1 Gbps for low mobility
scenarios
September 2009 3GPP made a formal submission to ITU proposing that LTE Rel.10
and beyond is a candidate for IMT-Advanced.
October 2010 LTE-A has successfully completed the evaluation process as complying
with the IMT-A requirements.
3GPP Rel. 10 and Rel. 11 is the initial phase of LTE-A
Rel. 10 was completed in June 2011
Rel. 11 was frozen in March 2013
LTE-A keeps evolving with introducing new features supporting higher performance
and broader services, including following market phases:
LTE-B: 3GPP Rel. 12-13, the second
87
phase of LTE-A. Standardization work is
ongoing
LTE-C: 3GPP Rel. 14-15.
EXPERTCONNECTION

LTE-A (LTE-Advanced) Introduction


LTE-A High level walkthrough (1/2)
Major LTE-A features include:
Carrier aggregation
Enhanced MIMO transmission modes (MIMO 8x8 DL and MIMO 4x4 UL)
Enhanced UL transmission scheme
Inter-cell interference coordination techniques
Application of intelligent relay nodes

88

EXPERTCONNECTION
LTE-A (LTE-Advanced) Introduction
LTE-A High level walkthrough (2/2)

Ref. Rohde&Schwarz

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LTE-A (LTE-Advanced) Introduction


Cost/benefit evaluation of LTE-A features
Ref. Rohde&Schwarz

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LTE-A (LTE-Advanced) Introduction
LTE UE categories

EXPERTCONNECTION

LTE Rel. 10 Radio Features


Overview (1/3)

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LTE Rel. 10 Radio Features
Overview (2/3)

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LTE Rel. 10 Radio Features


Overview (3/3)

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95

LTE Rel. 10 Radio Features


3GPP Specifications
TR 36.806 Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Relay architectures for E-UTRA (LTE-Advanced)
(TR 36.808 Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Carrier Aggregation; Base Station (BS) radio
transmission and reception)
TR 36.814 Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Further advancements for E-UTRA physical layer
aspects
TR 36.815 Further Advancements for E-UTRA; LTE-Advanced feasibility studies in RAN WG4
TR 36.817 Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Uplink multiple antenna transmission; Base Station (BS)
radio transmission and reception
TR 36.826 Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Relay radio transmission and reception
TR 36.871 Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Downlink Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO)
enhancement for LTE-Advanced
TR 36.912 Feasibility study for Further Advancements for E-UTRA (LTE-Advanced)
TR 36.913 Requirements for further advancements for Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) (LTE-
Advanced)
TS 36.211 Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Physical channels and modulation
TS 36.212 Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Multiplexing and channel coding
TS 36.213 Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Physical layer procedures
TS 36.216 Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Physical layer for relaying operation
TS 36.300 Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) and Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network
(E-UTRAN); Overall description; Stage 2

EXPERTCONNECTION

Physical Layer Changes in LTE-A Rel.10


Overview
Enhanced Multi-Antenna Techniques: MIMO transmission on up to 8 layers
UE-specific RS (Reference Symbols)
DCI Format 2C Extension (to include multiplexing of up to 8 layers)
DCI Format 4 (UL-MIMO)

PS (Positioning Specific) RS for OTDOA (Observed Time Difference of


Arrival) -based positioning

Enhanced SC-FDMA
Simultaneous PDCCH and PUSCH transmission
Cross-carrier scheduling for HetNets (Heterogeneous Networks)
Extension of DCI formats to include CFI (Carrier Indicator Field)

Carrier Aggregation
UE may be multiplexed to several carriers
Extension of PUCCH Formats (UCI) to include CSI (Channel State Information)
and HARQ feedback for all DL carriers

EXPERTCONNECTION
LTE-A UE Capability
UE-EUTRA Capability Information Element

Ref:Rohde&Schwarz,LTEAdvancedTechnologyIntroduction,whitepaper

EXPERTCONNECTION

Transmission Modes in LTE-A


Overview

EXPERTCONNECTION
L1 Transport Channel Processing 99

MIMO
3GPP Rel 8., Rel. 9 and Rel. 10 Transmission Modes
Mode1 3GPPRel8 Mode5 3GPPRel9
1antennatransmitting Multipleantennastransmittodifferent
Mode2 UEsinthecell=MultiUserMIMO

Multipleantennastransmitthesame Mode6
signal=Transmitdiversity ClosedloopTransmitDiversity
ImprovesSINR
UEsignalsbackthesuitableprecodingfor
Mode3 thebeamformingoperation
Multipleantennastransmitdifferent
signals
Mode7
NofeedbackfromtheUE=OpenLoop Beamforming;UEspecificreference
SpatialMultiplexing signalsaregeneratedforfeedback
Improvesuserdatarate Mode8
Mode4 2AntennaPortsDualStream
Multipleantennastransmitdifferent Beamforming
signals UEspecificreferencesignalsare
FeedbackfromtheUEused=Closed generatedforfeedback.

LoopSpatialMultiplexing
Improvesuserdatarate
Mode 9 3GPPRel10
Multiple antennas transmit
different signals
Up to8layers spatial multiplexing
EXPERTCONNECTION

L1 Transport Channel Processing 100

MIMO
MIMO Modes supported by current (2015) LTE implementations
Typical set of MIMO transmission modes supported by present
LTE FDD implementations:
Mode 1: Single-antenna transmission (no MIMO)
Mode 2: Transmit diversity MIMO
Mode 3: Spatial multiplexing MIMO (Open Loop MIMO, i.e. no UE
feedback)
Mode 4: Dynamic Open Loop MIMO (Dynamic switching between
Transmit diversity MIMO and Spatial multiplexing MIMO)

EXPERTCONNECTION
L1 Transport Channel Processing
MIMO
TM1: Single antenna port transmission

1x1 SISO (Single Input Single Output) or 1x2 SIMO (Single Input Multiple Output)
Supported: DL and UL
Flexi eNB supports 2-branch RX diversity (future: 4-branch)

Transmission on a single antenna port (conventional radio transmission):

Layer
Mapper Precoding

RE mapping
Stream of symbols (modulated) 1 Layer
OFDM signal generation
(Rank = 1)

EXPERTCONNECTION

L1 Transport Channel Processing


MIMO
TM 2:Single Stream MIMO = TX Diversity with 2 Antenna Ports
Each symbol is transmitted with efficiently designed redundancy.
Transmit Diversity Mode is applicable to all Control channels (PDCCH, PBCH, PHICH,
PFICH), the synchronization signals (PSS, SCC), and PDSCH.
When Dynamic MIMO Mode Switching is enabled (supported by majority of vendors),
Transmit Diversity MIMO mode is switched ON in poor radio conditions (CQI and RI
switching thresholds)

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L1 Transport Channel Processing 103
MIMO
TM 3: Dual Stream MIMO = Spatial Multiplexing Open Loop
With Spatial Multiplexing from 2 to 4 independent data streams are transmitted in parraler
directly increasing maximum user throughput (Different symols at different Antenna Ports
at each time)
Spatial Multiplexing Mode is applicable to PDSCH.
When Dynamic MIMO Mode Switching is enabled (supported by majority of vendors),
Spatial Multiplexing MIMO mode is switched ON in good radio conditions (CQI and RI
switching thresholds) RE map, OFDM signal

Layer Precoding
Mapper

Stream of symbols (modulated) 2 paraller data streams

Feedback:
CQI (Channel Quality Indicator)
RI (Rank Indicator)

EXPERTCONNECTION

L1 Transport Channel Processing


MIMO
TM 4: Dual Stream MIMO = Spatial Multiplexing Closed Loop
Two codewords mapped onto 2-4 layers, (8 in LTE-A). Please note
that increasing number of codewords would result in significant
increase of overhead (ACK/NACK, CQI are reported per codeword)
UE provides PMI (Precoding Matrix Indicator) reporting the best
codebook index. RE map, OFDM signal

Layer Precoding
Mapper

Stream of symbols (modulated)


2 parallel data streams

Feedback:
CQI (Channel Quality Indicator)
RI (Rank Indicator)
PMI (Precoding Matrix Indicator)

EXPERTCONNECTION
L1 Transport Channel Processing
MIMO
TM 3/4: MIMO 4x4 (1/2)

EXPERTCONNECTION

L1 Transport Channel Processing


MIMO
TM 3/4: MIMO 4x4 (2/2)

EXPERTCONNECTION
L1 Transport Channel Processing
MIMO
TM 3/4: MIMO 4x4 (3/3)

EXPERTCONNECTION

L1 Transport Channel Processing


MIMO
TM 3/4: MIMO 4x2

EXPERTCONNECTION
L1 Transport Channel Processing
MIMO
TM 6: Single Stream MIMO = Spatial Multiplexing Closed Loop
UE provides PMI (Precoding Matrix Indicator) reporting the best codebook index.
Example of single codeword / single layer mapping to two antennas.
Also known as beamforming. This TM is defined in 3GPP Rel. 9 and at present not
supported by majority of LTE vendors.

Layer Precoding
Mapper

1 data stream

Feedback:
Symbols after scrambling and modulation, 1 code word CQI
RI
PMI

EXPERTCONNECTION

Enhanced Multi-Antenna Techniques


Introduction
Enhanced multi-antenna techniques were required to fulfill
the target for LTE-Advanced peak rate efficiency of 30
b/s/Hz.
Target peak rate spectral efficiency can be achieved with
SU-MIMO (Single User MIMO) using up to eight spatial
multiplexing.
Rel-10 introduced new Transmit Mode 9 that supports 8
antenna ports
Further to peak rate efficiency improvement, LTE-Advanced
requirement was also to improve average spectrum
efficiency and the cell edge user throughput efficiency.
MU-MIMO (Multi User MIMO) technique was critical addition
so that average spectrum efficiency targets could be
achieved.
MU-MIMO is supported by Transmit modes 8 (Rel-9) and 9
(Rel-10).

EXPERTCONNECTION
Enhanced Multi-Antenna Techniques
Single User-MIMO vs. Multi User-MIMO

Rx

Tx Rx Tx

Rx

SUMIMO MUMIMO
Capacity gain min{M,N} Capacitygainmin{M,Nn}
Increases peak throughput
High SINR requirement
Increasescellcapacity
1 receiving terminal 14receivingterminals
CSI inaccuracy does not impact MultiplexinggainreducesifCSI
to multiplexing gain informationisnotaccurate
Up to 8 x 8 MIMO (Rel. 10)

EXPERTCONNECTION

Enhanced Multi-Antenna Techniques


Multi user-MIMO
Multi User MIMO technique means that same time-frequency domain is used to
communicate to several terminals by using several antennas at transmitter
In Transmission Mode 8 it is possible to define two orthogonal reference signals (OCC -
orthogonal cover codes). These can be assigned to different users to enable MU-MIMO
transmission.
In scheduling assignment, terminal is informed what pseudo-random sequence is used
for a certain demodulation reference signal to a certain terminal
OCC and pseudo-random sequence together allows MU-MIMO to be serving four
different terminal simultaneously. In this case, spatial multiplexing cannot be used
anymore per link basis. Spatial multiplexing can be used also, but number of terminals is
reduced to 2.
4 terminals 2 terminals
No spatial mux Spatial mux

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113

Enhanced Multi-Antenna Techniques


Supported MIMO variants in LTE-A (Rel. 10)

Upto8DLlayers
Upto4ULlayers

Ref:Rohde&Schwarz,LTEAdvancedTechnologyIntroduction,whitepaper
EXPERTCONNECTION

Multi-Antenna Techniques in Rel. 8 / Rel. 9


Conventional cell-specific Reference Signal, MIMO 2x2

EXPERTCONNECTION
Multi-Antenna Techniques in Rel. 8 / Rel. 9
Conventional Cell-specific Reference Signal, MIMO 2x2, MIMO 4x4

With1TXantenna:4RSsperRB,Overhead=4,7%
One antenna port

R0 R0

R0 R0
With2TXantennas:8RSsperRB,Overhead=9,5%
With4TXantennas:12RSperRB,Overhead=14,2%
R0 R0

R0 R0
l 0 l 6 l 0 l 6
l=0 ...... 6, 0 .. 6

Resource Element (RE) k, l


Resource element (k,l)
Two antenna ports

R0 R0 R1 R1

R0 R0 R1 R1
Not used for transmission on this antenna port (DTX)
Not used for transmission on this antenna port

R0 R0 R1 R1
Reference symbols (RS) on this antenna port
Reference symbols on this antenna port

R0 R0 R1 R1
l 0 l 6 l 0 l 6 l 0 l 6 l 0 l 6
l=0 ...... 6, 0 .. 6 l=0 ...... 6, 0 .. 6
Four antenna ports

R0 R0 R1 R1 R2 R3

R0 R0 R1 R1 R2 R3

R0 R0 R1 R1 R2 R3

R0 R0 R1 R1 R2 R3
l 0 l 6 l 0 l 6 l 0 l 6 l 0 l 6 l 0 l 6 l 0 l 6 l 0 l 6 l 0 l 6
Antenna port 0 Antenna port 1 Antenna port 2 Antenna port 3
even-numbered slots odd-numbered slots even-numbered slots odd-numbered slots even-numbered slots odd-numbered slots even-numbered slots odd-numbered slots

Antenna port 0 Antenna port 1 Antenna port 2 Antenna port 3

Multi-Antenna Techniques in Rel. 8 / Rel. 9


Logical Antenna Port vs Physical Antenna Port
Logical Antenna Port:
LTE Symbols that are transmitted over identical Antenna Port are subject to the
same propagation conditions

Mapping between Logical and Physical Antenna Port:


In Rel. 8 LTE (i.e. MIMO 2x2 and MIMO 4x4), mapping 1:1 is assumed, although not
precisely 3GPP standardized
Cell-specific RS (Reference Symbols) are defined for up to 4 Antenna ports with
scheme that when one Antenna Port transmits RS, the other Antenna Port(s) do not
transmit any symbol
AntennaPorts PhysicalAntennas

AP0 PA1
Mappingoflogical
AP1 PA2 AntennaPortstoPhysical
transmitantennas
accordingto3GPPRel.8
AP2 PA3

AP3 PA4

EXPERTCONNECTION
Enhanced Multi-Antenna Techniques
Reference Signals introduced in Rel. 10 (1/2)
Cell-specific RS (conventional) are transmitted on only up to 4 APs
In Rel. 10, with transmission on up to 4 layers, the cell-specific RS mapping is same as in Rel. 8
If more that four layers are used (Rel. 10) or in case of beamforming (Rel. 9), UE-
specific RS are used
UE-specific RS are transmitted only on the RB (Resource Blocks) upon which the corresponding
PDSCH is mapped.
UE-specific RS are subject to the same precoding as PDSCH symbols.
For the up to 8 layer PDSCH transmission, AP 7-14 are used
UE-specific RS are also named as DM-RS (Demodulation-RS).
As stated in 3GPP: "Complementary use of Rel. 8 cell-specific RS by the UE is not precluded"
(although please note that cell-specific RS are transmitted on only up to 4 layers).

In addition to Cell-specific RS (Rel. 8) and DM-RS (Rel. 10), cell-specific RS are


transmitted targeting CSI (Channel State Information)-estimation, sparse in
time/frequency and punctured into the data region of normal subframes
CSI-RS are transmitted on one, two, four, or eight antenna ports (Antenna Ports 15 - 22)

EXPERTCONNECTION

Enhanced Multi-Antenna Techniques


Reference Signals introduced in Rel. 10 (2/2)
The CRS is used for CSI measurements and demodulation in legacy (Rel. 8 and 9)
transmission modes, as well as for control channel decoding and various
measurements and UE procedures
The DM-RS structure was introduced in Rel. 9 to support single-layer and dual-layer
transmission. It was further extended in Rel. 10 to support up to rank 8 transmissions in
new transmission mode (Transmission Mode 9)
The CSI-RS is used for CSI measurements in the new transmission modes.

CRS
DMRS(eight)
CRS CSIRS
DMRS(dual)
CRS Rel. 10
DMRS(single)
Rel. 9

Rel. 8

EXPERTCONNECTION
Enhanced Multi-Antenna Techniques
Logical Antenna Port vs Physical Antenna Port
AntennaPorts PhysicalAntennas

AP0 PA1

AP1 PA2
Cellspecific
Rel.8RS
AP2 PA3
(AP0 AP3)
AP3 PA4
MBMSRel.9RSs(AP4) AP4
Rel.8userspecifcRS
(Beamforming,AP5) AP5

PositioningRel.9 AP6
RS(AP6)
AP7
8layerPDSCH AP8
transmission
(userspecifc
Rel.10DMRS) AP14

AP15 PA8
Cellspecific AP16
Rel.10CSI RS
(AP15 AP22)
AP22
EXPERTCONNECTION

Enhanced Multi-Antenna Techniques


DM-RS Reference Signals
Demodulation reference signals DM-RS, also called as user-specific reference signals,
are targeted only for specific terminals.
Configuration of these reference signals was further increased in Rel. 10.
Rel.10 supports eight simultaneous reference signals.
DM-RS are subject to the same precoding as U-Plane PDSCH, hence they are
mutually orthogonal across the layers.
User-specific reference signals are transmitted only on resource blocks that are
intended for UE releases that understand mapping and can thus avoid PDSCH
collision.
The purpose of user-specific reference signals is to make channel estimation for
PDSCH transmissions for the case when cell-specific reference signals are not to be
used
User-specific reference signals are mapped to same positions in different antenna
ports, but separated with orthogonal cover codes.
Pseudo random sequences can also be used to differentiate terminals in case of MU-
MIMO.

EXPERTCONNECTION
Enhanced Multi-Antenna Techniques
CSI reference signals (CSI-RS) (1/2)
In Rel-10, new cell-specific reference signal is introduced, CSI (Channel State
Information) Reference signal.
In Rel-8, there was just 4 cell specific reference signals. Due to MIMO expansion in
Rel-10, new reference signals were required.
New cell-specific reference signal type was invented, because there was a willingness
to reduce the overhead caused by the traditional cell-specific reference signals.
CSI reference signals support a configuration of one, two, four or eight antenna ports
and are transmitted on antenna ports p =15 , p =15,16 , p =15,...,18 and p =15,...,22,
respectively.
If a Rel-10 terminal is scheduled in a resource block in which CSI-RS is transmitted,
the PDSCH mapping is modified to explicitly avoid the resource elements on which
the CSI-RS is transmitted.
However, if a Rel-8 is scheduled in CSI-RS resource block, CSI-RS is mapped on top
of PDSCH. This reduces PDSCH demodulation performance, but not significantly.

EXPERTCONNECTION

Enhanced Multi-Antenna Techniques


CSI reference signals (CSI-RS) (2/2)
Resource element has 40 different positions for CSI-RS. This
means that number of possible positions for different configurations
are:
2 CSI-RS -> 20 positions. Reference signals are in pairs.
4 CSI-RS -> 10 positions. 2 group of two reference signals.
8 CSI-RS -> 5 positions. 2 group of four reference signals.

CSI-RS transmission period can vary from 5ms to 80ms

2 CSI-RS 4 CSI-RS 8 CSI-RS

EXPERTCONNECTION
Enhanced Multi-Antenna Techniques
Extension of DCI 2C Format (Transmission Mode 9)
PDCCH DCI Format 2C has been extended in order to allow
scheduling resource assignments that support multiplexing of up to
8 layers.
Rel. 10 DCI Format 2C includes:
Carrier indicator [3 bit]
Resource allocation header [1 bit], resource allocation Type 0 and 1
TPC command for PUCCH [2 bit]
Downlink Assignment Index [2 bit], TDD only
HARQ process number [3 bit (FDD), 4 bit (TDD)]
Antenna ports, scrambling identify and # of layers; [3 bit]
SRS request [0-1 bit], TDD only
MCS, new data indicator, RV for two transport blocks [each 5 bit]

EXPERTCONNECTION

Enhanced Multi-Antenna Techniques


UL MIMO - Overview
LTE-A provides an UL-MIMO transmission mode
As in the DL, up to two TB (Transport Blocks) can be scheduled
Precoding in the UL is limited to up to four parallel layers
Transmission rank can be adapted dynamically

LTE-A also support UL TX Diversity (analogical functionality as for the DL)


The same symbols are mapped onto parallel antennas and transmitted in the UL

In order to support scheduling grant for the UL-MIMO spatial multiplexing


transmission, new DCI format has been introduced (DCI 4)
DCI 4 Format contains all the UL scheduling information needed for the MIMO UL
Transmission in a contrary to a conventional DCI 0 Format

EXPERTCONNECTION
Enhanced Multi-Antenna Techniques
UL MIMO - Scheduling grant (DCI Format 4)
Carrier indicator [0-3 bit]
Resource Block Assignment [number of bits depends on system bandwidth and
corresponding RBG size (P), Resource allocation Type 0 and Type 1
TPC command for PUSCH [2 bits]
Cyclic shift for DM RS and OCC index [2 bits]
UL index [2 bit], TDD only for UL-DL configuration 0
Downlink Assignment Index [2 bit], TDD only, for UL-DL configuration 1 to 6
CSI request [1 or 2 bit], 2 bit for cells with more than two cells in the DL (carrier
aggregation)
SRS request [2 bit]
Resource Allocation Type [1 bit].
For each of the two transport blocks: MCS, RV [5 bits], new data indicator [1 bit]
Precoding information (3 bits for 2 antenna ports, 6 bits for 4 antenna ports)

EXPERTCONNECTION

Enhanced SC-FDMA
Introduction
Rel. 10 introduces new clustered SC-FDMA technique for UL transmission. This is also
called as discrete Fourier transform spread OFDM (DFTS-OFDM)
The advantage in clustered SC-FDMA is that it allows non-contiguous groups
(clusters) of subcarriers to be allocated to one terminal.
This enables frequency selective scheduling, which in turn improves link performance
This feature also enables Carrier Aggregation in the UL (standardized in Rel. 10)

Pure OFDMA in the UL would result in significantly increased PAPR


Illustration of localized and clustered SC-FDMA techniques is presented below
As a consequence, PUCCH and PUSCH can also be transmitted simultaneously

Localized SCFDMA Clustered SCFDMA

User1 User2 User3 User1 User2 User3

EXPERTCONNECTION
Enhanced SC-FDMA
Rel. 8 versus Rel. 10

Ref:AgilentIntroducingLTEAdvanced
whitepaper EXPERTCONNECTION

128

Enhanced SC-FDMA
Transmitter (1/2)
The benefit of distributed DFT-S OFDMA is that frequency diversity can be added.
User multiplexing in the frequency domain as well as flexible bandwidth allocation is
also possible
Simplified block diagrams of localized and distributed DFTS-OFDM transmitters
illustrated below
e benefit of distributed DFT-S OFDMA is that frequency diversity can be added.

LocalizedDFTSOFDMA DistributedDFTSOFDMA

SizeM OFDMA SizeM OFDMA


DFT CP DFT CP
(IDFT) (IDFT)

EXPERTCONNECTION
129

Enhanced SC-FDMA
Transmitter (2/2)
DFTS-OFDM is a normal OFDM with a DFT-based precoding
Block of M modulation symbols from some modulation scheme is first
applied to a size-M DFT
The output of the DFT is then applied to consecutive subcarriers of an T
OFDM modulator where the OFDM modulator will be implemented as a size- X
N inverse DFT (IDFT) with and where the unused inputs of the IDFT
are set to zero.
Cyclic prefix is preferably inserted for each transmitted block

Receiver operations are nearly reverse compared to transmitter


However, an equalizer is needed to compensate for the radio-channel
R
frequency selectivity X

EXPERTCONNECTION

Enhanced SC-FDMA
Simultaneous PUCCH and PUSCH Transmission
In Release 8 the user data carried on the physical uplink shared channel
(PUSCH) and the control data carried on the physical uplink control channel
(PUCCH) are time-multiplexed.
It is also possible to multiplex control data with user data on the PUSCH.
LTE-Advanced introduces a new mechanism for simultaneous transmission
of control and data by allowing the PUSCH and the PUCCH to be
transmitted simultaneously.
This mechanism has some latency and scheduling advantages over time-
multiplexed approaches although it does generate a multicarrier signal within
one component carrier of the uplink.
Simultaneous PUCCH/PUSCH transmission should not be confused with
carrier aggregation, which involves more than one component carrier.
Simultaneous PUCCH/PUSCH transmission is known to increase PAPR,
which makes it more likely that the power amplifier will create unwanted
intermodulation products.

EXPERTCONNECTION
Enhanced SC-FDMA
DCI Format 0 with Uplink Resource Allocation Type 1
Conventionally (Rel. 8), DCI Format 0 for UL resource allocation
provides only for contiguous allocation for the UL.
With Enhanced SC-FDMA (Rel. 10), non-contiguous bandwidth
allocation is enabled for the UL, hence Resource Type Allocation 1
has been introduced.
For detailed description of Resource Type Allocation 1 see earlier slides

EXPERTCONNECTION

Carrier Aggregation for LTE


Introduction
In Carrier Aggregation (CA), two
or more Component Carriers
(CCs) are aggregated in order to
support wider transmission
bandwidths up to 100MHz.
A UE may simultaneously receive
or transmit on one or multiple
CCs depending on its
capabilities:
There is one primary CC for both
DL and UL. It can be either
symmetric or asymmetric.
There are several serving cells
when carrier aggregation is used.
RRC connection is handled by
one cell, called primary serving
cell.
Different component carriers can
have different coverage area.

Rel.10

EXPERTCONNECTION
Carrier Aggregation for LTE
Different Types of CA
Intra-band contiguous carrier aggregation: contiguous carriers aggregated in
the same operating band.

Rel.10

Band 1 Band 2

Intra-band non-contiguous carrier aggregation: non-contiguous carriers


aggregated in the same operating band.
Rel.11

Band 1 Band 2

Inter-band carrier aggregation: carrier aggregation of component carriers in


different operating bands. NOTE: Carriers aggregated in each band can be
contiguous or non-contiguous.
Rel.10

Band 1 Band 2

EXPERTCONNECTION

Carrier Aggregation for LTE


PUCCH Formats Extensions (1/2)
When carrier aggregation is active, uplink control signalling
should be sent separately for each component carrier.
PUCCH Format 1B that was introduced in Rel-8 supports only 2
component carriers
Blockcode
New PUCCH Format 3 has been defined in Rel-10, and it can
support up to 10 ACK/NACK for up to 5 component carriers (with Scrambling
MIMO 2x2 each) in FDD/TDD respectively.
QPSK
First 12 QPSK symbols

Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift

DFT DFT DFT DFT DFT

IFFT IFFT IFFT IFFT IFFT IFFT IFFT

0.5 ms subframe

EXPERTCONNECTION
Carrier Aggregation for LTE
Scheduling

EXPERTCONNECTION

Carrier Aggregation for LTE


Functionality Overview
Majority of current implementations support
only inter-band CA often with additional
constrains:
E.g. Nokia supports the following
configurations:
Band 1 (2100) + Band 5 (850)
Band 1 (2100) + Band 8 (900)
Band 3 (1800) + Band 5 (850)
Band 3 (1800) + Band 9 (900)
Band 5 (850) + Band 12 (US 800)

With bandwidth combinations (5+5, 10+10


and 5+10 MHz)
Only non-GBR data could be sent via the
secondary cell
Currently, there is no support for CA in the UL

A regular cell is paired with additional logical cell serving the same site sector (3GPP Rel. 10)
This dependency could be bi-directional this first cell could play a role of secondary cell as well.
Pcell and SCell have to be collocated with each other (3GPP Rel. 10)

EXPERTCONNECTION
Carrier Aggregation for LTE
Functionality (1/8)
All cells handling CA UEs serve simultaneously also regular, non-CA UEs
Maximum cell capacity limitations for CA connections typically apply
Example below maximum # of users in a cell is 420.
50 of them can have a secondary cell configured
and at maximum 50 others of them can have this cell configured as a secondary one

EXPERTCONNECTION

Carrier Aggregation for LTE


Functionality (2/8)
The Scell is configured
for the UE with RRC
signalling, although not
activated
Once the Scell is
configured, the UE
listens PDCCH for DCIs
from two carriers
There are two methods
to activate the Scell
Buffer-based
Blind
Scellinfo
providedtothe
UE
(Scellconfigured,
butnot
activated)
EXPERTCONNECTION
Carrier Aggregation for LTE
Functionality (3/8)

EXPERTCONNECTION

Carrier Aggregation for LTE


Functionality (4/8)
While SCell addition process does not consider actual throughput demands from CA
capable UEs, such throughput analysis is performed prior to SCell activation. Only if the
amount of data is high enough the second cell could be activated
Activation of the secondary cell means for the UE that:
PDCCH of the SCell is from now on monitored in order to find potential DL grant for this
UE
CQI/PMI/RI reporting for the SCell is performed via primary cell (no UL carrier
aggregation)
The fact of having the SCell activated does not necessarily mean that it will be actually
used in every TTI.
The scheduler evaluates whether the amount of buffered non-GBR data justifies the
use of SCell, because PCell resources may be sufficient.
Apart from the regular DL scheduler algorithms, there are separate CA specific
algorithms running on top crucial one is the algorithm deciding about data split
between PCell and Scell
Pcell and SCell schedulers run separately on TTI basis
There are certain modifications implemented in the generic scheduler algorithm
running in the cells once CA is enabled in the cell

EXPERTCONNECTION
Carrier Aggregation for LTE ConfigureUEwithSCell
Functionality (5/8)
RRM signaling
Blind Activation SCellconfigured,not
Scell is activated right after activated
configuring it for the UE, than nGBR buffer based Blind activation
e.g., based on the inactivity
timers it is deactivated Start Startperiodic Scell
Buffer-based activation calculating activationcycle activated
Every Scell-Activation-Period activation
(in NSN e.g. 2 s is default), the threshold
Period activation occasion
non-GBR buffer status is value Restart
checked in the eNB and Scell is timer
activated if the amount of data ComparenGBRbuffer
exceeds predefined threshold againstcurrent
The threshold is dynamically
activationthreshold
calculated based on the
amount of data that could be
transmitted solely by the Pcell Scellactivated
on the throughput reached in
the past by this UE At subframe n+8

EXPERTCONNECTION

Carrier Aggregation for LTE


Functionality (6/8)

EXPERTCONNECTION
Carrier Aggregation for LTE
Functionality (7/8)
Each TTI: decision whether to use SCell and determination of PCell/SCell data limits

EXPERTCONNECTION

Carrier Aggregation for LTE


Functionality (8/8)

EXPERTCONNECTION
Carrier Aggregation for LTE
Deactivation
Active secondary cell is deactivated if:
There is no data scheduled for the SCell during a defined timer (vendor-specific)
The timer is reset to zero at each new SCell PDCCH assignment
No HARQ feedback was received during a defined other timer (vendor-specific)
Ambiguous HARQ feedback is treated as DTX

Note that in present CA vendor implementations, GBR Bearers are served on a


primary cell only. An establishment of a GBR DRB does not cause SCell
deactivation or de-configuration

EXPERTCONNECTION

Carrier Aggregation for LTE


Cell Coverage impact

CA impacts DL cell Without Carrier Aggregation With Carrier Aggregation


range
Activation of the UL:1.75km
DL:3.81km
(withCA)
secondary cell results in DL:3.61km
UL:1.75
load division between km
DL:3.61km (withoutCA)
the Component Carriers
Lowering offered load
for the Primary Cell
leads to use of
MSC / # of PRBs
combination that results REMARK: REMARK:
in cell range increase Pleasenotethatthecoverageislimited Pleasenotethatthecoverageislimitedbythe
bytheULlinkandfinalcellrangewillbe ULlinkandfinalcellrangewillbe1.75km.
1.75km.

Primary Component Carrier (PCC): 850 MHz; Secondary Component Carrier (SCC): 1800 MHz; Channel bandwidth (PCC & SCC): 10 MHz
Transmit power:
eNB: 20 W (43 dBm); UE: 0.25 W (24 dBm)
Antenna gain:
eNB: 18 dBi (PCC), 20.7 dBi (SCC); UE: 0 dBi
Antenna configuration:
DL: 2Tx 2Rx; UL: 1Tx 2Rx
Cell-edge user throughput:
DL: adjusted (DL/UL balancing); UL: 384 kbps
EXPERTCONNECTION
DL Carrier Aggregation and HetNets
Cross-carrier scheduling (1/2)
In addition to already described scheduling scenario that every CC (Component Carrier)
uses its own PDCCH to schedule resources for a UE, cross-carrier scheduling has been
specified in 3GPP Rel. 8
Cross-carrier scheduling uses PDCCH only on the Primary CC to schedule resources
also for the Secondary CC(s).
For this propose DCI Format scheme has been extended to include a 3 bit Carrier Indicator field
(CFI)
The aim of cross-carrier scheduling is to save capacity and also to provide support for load
balancing in HetNets
PDCCH overlapping in different layers can be avoided

Ref:Rohde&Schwarz,LTEAdvancedTechnologyIntroduction,whitepaper
EXPERTCONNECTION

DL Carrier Aggregation and HetNets


Cross-carrier scheduling (2/2)

Ref:Rohde&Schwarz,LTEAdvancedTechnologyIntroduction,whitepaper
EXPERTCONNECTION
Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets) in LTE
Motivation / Deployment Scenarios
HetNets (Heterogeneous networks), where macro cells are creating
coverage and pico cells/femto cells are added to increase capacity (in some
cases also to complement the coverage) are becoming more common in
future LTE networks.
Following deployment scenarios can be considered:
Controlled coverage, small calls are added to complement the coverage (e.g.
according to feedback from customers)

Free deployment for coverage and home-services capacity. Smalll cells plan can
bu purchased by customers in order to improve the coverage and access to
services in their home.

Pushed deployment for offloading/home-services. In addition to the above (free


deployment scenario), small cell solutions are strongly pushed to the customers.

EXPERTCONNECTION

Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets) in LTE


eICIC (enhanced Inter-Cell Interference Coordination) - Introduction
To be able to utilize the maximum capacity in HetNets, more advanced techniques are
required to handle the interference between these layers -> eICIC

Prior toRel.10,thefollowing
mechanisms were standardized
forICIC:
Randomization inthe
assignment (L1bitstream)
Macrocell Interference cancellation on
theRecevier
Interference coordination
over X2(eNBs exchange
information about
possible/exsiting
interferences)

Pico/Femtocell

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eICIC (enhanced Inter-Cell Interference Coordination)
HetNets with Pico Cell Interference with Macro cell
CRE(CellRangeExtension)

Picocell
Macrocell

Within the CRE, the path loss on the UL to the Pico cell is still smaller than the
path loss to the Macro cell, although in the DL Marco Cell is clearly the
stronger one
The reason of this asymmetry a difference in the transmission powers
For the UE it is better to stay connected to the Pico cell (smaller UL interference)
With no eICIC, the Macro Cell DL interference makes it difficult for the UE to get DL
control signals decoded from the Pico cell

EXPERTCONNECTION

eICIC (enhanced Inter-Cell Interference Coordination)


HetNets with Femto Cell Interference with Macro cell

FemtocellwithCSG
Macrocell (ClosedSubsriber
Group)

Femto cell service is usually restricted to the pre-defined subscriber list


(CSG).
Hence, the UEs outside the CSG list, might be heavilly interferred by the
Femto cell in the DL and also this UE might create interference to the Femto
cell in the UL

EXPERTCONNECTION
eICIC (enhanced Inter-Cell Interference Coordination)
ABS (Almost Blanked Subframes) scheduling (1/2)
In order to minimize DL interference, concept of ABS (Almost Blanked
Subframes) have been introduced to the Macro cell packet scheduler
ABS subframes without any data transmission and without any control information
In order to provide backward compatibility with prior to Rel. 10 UEs, the ABS pattern
must be configured to not include subframes containing fixed-allocated channels as
PSCH, PBCH, and Paging Occasions.
ABS subframe include the cell-specific Reference Symbols.

Cell1

Cell2

ABS ABS

EXPERTCONNECTION

eICIC (enhanced Inter-Cell Interference Coordination)


ABS (Almost Blanked Subframes) scheduling (2/2)
In the Pico Cell - Macro cell HetNet scenario, there is an X2 interface with
the interferring Macro cell
Macro cell sends its ABS scheduling information to the Pico Cell
(LoadInformation Message, semi-statical periodicity)
The message contains two bitmaps (Two indicate set of ABS used by the Macro
Cell and the other one to indicate the recommended subframes to take
measurements)
Pico Cell derives from these bitmaps a pattern for UE measurement restrictions
and sent these to the UE via dedicated RRC signalling

In the Femto Cell Macro cell HetNet scenario, there is no X2 interface


with the interfering Macro cell, hence the ABS scheduling pattern and the
corresponding UE measurement pattern can be set only via O&M

EXPERTCONNECTION
Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets) with eICIC
Alternative deployment with small WiFi cells comparison (1/2)
Qualcomm study A Comparison of LTE Advanced HetNets and WiFi provides
interesting view on two complementary options for offloading macro cell traffic.
LTE-A HetNets with eICIC-cotntrolled pico cells (operating in the same channel)
WiFi overlay in an unlicensed spectrum.
Most of phones/tables/laptops have WiFi in-built WiFi access
Study shows that LTE-A pico cells offer a superior performance than WiFi solution due
to expanded coverage of LTE-A pico cells.
Expectedly, WiFi solution is effective in improving user experience when significant
portion of users is is located in the vicinity of hotspots (due to small WiFi footprint)
Simulation scenario in this study:
LTE-A eICIC-controlled pico cell option: Frequency 700 MHz and 2100 MHz (depending on the
considered scenrio)
WiFi option: Frequency 5,5 GHz, 24 non-overlapping WiFi channels, assumed there is no
interference from/to the LTE macro cells as WiFi operated on different frequency
Macro cell inter-site distance: 500 m and 1732 m (two different layouts considered)
1 or 4 small cells (LTE-A pico cells or WiFi) per macro cell
30 UEs randomly distributed, out of which 20 UEs are within the hotspot range

EXPERTCONNECTION

Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets) with eICIC


Alternative deployment with small WiFi cells comparison (2/2)

Largemacrocell(ISD=1732m) Smallmacrocell(ISD=500m)

Ref: QualcommstudyAComparisonofLTE
AdvancedHetNetsandWiFi
EXPERTCONNECTION
Selected 3GPP Rel. 11-12 Enhacements

EXPERTCONNECTION

158

LTE Rel. 11 Radio Features


Overview

HetNet
CoMP

Carrier
Other
Aggregation

LTERel.11

Service
continuity EPDCCH
forMBMS

UE
Positioning

EXPERTCONNECTION
Enhancements to Rel. 10 Carrier Aggregation
Non-contiguous intra-band carrier aggregation (1/2)
Carrier Aggregation in Rel. 10 was supporting only intra band contiguous
and inter band operating bands. The number of supported operating bands
for these types of CA has increased significantly in Rel. 11. Detailed bands
can be found in 3GPP specs 36.101
Rel. 11 will introduce operating bands also for intra-band non-contiguous
CA. There is one operating band for FDD and one for TDD. See table below.

Band 1 Band 2

EUTRACA Band Type EUTRA ULoperatingband DLoperatingband Duplex


Band Band FUL,low FUL,high FDL,low FDL,high Mode
CA_2525 Intra band non 25 1850MHz 1915MHz 1930MHz 1995MHz FDD
contiguous
CA_4141 Intra band non 41 2496MHz 2690MHz 2496MHz 2690MHz TDD
contiguous

EXPERTCONNECTION

Enhancements to Rel. 10 Carrier Aggregation


Non-contiguous intra-band carrier aggregation (2/2)
There were modifications required to UE and base station requirements to support non-
contiguous intra-band CA

Base station requirements UErequirements

For intra-band non-contiguous only 5 MHz and 10 MHz bandwidths


carrier aggregation, with or without have to be supported for intra-band
MIMO or TX diversity, TAE shall not non-contiguous carrier aggregation.
exceed 260 ns. The throughput of each downlink
Cumulative Adjacent Channel component carrier needs to be at
Leakage power Ratio (CACLR) least 95% of the maximum
requirement was introduced throughput of the reference
For frequency gaps larger than 15 measurement channels.
MHz ACLR applies for the first maximum input level (-22dBm for
adjacent channel and for frequency the sum of both received carriers at
gaps larger than 20 MHz the ACLR same power)
requirement for the second adjacent
channel applies.

EXPERTCONNECTION
Enhancements to Rel. 10 Carrier Aggregation
TA impact for UL carrier aggregation (1/2)
In Rel. 10, single Timing Advance (TA) value was used in all carriers in case of carrier
aggregation. This was limiting the UL CA for scenarios where the propagation delay of
each carrier was same
Enhancement was required, because HetNet and CoMP creates scenarios where
carriers could have different propagation delay
In Rel. 11, each carrier group can have own TA value. This is called Timing Advance
Group (TAG)
UL subframes in Rel. 10

Pcell

Scell

UL subframes in Rel. 11

Pcell

Scell

EXPERTCONNECTION

Enhancements to Rel. 10 Carrier Aggregation


TA impact for UL carrier aggregation (2/2)
Each cell in same TAG has same UL timing advance and the same DL timing
reference cell.
Primary Timing Advance Group (pTAG) is a group where one of the serving
cells is Pcell
Secondary Timing Advance Group (pTAG) is a group where all cells are Scells
Only two TAGs are allowed
Intial UL timing alignment is determined in RACH process. For Scells eNodeB is
requesting RACH to determine TA
The UE will track the downlink frame timing change of the SCell and adjust UL
transmission timing following the timing advance commands from the eNB.

EXPERTCONNECTION
Enhancements to Rel. 10 Carrier Aggregation
Further Evolution (Rel. 12: TDD+FDD Aggregation)
3GPP Rel. 12 has defined FDD + TDD Aggregation, which allows either FDD or TDD as
the Primary Cell
First implementations expected during this year (2015)
Also, as part of Rel. 12, CA is supported on two cells that belong to two different eNBs
(physical layer implications)
Inter-Site CA relies on dual connectivity where the device has two simultaneous radio
connections to two eNBs
The main use-case is for HetNets (Heterogeneous Networks), with low band macro cell and
small cell operating at higher band (Rel. 12 provides X2 interface between Macro and Small cell)

EXPERTCONNECTION

Enhancements to Rel. 10 Carrier Aggregation


Further Evolution (Supplemental Bands (29, 32))
Supplemental DL (SDL) allows the bonding of unpaired spectrum with FDD
mobile bands -> enhance downlink capacity/user experience
3GPP Rel. 9 provides SDL with single carrier
3GPP Rel. 10 provides for up to three supplemental carriers in the unpaired band
to be used along with the serving carriers in the paired band
Feature illustrated first time by E/// at MWC already back in
2011.
SupplementalbandLband
(14521492MHz)havebeen
standardizedas:
Band29
Band32

EXPERTCONNECTION
Enhancements to Rel. 10 Carrier Aggregation
Further Evolution (Rel. 13: Unlicensed bands)
As part of 3GPP Rel. 13, LTE can also use the unlicensed 5 GHz
band to boost network capacity and data rates
LTE-U (LTE for Unlicensed) or LAA (Licensed Assisted Access)
LTE-U concept is an extension of the supplemental DL solution
DL data stream is split between these two bands based on the CQI
feedback and the load per band
Nokia studies show that LTE-U with LTE-A can not only double the
spectral efficiency but also double the cell range in comparison to
conventional WiFi offloading on the same band

EXPERTCONNECTION

Enhancements to Rel. 10 Carrier Aggregation


Further Evolution (HSPA+LTE Aggregation)

EXPERTCONNECTION
Heterogeneous Networks (HetNet)
CoMP for Homogenous networks
Coordinated Multi-Point Operation (CoMP) is a technique where base stations are
coordinating their transmission in order to minimize the interference to other base
stations
The main objective of Coordinated Multi-Point Operation (CoMP) is to reduce inter cell
interference and improve cell edge throughput
Inter Cell Interference Coordination (ICIC) in LTE relies on coordinated message
exchange through X2 interface
One of the challenges of legacy ICIC is the latency between messages. This is not an
issue if coordination is done between cells belonging to the same macro base station

Scenarios ComPforHomogenousnetworks

EXPERTCONNECTION

Heterogeneous Networks (HetNet)


CoMP for HetNets (Heterogenous networks)
In HetNets interference occurs due to the individually performed downlink transmission
and uplink reception on a per cell basis.
The goal with CoMP is to further minimize inter-cell interference between macro and small cells.

In HetNets, coordination is not done between base stations but it is done by central base
station.
Connection between macro cell and small cells is provided via fiber optics
MacroandsmallcellsareusingsameCellIDand
differentCellID(twodifferentscenarios)

EXPERTCONNECTION
Heterogeneous Networks (HetNet)
Homogenous and HetNet deployment

Ref: NTT DoCoMo Technology Report MIMO and CoMP in LTE-Advanced

EXPERTCONNECTION

Heterogeneous Networks (HetNet)


CoMP terminology
CoMP Cooperating Set. The CoMP Cooperating Set is determined by higher layers.
It is a set of geographically separated distribution points that are directly or indirectly
involved in data transmission to a device in a time-frequency resource. Within a
cooperating set, there are CoMP points.

CoMP Measurement Set. The CoMP Measurement Set is a set of points, about
which channel state information (CSI) or statistical data related to their link to the
mobile device is measured and / or reported. This set is well determined by higher
layers. A mobile device, is enabled to down-select the points for which the actual
feedback is reported.

CoMP resource management. The CoMP resource management is a set of CSI


Reference Signals (CSI-RS) resources, for which CSI-RS based RSRP
measurements can be made and reported.

EXPERTCONNECTION
Heterogeneous Networks (HetNet)
DL CoMP Transmission Schemes (1/4)

DLCoMPSchemes(3GPP)

CoordinatedScheduling
JointProcessing
andCoordinated
Beamforming

Joint DynamicPoint
Transmission(JT) Selection(DPS)

Coherent Withmuting

NonCoherent Withoutmuting

EXPERTCONNECTION

Heterogeneous Networks (HetNet)


DL CoMP Transmission Schemes (2/4)
Ref: NTT DoCoMo
Technology Report
MIMO and CoMP in
LTE-Advanced

EXPERTCONNECTION
Heterogeneous Networks (HetNet)
DL CoMP Transmission Schemes (3/4)
Joint Processing
Joint Transmission (JT)
Enables simultaneous data transmission from multiple points to a single (or even
multiple UEs). Hence, the UE data is available at multiple points (belonging to the
CoMP cooperating set).
JT requires, low latency between transmission points, high-bandwidth link and
relatively low-mobility UEs.
Coherent JT
RRHs are coordinated by the corresponding macro eNB. RRHs transmit data in a
time-synchronized manner. Coherent JT is based on spatial CQI feedback and utilized
MIMO precoding.
Non-coherent JT
Non-synchronized transmission, aims at diversity gain and increased power at receiver
Dynamic Point Selection (DPS)
Data is also available at multiple points, although it is scheduled for transmission
from only one point as any give time to reduce interference. The DPS technique
requires Dynamic Cell Selection (DCS).
DPS may be combined with JT -> then multiple points can be selected for data
transmission in the time-frequency resource.

EXPERTCONNECTION

Heterogeneous Networks (HetNet)


DL CoMP Transmission Schemes (4/4)
Coordinated Scheduling
Extension of the Rel.10 Inter-cell interference coordination (eICIC concept), where
scheduling information is exchanged between the macro and small cell.
Rel. 11 introduced FeICIC (Further enhanced ICIC) instead of ABD, data on PDSCH
still can be transmitted although on educed power level. Hence the capacity of the
interferer is not totally wasted.
Dynamic Point Selection.
Advantage low overhead
RB=3

Coordinated Beamforming
Spatial interferennce is
mitigated by coordinated
beamforming.
Coordinated Bemaforming and
Joint Transmission require CSI 1 2 4 5 6 7 8 9
(Channel State Information) 3
feedback for other-cell as well Macro cell PDSCH RB transmission power
Performance and overhead
increase with the size of the
measurement set
EXPERTCONNECTION
Heterogeneous Networks (HetNet)
UL CoMP Transmission Schemes (1/2)

ULCoMPSchemes(3GPP)

CoordinatedScheduling
JointReception
andCoordinated
Beamforming

Joint Reception and Processing


A CoMP technique where terminal signal is received in several base stations (i.e.
PUSCH is transmitted jointly at multiple points) at a time.
. These signals are then combined to create better output signal
This technique sets higher capacity requirements for backhaul
Coordinated Scheduling
A technique where same signal is processed only once, but coordination is performed
to minimize the interference

EXPERTCONNECTION

Heterogeneous Networks (HetNet)


UL CoMP Transmission Schemes (2/2)
In HetNets with UL CoMP mechanism, potentially UE receives signal from
the macro cell, but transmits (UL) towards the small call.
Reception and Transmission points are not necessarily the same any more.
Introduction of Virtual Cell ID to enable the mechanism (Rel. 11)

EXPERTCONNECTION
177

Heterogeneous Networks (HetNet)


CoMP Simulation Results (1/2)
In these simulation results CS/CB and JT CoMP performance is compared
against normal MU-MIMO technique
In homogeneous networks, cell capacity has just slightly improved, but there
is larger gain in cell edge throughput
In heterogenous networks, cell edge UE throughput is significantly higher
when JT MU-MIMO is used

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178

Heterogeneous Networks (HetNet)


CoMP Simulation Results (2/2)
Below results shows CoMP gain in different load conditions
Most benefit from CoMP is achieved when network load is low, this is for
both Homogeneous and Heterogeneous networks
However, in Heterogeneous networks, CoMP provides higher gains

EXPERTCONNECTION
Further enhancements for HetNets
Physical layer aspects and Inter-eNB CoMP (Rel. 12)
Further enhancements to HetNet small cells are introduced in Rel. 12 (discussed in:
TR 36.932).
The following physical layer mechanisms for future small cells have been evaluated:
Overhead reduction
Enhanced control-signalling
Higher-order modulation (up to 256QAM)
In order to improve operational efficiency, automatic cell switch off with discovery
mechanism has been also studied.

Inter-eNB CoMP introduced in Rel. 11 did not specify a network interface for CoMP
involving multiple eNBs with non-ideal backhauls.
Hence, operators might not be able to benefit from inter-eNB CoMP operation

Rel. 12 includes study item: Study on CoMP for LTE with Non-Ideal Backhaul where
also macro-macro homogenous networks are considered for both centralized and
distributed coordination

EXPERTCONNECTION

Voice and Video handling in LTE


(VoLTE and ViLTE)

EXPERTCONNECTION
181

Voice Handling in LTE


Solutions
LTE does not offer any CS (Circuit-Switched) capability as used in previous
technologies (2G, 3G).
At present, traditional CS-services as voice and SMS generate usually 60-70% of
operator revenues.
First LTE networks handle voice calls through a fallback to the underlying 2G/3G
network: CSFB (Circuit Switched Fallback)
The LTE data connection falls back to a legacy 2G/3G voice network connection prior to
initiation of a voice call.
This solution is globally preferred (still today) by majority of LTE operators worldwide, it
becomes a predominant global solution for voice in LTE worldwide
Evolved LTE networks (still very few today) provides support to voice calls with
the VoLTE (Voice over LTE) solution
VoLTE provides voice service over an all-IP LTE network in a shared resource
environments
Operators needs an IMS network and both LTE radio and EPS must support VoLTE
As GSA (Global Supplier Association) reports, there are number of LTE smartphones
worldwide offered by 17 major suppliers that support HD voice (W-AMR) for VoLTE

EXPERTCONNECTION

182
Worldwide Market Update
VoLTE Global Status October 2016 (Ref: GSA)

158 LTE operators are


investing in VoLTE in 72
countries
93 operators commercially
launched VoLTE-HD in 52
countries

16.01.2017
EXPERTCONNECTION
VoLTE
Market overview Assuming HD voice, HD video and
RCS with VoLTE
CSFBcontinuesto
Mainstreamandstandardized
dominateinLTE
LTEradiocoverageadequatefor voice
voiceinLTEcomesintwo
variants: securingHDvoiceandvideo
qualitybyminimizinghandovers Numberof
CSFallback to2G/3G
IMSVoLTE operatorscontinue
VoLTEtrials
or/and

Critical HDvoicereadily Commercialgrade


CSFallbacklive
implementationsstartedin factors implementedin3Gand IR.92/IR.94
late2011andhavebecome laying extendedtoVoLTEfor compliant
commonplace; groundfor competitivevoicequality smartphonesstart
optimizationcontinues VoLTE 2H2013
and
ThefirstIR.92/IR.94
ThefirstVoLTEnetworks VoLTElaunches
liveinSouthKoreaandUS Attractivesmartphoneswith
sinceAug2012 VoLTEsupportneedtobe 2H2013,14live
IR.92/IR.94VoLTEtrials availableinthemarket deployments
elsewherecontinuesince (1Q2015)
late2012

EXPERTCONNECTION

VoLTE Deployment
Evolution from existing CS networks
The industry known options for handling voice (CS-based services) in LTE
are:
Circuit-switched Fallback (CSFB) STANDARDIZED
IMS-based VoIP (VoLTE) STANDARDIZED
Simultaneous voice and data (SV-LTE) NON-STANDARDIZED,
left to UE vendor implementation

Step by step deployments can be made to offer a clear evolution path from
traditional 2G/3G network to the 4G VoLTE network
LTE network offering data only & CS Fallback to provide 2G/3G voice services
One Voice, i.e. VoLTE providing voice over 4G, and IMS Centralized Services (ICS)
using the IMS offering rich media solution
IMS-based VoIP (VoLTE) with Single Radio Voice Call Continuity (SRVCC) prior
country-wide LTE coverage exists. SRVCC enables for handover from CS speech
(2G/3G) to IMS-based VoIP (VoLTE)
Full IMS-based VoiP (VoLTE), where all calls are made over packet-switched
networks (Full All-IP)

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185

VoLTE Deployment
Transport Layer, IMS Layer, Service Layer

SERVICE / APPLICATION
LAYER

IMS LAYER

TRANSPORT LAYER

CORE NETWORK

16.01.2017 EXPERTCONNECTION

186

VoLTE Deployment
IMS Architecture, major elements

IMSElement Description
CSCF CallSetupControlFunction
Performs several roles used toprocess SIPsignalling within theIMS(PCSCF,SCSCF,I
CSCF):
PCSCF ProxyCSCF
Firstpoint ofcontact fortheIMSterminal(either inhome or visited network).Terminal
discovers PCSCFwithDHCPor it may bealso configured.
SCSCF ServingCSCF
SIPserver,Centralnode forIMSsignalling.Always located within thehome network.
Interfaces withHSStodownload theuser profile.
ICSCF InterrogatingCSCF
Its IPaddress is published inDNSofthedomain,so remote servers can find it anduse it as
aforwarding pointforSIPpackets tothis domain

HSS HomeSubsriber Server. MasterUserdatabase that supports theIMSnetworkentities


that actually handlecalls.

MGW MediaGatewayInterfaces withtheCS core networkbyconverting between RTPand


PCM.MGWcan also transcode codes that dont match.

16.01.2017 EXPERTCONNECTION
VoLTE Deployment
Legacy LTE/SAE Network Architecture
Mainreferencestoarchitecturein3GPPspecs.:
TS23.401,TS23.402,TS36.300

MME
eNodeB
LTE-Uu MME S10 HSS User Plane

PCRF
S6a
Control Plane
Rx+
LTE UE X2 Gxc
S1-MME S11
Gx

Packet
S1-U S5/S8 SGi
Data
Network
S-GW PDN-GW
eNodeB
NSN SAE Gateway

Evolved UTRAN - LTE Evolved Packet Core (EPC) - SAE

EXPERTCONNECTION

VoLTE Deployment CN and IMS impact


VoLTE-ready LTE/SAE Network Architecture

IMS HSS

S6a
Cx ISC AS
I/S-CSCF Sh
P-CSCF TAS
BGCF
Rx Mw ISC

Mg/Mj
Gm
MGCF CSCore
MSS
TDM

MRFP H.248
RTP MGW
PLMN
/PSTN
Packet
Data
Networ
k

EXPERTCONNECTION
VoLTE Deployment
IMS Architecture, major elements

IMSElement Description

CSCF CallSetupControlFunction
Performs several roles used toprocess SIPsignalling within theIMS(PCSCF,SCSCF,ICSCF):
ProxyCSCF
PCSCF Firstpoint ofcontact fortheIMSterminal(either inhome or visited network).Terminal
discovers PCSCFwithDHCPor it may bealso configured.
ServingCSCF
SCSCF SIPserver,Centralnode forIMSsignalling.Always located within thehome network.Interfaces
withHSStodownload theuser profile.
InterrogatingCSCF
ICSCF Its IPaddress is published inDNSofthedomain,so remote servers can find it anduse it asa
forwarding pointforSIPpackets tothis domain

HSS HomeSubsriber Server. MasterUserdatabase thatsupports theIMSnetworkentities that


actually handlecalls.

MGW MediaGatewayInterfaces withtheCS core networkbyconverting between RTPandPCM.


MGWcan also transcode codes that dont match.

EXPERTCONNECTION

VoLTE Deployment CN and IMS impact


VoLTE-ready LTE/SAE Network Architecture (commercial solutions)

TAS(IR.92/IR.94)
SRVCC
IPSMGW
CSFB
IMSSF
MGCF
Mg / Mj SCCAS
ISC MRFC
MSS TAS
Sv / SGs
Sh

I/SCSCF HSSFE
ATCF
BGCF Cx DRA
PCSCF
I/ABCF
MME SIP/ Gm BCF CSCF HSS

S6a

PCRF

S1 Iq/Ix H.248
Gx PCRF

I/ABGF MRFP
Transcoding
PLMN
ATGW
/PSTN
S-GW P-GW BGF IMS-MGW
MGW

EXPERTCONNECTION
VoLTE Deployment CN and IMS impact
VoLTE-ready LTE/SAE Network Architecture (commercial solutions)

TAS KeyfunctionalitiesofTAS
MultiMediaTelephonyApplicationServer(MMTelAS)
ComprehensivesupportofVoiceservices
SIP/ ISC 3GPP FullfeaturetransparencyforCSandIPbasedusers
CSCF standardsbased Charging
IMS networkfunctions
Core KeyfunctionalitiesofIMSCoreProducts
and
CentralSIPsessionrouting
openinterfaces
UserAuthenticationandRegistration
Singlesignonforallservices
SIP/ Gm Versatileserviceorchestration (manyservicies)

EXPERTCONNECTION

VoLTE Deployment CN and IMS impact


VoLTE-ready LTE/SAE Network Architecture (commercial solutions)

BorderControl
ConnectstheoperatorsLTEaccesstothe
IMScorenetwork(1)andprovidesalso
TAS connectivitytothepeeringIP/IMS
networks(2).

SIP/ ISC Forexample Nokiaprovides BorderControl


3GPP
forVoLTEisbasedondecomposed
standardsbased architecturewhereBCF(BorderControl
CSCF Function)isprovidedwithCFX5000
IMS networkfunctionsand
Core
product (IMSCore product)andBGF
openinterfaces
(BorderGatewayFunction)isprovidedwith
OpenBGW(MGW)product.

BGW BorderControlforVoLTEsupports3GPP
Release10SRVCC: functionsAccess
TransferControlFunction(ATCF)andAccess
SIP/ Gm
TransferGatewayFunction(ATGW).

EXPERTCONNECTION
VoLTE Deployment CN and IMS impact
VoLTE-ready LTE/SAE Network Architecture (Nokia
solution)

CoreControl 1.LTEdataonly
EPC
IMS CORE 2.CSFallbackforVoice
IP
CSFB
BGF
3.VoLTE
MME SRVCC IBCF

CSCF
4.SRVCC
PCRF BGCF
LTE S/PGW
SMSC TAS HSS
CSFB
Componentsadded:
MSS
MGCF TAS,TelephonyApplicationServer
PSTN/
PLMN IMSCoreproduct forCSCFandLTE
CSFB
SRVCC access
2G/3G MGW MSS MGW
RNC PCRFforvoiceQoS
IntegratedIBCFwithCSCFand
IPNetwork interconnectiontoMGCF(MSS)

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194

VoLTE Deployment - RAN Impact


3GPP LTE Bearers (GBR and non-GBR) (1/3)
QCI QoS Class Identifier
3GPP has standardized 9 QCI values and corresponding mapping to
resource types (GBR Guaranteed Bit Rate, non-GBR), priority, packet
delay budget, packet error loss rate
ARP Allocation & Retention Priority
ARP is used to decide if bearer allocation or modification request can be
accepted in case of resource limitations
ARP is used to decide which bearers can drop in case of resource
limitations
Guaranteed Bit Rate and Max Bit Rate
Only for GBR EPS Bearers
APN-AMBR and UE-AMBR APN/UE Aggregate Max Bit Rate
Only for non-GBR EPS Bearers (shared by all)

EXPERTCONNECTION
195

VoLTE Deployment - RAN Impact


3GPP LTE Bearers (GBR and non-GBR) (2/3)

E-UTRAN EPC
UE eNB S-GW P-GW
SRB 1
SRB 2
Default EPS Bearer
Dedicated EPS Bearer
Dedicated EPS Bearer

Dedicated EPS Bearers are created for QoS differentiation.


The UE keeps its IP address, i.e. the IP address allocated for the
default bearer is used for the dedicated EPS bearers. UE is given IP
address
QoS is based on the given QCI parameters

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196

VoLTE Deployment - RAN Impact


3GPP LTE Bearers (GBR and non-GBR) (3/3)
The VoIP service has specific bearer combination requirements.
QCI1 dedicated bearer for the speech.
QCI5 dedicated bearer for SIP signaling to the IMS.
Default non-GBR bearer (QCI6-9) for data transfer (always-on).

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197

VoLTE Deployment - RAN Impact


VoLTE
3GPP defines special Bearer QoS class to handle VoIP services
QCI=1, GBR (Guaranteed Bit Rate), UM (Unacknowledged Mode) for user
date
QCI=5 for IMS Signalling
As presented in the RRM functionality chapters (Admission Control,
Packet Scheduler), special priorities of these QoS are handled
properly
VoIP transmission over the radio requires header compression
(please see following slides)
To safe battery time, the UE does not listen continuously listen
PDCCH for indication of scheduled PRBs on PDCSCH.
DRX (Discontinues Reception) cycle and inactivity timers are defined for
Voice-optimized transmission.

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198

VoLTE Deployment - RAN Impact


VoLTE Header compression (1/2)

Lack of header
compression leads to
an enormous waste of
energy for transmitting
headers instead of
speech data
Example:
For IPv4,
UP/UDP/RTP
headers can be 40
bytes (52% of a
packet)
For IPv6, the Forinstance,inNSNimplementation theROHC(Robust
overhead can be Header Compression)feature allows forsuch header
even 60 bytes (63% compression,resulting insignificant savings
of a packet)

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199

VoLTE Deployment - RAN Impact


VoLTE Header compression (2/2)

EXPERTCONNECTION

VoLTE Deployment - RAN Impact


TTI Bundling (1/3)
There is a standardized mechanism to improve UL coverage through allowing
a single transport block to be transmitted over 4 consecutive TTIs
TTI bundling allows to increase energy per transmitted information bit, hence resulting
in an improved UL coverage for VoLTE users
UE move is/moves out the TTI Bundling Mode with an Intra-Cell Handover
For the one UL scheduling grant, the whole bundle can be transmitted

HARQ RTT is longer in comparison


to non-TTI Bundling mode. The next
Bundle size is fixed to 4 TTIs. retransmission occurs 16ms after
In each TTI different
the previous one
Redundancy Versions (RV) of
the same transport block are
transmitted

EXPERTCONNECTION
VoLTE Deployment - RAN Impact
TTI Bundling (2/3)

Once the criteria for entering TTIB mode are fulfilled, eNB triggers intra-cell handover procedure by
sending RRC: Connection Reconfiguration message towards the UE.
UE is provided with TTI Bundling configuration parameters via IE: RadioResourceConfigDedicated
transferred via RRC: Connection Reconfiguration message

EXPERTCONNECTION

VoLTE Deployment - RAN Impact


TTI Bundling (3/3)

NonTTIBundling

UponactivationoftheTTI
Bundling,allowablepathloss
inULtransmissionisincreased
(incomparisontothenon
bundlingscenario)

EXPERTCONNECTION
VoLTE Deployment - RAN Impact
SRVCC - Overview
The aim of the SRVCC (Single Radio Voice Call Continuity) feature is to command the UE to leave
LTE network if the LTE coverage is ending and handover the VoIP call (QCI = 1) to either WCDMA or
GSM network
SRVCC functionality is standardized by the 3GPP and the idea behind this feature is to handover
ongoing VoIP call from LTE to another RAT with simultaneous change of the domain that serves the
connection from PS to legacy CS
Prior to the actual SRVCC procedure, measurements of 2G/3G network are triggered
No new thresholds and time-to-trigger values are typically introduced for SRVCC features for triggering
the inter-RAT measurement procedures as well as for triggering the actual handover
Depending on the vendor implementation, e.g. for Nokia, the neighbor cell list for SRVCC to WCDMA
may vary from the list of neighbors used for Cell or PS handover to WCDMA
There are two variants of SRVCC:
(1) SRVCC to WCDMA without PSHO support
VoIP connection is handed over to UTRAN CS, other PS bearers are established via Routing Area Update procedure
after VoIP handover completion
(2) SRVCC to WCDMA with PSHO support
VoIP connection is handed over to UTRAN CS while other PS bearers are simultaneously handed over to UTRAN PS

EXPERTCONNECTION

VoLTE Deployment - RAN Impact


SRVCC HO to 3G without PS call
UE Source Source SGW MSC Target Target Target IMS
eNB MME PGW MGW MSC SGSN RNS SCCAS

OngoingVoIPSessionwithIMSestablishedoverLTE
MeasurementReport
HORequired(S1)

BearerSplitting

PStoCSRequest(Sv)
PrepHOReq
HORequest(IuCS)

HOAck(IuCS)
PrepHORsp

EstablishCircuit
HOfromEUTRAN PStoCSResponse(Sv) InitiationofSessionTransfer(STNSR)
HOCommand(S1)
Command

UETuningandHODetectionwithnewnetwork SessionTransfer
Updateremoteend,
HOComplete(IuCS) ReleaseSourceIMS
SES[HOComplete]
Accessleg
Answer
PStoCSComplete/ACK(Sv)

DeleteBearer[QCI1](S11)

RoutingAreaUpdate

EXPERTCONNECTION
VoLTE Deployment - RAN Impact
SRVCC HO to 3G with PS call
UE
UE
UE Source
Source Source SGW MSC
MSC Target
Target Target
Target Target IMS
eNB
eNB MME PGW MGW
MGW MSC
MSC SGSN
SGSN RNS SCCAS

OngoingVoIPSessionwithIMSestablishedoverLTE
MeasurementReport
HORequired(S1)

BearerSpliting

PStoCSRequest(Sv)
PrepHOReq Reloc/HORequest(IuCS)
ForwardRelocationRequest(Gn/S3)
Reloc/HORequest/ACK(IuPS)
ForwardRelocationResponse(Gn/S3)
Reloc/HOAck(IuCS)
PrepHORsp
EstablishCircuit
HOfromEUTRAN HOCommand(S1) PStoCSResponse(Sv) InitiationofSessionTransfer(STNSR)
Command

UETuningandHODetectionwithnewnetwork
SessionTransfer
Reloc/HOComplete(IuCS) Updateremoteend,
SES[HOComplete]
ReleaseSourceIMS
PStoCSComplete/ACK(Sv) Answer Accessleg

DeleteBearer[QCI1](S11) Reloc/HOComplete(IuPS)
ForwardRelocationComplete/Ack(Gn/S3)

UpdateBearer[NonGBR](Gn/S4)

ReleaseResources(S1) DeleteSession(S11)

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206

VoLTE Deployment - RAN Impact


Admission Control (1/3)
Improved Admission Control mechanism that takes into account the
estimation of resources for GBR (Guaranteed Bit Rate) DRBs
(Dedicated Radio Bearers)
Load measurements are taken as a base for admission decision
For GBR-DRBs, the following items are taken into account:
Requested bit rate (UL/DL)
Reported radio conditions, derived from the reported CSI
Current load status in the cell, i.e. available PRBs (Physical Resource
Blocks)

Congestion Handling is also supported


If GBR-DRBs cannot be scheduled, the RAC will select candidate DRBs
to be preempted in order to free resources (subject to parameter settings)

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207

VoLTE Deployment - RAN Impact


Admission Control (2/3)

eNB estimates throughput per


capacity efficiency (kbps possible per
RB based on the CQI)
eNB calculates from the efficiency,
the number of RBs to fulfill the
requested GBR (Guaranteed Bit
Rate)
GBR-DRB request is admitted when:

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208

VoLTE Deployment - RAN Impact


Admission Control (3/3)
In order to support Congestion Handling, bearer classes must be defined
whether have:
pre-emption capability:
If set, this RAB may preempt other RABs
pre-emption vulnerability:
If set, this RAB may be preempted by other RABs
According to 3GPP, only lower priority RAB may be preempted.

Setting example from commercial operator:

EXPERTCONNECTION
VoLTE Deployment - RAN Impact
UE support for VoIP (1/3)
UE capabilities (support for VoIP) is signalled in the following information:

1. UE Capabilities (provided to the MME by means of FGI (Feature Group Indicator) bits which
are part of the IE: UE-EUTRA-Capability retrieved during RRC UE Capability Transfer
procedure)
UE is considered as VoIP-capable if the following FGI bits are set to TRUE:
bit 3 (5bit RLC UM SN, 7bit PDCP SN)
bit 7 (RLC UM)

2. UE Voice Preferences (signaled to the MME in the Information Element Voice domain
preference and UE's usage setting)
this IE is transferred to the MME with the help Attach Request of TAU Request messages
each VoLTE UE, during initial attach or TAU procedure, indicates its voice domain preferences to
the MME. Those voice preferences can be configured in the following way:
IMS PS Voice preferred and CS Voice as secondary
IMS PS Voice only
CS Voice preferred and IMS PS Voice as secondary
CS Voice only

if VoIP is available in the area, MME informs the UE about that with the help of the IE: EPS network
feature support within Attach Accept or TAU Accept message
upon receiving IE: EPS network feature support with information that IMS PS Voice is supported, the
UE initiates the IMS Registration procedure

EXPERTCONNECTION

VoLTE Deployment - RAN Impact


UE support for VoIP (2/3)

VoLTE
Compatible

SRVCCto
UTRAN/
GSM

SupportsTTI
Bundling

EXPERTCONNECTION
VoLTE Deployment - RAN Impact
UE support for VoIP (3/3)

EXPERTCONNECTION

VoLTE Signalling
SIP Protocol Architecture

MobileDevice LTERadio&Access Servers(IMS)

The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an application-layer control


(signaling) protocol for creating, modifying, and terminating sessions with
one or more participants developed by IETF RFC3261.
SIP is transferred using QCI5 bearer.

EXPERTCONNECTION
VoLTE Call Establishment
Overview (1/3)

Phase1:Attach/PrimaryDefaultBearerwithIMSAPN (QCI5)

Phase2:SIPRegisterusingPrimaryDefaultBearer/Second
DefaultBearerforDataAPN (QCI5)

Phase3:InitiateVoIPCallusingPrimaryDefaultBearer

Phase4:DedicatedBearerforVoIPData (QCI1)

EXPERTCONNECTION

VoLTE Call Establishment


Overview (2/3)
RadioAccessBearerismappedtoGTP
Tunnel.

S1U
EUTRAN SGW S5/S8 PGW
EPSBearerforDefaultBearerforDataAPN(QCI9,eRAB=6,EBI=6)

DataTraffic

EPSDedicatedBearer(QCI1,eRAB=7,EBI=7)
VoIPData
GBRBearerforVoIPDataPriority2,PacketDelayBudget100msec,PacketErrorLossRate102

EPSDefaultBearerforIMSAPN(QCI5,eRAB=5,EBI=5)
SIPTraffic
NonGBRBearerforSIPSignallingPriority9,PacketDelayBudget300msec,PacketErrorLossRate106

EXPERTCONNECTION
VoLTE Call Establishment
Overview (3/3)

Ref.3GPP
TS26.114
Rel.12

VoLTE relies on IMS Call Session Control Function (CSCF) mechanisms to route
control-plane signalling between the UEs involved in the call.
In the control plane, Application Servers (AS) should be present and may provide
supplementary services such as call hold/resume, call forwarding and multi-party calls, etc.

EXPERTCONNECTION

VoLTE Call Establishment


Phase 1 and 2: IMS/SIP Registration MME/SAE/PGW SCSCF
UE LTECORE IMS
(1) LTE Network Access part is the same as in Attach,NASAuthentication,Integrity
case of normal LTE users Protection 1
during this part UE is informed about
ActivateEPSBearer(QCI5)
availability of the IMS PS Voice andDRB (QCI9)
UE attaches to the network, the PGW assigns
IP address and identifies P-CSCF to the ActivateEPSBearerAccept
(QCI5)andDRB
terminal
this information triggers UE to start IMS / SIP StorePCSCFIP
Registration procedure Address Extractuser
. publicidentity
Allocateclient
(2) UE sends Registration Request to S-CSCF (via andserver
fromISIM

P-CSCF) in REGISTER message. ports


REGISTER
2
(3) S-CSCF performs registration procedures with Registration
HSS and acquires user authentication information procedureswith
HSS
and sends UE a challenge in 401 Unauthorized 3 401Unauthorized:
message. VerifyAUTN&
(4) UE calculates the response and sends it to S- calculateRES
REGISTER
4
CSCF in REGISTER message. Downloadservice
(5) After the authentication has succeeded the S- control
informationfrom
CSCF downloads and stores service control 200OK HSS
5
information from HSS and S-CSCF notifies the
terminal about completed registration with 200 OK
message
EXPERTCONNECTION
VoLTE Call Establishment
Phase 3: VoIP call setup OriginatingUE IMSNetwork TerminatingUE

(1) After 183 Session Progress Initiate


call
message IMS signaling (QCI 5) bearer INVITE (viaQCI5)
can carry RTP audio packets, e.g. 100Trying INVITE
voice announcement or music, to notify 100Trying
originating UE. Therefore, 180 Ringing Alert
183 SessionProgress
message is NOT required to be user
(Ringing)
forwarded to originating UE. 180Ringing
1
Answer
(2) Once MT UE answers the call EPS 200OK
bearer for QCI1 is activated after a
terminating UE has received ACK from ACK
IMS, i.e. three-way handshake 200OK
2 EPSBearerActivationforQCI1andAudio
(INVITE/200 OK/ACK) completes SIP ACK PathSetup
session establishment at MT UE. 3 EPSBearerActivationforQCI1andAudio
PathSetup
(3) EPS bearer for QCI1 is activated at
VoiceSession
MO UE once a originating UE has sent
ACK and SIP session is then RTPAMR(viaQCI1)
established - voice communication
starts.

EXPERTCONNECTION

VoLTE Call Establishment


Phase 3: VoIP call setup (Precondition 1/2)
Terminating
(1) UE generates an INVITE request, which OriginatingUE IMSNetwork UE
is sent to the IMS. Note that MO UE includes 1
Initiate
QoS preconditions in the SDP which call INVITE (viaQCI5)
indicates that MO UE does not want MT UE 100Trying
OPTIONS
to be alerted until there are network 2
resources reserved in both directions.
3 200OK
INVITE
4 100Trying
(2) The P-CSCF acknowledges the INVITE 100Trying
183SessionProgress
to the MO UE with 100 Trying indicating that 183SessionProgress
the call setup is in progress. EPSBearerActivationforQCI1andAudio
PRACK PathSetup
(3) The SIP method OPTIONS allows a IMS EPSBearerActivationforQCI1andAudio
to query another UA or a proxy server as to PathSetup PRACK
its capabilities. This allows a client to 200OK 200OK
discover information about the supported UPDATE UPDATE
methods, content types, extensions, codecs, 200OK 200OK
etc. With 200 OK message UE answers with Ringing
its capabilities to IMS. 180Ringing 180Ringing
Answer
200OK 200OK
(4) The INVITE message received by MT UE ACK ACK
includes declaration for using precondition,
type of media, codec to use and the protocol VoiceSession

for transporting the media in the SDP.


EXPERTCONNECTION
VoLTE Call Establishment
Phase 3: VoIP call setup (Precondition 2/2)
Terminating
(5) When precondition mechanism is OriginatingUE IMSNetwork UE
supported P-CSCF would send 183 Session
Initiate
Progress to originating UE which then call INVITE (viaQCI5)
compares the terminating UE capabilities with 100Trying
OPTIONS
its own and determines the codec to be used.
200OK
(6) Originating UE notifies the terminating UE INVITE
using PRACK the selected codec. 200 OK is 100Trying
received from terminating UE. EPS Bearer 100Trying
183SessionProgress
Activation follows for both UEs. 183SessionProgress
5
(7) The UPDATE messages indicates that PRACK
EPSBearerActivationforQCI1andAudio
PathSetup
precondition on MO UE side is met.
(8) Both terminals confirm the setup of bearer
EPSBearerActivationforQCI1andAudio
PathSetup
6 PRACK
with QoS according to 200 OK message and 200OK 200OK
terminating UE start ringing. UPDATE UPDATE
(9) The 180 Ringing message is initiated 200OK
7 200OK
from MT to IMS and then IMS forwards the
8
Ringing
180Ringing 180Ringing
Ringing message to MO UE. 9 Answer
200OK 200OK
(10) Once both UEs receive 200 OK, they ACK ACK
ACK it and the SIP session is established - 10
voice communication starts VoiceSession

EXPERTCONNECTION

VoLTE Basic Call Flow (LTE - LTE call)


handlingofterminating
servicesforsubscriberB, LDAP
Telephony Server
routingtoBsideS routingbacktoSCSCF
ApplicationServer
TAS
CSCF,iFCtriggers
handlingoforiginating
service invocation
servicesforsubscriberA, HLR
routingbacktoSCSCF SMS
C
iFCtriggers
service invocation ISC
MGCF
HSSFE (MSS)
xCSCF

MGW/MS
(MGW)

Subscriber
Gm PSTN/PLMN
Database

routingtoBsideP
CSCFandthento IBGF
IPNet
subscriberB
CBGF

SAEGW
BRAS
xGSN
MME establishedmediaconnection
MME

eNB

SIPphone/
sendSIP INVITE
Mobile
SIPclient
SIPclient SIP client

B A
VoLTE Basic Call Flow (LTE PSTN call)
handlingoforiginatingservicesfor LDAP
Telephony Server
subscriberA;routingbacktoSCSCF ApplicationServer
routingtoMGCF TAS

HLR
ISC SMS
C
iFCtriggers
service invocation Mg
MGCF
HSSFE (MSS) IAM
xCSCF

MGW
(MGW)

Subscriber
Gm PSTN/PLMN

Database

IBGF
IPNet
CBGF

SAEGW
BRAS
xGSN
MME establishedmedia
connection
MME

eNB

SIPphone/
sendSIP INVITE
Mobile
SIPclient
SIPclient SIP client

B A

VoLTE Basic Call Flow (VoIP LTE call)


handlingofterminatingservicesfor
subscriberB;routingbacktoSCSCF
LDAP
Telephony Server
routingtoBsideS ApplicationServer
CSCF,iFCtriggers TAS

service invocation
HLR

routingtoBsideP ISC SMS


CSCFandthento C

subscriberB
MGCF
HSSFE (MSS)
xCSCF

MGW
(MGW)

Subscriber
Gm Ic PSTN/PLMN
Database

IBGF
IPNet
CBGF

SAEGW
BRAS
xGSN sendSIP INVITE
MME

MME
establishedmedia
eNB connection

SIPphone/
Mobile
SIPclient
SIPclient SIP client

B A
VoLTE Basic Call Flow (LTE MO SMS delivery to SMSC)
SupportofSIPmessagingandSMSinterworking:
MSC_AS_VOIP_MESSAGE_SUP_AS LDAP
Telephony Server
NVSsendsSIP 202 Accepted toA ApplicationServer
TAS

HLR
handlingoforiginatingservicesforsubscriberA; ISC
convertcontentfromMIMEformattoSMSformat SMS
C

MGCF
HSSFE (MSS)
xCSCF

MGW
(MGW)

Subscriber
Gm PSTN/PLMN

Database

IBGF
IPNet
CBGF

SAEGW SIP MESSAGE withSMSas


BRAS application/vnd.3gpp.s
xGSN
MME ms MIMEencodedmessage
MME
body

eNB

NCSclientwith
SM-over-IP sender
SIPphone/
Mobile supportacc.to3GPPTS
SIPclient
24.341 SIPclient SIP client

B A

VoLTE Basic Call Flow (LTE MT SMS delivery from SMSC)


SupportofSIPmessagingandSMSinterworking:
handlingofterminatingservicesforsubscriberB;converts
Acknowledgesto MSC_AS_VOIP_MESSAGE_SUP_AS
contentandsendsSIP MESSAGE withSMSas LDAP
SMSC Telephony Server
application/vnd.3gpp.sms MIMEencoded ApplicationServer SMSCinterrogatesHLRB
messagebody TAS
andsendsSMStoNVSof
receiverB
HLR
ISC SMS
C

MGCF
HSSFE (MSS)
xCSCF

MGW
(MGW)

Subscriber
Gm PSTN/PLMN
Database

IBGF
IPNet
CBGF

SAEGW
BRAS
xGSN
MME

MME

eNB

NCSclientwith
SM-over-IP receiver
SIPphone/
Mobile
supportacc.to3GPPTS24.341
SIPclient
SIPclient SIP client
acknowledgeswithSIP 200
OK B A
VoLTE
Performance
The correlation between voice quality MOS and various network quality measures were
investigated.
The biggest contributor was found to be the peak delay, e.g. potential contributors to
delay can be the following factors:
Uplink HARQ retransmissions for transmitting UE
Downlink HARQ retransmissions for receiving UE
Scheduling delays of QCI1 bearer
Processing the RTP packets in transmitting UE
Processing the RTP packets in receiving UE
Other delays in transport or EPC
# KPI Item Unit Result Remarks
1 RRC Setup Success Rate % 100% ShortCall Exampleofdrive
MO 4.84 *
2 Call Setup Time s
MT - 1.94s
ShortCall testVoLTEKPIs
3 Drop Call Rate % 0% LongCall andobtained
Handover Success Rate % 100% LongCall results
4 0.0755 (MO Tx)
Handover InterruptionTime s LongCall
0.1245 (MT Rx)
5 BLER (DL) % 9.23 LongCall
MOS # 3.33 LongCall
6
MOS Jitter Delay s 0.175 LongCall

EXPERTCONNECTION

VoLTE
Performance UL BLER versus MOS Quality
QCI1 retransmissions in uplink
direction of the transmitting UE
cause additional delay and
variations to RTP packet delivery.
Maximum number of UL
retransmissions = 7 (typical setting)
Each retransmission adds 8ms and
theoretically up to 7 x 8ms = 56ms
in the worst case
PUSCH HARQ BLER seems to
have a very little impact to MOS.
After BLER > 11% some
degradation visible, but number of
samples is low.
Delay variations due to UL HARQ in
most cases is < 24ms.

EXPERTCONNECTION
VoLTE
Performance DL BLER versus MOS Quality
Also QCI1 retransmissions in
downlink direction of the
receiving UE can cause
additional delay to RTP packet
delivery.
Maximum number of DL
retransmissions = 7 (typical
setting)
Each retransmission adds 8ms
and theoretically up to 7 x 8ms =
56ms in the worst case AverageMOSperBLER(Red)

Movingaverage,windowsize5(Green)
PDSCH HARQ BLER also
seems to have a little correlation
with MOS.
Delay variations due to DL
HARQ in most cases is < 24ms

EXPERTCONNECTION

VoLTE
Performance RTP Delay versus MOS Quality
Measurement:
Several hours drive testing in
varying loading conditions
Delay target 80ms (example
setting) with 98% probability
Maximum number of aggregated
VoIP packets in uplink = 2
(example setting)
RTP Delay causes quick MOS
degradation from 60ms peak
delay point onwards. AverageMOSperpeakdelay(Red)
Movingaverage,windowsize10(Green)
Possible causes for delay:
HARQ retransmissions
Too low scheduling priority for
QCI1 during high load
Scheduling frequency of RTP
packets on radio interface
UE TX and or RX processing of
RTP packets

EXPERTCONNECTION
VoLTE
VoLTE Mobile-to-Mobile Call Setup Time (1/3)
The VoLTE call is successfully setup from SIP session establishment point of view once
three-way handshake is completed, i.e. the sequence of INVITE, 200 OK and ACK
messages are transmitted at mobile originating UE.
Alternatively, call setup time end point could be the 180 Ringing message at
originating UE to exclude the SIP application/user delay in answering the call.
However, 180 Ringing message is not necessarily forwarded by IMS (no
precondition) to the originating UE due to fact that ringing tone is transmitted as
RTP audio already after 183 Session progress message received by a calling party.

Another option to measure the call setup time is calculated from L3 signaling, i.e.
RrcConnectionRequest until RrcReconfigurationComplete when QCI1 bearer is
setup successfully.
The delay contribution from radio procedures such as RRC connection establishment,
paging and dedicated EPS bearer activations is negligible in total call setup time.
Mobile originating call setup delay is highly depending on IMS delay (processing and
forwarding INVITE).
The following values on next slide are average values of 100 VoLTE calls in drive test
done in live LTE network.

EXPERTCONNECTION

VoLTE
VoLTE Mobile-to-Mobile Call Setup Time (2/3)

OriginatingUE IMSNetwork
INVITE TerminatingUE
Initiate
call 100Trying 119ms

183SessionProgress 606ms

1527ms
INVITE

73ms 100Trying

60ms 180Ringing
3060ms Ringing
1275ms(*callscriptdelay) 200OK(invite)
Answer
152ms ACK

200OK(invite)
EPSBearerActivationforQCI1andAudioVideoPathSetup
ACK 65ms

EPSBearerActivationforQCI1andAudioVideoPathSetup

VoiceorVideoSession

EXPERTCONNECTION
VoLTE
VoLTE Mobile-to-Mobile Call Setup Time (3/3)
Delay Contribution (example) - breakdown

MO MT
5000 5000
4500 4500
4000 4000
3500 3500
3000 3000
2500 2500
2000 2000
MO MT
1500 1500
1000 1000
500 500
0 0
INVITE100 100Trying 183Session 200OK Totalsetup INVITE100 100Trying 180Ringing 200OK Totalsetup
Trying 183Session Progress200 (Invite)ACK time Trying 180Ringing 200OK (Invite)ACK time
Progress OK(Invite) (Invite)

EXPERTCONNECTION

ViLTE Deployement - RAN Impact


3GPP LTE Bearers (GBR and non-GBR) (1/2)
The Video over LTE service has specific bearer combination
requirements.
QCI1 dedicated bearer for voice
QCI2 dedicated bearer for video.
QCI5 dedicated bearer for SIP signaling to the IMS.
Default non-GBR bearer (QCI6-9) for data transfer (always-on).

In comparison with Voice


(QCI 1), Bearer carrying
video has more strict
packet loss requirements
although can
accomodate more
latency.

EXPERTCONNECTION
ViLTE Call Establishment
Overview

Phase1:Attach/PrimaryDefaultBearerwithIMSAPN (QCI5)

Phase2:SIPRegisterusingPrimaryDefaultBearer/Second
DefaultBearerforDataAPN (QCI5)

Phase3:InitiateVideo CallusingPrimaryDefaultBearer

Phase4:DedicatedBearerforVoice Data (QCI1)and


DedicatedBearerforVideoData(QCI2)

EXPERTCONNECTION

ViLTE Call Establishment


ViLTE versus VoLTE (1/2)
A video call over LTE (ViLTE) shares the same addressing and basic
signaling rules as VoLTE.
When initiating a video session, the initial signaling message contains
video preference and capability information, describing the video session
in detail.
As for a VoLTE call, the IMS domain passes this information to the EPC
for charging and policy analysis. The outcome is the establishment of two
dedicated bearers - one for voice (QCI1) and another one for video
(QCI2).
A ViLTE device can add a video component to an existing VoLTE call and
later drop the video component (release of DRB QCI2) to return to a
normal VoLTE call.

EXPERTCONNECTION
ViLTE Call Establishment
ViLTE versus VoLTE (2/2)
The Application server and video capability information assist the
IMS network and device in ViLTE call establishment:
assigning the correct IMS domain application server for video-based
supplementary services handling
forking the invitation to a called device that has registered both a
matching Application server and video capability

When a ViLTE device is used to make or receive a normal VoLTE


call, the device includes its video capability in the signaling.
Each side can use this information to display to the user that the
voice call can be upgraded to a video call.
If one user adds video to an ongoing VoLTE call, the device sends a new
invitation message (SIP reInvite) with information about the additional
video media component, which is treated by the EPC+IMS and results in
addition of a new dedicated bearer (QCI 2).

EXPERTCONNECTION

ViLTE Call Establishment


Video call setup
Terminating
The procedure for ViLTE call OriginatingUE IMSNetwork UE
establishment is basically same as
Initiate
for regular VoLTE call. videocall INVITE(viaQCI5)

After LTE Attach, default bearer Processingisthesameasbasicoriginating/terminatingprocessinginVoLTE withdifference


establishment (usually QCI9), and thatbandwidthmanagementisperformedonbothoriginating/terminatingsides)

dedicated bearer for IMS signalling


(QCI5), UE proceeds with IMS 183SessionProgress
100Trying
registration (see s. 184) 183SessionProgress
EPSBearersActivation:QCI1andAudio

The originating UE indicated in SDP PRACK PathandQCI2forVideoPath

of the SIP Invite that video will be


EPSBearersActivation:QCI1andAudio
established together with voice. PathandQCI2forVideoPath
PRACK

As video has different bandwidth


requirements, appropriate Processing/Signallingisthesameasforbasicoriginating/terminatingVoLTE call
Admission control for bandwidth
management is performed before
QCI1+QCI2 bearers establishment.

VideoandVoiceSession(QCI1andQCI2)

EXPERTCONNECTION
ViLTE Call Establishment
Voice-to-Video call switching
Terminating
Voice-to-video call switching OriginatingUE IMSNetwork UE
is performed via SIP session
update fntion.
Voice(QCI1)call inprogress
Originating UE sends video-
call switching request (via SIP_ReINVITE(SwitchingrequestVoice>Video)
QCI 5) to CSCF, which is
subsequently send to
200OK(Switchingreq.resp.)
terminating UE. 100Trying

Terminating UE returns to QCI2bearer forvideodatais added


IMS with switching-request 200OK(Switchingreq.resp.)
response indicating whether
it is allowed for such voice- QCI2bearer forvideodatais added
video call switching.
If switching is supported and
Admission Control admits a VideoandVoiceSession (QCI1andQCI2)
Callcontinues withvideo
bearer, QCI2 is added on
both sides and call continues
with video added.

EXPERTCONNECTION

ViLTE Performance
H.264 and H.265 Codec (1/2)
ViLTE devices and networks shall support H.264 codec (MPEG-4 Part 10 also calles and MPEG-
4 AVC=Advanced Video Coding)
The H.264 codec provides much better performance (quality and low bit rate comparing to the
codec used in 3G video calls)
The minimum quality level that must be supported by a ViLTE video device is the Constrained
Baseline profile level 1.2 that offers a video bit rate of 384kbps
See 3GPP TS26.114 Rel. 12 for details

In early VoLTE markets, higher quality profiles are typically used running VGA (Video Graphics
Array) resolutions and about 500kbps video bit rates.
Even higher resolutions and bit rates will be enabled in the future by:
The introduction of new enhanced coding technologies like H.265 (High Efficiency Video Coding) that
reduce the video media bitrate by about 30 percent for a given quality level (Part of 3GPP TS26.114 Rel.
12 specification)

The ongoing densification of RANs by the introduction of new small cells and indoor systems
products, and, in the not too distant future, 5G access solutions.

EXPERTCONNECTION
ViLTE Performance
H.264 and H.265 Codec (2/2)
Ref.Al.Majeed,Askar,Fleury,H.265
Codecover4GNetoworksforTelemedicing
SystemApplications2014UKSimAMSS
16thIntlConfonComputerModellingand
Simulation

Ref.TKTan;MartaMrak;VittorioBaroncini;
NaeemRamzan(20140518). "Reporton
HEVCcompressionperformance
verificationtesting".JCTVC.

H.265 (HEVC = High Efficiency Video Coding) is a successor to H.264.


HEVC doubles the data rate compression ratio compared to H.264 withouth compromising the video
streaming quality .

EXPERTCONNECTION

ViLTE Performance
Subjective vs Objective quality assessment
Subjective quality assessment
Group of trained engineers judge the vide quality. The results are average and
provided in to a MOS (Mean Opinion Score): from Bad to Excellent
Advantage: Human eye is an ultimate measure for video quality
Disadvantage: Automation not possible -> Time consuming and expensive

Objective quality assessment


Mathematical calculation that approximate results.
Full Reference (FR) method: difference analysis of pixel values
Reduced Reference (RRM) method: basic information of original source material is
available at receiver
No-Reference Method (NR): no information about the reference material is available
at receiver side
Advantage: Automation is possible
Disadvantage: Correlation with actual perceived video quality is not always ensured

EXPERTCONNECTION
ViLTE Performance
Objective quality assessment - PSNR
PSNR Peak Signal to Noise Raito is the most
commonly used measurement for quality
measurement for image compression
Basis for the PSINR is a difference analysis of pixel
values between original pixel and disrupted pixel
Unit dB (range 0 dB- no match at all -> to unlimited)
Higher PSNR the better

Advantage: Simple
Disadvantage: Poor correlation with subjective
methods
Digital pixel values do not exactly represent the light
stimulus on the human eye
The summation is averaging errors without weighting
them
The same PSNR values may result from different kind
of structural errors

EXPERTCONNECTION

ViLTE Performance
Objective quality assessment - SSIM
Improvement to traditional methods objective quality assessment, consistency with
human eye perception is improved
The base for SSIM is a comparison between luminance, contrast, and structure of the
image
SSIM is described by complex mathematical formula
Typically used without unit, range from 0 to 1, the higher-the better
Advantage: Complex
Disadvantage: Very good correlation with subjective methods

EXPERTCONNECTION
ViLTE Performance
Objective quality assemssment correlation with MOS

EXPERTCONNECTION

244

Voice Handling in LTE (CSFB)


Introduction
CSFB: incoming call:
The user is in LTE data connection.
The LTE network pages the LTE user.
The device responds with a special Service
Request message to the network, then network
signals the device to move= fallback to 2G/3G to
accept the incoming call.
CSFB: outgoing call:
The device sends the same Service Request
message to the LTE network, then network
signals the device to fallback to 2G/3G to make
a call.

EXPERTCONNECTION
Voice Handling in LTE (CSFB)
Signalling flow (Combined EPS/IMSI Attach)
A prerequisite for the use of CSFB is that the UE must have successfully completed a combined
EPS/IMSI attachment into the serving EPS and the CS core network.
OriginatingUE MME HSS MSC/VLR

EPSIntitial Attachment (conventional procedure)

Derive
VLR
number LOCATIONUPDATEREQUEST(IMSI)

CS
Location
Update
LOCATIONUPDATEACCEPT

EPSInitial Attachment continuation (conventional procedure resulting inQCI9default


bearer establishment)

EXPERTCONNECTION

Voice Handling in LTE (CSFB)


Signalling flow (Basic call setup with CSFB)
UE 3GRNC eNodeB MME SGW MSCServer

ExtendedServiceRequest(CSFB)

S1APUEContextModification
RequestwithCSFBIndicator

RRCConnectionReleasewith S1APUEContext
RedirectiontoUTRAN ModificationResponse

UECotextReleaseRequest ReleaseAccessBearers
Request/Response

UEContextReleaseCommand

Tune to
UEContextReleaseComplete
UMTS

RRCEstablishment
Procedure

CMServiceRequest

CallEstablishmentProcedure

EXPERTCONNECTION
Voice Handling in LTE (CSFB)
Signalling flow (Mobile-Originated CSFB,no PS HO support)

EXPERTCONNECTION

Voice Handling in LTE (CSFB)


Signalling flow (Mobile-Terminated CSFB, no PS HO support)

EXPERTCONNECTION
Voice Handling in LTE (CSFB)
Mobile-Originated CSFB - Call Setup Duration Budget

EXPERTCONNECTION

Voice Handling in LTE (CSFB)


Mobile-Originated Call Setup Times with comparison to 3G

Ref:Qualcommwhitepaper:Circuitswitchedfallback.Thefirstphase
ofvoiceevolutionforLTEdevices.
EXPERTCONNECTION
Voice Handling in LTE (CSFB)
Mobile-Terminated Call Setup Times with comparison to 3G

Ref:Qualcommwhitepaper:Circuit
switchedfallback.Thefirstphaseof
voiceevolutionforLTEdevices.

EXPERTCONNECTION

LTE RF Measurements
Selected Aspects

EXPERTCONNECTION
UE measurements - RSRP, RSSI, RSRQ, SINR/SNR
RSRP (1/6)

Example:RS(ReferenceSignal)at3sectored2x2MIMOSite

CellA(PCI9) CellB(PCI10) CellC(PCI11)


R1 R0 R1 R0
R1 R0 R1 R0
R1 R0 R1 R0
R0 R1 R0 R1
R0 R1 R0 R1
R0 R1 R0 R1
R1 R0 R1 R0
R1 R0 R1 R0
R1 R0 R1 R0
R0 R1 R0 R1
R0 R1 R0 R1
R0 R1 R0 R1

Subframe(1ms) Subframe(1ms) Subframe(1ms)

R1 Antenna0RS
R0 Antenna1RS

EXPERTCONNECTION

UE measurements - RSRP, RSSI, RSRQ, SINR/SNR


RSRP (2/6)
RSs seen by the UE from all 3 cells of a 3-sectored site
There is no RS-RS interference as PCI mod 3 rule is maintained

CellA(PCI9) R1 R0 R1 R0
R1 R0 R1 R0
R1 R0 R1 R0
R0 R1 R0 R1
CellB(PCI10) R0 R1 R0 R1
R0 R1 R0 R1
R1 R0 R1 R0
R1 R0 R1 R0
CellC(PCI11)
R1 R0 R1 R0
R0 R1 R0 R1
R0 R1 R0 R1
R0 R1 R0 R1
Subframe(1ms)

R1 Antenna0RS
R0 Antenna1RS
EXPERTCONNECTION
UE measurements - RSRP, RSSI, RSRQ, SINR/SNR
RSRP (3/6)
RSRP (Received Signal Reference Power)
Linear average of received power of REs (Resource Elements) carrying
RS (cell specific RS in line with TS 36.211) within the considered
measurement bandwidth

UE calculates the average based on measurement of multiple RS REs

The number of RE within the considered measurement bandwidth and


within the measurement period is UE implementation specific (with
indication that minimum measurement accuracy requirements have to be
fulfilled)

The power per RS is determined excluding the CP (Cyclic Prefix)


RSRP reporting range (-44.140 dBm)

EXPERTCONNECTION

UE measurements - RSRP, RSSI, RSRQ, SINR/SNR


RSRP (4/6)
RSRP Measurement comparison of different terminals (two scanners and one UE)
All in the same location/radio conditions

EXPERTCONNECTION
UE measurements - RSRP, RSSI, RSRQ, SINR/SNR
RSRP (5/6)
3G RSCP versus LTE RSRP
Presented example: 3G/2,1 GHz RSCP versus LTE/1,8 GHz/20 MHz RSRP

EXPERTCONNECTION

UE measurements - RSRP, RSSI, RSRQ, SINR/SNR


RSRP (6/6)

3GPP TS 36.133 defines reporting measurement accuracy


requirements:
Absolute accuracy under normal conditions (6 dB intra- and
inter-frequency)
E.g. for setting up random access pre-amble Tx power and
triggering Event A5 (Time-critical coverage-based HO)
Relative accuracy between two cells under normal conditions (2
dB intra-frequency and 6 dB inter-frequency)
E.g. for triggering Event A3 (better cell coverage-based HO)

EXPERTCONNECTION
UE measurements - RSRP, RSSI, RSRQ, SINR/SNR
RSSI (1/3)
RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indicator)
Measures an entire power within the measurement
R1 R0 R1 R0 bandwidth (including noise, interference, and serving
cell power)
Measured over those symbols that contain RS for
R0 R1 R0 R1 Antenna 0
Only internal UE measurements (not reported to eNB)


R1 R0 R1 R0
RSSI = Noise + Serving Power + Interference

R0 R1 R0 R1
RSSI = Wideband Received Power
Without noise and interference and
100% DL PRB Activity: RSSI = 12 * N * RSRP
(N number of PRBs)
Hence with 100% PRB Utilization and high SINR:

OFDMSymbol
containingRSfor RSRP (dBm ) = RSSI (dBm) 10log (12*N)
Antenna0

R1 Antenna0RS
R0 Antenna1RS
EXPERTCONNECTION

UE measurements - RSRP, RSSI, RSRQ, SINR/SNR


RSSI (2/3)

Bandwidth 1,4MHz 3MHz 5MHz 10MHz 15MHz 20MHz


PRBs 6 15 25 50 75 100

Scalling (10log(12N)) 18,57 22,55 24,77 27,78 29,54 30,79

EXPERTCONNECTION
UE measurements - RSRP, RSSI, RSRQ, SINR/SNR
RSSI (3/3)
RSSI and RSRP impact of cell load

RSRP is independent of the


cell load
RSSI increases (about 5 dB)
when PRB activity increases
to 100% (10 MHz bandwidth)

EXPERTCONNECTION

UE measurements - RSRP, RSSI, RSRQ, SINR/SNR


RSRQ (1/3)

RSRQ = N * RSRP / RSSI

RSSI measurement bandwidth (in PRBs) Total Wideband power (including


serving cell power, interference, thermal noise, etc.)

ExampleRSRQvalues:
Idlecell(notraffic,onlyRSs): 3dB(for1TX);6dB(for2TXs)
Fullyloadedcell(100%PRButilization):10,8dB(for1TX);13dB(for2TXs)
Inpractice,infullyloadedcell(nointercellinterference):11dB

EXPERTCONNECTION
UE measurements - RSRP, RSSI, RSRQ, SINR/SNR
RSRQ (2/3)

EXPERTCONNECTION

UE measurements - RSRP, RSSI, RSRQ, SINR/SNR


RSRQ (3/3)
3GPP TS 36.133 defines reporting measurement accuracy
requirements:
Absolute accuracy under normal conditions (2.5 dB intra- and
inter-frequency)
Relative accuracy between two cells under normal conditions (3
dB inter-frequency, not defined for inter-frequency)

EXPERTCONNECTION
UE measurements - RSRP, RSSI, RSRQ, SINR/SNR
SINR (1/2)
SINR = S / (I + N)

SINR measurement is not 3GPP standardized, it is UE type


(manufacturer) specific
Usually SINR = SNR = CINR
Typically UEs measure SNR from RS
Typically scanners measure SNR from PSS/SSS and/or RS

EXPERTCONNECTION

UE measurements - RSRP, RSSI, RSRQ, SINR/SNR


SINR (2/2)
SINR measurements using difference devices

EXPERTCONNECTION
Standardized measurements vs SINR
Mapping of RSRP to SNR (1/2)
If we assume only presence of thermal noise, then RSRP can be
mapped to SNR (with approximation)
This assumption is not really practical due to:
Presence of interference
Insufficient averaging for fading signal by the UE
Receiver non-idealities (such as Doppler spread, phase noise, etc.) and
Transmitter signal nonlinearities

ExampleofSINRvsRSRP

SINR
measurementsinalaboratory
sheilded box

RSRP

EXPERTCONNECTION

Standardized measurements vs SINR


Mapping of RSRP to SNR (2/2)
Example RSRP vs SINR measurement from drive test (typical
fading outdoor channel)

EXPERTCONNECTION
Standardized measurements vs SINR Independentfromthe
Mapping of RSRQ to SNR (1/4) owncellload

EXPERTCONNECTION

Standardized measurements vs SINR


Mapping of RSRQ to SNR (2/4) Laboratorymeasurements

EXPERTCONNECTION
Standardized measurements vs SINR
Mapping of RSRQ to SNR (3/4)
Drive test SINR vs RSRQ measurements (as seen in UE
feedback), channel with significant fading standard deviation

EXPERTCONNECTION

Standardized measurements vs SINR


Mapping of RSRQ to SNR (4/4)
SINRwith0%load SINRwith80%load

EXPERTCONNECTION
MIMO Transmission Modes UE measurements
Measurements per Receiver Antenna
UE reports RSRP, RSRQ and SINR per receiver antenna
Detailed measurement capabilities are terminal-specific, e.g.:
Some scanners and old LG chipsets measures antenna correlation coefficient
UE throughput is closely correlated with:
Power imbalance between Receiver branches
Power imbalance between Transmitted branches
High Antenna Correlation coefficient
For example, Rank Indicator is downgraded with high power imbalance
between Receiver antennas
Dual Stream MIMO -> Single Stream MIMO
Power imbalance can be easily seen from drive tests
With high channel correlation, even high SINR will not improve the
throughput
Rank Indicator downgrade

EXPERTCONNECTION

MIMO Transmission Modes UE measurements


Channel correlation -> Throughput downgrade (1/3)

EXPERTCONNECTION
MIMO Transmission Modes UE measurements
Channel correlation -> Throughput downgrade (2/3)
Typical problem:
Two vertical antennas on the car roof results in Excellent SNR but with
downgraded Rank Indicator (poor DL Throughput)
As a solution: move antennas inside car (!) or use cross-polarized
antennas on the car roof

Thesameroute
driventwicewith
different
antennasatthe
carroof

EXPERTCONNECTION

MIMO Transmission Modes UE measurements


Channel correlation -> Throughput downgrade (3/3)

Throughputvery
sensitiveto
channel
correlation.
Measurements
conductedinvery
goodSINR
(SINR=25dB)

EXPERTCONNECTION
LTE Planning Principles
Coverage Planning

EXPERTCONNECTION

Coverage Planning
Overview

EXPERTCONNECTION
Coverage Planning
Link budget
Target of the Link Budget calculation: estimate the maximum allowed path loss on
radio path from transmit antenna to receive antenna
The minimum Eb/N0 (and BER/BLER) requirement is achieved with the maximum allowed
path loss & transmit power both in UL & DL
The maximum Path Loss can be used to calculate cell range

Tx Power
+ Gains
Losses/Margins Lmax_UL
Path Loss Lmax_DL
Rx Noise Power
max. Path Loss Lmax

Range
EXPERTCONNECTION

Coverage Planning
Coverage Area in Dimensioning
After cell radius has been determined, Coverage Area CA can be
calculated
When calculating Coverage Area, traditional hexagonal model is
taken into account

R
R

Omni- or
6-sectored Site Bi-sector Tri-sector
CA = 2.6 R2 CA = 1.73 R2 CA = 1.95 R2

EXPERTCONNECTION
LTE Coverage Planning / Link Budget
Overview
TRANSMITTINGEND DL UL ASSUMPTIONS DL UL
TXAntennaPower[dBm] 46 24
AntennaGain[dBi] 18 0
Antenna Configuration 1Tx2Rx 1Tx2Rx
FeederLoss[dB] 2 0 ModulationandCodingScheme 5QPSK 6QPSK
BodyLoss[dB] 0 0
Powerincrease CellEdgeThroughput[kbps] 2048 512
TMA(MHA)InsertionLoss[dB] 0 0
TotalTxPowerIncrease(MIMO)[dB] 0 0 withMIMO BLERatfirstHARQtransmission[%] 10% 10%
UserEIRP[dBm] 62 24
configurations TotalBandwidth[RBs] 50 50
RECEVIVINGEND
TMA(MHA)Gain[dB] 0 0 Powerpenaltycausedby
FeederLoss[dB] 0 2 boostingofcellspecificRS
AntennaGain[dBi] 0 18
NoiseFigure[dB] 7 2,2
BodyLoss[dB] 0 0
AdditionalGains[dB] 0 0

RADIOCHANNEL NumberofRBsperuserforgivenMCSand
PDSCHPowerPenaltywhenDLRSBoostingisused[dB] 0 0 throughput(inlinewithTS36.213)
OtherFeature(vendor)specificgains[dB] 0 0
NumberofRBperUser 26 6
ChannelUsageperSingleUE[%] 52 12 DependsonThroughput,MCS,andBLER
RequiredSINRwith10%BLER Reference[dB] 2,13 0,6
FrequencyDomainPacketSchedulerGain[dB] 1,68
CellLoad[%] 80% 80% DependsonChannelusagepersingleUE
InterferenceMargin[dB] 5,9 3,3
NoisePowerperSubcarrier
ThermalNoiseDensity[dBm/Hz] 174 174
NumberofReceivedSubcarriers[dB] 27,781513 18,57332 UEinDLmonitorstheentirebandwidth,butin
SubcarrierBandwidth[kHz] 15 15
theULonlytheallocatedbandwidth
NoisePowerperSubcarrier[dBm] 132,2391 132,239
ReceiverSensitivity[dBm] 99,58757 110,866

LogNormalFadingMargin[dB] 9 9
IndoorPropagationLoss[dB] 20 20
GainAgainstShadowing[dB] 2,5 2,5
MaximumAllowablePathLoss[dB] 126,68757 123,0658

EXPERTCONNECTION

Link Budget
Transmitting End
TX Antenna Power 20 W
TRANSMITTINGEND DL UL
(43 dBm), 40 W (46 dBm)
TXAntennaPower[dBm] 46 24
AntennaGain[dBi] 18 0 Feeder loss: Typical
FeederLoss[dB] 2 0
feederless solutions
BodyLoss[dB] 0 0
TMA(MHA)InsertionLoss[dB] 0 0 considered
TotalTxPowerIncrease(MIMO)[dB]
UserEIRP[dBm]
0
62
0
24
BodyLoss: only for VoLTE in
UL (2-3 dB)
EIRP=Tx.PowerperAntenna+ Total TX power increase:
AntennaGain CableLoss Body TX power increase with
Loss TMAInsertionLoss +Total multi-antenna configurations
PowerIncrease

TypicalBasestationantennagains

EXPERTCONNECTION
Link Budget
Transmitting End MHA (TMA)
MHA is used to compensate cable losses and Node B Rx Noise Figure in the UL
MHA Gain < Cable losses + Rx Noise Figure
Common assumption is to equal the benefit to the cable loss

Working assumption:
MHA Gain Cable loss

Note MHA
insertion loss for
DL
MHA Gain

EXPERTCONNECTION

Link Budget
Transmitting End - Total TX power Increase

Total TX power Increase


Tx power increase caused by multi-antenna configurations

It is automatically set to 3 dB when 2Tx-2Rx scheme is chosen in DL. The 3 dB gain is


caused by the doubling of the Tx power when adding the 2nd power amplifier.

The required SINR figures include only the transmit diversity gain. Therefore the total
Tx power increase reflects the 3 dB gain due to the duplication of the Tx amplifiers

EXPERTCONNECTION
Link Budget
Receiving End

RECEVIVINGEND FlexiBTSNoiseFigure:
TMA(MHA)Gain[dB] 0 0
<2.0dB(Band2GHzcommon)
FeederLoss[dB] 0 2
AntennaGain[dBi] 0 18
<2.1dB(Band1700 2100MHz)
NoiseFigure[dB] 7 2,2 <2.3dB(Band800960MHz)
BodyLoss[dB] 0 0
AdditionalGains[dB] 0 0
UENoiseFigure:
Typically7dBconsidered

EXPERTCONNECTION

Link Budget
Channel

RADIOCHANNEL
PDSCH power penalty caused by
PDSCHPowerPenaltywhenDLRSBoostingisused[dB] 0 0
boosting of cell-specific DL RS
OtherFeature(vendor)specificgains[dB]
NumberofRBperUser
0
26
0
6
Vendor-specific features for improving
ChannelUsageperSingleUE[%] 52 12
link budget (following slides)
RequiredSINRwith10%BLER Reference[dB] 2,13 0,6 Number of RB per User is derived
FrequencyDomainPacketSchedulerGain[dB] 1,68
CellLoad[%] 80% 80%
from required MCS and cell edge
InterferenceMargin[dB] 5,9 3,3 throughput (following slides)
NoisePowerperSubcarrier
ThermalNoiseDensity[dBm/Hz] 174 174
Frequency Domain Packet Scheduler
NumberofReceivedSubcarriers[dB] 27,781513 18,57332 Gain depends on
SubcarrierBandwidth[kHz]
NoisePowerperSubcarrier[dBm]
15 15
132,2391 132,239
Interference margin in line with cell
ReceiverSensitivity[dBm] 99,58757 110,866 load
Please note, that Thermal Noise for
DL differs from the UL
DL: UE listens the entire cell
bandwidth
UL: NodeB listens only UE-granted
bandwidth

EXPERTCONNECTION
Link Budget
Feature impact
Thefeaturesselectedaffectthelinkbudgetandorcapacity/coveragecalculations

Forexample:
MIMO OLandCL
IRC InterferenceRejectionCombination
DLPowerboostingforRS
4wayRxDiversity
IncreasedULMCS
DLCarrierAggregation
EPSbearerforvoice(QCI1)
RoHC Robustheadercompression
TTIBundling
OTDOA Observedtimedifferenceonarrival

EXPERTCONNECTION

Link Budget
Feature impact (LTE-A) - DL Carrier Aggregation

CA impacts DL cell range Without Carrier Aggregation With Carrier Aggregation


Activation of the secondary
cell results in load division DL:3.81km
UL:1.75km (withCA)
between the Component
Carriers UL:1.75
DL:3.61km
DL:3.61km (withoutCA)
Lowering offered load for km
the Primary Cell leads to
use of MSC/#ofPRBs
combination that results in
cell range increase

REMARK: REMARK:
Pleasenotethatthecoverageislimited Pleasenotethatthecoverageislimitedbythe
bytheULlinkandfinalcellrangewillbe ULlinkandfinalcellrangewillbe1.75km.
1.75km.

Primary Component Carrier (PCC): 850 MHz; Secondary Component Carrier (SCC): 1800 MHz; Channel bandwidth (PCC & SCC): 10 MHz
Transmit power:
eNB: 20 W (43 dBm); UE: 0.25 W (24 dBm)
Antenna gain:
eNB: 18 dBi (PCC), 20.7 dBi (SCC); UE: 0 dBi
Antenna configuration:
DL: 2Tx 2Rx; UL: 1Tx 2Rx
Cell-edge user throughput:
DL: adjusted (DL/UL balancing); UL: 384 kbps
EXPERTCONNECTION
Link Budget
Feature impact (LTE-A) TTI Bundling
TTIbundlingallowsfortransmittingthe
sametransportblockin4consecutive
ULsubframes(alsoknownasbundle
NonTTIBundling TTIBundling
size),whichleadstoincreasedenergy
pertransmittedbitandtherefore
improveduplinklinkbudget.

UponactivationoftheTTI
Bundling,allowablepathlossinUL
transmissionisincreased(in
comparisontothenonbundling
scenario)

EXPERTCONNECTION

Link Budget
Channel/ SINR (1/7)
RADIOCHANNEL PDSCH Power Penalty is added when
PDSCHPowerPenaltywhenDLRSBoostingisused[dB] 0 0 boosting of cell-specific RS signal is
OtherFeature(vendor)specificgains[dB] 0 0 used
NumberofRBperUser
ChannelUsageperSingleUE[%]
26
52
6
12
Required SINR and the Number of
RequiredSINRwith10%BLER Reference[dB] 2,13 0,6 PRBs per User is selected based on
FrequencyDomainPacketSchedulerGain[dB] 1,68 the assumed conditions/requirements at
CellLoad[%] 80% 80% the cell edge: MCS and throughput
InterferenceMargin[dB] 5,9 3,3 Explained in the following slides
NoisePowerperSubcarrier
ThermalNoiseDensity[dBm/Hz] 174 174 Frequency Scheduling Gain is added
NumberofReceivedSubcarriers[dB] 27,781513 18,57332
inline with the Channel Usage per
SubcarrierBandwidth[kHz] 15 15
NoisePowerperSubcarrier[dBm] 132,2391 132,239
single TTI
ReceiverSensitivity[dBm] 99,58757 110,866 Explained in the following slides

EXPERTCONNECTION
Link Budget
Channel/ SINR (2/7)
SINR: Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio
Minimum relation between useful signal and sum of interferences coming
from own and neighboring cells and the received noise power

S
SINR
I own I oth N

S : useful signal (received power)


Iown : own cell interference (close to zero in LTE due to the orthogonality of
subcarriers)
Ioth : other cell interference
N : noise power

In LTE the PDSCH Required SINR replaces the Required Eb/No of the
UMTS Rel. 99 DCH Link Budget;
SINR requirement is practically obtained from link level simulations, which
depend on channel model, MIMO scheme, BLER requirement
Simulations results - provided by vendors

EXPERTCONNECTION

Link Budget
Channel/ SINR (3/7) -SINR Distribution

Thesimulationscenariosand
parametersareprovidedin
3GPPTR25.814
Bandwidth=2000MHz
Speed=3Km/h

MacroCase1 Intersite
distance=500m

MacroCase3 Intersite
distance=1732m

Cellloadis100%whichis
affectingtheintercell
interference

CDF=CumulativeDistributionFunction
*Source:"LTEDownlinkPerformanceResultswithTimeDomainScheduling UsingUPRISE"byKlausIPedersenetal.

EXPERTCONNECTION
Link Budget
Channel/ SINR (4/7)- Required SINR
In order to meet the defined quality requirements (BLER) a certain average required
SINR is needed
Required SINR depends on:
Cell Range (Pathloss)
Cell Edge User Throughput
Based on the Cell Edge Throughput the number of allocated PRBs and the MCS could be
defined see next slides
OFDM specific channel models
Channel model is a way to consider UE mobility and environment in the link budget calculation
2 main groups of channel models are available
Considered Antenna Scheme for the DL:
1Tx 2Rx; 2TX 2RX Transmit Diversity ; 2TX 2RX Spatial Multiplexing (not expected at cell
edge)
L1 overhead of the physical channels
The impact is the reduced number of resource blocks which could be used for user data

EXPERTCONNECTION

Link Budget
Channel/ SINR (5/7)- Required SINR

InputfortheSINRLinkBudgetdecision:
CellEdgeUserThroughput
Thetargetcelledgethroughput isusedto
CellEdge
selecttheleastrobustMCSwithgoodbalance BLER MCS
Throughput
ofcoverage&resourceconsumptionoftheair
interface
BLERatfirstHARQretransmission
Assumption:tobe10%forthefirstHARQ
retransmission,i.e.10%probabilityto
complete1ormoreretransmissions
Theactualeffectistheincreaseofthecell TBS= #RBs=Numberof
edgethroughput Transport ResourceBlocks
BlockSize
Link Budget DL MCSs
Channel/ SINR (6/7)- Required SINR MCS_index
0
MCS
QPSK
Mod order
2
ITBS
0
1 QPSK 2 1
TBS set 2 QPSK 2 2
3 QPSK 2 3
Number of user data bits transmitted to single user 4 QPSK 2 4
during 1 TTI (1ms) 5 QPSK 2 5
6 QPSK 2 6
The TB occupies 2 PRBs in time domain
7 QPSK 2 7
The TBS Index is mapped to a specific TBS size for a 8 QPSK 2 8
9 QPSK 2 9
specific #PRBs according to a table (3GPP TS 36.213)
10 16QAM 4 9
11 16QAM 4 10
12 16QAM 4 11
3GPP TS 36.213 specifies tables to: 13 16QAM 4 12
link the MCS Index -> Modulation Order (modulation 14 16QAM 4 13
15 16QAM 4 14
type) and TBS Index 16 16QAM 4 15
link the TBS Index -> Transport Block Size (TBS) for a 17 64QAM 6 15
18 64QAM 6 16
specific number of PRBs
19 64QAM 6 17
20 64QAM 6 18
21 64QAM 6 19
MCS index - from 0 to 28 22 64QAM 6 20
it is decided by the scheduler which should translate a 23 64QAM 6 21
24 64QAM 6 22
specific CQI in an MCS index 25 64QAM 6 23
26 64QAM 6 24
27 64QAM 6 25
28 64QAM 6 26

EXPERTCONNECTION

Link Budget
Channel/ SINR (7/7)- Required SINR
ExamplefortheidentificationoftheNumberofPRBsperUserandthe
TransportBlockSize(TBS) toachievetargetthroughput
Onlyasubsetofthecompletetable
(3GPPTS36.213specifies110columns)
Assumptions:
Requiredcelledgethroughput=384Kbps
MCS=1016QAM
MCS = 10-16QAM TBS_index = 9

Air Interface User Throughput =


= 384 / (100% - 10%) = 427 kbps
search for TBS in ITBS9 Air Interface
User Throughput

#RB_used = 3 TBS = 456 bits


456 bits/TTI = 456 bits/1 ms = 456 kbps
427 kbps
Conclusion: # RB used= 3

EXPERTCONNECTION
Link Budget
Required SINR/MCS DL Coverage vs Capacity

TheselectionofMCSisatradeoffbetweencoverage&resourceutilization:
ThemorerobusttheselectedMCS(e.g.0QPSK)thelowertheallowedrequired
SINRwhichisimprovingthecoverage.Butonthesametimethehighertheresource
consumption(42PRBsoutof50for10MHzbandwidthfor1024Kbps)whichleaves
lessresourcesfortherestofthescheduledusers.

Link Budget
Required SINR/MCS UL Coverage vs Capacity

TheselectionofMCSinULisatradeoffbetweenalowerrequiredSINRvalue(coverage)andthe
numberofallocatedPRBsperUE(capacity):
UEoutputpowerissharedbetweenthesubcarriersassignedfortransmission.
Thesmallerthenumberofusedsubcarriers>thehigheristhepowerpersubcarriersothe
higherthecoverage.
Ontheotherhand,lowernumberofPRBsperUE(lowernumberofsubcarriers)requiresa
higherorderMCS increasingtherequiredSINR.
Inthiscase,despiteofahigherrequiredSINR,agreatercellrangecouldbeobtainedduetothe
accumulationofthetotalpoweronlessPRBsusedforthetransmission.
Link Budget
Frequency Domain Packet Scheduling Gain

DL FDPS Gain (dB)


FrequencyDomainPacketScheduling (FDPS)
Channel usage per
Gain (dB)
Providedbyvendors>systemlevelsimulationsareusedto single UE

showthegain fromFrequencyDomainPacketScheduler 10.00% 3,71


11.11% 3,64
ExactfiguredependsontheSchedulerimplemenation 12.50% 3,53
14.29% 3,41
WhenUEoccupies100%ofresourcesthereisnogainfrom 16,67% 3,25
particularschedulingstrategybecauseRRMcannotplaywith 20.00% 2,93
25.00% 2,52
frequencyresources. 33.33% 2,11
50.00% 1,68
ULChannelAwareSchedulingalsopossibleifSRS(Sounding 100.00% 0
ReferenceSignal)isused

Themore UEscouldbescheduledinthesameTTI(that
meanslessresourceallocationperuser), themore gainfrom
FDPScanbeobserved.

EXPERTCONNECTION

Link Budget
Interference Margin (1/4)
RADIOCHANNEL
PDSCHPowerPenaltywhenDLRSBoostingisused[dB]
DL
0
UL
0
Cell load: Average Total Resource
Utilization
OtherFeature(vendor)specificgains[dB] 0 0
NumberofRBperUser 26 6 For the link budget calculation, which is
ChannelUsageperSingleUE[%] 52 12 a single cell-edge user case, cell load
RequiredSINRwith10%BLER Reference[dB] 2,13 0,6 reflects the average neighbour load but it
FrequencyDomainPacketSchedulerGain[dB] 1,68
does not impact own cell resource
CellLoad[%] 80% 80%
allocation
InterferenceMargin[dB] 5,9 3,3
NoisePowerperSubcarrier In other words a cell edge user occupying
ThermalNoiseDensity[dBm/Hz] 174 174 100% resources per TTI (100% of PRBs)
NumberofReceivedSubcarriers[dB] 27,781513 18,57332 does not mean 100% load (i.e. over long
SubcarrierBandwidth[kHz] 15 15 time period)
NoisePowerperSubcarrier[dBm] 132,2391 132,239
ReceiverSensitivity[dBm] 99,58757 110,866
Affects Interference Margin
Recommended to keep the reference
value at 50%

EXPERTCONNECTION
Link Budget
Interference Margin (2/4)
InterferencemarginIM
InterferenceMargincanbedefinedasarelationbetweensignalsreceivedwith&without
interference

S/N
IM
S /(Iown Iother N)

S:usefulsignal(receivedpower)
Iown:owncellinterference( 0 inLTEduetotheorthogonalityofsubcarriers)
Ioth:othercellinterference
N:noisepower
100%orthogonalitycouldbeassumedinUL&DLduetoOFDM&SCFDMAsothattheIntra
cellinterferenceisclosetozero
TheonlyinterferencewhichcountsistheIntercellinterference
DLInterferenceMargincouldbederivedanalytically

Link Budget
Interference Margin (3/4)- Downlink Simulations

IMasafunctionofNeighbourCellLoadfordifferentMCSandcellEdge
UserThroughputs

EXPERTCONNECTION
Link Budget
Interference Margin (4/4)- Uplink Simulations
Uplink Interference Margin
Currently obtained from system level simulations.
Due to the non-deterministic characteristic of uplink interferences it is difficult to
make a mathematical model (like in downlink)

IMasafunctionofCellLoad

EXPERTCONNECTION

Link Budget
Thermal Noise Calculation

Receiverbandwidth

ThermalNoise 174dBm / Hz 10 log(15kHz 12# RB)

#RBistheNumberofPhysicalResourceBlocks 10log(kB *T)=174dBm/HzistheThermal


DL:allavailableinthechannelbandwidth NoiseDensitynotconsideringthe
UL:onlythoseRBsallocatedfortransmission bandwidthimpact

Example:
For10MHzthereare50RBsinDL
OFDMA inDL /SCFDMA inUL Thermalnoise=174dBm/Hz+10log(15
*1000*12*50)=
DL:OFDMreceiverlooks atthewholebandwidth,thusallavailable
ResourceBlocksshouldbeconsidered. =174dBm/Hz+69,54dB=
UL:SCFDMAreceiverlooks onlyattheallocatedbandwidth,thus =104.45dBm
notallbutonlyassignedResourceBlocksareassumedinsensitivity
formula.
EXPERTCONNECTION
LTE Planning Principles
Air Interface Overhead

EXPERTCONNECTION

306

Air Interface Overhead


DL
Subframe 0 Subframe 1 Subframe 2 Subframe 3 Subframe 4 ..

SSS

PSS

PBCH

PCFICH

PHICH

PDCCH

Reference signals

PDSCH UE1

PDSCH UE2
Slot No. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

EXPERTCONNECTION
Air Interface Overhead
Single Antenna Port and DL Reference Signals

EXPERTCONNECTION

Air Interface Overhead


2 Port DL Reference Signals, Normal TCP, MIMO 2x2)

EXPERTCONNECTION
Air Interface Overhead
Reference Signals - Antenna Port Layering (MIMO 2x2)

eNodeB

EXPERTCONNECTION

Air Interface Overhead


Reference Signals - Antenna Port Layering (MIMO 4x4)

eNodeB

EXPERTCONNECTION
Air Interface Overhead
Reference Signals - Summary

With1TXantenna:4RSsperRB,Overhead=4,7%
One antenna ports

R0 R0

R0 R0
With2TXantennas:8RSsperRB,Overhead=9,5%
With4TXantennas:12RSperRB,Overhead=14,2%
R0 R0

R0 R0
l 0 l 6 l 0 l 6
l=0 ...... 6, 0 .. 6

Resource Element (RE) k, l


Resource element (k,l)
Two antenna ports

R0 R0 R1 R1

R0 R0 R1 R1
Not used for transmission on this antenna port (DTX)
Not used for transmission on this antenna port

R0 R0 R1 R1
Reference symbols (RS) on this antenna port
Reference symbols on this antenna port

R0 R0 R1 R1
l 0 l 6 l 0 l 6 l 0 l 6 l 0 l 6
l=0 ...... 6, 0 .. 6 l=0 ...... 6, 0 .. 6
Four antenna port

R0 R0 R1 R1 R2 R3

R0 R0 R1 R1 R2 R3

R0 R0 R1 R1 R2 R3

R0 R0 R1 R1 R2 R3
l 0 l 6 l 0 l 6 l 0 l 6 l 0 l 6 l 0 l 6 l 0 l 6 l 0 l 6 l 0 l 6
Antenna port 0 Antenna port 1 Antenna port 2 Antenna port 3
even-numbered slots odd-numbered slots even-numbered slots odd-numbered slots even-numbered slots odd-numbered slots even-numbered slots odd-numbered slots

Antenna port 0 Antenna port 1 Antenna port 2 Antenna port 3

Air Interface Overhead


Reference Signals - Summary

PDCCH,PCFICHandPHICH
ThecombinationofPDCCH,PCFICHandPHICHisabletooccupythefirst1,2or3timedomain
symbolsperTTI (dynamicallydependingontheuserschedullingperTTI)
-Worstcasescenario PDCCHAreais3Symbolswide,althoughfor1,4MHzcells,also4
symbolscanbeoccupied(atthebeginningofeachsubframe)
ThenumberofREoccupiedper1msTTIisgivenby(12 y x),where:
y dependsuponthenumberofoccupiedtimedomainsymbolsperTTI(1,2or3)
x dependsuponthenumberofREalreadyoccupiedbytheReferenceSignal
x=2for1transmitantenna
x=4for2transmitantenna Example:
x=4for4transmitantenna 20MHz =100RB
wheny=1 4Antennas > 8DRSinPDCCHArea
x=8for4transmitantenna
PDCCH > 3Symbols
wheny=2or3 DualStream
16.67%Overhead

EXPERTCONNECTION
Air Interface Overhead
PBCH Overhead
Occupies(288* x)ResourceElements(REs)per20timeslotspertransmitantenna
ThevalueofxdependsuponthenumberofREsalreadyoccupiedbytheReferenceSignal:
x=12for1Txantenna,x=24for2Txantennas&x=48for4Txantenna
Example:normalCP,2Txantennas,10MHzbandwidth;
PBCHOverhead=(288 24)/(84 20 50)=0.31%
PBCHusescentral72Subcarrierover4
oneradioframe=10ms OFDMsymbolsinSlot1

PBCH
72 subcarriers

RepetitionPatternofPBCH=40ms

EXPERTCONNECTION

314

Air Interface Overhead


UL

PUCCH

PUSCH

PUCCH

1 subframe = 1ms

Time
EXPERTCONNECTION
Air Interface Overhead
DRS Overhead (1/3)
Demodulation Reference
Signal:
Always on symbol 3 of each slot
(normal CP)

PUSCH mapping:
Data is allocated in multiples of
1 RB (12 subcarriers in
frequency domain). Only factors
of 2, 3 and 5 resource blocks
are allowed

PUCCH mapping:
If PUCCH not multiplexed with
PUSCH then it is transmitted on
a reserved frequency region.
PUCCH occupies RBs at both
edges of the uplink bandwidth
DRS

PUCCH
EXPERTCONNECTION

316

Air Interface Overhead


DRS Overhead (2/3)
Subframe 0 Subframe 1

Demodulation reference signal Slot 1 Slot 2

PUSCH transmission

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
SC-FDMA symbol
number EXPERTCONNECTION
Air Interface Overhead
DRS Overhead (3/3)

Example:
For1.4MHzChannelBandwidth,thePUCCHoccupies1RBperSlot.
ThenumberofREperRBis84whenusingthenormalCP.
ThismeanstheDRSoverhead*is:((61) 12)/(6 84)=11.9%

ChannelBW PUCCHRB/slot DRSOverhead


1.4MHz 1 ((61) 12)/(6 84)=11.9%
3MHz 2 ((152) 12)/(15 84)=12.38%
5MHz 2 ((252) 12)/(25 84)=13.14%
10MHz 4 ((504) 12)/(50 84)=13.14%
15MHz 6 ((756) 12)/(75 84)=13.14%
20MHz 8 ((1008) 12)/(100 84)=13.14%

Air Interface Overhead


PRACH Overhead

PRACH uses 6 Resource Blocks in the frequency domain.


The location of those resource blocks is dynamic. Two parameters from RRC layer define it:
PRACH Configuration Index: for Timing, selecting between 1 of 4 PRACH durations and
defining if PRACH preambles can be send in any radio frame or only in even numbered
ones
PRACH Frequency offset: Defines the location in frequency domain
PRACH Overhead calculation: 6 RBs * RACH Density / (#RB per TTI) x 10 TTIs per frame
RACH density: how often are RACH resources reserved per 10 ms frame i.e. for RACH
density: 1 (RACH resource reserved once per frame)

ChannelBW PRACHOverhead
1.4MHz (6 1)/(6 10)=10%
3MHz (6 1)/(15 10)=4%
5MHz (6 1)/(25 10)=2.40%
10MHz (6 1)/(50 10)=1.20%
15MHz (6 1)/(75 10)=0.8%
20MHz (6 1)/(100 10)=0.6%

EXPERTCONNECTION
Air Interface Overhead
PRACH Overhead (1/2)
Subframe
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Subcarriers
Occupied

EvenSlot OddSlot
DemodulationRS
PUCCH1 PUCCH0 PUSCH
PUCCH3 PUCCH2 PUCCH
ULResource
Blocks

PUCCH2 PUCCH3

PUCCH0 PUCCH1
EXPERTCONNECTION

Air Interface Overhead


PRACH Overhead (2/2)

ChannelBW PUCCHRB/slot PUCCHOverhead


1.4MHz 1 1/6=16.67%
3MHz 2 2/15=13.33%
5MHz 2 2/25=8%
10MHz 4 4/50=8%
15MHz 6 6/75=8%
20MHz 8 8/100=8%

EXPERTCONNECTION
Air Interface Overhead
Summary (1/2)

EXPERTCONNECTION

Air Interface Overhead


Summary (2/2)

Example, assumed:
DL 2Tx 2RX
UL 1TX - 2RX
PRACH in every frame
3 OFDM symbols for
PDCCH
No OTDOA

EXPERTCONNECTION
LTE Planning Principles
Capacity Planning

EXPERTCONNECTION

Capacity Planning
Overview

EXPERTCONNECTION
Capacity Planning
Traffic modeling (1/3)
Operatorsubscriberdensitydependson:
Populationdensity
Mobilephonepenetration
Operatormarketshare
Thesubscriberdensity&subscribertrafficprofilearethemainrequirementsfor
capacitydimensioning
TrafficforecastshouldbedonebyanalyzingtheofferedBusyHourtrafficper
subscriberfordifferentservices ineachrolloutphase

Trafficdata:
Voice:
Erlangpersubscriberduringbusyhourofthenetwork
Codecbitrate,Voiceactivity
Videocall:
Erlangpersubscriberduringbusyhourofthenetwork
Servicebitrates
NRTdata:
Averagethroughput(kbps)persubscriberduringbusyhourofthenetwork
Targetbitrates
EXPERTCONNECTION

Capacity Planning
Traffic modeling (2/3) ExamplesofTypicalSubscribersProfiles:

Subscriber traffic profile from traffic


model
The main purpose of traffic model is to
describe the average subscriber
behavior during the most loaded day
period (the Busy Hour)
Example traffic model
The traffic model defines an
application mix consisting of 5
services (VoIP, Video, Streaming,
Web browsing & FTP)
There are 3 subscriber profiles
each one mapped onto an
application mix:
Voice Dominant
Data Dominant
Voice/Data
FTP=FileTransferProtocol
BHCA=BusyHourCallAttempts

EXPERTCONNECTION
Capacity Planning
Traffic modeling (3/3)

Number of Subscribers = 10,000

Average Data Volume per Subscriber per Busy Hour (BH) from the NSN
Traffic Model assuming the data dominant scenario: 10.24 MByte

The Average Data Rate per Subscriber could be calculated as:


= Average Data Volume per Subscriber per BH [bit] / 3600 s
= 22.75 Kbps

The Total Offered Traffic could be calculated as:


= Number of Subscribers * Average Data Rate per Subscriber
= 10,000 * 22.75 Kbps = 227.5 Mbps

EXPERTCONNECTION

Capacity Planning
Number of Sites
Site Capacity
The site capacity could be derived from the cell capacity:
Site capacity = Cell Capacity * Number of Cells per Site

The cell capacity is defined as the overall cell throughput (average cell
capacity)
Calculation of an average cell throughput in LTE is based on system level
simulations

The number of sites due to capacity:

# Sites due to Capacity = Roundup (Total Offered Traffic / Site Capacity)

Example:
Site Capacity is 10 Mbps
Total Offered Traffic is 100 Mbps
The number of sites due to capacity is 100 Mbps/ 10Mbps = 10

EXPERTCONNECTION
Capacity Planning
Cell Capacity (1/9) - UL/DL Spectral Efficiency
ISD:InterSiteDistance

SpectralEfficiency(Kbps/KHz)
ULSpectralEfficiency DLSpectralEfficiency

Note: The simulation setup refers to SIMO mode, and focuses on realistic assumptions
rather than on an idealized configuration.

EXPERTCONNECTION

Capacity Planning
Cell Capacity (2/9) - UL/DL Throughput

ULAverageCellThroughput (C100%) DLAverageCellThroughput (C100%)

EXPERTCONNECTION
Capacity Planning
Cell Capacity (3/9) - Cell Throughput Interpolation
InrealplanningscenariostheInterSiteDistance(ISD)obtainedfromtheLinkBudgetCalculation
isnotequaltotheISDsthathavebeensimulated
Therefore,additionalinterpolationisrequiredtoadapttotheresultsfromtheLinkBudget
Oneinterpolationexamplecouldbeseenbelow:

Purplebarsobtainedfromsimulations.Yellowbarshavebeen
interpolatedbasedonsimulationresults.

EXPERTCONNECTION

Capacity Planning
Cell Capacity (4/9) - Affecting Factors
The LTE Cell Capacity (Throughput) depends on:
Cell Range (Pathloss)
Considered as a variation of the Inter Site Distance (ISD)
The effect of larger ISD has been presented in the previous slides
The SINR distribution is bad in larger cells which becomes more & more noise limited
Channel Bandwidth (1.4 MHz ... 20 MHz)
The best capacity performance can be achieved with wide channel bandwidth due to the
maximum frequency diversity gain
Small Bandwidth configuration are characterized by high system overhead
Cell Load
The values presented so far are for 100% cell load
The impact of cell load is based on simulation results
LTE Features:
MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output)
Scheduling: Proportional Fair or Round Robin
UL CAS channel aware scheduling
Inter frequency load balancing

EXPERTCONNECTION
Capacity Planning
Cell Capacity (5/9) - Cell Range

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Capacity Planning
Cell Capacity (6/9) - Channel Bandwidth

Spectral Efficiency Relative to 10 MHz

120 %
Downlink
100 % Uplink
40% 13% Reference
80 %

60 %

40 %

20 %

0%
1.4 MHz 3 MHz 5 MHz 10 MHz 20 MHz

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Capacity Planning
Cell Capacity (7/9) - Load

Simulatedspectralefficiency(SE)figuresarecalculatedfor100%loadinallcells:
Bestcasefromtheresourceutilizationpointofview(allresourcesPRBs areutilized)
Worsecasefromtheinterferencepointofview

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Capacity Planning
Cell Capacity (8/9) - Load

The victim cell throughput has been normalized to 1 in the figure, the
value of 1 meaning 100% neighbor cell load

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Capacity Planning
Cell Capacity (9/9) - MIMO

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LTE Planning Principles


PDCCH Dimensioning/Optimization

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PDCCH Dimensioning/Optimization
Overview
PDCCH is allocated in blocks of 1, 2, 4, 8 CCEs (AL - Aggregation Level)
Single PDCCH CCE = 36 REs
Aggregation Level is selected based on the UE RF conditions
Full PDCCH capacity usually cannot be used (due to 3GPP limitations)
Some PDCCH blocking is acceptable (KPIs)
PDCCH blocking may result in handover delays, throughput reductions, etc.
For example, if the scheduled UE is blocked, than it will be scheduled in the
consecutive TTI (increases delay)
Each vendor provides counters to monitor PDCCH Utilization and Blocking for each AL
Vendors provide load-based PDCCH allocation features
High PDCCH blocking is usually caused by:
Poor RF Conditions -> High number of PDCCH allocated with AL 4 or/and 8
Low number of PDCCH with AL 1-4 and high number of PDDCH with AL 8 cell has
clearly RF problems
High UE load
Vendors offer PUSCH pro-active scheduling to improve UL latency (eNB sends
dummy-grants to UE with empty buffer), such features increase PDCCH blocking

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PDCCH Dimensioning/Optimization
Example
Example of Nokia Counters, statistics from a single LTE cell
High AL 8 blocking ratio -> many users in poor RF

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PDCCH Dimensioning/Optimization
Optimization activities and challenges
Optimization activities and challenges:
Off-loading users to other layers (load balancing) or other cells (idle mode cell
reselection offsets, handover offsets, or antenna down tilt)
Increase cell capacity (more sectors/narrow beam width antennas)
Reduce PUSCH Proactive scheduling timers (or disable the feature) if there is no
significant improvement in UL
Challenge: When such PUSCH Proactive Scheduling is activated, the PDCCH
blocking counters cannot distinguish the real blocking from the dummy PUSCH grant
blocking

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LTE Planning Principles


PUCCH Dimensioning

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PUCCH Dimensioning/Optimization
Overview
It is critical to not allow any PUCCH blocking
PUCH blocking -> Admission control will reject the user
Seen in counters: RRC Connection Setup and HO Preparation Failure
Solution for PUCCH blocking is to increase the PUCCH region
PUCCH region should be defined in line with the number of allowed RRC
Connected users
Each PUCCH Connected user generates PUCCH load
Larger PUCCH region reduces PUSCH capacity

PUCCHcarries:
CQI
RIandPMI
ACK/NACK
SR

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PUCCH Dimensioning/Optimization
PUCCH Capacity
block-wise spreading
UEs are separated using of CDM (within an RB)
Two orthogonal CDM techniques are applied on PUCCH Cyclic
shift
Orthogonal cover code
0 1 2
CDM using cyclic shifts of CAZAC* sequence 0 0 12
1 6
and block-wise spreading with the orthogonal 2 1 13
cover sequence 3 7
CDM in 4 2 14
Format 1/1a/1b CS 5
6 3
8
15
domain 7 9
Length-12 CAZAC sequence modulation + 8 4 16
block-wise spreading -> 1 symbol (1 or 2 bits 9 10
10 5 17
per slot) 11 11
Format 2/2a/2b
Length-12 CAZAC sequence modulation (& no
block-wise spreading) -> 5 symbols per slot

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PUCCH Dimensioning/Optimization
PUCCH Configuration
Periodic CQI is located at the outermost RB:
These resources are allocated explicitly via RRC
SR and persistent A/N are next to Periodic CQI:
These resources are allocated explicitly via RRC
Dynamic A/N is located at the innermost PUCCH RBs:
Allocated implicitly based on PDCCH allocation

m=1 m=0
m=3 m=2

system
PUCCH
bandwidth

m=2 m=3
m=0 m=1

slot

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PUCCH Dimensioning/Optimization
PUCCH Dimensioning

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PUCCH Dimensioning/Optimization
PUCCH Dimensioning Format 2.x CQI
Every UE with SRB1 is required to send CQI reports periodically
Every active UE requires Format 2.x PUCCH resource assignment
Total capacity for Format 2.x in a cell is defined by the number of dedicated PRBs, cyclic
shifts (6 cyclic shifts) and CQI periodicity

For example (1 RB for Format 2.x * 6 cyclic shifts * 20 ms CQI periodicity = 120
users)
If needed, more RBs for Format 2.x can be allocated
For example: in order to support 840 RRC connected UEs, we need 840/120 = 7RBs

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PUCCH Dimensioning/Optimization
PUCCH Dimensioning Format 1.x Scheduling Requests
Every UE in RRC Connected mode requires Format 1.x resource assignment
for sending SR (Scheduling Requests)
In a single PRB, multiple PUCCH Format 1.x resources can be provided
Depending on defined allowed number of cyclic shifts and spreading factor
Typically defined as 12 allowed cyclic shifts with 3 orthogonal spreading sequences resulting in:
12 * 3 = 18 users per PRB)
Total scheduling capacity is defined by number of resources assigned for PUCCH Format 1.x
(typically 18) and SR periodicity:
For example (Scheduling capacity): 18 users per PRB * 10 ms SR periodicity = 180 users

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PUCCH Dimensioning/Optimization
PUCCH Dimensioning Format 1.x ACK/NACK
The number of Format 1.x Resources required for ACK/NACKs is related to
the actual amount of symbols used for PDCCH (amounts of scheduled UEs)
Hence, the amount of Reserved PRBs for Format 1.x may vary on TTI basis
1-3 PRBs can be dynamically allocated for ACK/NACKs depending on the used
PDCCH symbols in terms of CCEs which is based on the number of scheduled UEs
per TTI and the required Aggregation Levels
The PUCCH allocation resource defines the available PRBs for PUSCH transmission
and therefore, it defines the peak UL throughput for a single UE

#CCEs/Format1.xResourcesperPRB=
10CCE(1PDCCHsymbol)>Roundup(10/18)=1PRB
26CCE(2PDCCHsymbols)>Roundup(26/18)=2PRBs
42CCE(3PDCCHsymbols)>Roundup(42/18)=3PRBs

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PUCCH Dimensioning/Optimization
PUCCH Dimensioning Format 1.x ACK/NACK

46PRBsforPUSCH 46PRBsforPUSCH 44PRBsforPUSCH


10CCE=1PDCCHsymbol 26CCE=2PDCCHsymbols 42CCE=3PDCCHsymbols
1PRBforFormat1.xPUCCH 2PRBforFormat1.xPUCCH 3PRBforFormat1.xPUCCH

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Parameter Settings
Initial Configuration

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Initial Parameter Configuration


Overview
Physical Cell ID Planning
UL DM Reference Signal Planning
PRACH Planning
PDCCH and PUCCH Region Planning
Neighbour List Planning
Tracking Area Planning

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LTE Planning Principles
PCID (Physical Cell ID) Planning Rules

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Physical Cell ID Planning Rules


Physical CID (Definition)
There are 504 unique Physical Cell IDs (PCI)
Physical Layer Cell Identity = (3 NID1) + NID2
NID1: Physical Layer Cell Identity group. Range 0 to 167
Defines SSS sequence
NID2: Identity within the group. Range 0 to 2
Defines PSS sequence
PCIimpactstheallocationofresource
elementstothereferencesignalandthe
setofphysicalchannels

Resourceelement
allocationtothe
ReferenceSignal

Allocationpatternrepeatsevery6th PhysicalLayerCellIdentity
Configuration/Optimizationrule:allocationofPCIDshouldnotbethesame
inthemostoverlapping/adjacentcells(mod6rule)
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Physical Cell ID Planning Rules
RS Frequency Shift
PCI = 6 -> RS frequency shift = 0
PCI = 7 -> RS frequency shift = 1
PCI = 8 -> RS frequency shift = 2 R1 Antenna0RS
PCI = 9 -> RS frequency shift = 3 R0 Antenna1RS
PCI = 10 -> RS frequency shift = 4
PCI = 11 -> RS frequency shift = 5
PCI = 12 -> RS frequency shift = 0

CellA(PCI9) CellB(PCI10) CellC(PCI11)


R1 R0 R1 R0
R1 R0 R1 R0
R1 R0 R1 R0
R0 R1 R0 R1
R0 R1 R0 R1
R0 R1 R0 R1
R1 R0 R1 R0
R1 R0 R1 R0
R1 R0 R1 R0
R0 R1 R0 R1
R0 R1 R0 R1
R0 R1 R0 R1

Subframe(1ms) Subframe(1ms) Subframe(1ms)

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Physical Cell ID Planning Rules


Physical CID (PCID) versus Global CID (ECGI)

Physical Layer Cell ID (PCI)

ThesequencetogeneratetheReferenceSignal
dependsuponthePCI
Shortrepetitioncycleof1ms
Limitedto504valuessonotunique
CarefulassignmentneededbecauseaUEshall
neverreceivethesamevaluefrom2differentcells

Global Cell ID (ECGI)


EUTRANCellGlobalidentifier
PartofSIB1
SIB1issentonceevery20ms (SIB1periodicityisfixed)
Uniqueinthenetwork:constructedfromMCC,MNCenE
UTRANCellIdentifier

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Physical Cell ID Planning Rules
Planning/Optimization Rules (1/4)
The PCID allocation rule for configuration /
optimization is provided below: priority order,
number 1 most important (all four should be
fulfilled, ideally)

1. Avoid assigning the same PCI to neighbour


cells Example1PCIIdentityPlan

2. Avoid assigning the same mod3 (PCI) to


Example1PCIIdentityPlan
neighbour cells

3. Avoid assigning the same mod 6(PCI) to


neighbour cells

4. Avoid assigning the same mod30 (PCI) to


neighbour cells
Example2PCIIdentityPlan

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Physical Cell ID Planning Rules


Planning/Optimization Rules (2/4)
Reference Signals, carrying one of the 504 PCI have a frequency
shift given by mod6(PCI) so collisions between RS are avoided up
to 6 adjacent cells ( if 1Tx antenna).

For 2Tx Antennas, # RS is doubled, so to avoid collisions in


adjacent cells: mod3(PCI) should be different.

This is to have frequency shift for RS of different cells, because


cells of a given site are frame-synchronized in the sense that DL
radio frame transmission starts at the same time instant in all the
cells --> hence also RS symbols are transmitted at the same time
instant.
To avoid RS of different cells (of the same site) interfering in the
DL, a frequency shift is applied (Defined by PCID)

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Physical Cell ID Planning Rules
Planning/Optimization Rules (3/4)
RSs seen by the UE from all 3 cells of a 3-sectored MIMO 2x2 site
There is no RS-RS interference as PCI mod 3 rule is maintained.

CellA(PCI9) R1 R0 R1 R0
R1 R0 R1 R0
R1 R0 R1 R0
R0 R1 R0 R1
CellB(PCI10) R0 R1 R0 R1
R0 R1 R0 R1
R1 R0 R1 R0
R1 R0 R1 R0
CellC(PCI11)
R1 R0 R1 R0
R0 R1 R0 R1
R0 R1 R0 R1
R0 R1 R0 R1
Subframe(1ms)

R1 Antenna0RS
R0 Antenna1RS
EXPERTCONNECTION

Physical Cell ID Planning Rules


Planning/Optimization Rules (4/4)
PCI Planning Strategy (1)
Same NID1 for cells in the same eNB
Different NID2 for each cell in the same eNB

Different NID1 for each eNB

PCI Planning Strategy (2)


Same NID2 for all cells in the same eNB
Different NID1 for each cell in the same eNB

Different NID2 for each eNB

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Physical Cell ID Planning Rules
PCI mod3 collision example

The given example is from


LTE TDD network, similar
RSRP from both cells in the
measurement point (=67
dBm)

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Physical Cell ID Planning Rules


Example: Nokia Optimizer in PCI Optimization

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LTE Planning Principles
UL DRS (Demodulation Reference Signal) Planning Rules

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UL DM RS Planning Rules
Overview UL DM RS allocation per slot for Normal Cyclic
Prefix

Types of UL Reference Signals


Demodulation Reference Signals (DM RS)
PUSCH/PUCCH data estimation
Sounding Reference Signals (SRS)
Mainly UL channel estimation enabling UL
Frequency Domain Packet Scheduling

DM RS is characterized by:
Sequence (Zadoff Chu codes)
Sequence length: equal to the # of subcarriers used
for PUSCH transmission (multiple of 12)
Sequence group:
30 options
Cell specific parameter

Cyclic Shift: UE and cell specific parameter

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UL DM RS Planning Rules
Challenges
UL DM RS allocation per slot for Normal
Cyclic Prefix
Typical challenges/configuration mistakes causing UL
interference:
DM RS occupy always the same slot in time domain
In frequency domain DM RS of a given UE occupies
the same PRBs as its PUSCH/PUCCH data
transmission
Possible inter cell interference for RS due to
simultaneous UL allocations on neighbour cells
No intra cell interference because users are
separated in frequency
Possible inter cell interference

Configuration / Optimization
DM RS in co-sited cells needs to be different

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UL DM RS Planning Rules
Configuration / Optimization (Sequence Group ID, u)
RS sequences for PUSCH have different lengths depending on the UL bandwidth
allocated for a UE
30 possible sequences for each PRB allocation length of 1-100 PRBs
Sequences are grouped into 30 groups so they can be assigned to cells (different
sequence group to different cells)
Sequence group number u:

u PCI grpAssigPUSCH mod 30

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UL DM RS Planning Rules
Configuration / Optimization (Cyclic Shift)
Additional sequences can be derived from a basic sequence by applying a
cyclic shift
The reference signals derived from different cyclic shift of the same basic
reference signal are orthogonal
The basic reference signal length is 12 therefore up to 12 cyclic shifts can be
derived
However in practice not 12 but maximum 8 cyclic shifts of a basic sequence
are derived
Can be assigned to the cell based on the cell-specific parameter
The main reason to use only 8 cyclic shifts is to preserve the orthogonality
between the reference signals
Note that Cyclic shifts of an extended ZC sequence are not fully orthogonal,
but have low cross-correlation

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UL DM RS Planning Rules
Optimization (1/5)
Theory:
It should be possible to assign to the cells of one site the same sequence
group u and differentiate the sequences using different cell specific cyclic
shifts i.e. allocating different ulRsCs (example of Nokia parameter)

Remember!: CyclicshiftsofanextendedZC
sequencearenotfullyorthogonal,buthavelow
crosscorrelation
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UL DM RS Planning Rules
Optimization (2/5)
PCI grpAssigPusch sequence id u ulRsCs cinit
75 0 15 0 79
Practice: 76 29 15 4 79

It doesnt seem to work.


UL Throughput gets considerably affected if UL traffic in neighbour cell
From 40 Mbps to ~ 22 Mbps in the example

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UL DM RS Planning Rules
Optimization (3/5)
Allocate different sequence group u for every cell, including cells of the same
site
Cross-correlation properties between sequences from two different groups
are good because of sequence grouping in the 3GPP spec
ulRsCs does not matter (it is only relevant for sequences within one seq group u)

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UL DM RS Planning Rules
Optimization (4/5)
UL Throughput still suffers from UL interference in neighbour cell
but the effect is lower

PCI grpAssigPusch sequence id u ulRsCs cinit


75 0 15 0 79
76 0 16 0 80

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UL DM RS Planning Rules
Optimization (5/5)
[+]: Results seem to be better
[+]: Less parameters to plan, only PCI planning needed

UlRsCs only relevant when using sequences of the same group


u will be different if PCI modulo 3 rule is followed. In that case
grpAssigPUSCH value is not relevant

u PCI grpAssigPUSCHmod30

[ -]: Reduced group reuse distance compared to the case of


assigning the same group per each site

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UL DM RS Planning Rules
Optimization (Conclusions)
Principle:DMRSneedstobedifferentincellsfromasameeNodeB
Optimizationprinciple:
Assigndifferentsequencegroupnumberutothecellsofthesamesite.Range:[029].
grpAssigPUSCH canbeconstant=noneedforreconfiguration

u PCI grpAssigPUSCH mod 30

If cells of the site follow the PCImod3 rule, the sequence group number u will be
different

If PCImod3 rule is not followed, check PCImod30 rule


If problems use grpAssigPUSCH to differentiate the u - sequence group number
Exact name of this cell-specific parameter is vendor-specific

If same u has to be used in neighbouring cells and cannot be changed using


grpAssigPUSCH then assign different cyclic shifts to the cells of a site. Range [07]

UL DM RS Planning Rules
Optimization (Example)
u PCI grpAssigPUSCH mod 30 PCI = 0 PCI = 6
u=1 u= 7
ulRsCs=0 ulRsCs = 0

PCI = 2 PCI = 8
grpAssigPUSCH = 1
u=3 u=9
ulRsCs = 0
ulRsCs = 0 ulRsCs = 0

PCI= 1 PCI = 7
u= 2 u=8
PCI = 3 ulRsCs =0 PCI = 9 ulRsCs = 0
u=4 u= 10
ulRsCs = 0 ulRsCs = 0
PCI = 5 PCI = 11
u=6 u= 12
ulRsCs = 0 ulRsCs =0

PCI = 4 PCI = 10
u=5 u = 11
ulRsCS = 0 ulRsCS = 0

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LTE Planning Principles
PRACH Planning Rules

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PRACH Planning Rules


Principles (PRACH Adjacent Cell Differentiation)
PRACH configuration: two cells must be different within the PRACH re-use distance to increase
the RACH decoding success rate
PRACH transmission can be separated by:
Time
PRACH-PUSCH interference: If PRACH resources are separated in time within eNB
PRACH-PRACH interference: If same PRACH resources are used for the cells of an
eNodeB.
PRACH-PRACH interference is preferred to PRACH-PUSCH interference
Conclusion: Time configuration of the cells on one site should be the same

Frequency
Allocation of PRACH area should be next to PUCCH area either at upper or lower border
of frequency band, however should not overlap with PUCCH area
Avoid separation of PUSCH in two areas by PRACH (The scheduler can only handle one
PUSCH area)
Conclusion: For simplicity use same configuration for all cells

Sequence (PRACH Cyclic Shist and Root-Sequence-Index)


Use different sequences for all neighbour cells

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PRACH Adjacent cell differentiation
Preamble Formats
3GPP (TS36.211) specifies 4 random access formats for FDD

Differenceinformatsisbasedinthedifferentdurationsforthecyclicprefix,sequenceandguardtimewhichhave
aneffectonthemaximumcellradius
Recommendation:
SelectFormat0forcellranges
<14.53km
SelectFormat1forcellranges
<77.34km

EXPERTCONNECTION

PRACH Adjacent cell differentiation


PRACH Time Slot configuration
The parameter (exact name is vendor-
specific) defines the Allowed System
Frame for random access attempts, the
Sub-frame numbers for random access
attempts and the Preamble format
Supported values:
For Preamble Format 0: 3 to 8
For Preamble Format 1: 19 to 24

RACH Density indicates how many RACH


resources are per 10ms frame.
Only RACH density values of 1 and 2 are
supported (Nokia example) .E.g.
RACH density=1 Only one random
access attempt per frame
RACH density=2 Two random access
attempts per frame

Recommendation: Extract of the random access


preamble configurations table (only for
Configure the same PRACH configuration supported preamble formats 0 and 1)
Indexes at cells belonging to the same site.
E.g.:
3 or 4 or 5 if RACH density=1 and 6 or 7or 8 if
RACH density=2 (Preamble Format 0)
PRACH Adjacent cell differentiation
PRACH - Frequency RB Configuration
Indicates the first PRB available for PRACH in the UL frequency band
PRACH area (6 PRBs) should be next to PUCCH area either at upper or lower
border of frequency band to maximize the PUSCH area but not overlap with
PUCCH area
Parameter is configured based on the PUCCH region (see PUCCH dimensioning)
i.e. its value depends on how many PUCCH resources are available.
If PRACH area is placed at the lower border of UL frequency band then:

PRACH-Frequency Offset= roundup [PUCCH resources/2]

If PRACH area is placed at the upper border of the UL frequency band then:

PRACH-Frequency Offset= NRB -6- roundup [PUCCH resources/2]

EXPERTCONNECTION

PRACH Adjacent cell differentiation PRACH


Cyclic Shift (1/3)
PrachCS (Example Nokia parameter) defines the configuration used for the preamble
generation. i.e. how many cyclic shifts are needed to generate the preamble
PrachCS depends on the cell size
Different cell ranges correspond to different PrachCS
Simplification: To assume all cells have same size

Recommendation:
SelectPrachCSbasedonthecellrangeE.g.if
estimatedcellrangeis15kmthenPrachCS:12
Ifallcellsinthenetworkareassumedtohave
samecellrangethenPrachCSisthesame
networkwise

EXPERTCONNECTION
PRACH Adjacent cell differentiation
PRACH Cyclic Shift (2/3)
PrachCS defines the number of cyclic shifts (in
terms of number of samples) used to generate
multiple preamble sequences from a single root
sequence
Example based on PrachCS=12 -> number of
cyclic shifts: 119
Root sequence length is 839 so a cyclic
shift of 119 samples allows ROUNDDOWN
(839/119)= 7 cyclic shifts before making a
complete rotation (signatures per root
sequence)
64 preambles are transmitted in the PRACH
frame. If one root is not enough to generate all 64
preambles then more root sequences are
necessary
To ensure having 64 preamble sequences
within the cell it is necessary to have
ROUNDUP (64/7)= 10 root sequences per
cell

Root Sequence Index


Cell-level;0837;1; 0
EXPERTCONNECTION

PRACH Adjacent cell differentiation


PRACH Cyclic Shift (3/3)

Root Sequence Index points to the first root


sequence to be used when generating the
set of 64 preamble sequences.
UE is informed in SIB2 which Root
Sequence is used in the cell

In case more than one root sequence is


necessary the consecutive number is
selected until the full set is generated

OptimizationRecommendation:
UsedifferentRootSequenceIndexacross
neighbouringcellsmeanstoensureneighbour
cellswillusedifferentpreamblesequences
PRACH Adjacent cell differentiation
Summary
STEPS:
1. Define the PRACH TIME CONFIGURATION
Depends on preamble format (cell range)
It should be the same for each cell of a site
2. Define the PRACH FREQENCY ALLOCATION
Depends on the PUCCH region
It can be assumed to be the same for all cells of a network
(simplification)
3. Define the PRACH SEQUENCE CYCLIC SHIFT
Depends on the cell range
If for simplicity same cell range is assumed for all network then PRACH
CYCLIC SHIFT is the same for all cells
4. Define the PRACH ROOT SEQUENCE INDEX
It points to the first root sequence
It needs to be different for neighbour cells
ROOT SEQUENCE INDEX separation between cells depends on how
many are necessary per cell (depends on PRACH SEQUENCE CYCLIC
SHIFT)

EXPERTCONNECTION

PRACH Collision Probability


Optimization
The probability of PRACH Contention is proportional to the square of the UE PRACH
attempts and the inverse of the number of contention based preambles
There should be no more that 3 preambles per PRACH slot
Number of received preambles can be monitored by counters
If ratio of received contention-based preambles and Msg3 is very low, PRACH parameters
and/or Uplink interference situation should be checked

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LTE Planning Principles
Power Allocation Rules

EXPERTCONNECTION

386

Power Control
Principles
Power Control objective is to reduce inter-cell interference, power
consumption and cell edge performance
In LTE, Power Control in performed in DL and UL
UL PUCCH and PUSCH: OPEN (Initial) and CLOSED LOOP Power Control
Open Loop PC: UE calculated the initial Tx power based on pathloss
measurements
Closed Loop PC: Based on the exchange of feedback and commands between
UE and eNodeB
DL PDSCH: SEMI-STATIC Power Control
eNodeB aims to keep fixed power per scheduled PRB
Total eNodeB TX power is used when all PRBs are schedules
No adaptive/feedback-based Power Control in DL (on contrary to 3G)
DL PDCCH: SPECIAL Power Control
eNodeB aims to keep target 1% BLER on PDCCH
Power is reduced on PDCCH with AGG-level higher than required
Power is increased on PDCCH with AGG-level lower than required

EXPERTCONNECTION
387

UL Power Control
PUSCH and PUCCH PC Overview (1/2)
UL PC is performed individually for PUSCH and PUCCH.
Combination of closed loop and open loop PC.
UE controls the Tx power to keep the transmitted power spectral density (PSD) constant
independent of the allocated transmit bandwidth (#PRBs)
If there is no detectable Power Control commands from the Node B, the UE performs
open loop PC based on path loss measurements = same as during the initial access
(Preamble-based gradual power increase)
If there is a receivable feedback from eNodeB (during regular connection), the UE
corrects the Power Spectral Density (closed loop PC)
Similar, as in 3G:
PC commands ( up and down) are based on UL quality and signal level
measurements 2. SINR measurements
3. Setting new power
offset (feedback to UE)

4. TX power adjustment
1. Initial TX power
with the new offset
EXPERTCONNECTION

UL Power Control
PUSCH and PUCCH PC Overview (2/2)
NominalPowerincludescellspecific(SysInfo)
opratormodifivaleandUEspecific(RRC)parameter
takesintoaccounttheULinterference

RRC-BCCH:

P0_NOMINAL_PUSCH, P0_NOMINAL_PUCCH, ALPHA, deltaFListPUCCH, deltaPreambleMsg3

PDCCH: DELTA_PUSCH, DELTA_PUCCH


MPUSCH taken from scheduling grant
RRC-DCCH: P0_UE_PUSCH, P0_UE_PUCCH,
P_SRS_OFFSET, filterCoefficient
UE: PL
SIB1, UE class: PCMAX

EXPERTCONNECTION
UL Power Control
PUSCH Power Control OpenLoop ClosedLoop
(Pathloossbased)
UEcalculatesPUSCHPowerfor
everysubframe

PPUSCH(i) min {PCMAX ,10 log10 (M PUSCH(i)) PO_PUSCH PL TF (i) f (i)} dBm

NumberofscheduledRBs
(UEincreasespower NominalPowerincludes DependentofntheTBS
proportionallytothe cellspecific(SysInfo)and (TransportBlockSize)
numberofRBs) UEspecific(RRC)
parameter Pathloss(PL)compensation
factor(cellspecific).Usedas
atradeoffbetweentotalUL
capacityandcelledgedata
rate

EXPERTCONNECTION

UL Power Control
PUSCH Open Loop Power Control (1/3)
Open Loop Power Control is based on the UE PL (Pathloss) measurements.
It is controlled with broadcasted (operator modifiable) cell- specific parameters
(Po_nominal_pusch and ) as well as by UE-specific parameters (Po_ue_pusch).
The UE-specific component (Po_ue_pusch) is signelled by higher layers and it is used to
correct the errors from estimation of the pathloss
PO_PUSCH(j)=PO_NOMINAL_PUSCH(j)+PO_UE_PUSCH(j)

Basic _ Operating _ Po int PO_PUSCH ( j ) ( j ) PL

Alpha is the path loss compensation factor (operator modifiable parameter)


[0.0,0.4,0.5,0.6,0.7,0.8,0.9,1.0]
=0,nocompensation
=1,fullcompensation
{0,1},fractionalcompensation
EXPERTCONNECTION
UL Power Control
PUSCH Open Loop Power Control (3/3)
Conventional PC schemes:
Attempt to maintain a constant SINR at the receiver
UE increases the Tx power to fully compensate for increases in the path loss
Fractional PC schemes:
Allow the received SINR to decrease as the path loss increases.
UE Tx power increases at a reduced rate as the path loss increases. Increases in path loss are
only partially compensated.
[+]: Improve air interface efficiency & increase average cell throughputs by reducing Inter-cell
interference

UL
UL
SINR
SINR

Conventional Power
Control: =1 UE Tx
Power UE Tx
If Path Loss increases Power

by 10 dB the UE Tx
power increases by 10
dB

EXPERTCONNECTION

UL Power Control
PUCCH Power Control
OpenLoop ClosedLoop
(Pathloossbased)

PPUCCH (i ) min{ PMAX , P0_PUCCH PL h(nCQI , nHARQ ) F_PUCCH ( F ) g (i )} dBm

NominalPowerincludes
cellspecific(SysInfo)and Compensationfactorfor
UEspecific(RRC) differentUCIformats
parameter (operatormodifiable)
PUCCHformat1,1a,1b:h(n)=0
PUCCHformat2,2a,2band:
h(n)=0ifnCQI <4
h(n)=10log10 (nCQI/4)otherwise
n:numberofinformationbits)
EXPERTCONNECTION
393

UL Power Control
PUSCH and PUCCH Closed Loop PC (1/3)
eNodeB measures quality and signal level of PUSCH, PUCCH, and SRS
sent by the UE, then employs weighting and calculations involving many
operator-modifiable parameters.
Example of decision matrix whether to feedback to UE power increase on
decrease (separately for PUSCH and PUCCH):

EXPERTCONNECTION

UL Power Control
PUSCH and PUCCH Closed Loop PC (2/3)

EXPERTCONNECTION
UL Power Control
PUSCH and PUCCH Closed Loop PC (3/3)

EXPERTCONNECTION

DL Power Control
Overview
Slow Power Control for the Downlink Channels with aim to keep flat Power
Spectral Density.
Power Spectral Density (PSD) specifies the constant absolute power per 15 kHZ
Resource Element
Power boosting for Control Channels and Reference Signals
Power compensation if MIMO is used (semi-static)

EXPERTCONNECTION
397

DL Power Control
PDSCH Power Assignment Example

0 1 2 3 4 5 6
t

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DL Power Control
PDSCH- PSD Calculation

PowerSpectralDensity(PSD)isgivenperAntenna(RFamplifieroutput)

RBs,whicharenotscheduledareblanked

PSD = (pMax - CELL_PWR_RED) - 10*log10( # PRBs_DL *12) - MIMO_COMP [dBm]

MIMOCompensationFactor
(0dBwithoutMIMO,
Cellbasedparameter 112dBwithMIMO)
(operatormodifiable)

NumberofscheduledRBsin
givenLTEbandwidth

EXPERTCONNECTION
399

DL Power Control
Control Channel power boosting
Control Channels in the DL have typically defined special Power Margins (operator
modifiable)
They are transmitted with extra power to guarantee successful reception
PCFICH power boosting
A relative offset between the flat PSD (Power Spectral Density) on PDSCH and PCFICH
can be configured by O&M on cell level.
PHICH power boosting
PHICH power boost may not be (fully) applied if PDCCH PSD goes too low in the first
OFDM symbol. In that case, the eNB rises the PHICH Power Boost not applied warning.
A maximum relative offset between the flat PSD on PDSCH and PHICH can be
configured by O&M on cell level.
Downlink reference signal boosting
The downlink reference symbols are used by the UE for channel estimation and cell
measurements (Level, Quality) for mobility.
The eNB supports relative RS / PDSCH power control settings.
A relative offset between the PDSCH and RS can be configured by O&M on cell level.
The eNB ensures that total Tx power is not exceed.
The sum power for any OFDM symbol must not exceed the committed maximum power,
otherwise all the configured boosts (PHICH) may not be applied.

EXPERTCONNECTION

LTE Optimization
Signalling in eUTRAN - Review

EXPERTCONNECTION
LTE UE States
Overview

EXPERTCONNECTION

402

EMM & ECM States Transitions


Overview
Power On

Release due to
Registration (Attach) Inactivity
Allocate C-RNTI, S_TMSI Release RRC connection
Allocate IP addresses Release C-RNTI
Authentication Configure DRX for paging
Establish security context

EMM_Deregistered EMM_Registered EMM_Registered


ECM_Idle ECM_Connected ECM_Idle

Deregistration (Detach) New Traffic


Change PLMN
Establish RRC Connection
ReleaseC-RNTI, S-TMSI Allocate C-RNTI
Release IP addresses

Timeout of Periodic TA
Update

Release S-TMSI
Release IP addresses
EXPERTCONNECTION
Basic Signalling - Attach Request
Overview
Steps:
1. RandomAccess
2. InitialNAS
message
3. S1InitialContext
Setup
4. RRCSecurity/UE
Capability
5. RB2/DRBSetup
6. NAS/S1AP
Cleanup

EXPERTCONNECTION

Basic Signalling - Dedicated Bearer Establishment


Overview

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Basic Signalling - Attach Request
Inter-eNB HO (1/2)

EXPERTCONNECTION

(2/2)
TS36.300

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Basic Signalling - Attach Request
Inter-RAT HO to 3G

EXPERTCONNECTION

Phyical RF Optimization

EXPERTCONNECTION
Physical RF Optimization
Overview
Cell dominance is critical in LTE for good performance (as in 3G)
Antenna tilting
Neigbhour parameter planning (A3, A5 offsets)
Neighbour cell load is having significant impact on througput in the
target cell (challenge in drive tests, comparision)
MIMO Antenna configurations increase probability of X-feeders

EXPERTCONNECTION

Physical RF Optimization
Detecting interference (1/4)
RSRP measurement is the most reliable to detect areas with interference /
bad dominance problems
Not impacted by network load
The best is to measure with good scanner with dynamic range and PCI tracking
capability (e.g. set to measure all PCIs within 5 dB power window)
The UE can be set to measure Serving PCI vs. Top N PCIs
Generally, if there are 3 or more PCIs inside 5 dB window => tilt optmization should
be considered

EXPERTCONNECTION
Physical RF Optimization
Detecting interference (2/4)
CQI
Distribution
from counters
practical way
to detect bad
cells
(dominance/int
erference
problems)

EXPERTCONNECTION

Physical RF Optimization
Detecting UL interference (3/4)
PUSCH and PCCH RSSI and SINR counters can be used to detect
coverage and UL intereference problems
Please note that usually these RSSI/SINR coutners are pegged when the
UL PC Closed Loop thresholds are reached (please see Power Control
section)

LowerULClosedLoopPC UpperULClosedLoopPC
RSSIthreshold RSSIthreshold

UpperULClosedLoopPCSINR
threshold

LowerULClosedLoopPCSINR
threshold

EXPERTCONNECTION
Physical RF Optimization
Detecting interference (4/4)
As in 2G/3G, overshooting
cell can be detected from
neighbour cell HO
measurements
E.g. Visualize cell pairs
with poor HO performance
(<80%) and meaningful
number of attempts (>10)
One or two strong
neighbours
Probably their coverage
area is too large
Several strong neighbours
Probably coverage area of
the server is too large

EXPERTCONNECTION

Physical RF Optimization
Load impact
Two drive test measurements done in different times may have
totally different results
Performance (Throughput) very sensitive to network load

EXPERTCONNECTION
Physical RF Optimization
MIMO X-Feeders
With MIMO X-Feeders, it is possible to have two equally strong cells
where single cell may dominate
Rank Indicator significantly downgraded

EXPERTCONNECTION

Field Test KPI Overview

EXPERTCONNECTION
Field Test KPI Overview
(1/2)
Attach Time = t (Attach Complete) t (Attach Request)
Attach covers, registration, authentication and default (non GBR) bearer establishment

Detach time = t (Detach Request) t (Detach Accept)


With Detach request, UE informs network that is does not want EPS services any longer, all
bearers are released after Detach.

Attach Success Rate = (# of Successful Attach / # of Attach Attempts) *100%


Attach requests, which are rejected by authentication failures should be excluded
If Success Ratio is calculated on the eNB side by counting incoming RRC Requests, retries
should be excluded

UE Initiated
Service Request Time = t (RRC Conn. Reconfiguration ) t (RRC Alloc. Request)
Time taken by the LTE network to setup an EPS bearer (either new dedicated or reassignment of
the existing one ) on request by the UE
The UE initiated EPS Bearer Setup Time is the interval between the submission of the RRC
Connection Requests carrying piggybacked NAS Service Request message and the reception of
the RRC Connection Reconfiguration message by the UE.

EXPERTCONNECTION

Field Test KPI Overview


(2/2)
Network-initiated Service Request Time = t(RRC Reconfig) t (RRC Request)
Time taken by the network to set up an EPS bearer on request by the P-GW.
This time includes paging time if the UE is in Idle

Service Request Success Rate


= (# od RRC Conn Reconf Complete )/(# of RRC Conn Requests) * 100%
Defined as the ratio between Successfully established EPS bearers compared to
the overall number of EPS bearer establishment attempts
Only the first RRC Connection Request should be considered (retries
excluded)

Service Drop Rate = (# of Dropped calls) / (# of Successful Calls) *100%


Defined as the ratio between abnormally released bearers and the overall number of
established bearer

EXPERTCONNECTION
Field Test KPI Overview
Testing methods - Examples
Example 1: Example 2: Example 3:
Attach RRC Setup/Service FTP DL
FTP DL Request FTP UL
FTP UL FTP DL HTTP page (x 5)
HTTP page (x 5) FTP UL
Ping (x 10) HTTP page (x 5)
Detach Ping (x 10)
Wait until released by eNB

EXPERTCONNECTION

Neighbors Management

EXPERTCONNECTION
Idle Mode Procedures
Cell Reselection

In Idle mode, UE measures the neighbour Operatordefines


cells only when RSRP of the serving cell thresholdsinitiating
falls below the threshold neighbourmeasurements

For inter-frequency and


inter-RAT neighbours,
Evaluate cell reselection criteria different priorities may
be setup

Execute cell reselection

EXPERTCONNECTION

Cell Reselection
Measurement Activation RSRP (Rel. 8),
RSRP+ RSRQ (Rel. 9)

Threshold 1
Threshold 2-Inter
Threshold 2-WCDMA
Threshold 2-GERAN

+ Inter- Only Intra- No neighbour


+ 2G + 3G measurements
Frequency Frequency
neighbour neighbour
neighbour neighbour
measurements measurements
measurements measurements

Threshold 2-GERAN < Threshold 2-WCDMA < Threshold 2-Inter < Threshold 1

EXPERTCONNECTION
Cell Reselection
Intra-Frequency
UE will rank serving cell and the neighbours accordingly.
Please note that neighbour-specific offset is optional

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Cell Reselection
Inter-Frequency (Equal Priority)

LTE F1 LTE F1 LTE F1 LTE F2


LTE F1 LTE F1 LTE F2 LTE F2 LTE F2 LTE F2
priority = 7 priority = 7
Inter-frequency
LTE reselection to
equal priority layer

MeasurementsofequalpriorityinterfrequencyLTElayerstarted:
LTE(servingcell)RSRP<=qrxlevmin+sNonIntraSearchPR9
or
LTE(servingcell)RSRQ<=qQualMinR9+sNonIntraSearchQR9 Parameter names
correspond to NSN
Reselectiontriggered: implemenations, but
LTE(neighborcell)RSRP>qRxLevMinInterF the mechanism and
LTE(neighborcell)RSRQ>qQualMinR9 parameter definition
is in line with 3GPP
And Rel.9

RSRPneighbor (qOffCell+ qOffFrq) >RSRPserving+qHyst

EXPERTCONNECTION
Cell Reselection
Inter-Frequency (Higher / Lower Priority), RSRQ-based
example
Reselection towards higher frequency layer triggered:
LTE (neighbor cell) RSRQ > qQualMinR9+ interFrqQThrHighR9

LTE F1 LTE F1 LTE F1 LTE F1 LTE F1


priority = 7

reselection to reselection to
lower Inter- higher Inter-
frequency LTE frequency LTE
priority layer priority layer

LTE F3 LTE F3 LTE F3 LTE F3 LTE F3


priority = 6

Reselection towards lower frequency layer triggered:


LTE (serving cell) RSRQ < qQualMinR9 + threshServingLowQR9 and

LTE (neighbor cell) RSRQ > qQualMinR9+ interFrqQThrLowR9

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Idle Mode mobility


SIB 3 Cell Reselection Parameters (intra- and inter-freq)
SIB3 provides parameters mainly related to serving cell and frequency
qHyst Provides hysteresis value for ranking criteria (to avoid ping-pong)
tEvaluation Timer: duration for evaluation of the criteria
tHystNormal Timer: additional duration for evaluation of the criteria to enter mobility states
nCellChgMed Defines number of cell changes to enter medium mobility state
nCellChgHigh - Defines number of cell changes to enter high mobility state
qHystSfHigh Timer: additional duration for evaluation of the criteria to enter medium mobility state
qHystSfMed - Timer: additional duration for evaluation of the criteria to enter high mobility state
sNonIntrSearch Provides threshold for inter-RAT and inter-freq. measurements
threshSrvLow Defines threshold for the serving frequency in reselection evaluation towards lower
priority frequency or RAT
cellReSelPrio Defines the absolute priority of the serving layer (0 = absolute priority)
Qrxlevmin - Defines the minimum requires RSRP level in the cell
pMaxOwnCell Used to limit UE TX power
sIntraSearch - Provides threshold for intra-freq. measurements
intraPresAntP Indicates whether all the neighbouring cells use Antenna Port 1
tReselEutr Treslection Timer: Defines the cell reselection timer value

EXPERTCONNECTION
Idle Mode mobility
SIB 4 (Optional) Intra-Frequency Neighbour Definition (1/3)
Broadcast of SIB 4 is optional no need to broadcast any intra-frequency
neighbor cells
UE is able to complete cell re-selection with SIB3 information

SIB4 informs about LTE idle mode neighbors (cell-specific offsets)


Physical Cell Identifier (PCI) of neighbor cell can be broadcast
Cell (neighbor) individual re-select offset can be broadcast
Up to 16 neighbors with cell-specific offsets can be defined

SIB4 also informs about blacklisted cells (BC)


A UE is not allowed to re-select a blacklisted cell
Up to 16 groups of cells (PCIs) can be blacklisted
UE will not measure BC cells in connected mode
UE will never be instructed from eNB to handover to a blacklisted cell

EXPERTCONNECTION

Idle Mode mobility


SIB 4 (Optional) Intra-Frequency Neighbour Definition (2/3)
UE shall not consider Black Listed Cells to camp on
Operator can control Black Cell List
Range of blacklisted cells must be consecutive
Range can be defined with parameter: rangeIntraPci
Start of range can be defined with parameter: startIntraPci
Up to 16 groups of cells (PCIs) can be blacklisted rangeIntraPci

startIntraPci

0 PCI Range 503

EXPERTCONNECTION
Idle Mode mobility
SIB 4 (Optional) Intra-Frequency Neighbour Definition (3/3)
Example of Neighbour Cell List -> Copy from eNB SCF File

8 cells are blacklisted

1 intra-frequency neighbour
defined with cell-specific offset

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Idle Mode mobility


SIB 5 Inter-Frequency Neighbour Definition
8 Frequency Layers can be defined
16 neighbours for each frequency layer
16 groups of black listed cells for each frequency layer
irfimId Frequency layer ID
dlCarFrqEut carrier number
eutCelResPrio relative cell priority ranging
intFrBCList (rangeInterPci + startInterPci)
intFrNCList (physCellIdNcl + qOffCell)
interFrqThrH - threshold to a higher absolute priority LTE layer
interFrqThrL threshold to a lower priority LTE layer
interPresAntP Antenna Port 1 used (indicates if all neighbour cells are applying at least 2 cell specific APs)
interTReslEut Cell Reselection timer
measBdq - Bandwidth
pMaxInterF Max power to be used in neighbour layer
qQoffFrq frequency specific offset
qRXLevMinInterF Minimum coverage criteria
tResEutSF (eutResTiFHM + eutResTiFMM) Treselection timer is multiplied by these timers for corresponding
mobility states

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Connected Mode Mobility

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432

Connected-mode mobility
Measurement Activation

Threshold 1
Threshold 2-Inter
Threshold 2-WCDMA
Threshold 2-GERAN

+ Inter- Only Intra- No neighbour


+ 2G + 3G measurements
Frequency Frequency
neighbour neighbour
neighbour neighbour
measurements measurements
measurements measurements

Threshold 2-GERAN < Threshold 2-WCDMA < Threshold 2-Inter < Threshold 1

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433

Connected-mode mobility
Intra-LTE HO, Events
Event A2/A1: Serving cell RSRP down/up crossing defined RSRP threshold
(neihgbour measurement activation)
Event A3: Neighbour cell RSRP is a predefined offset better than serving cell RSRP
(regular HO)
Event A5: Serving cell RSRP downcrossing certain threshold, while neighbour cell
RSRP upcrossing other threshold (time-critical HO)

RSRP
Intra-freq RSRP RSRP
A3 trigger A5 trigger
meas.
A2 trigger (inter-
freq meas.) A5 thold 2

A3 offset
A5 thold 1
A2 threshold
RSRP serving RSRP serving RSRP serving

move move move direction


direction direction
EXPERTCONNECTION

Connected-mode mobility
LTE Mobility Offsets
Target: optimize the intra-LTE mobility (intra & inter-frequency) by
applying different offsets for different target cells
Extension for the A3 and A5 reporting events
There are different offsets as follows:
Cell specific and frequency specific
For the serving cell and for the neighbors cells
For the intra-frequency and for the inter-frequency case

RSRPservingcell<threshold3
AND(&&)
RSRPtargetcell>threshold3a
RSRPservingcell+cellIndOffServ <threshold3
AND(&&)
RSRPtargetcell+cellIndOffNeigh >
threshold3a

EXPERTCONNECTION
Connected-mode mobility
ANR Automated Neighbour Relation
1. ANR functionality includes 4 basic steps:
1. Neighbour cell discovery
2. Neighbour Site X2 transport configuration discovery
3. X2 Connection Setup with neighbour cell configuration update
4. ANR Optimization

EXPERTCONNECTION

Connected-mode mobility
ANR Automated Neighbour Relation (Overview)
Every active mobile terminal is configured to report
discovered cells (PCIs) if their signal exceeds predefined
threshold:
Event 4A (Threshold higher than A3)
Initial network configuration (to populate eNB Neighbour
Relation Table)
Or based on HO-Event 3A Threshold
Typically Event 4A is switched off during regular
operation to minimize signalling overhead

eNB maintains Neighbour Relation Table that contains


one Neighbour Relation per neighbour cell: PCI, ECGI
If a reported cell PCIs is not in the NRT, eNB signals UE to
decode the target cell E-CGI and report it back to the
source eNB 3GPPANR
eNB retrieves IP configuration of the target X2 from the Mechanism
MME based on the target cell E-CGI
The retrieved target cell IP configuration is added to the
source eNB Neighbour Site List as well as new Neighbour
Relation is added to the eNB Neighbour Relation Table

EXPERTCONNECTION
Connected-mode mobility
ANR eNB Neighbour Site/Cell List and Neighbour Relation Table

Example:
eNBAhasX2connectiontoeNBB
eNBBparents3cellswithknown
ECGIs
ButtheNeighbourRelationexists
onlytothecellwithECGIB10

EXPERTCONNECTION

Connected-mode mobility
ANR Delay (1/3)

EXPERTCONNECTION
Connected-mode mobility
ANR Delay (2/3)
Measurements

A.Dahlen,A/Johanssson,F/Gunnarsson,J.
Moe,T.Rimighagen,H.Kallin,Evaluationsof
LTEAutomaticNeighbourRelations(Ericsson
andTeliaSonera)

EXPERTCONNECTION

Connected-mode mobility
ANR Delay (3/3) Simulations

C.M.Mueller,H.Bakker,L.Ewe,Evaluationof
theAutomaticNeighbourRelationFunctionin
aDenseUrbanScenario,Universityof
StuttgartandAlcatelLucent

EXPERTCONNECTION
Neighbour Management
Optimization
Vendors (e.g. Nokia, Huawei) provide counters for Mobility Robustness that are
helpful in neighbour list optimization
Failure types: Too late HO, too Early HO Type I, Too Early HO Type II

RRCConnectionReestablishment=RER
RadioLinkFailure=RLF

EXPERTCONNECTION

Neighbour Management
Optimization (Too Late HO)
UE stays too long with the source cell resulting in degrading cell quality and
radio link failure on the UE site
UE makes RRC re-establishment connection to another cell
Often indicates as missing neighbour

EXPERTCONNECTION
Neighbour Management
Optimization (Too Early HO Type I)
UE tries to enter too early the target cell
Not sufficient cell quality results in HO failure (UE is unable to complete
RA to the target cell within T304)
UE re-establishes connection to the source cell again

EXPERTCONNECTION

Mobility Optmization
Common Problems
Inter-layer Mobility Optimization
UE Capabilities / Feature Group Indicator (3GPP)
Inter-frequency HO
LTE-capable UEs are Camping in 3G layer
Ping-pong

EXPERTCONNECTION
Mobility Optmization
UE Capabilities (1/2)
Problem:
UE does not support LTE inter-frequency HO
UE does not support LTE inter-RAT PS HO
Many drive test tools dont decode Terminal Feature Group Indicator in the
UE Capability Message
Also, sometimes UE firmware details are not known

FeatureGroup
Indicatormapping
isprovidedinthe
nextslide

EXPERTCONNECTION

Mobility Optmization
UE Capabilities (2/2)

EXPERTCONNECTION
Mobility Optimization
Inter-Frequency HO (1/2)
In Idle mode, typically one layer (priority layer, capacity layer) provides
coverage on hot spots
If both layers have similar overlapping coverage (equal priorities are defined)
IFHO parameter must be aligned with the idle-mode strategy
Target is generally (initial phase) to guarantee that UE is connected to the
layer with best RSRP if layers have the same bandwidth
If layers have different bandwidths, the lower bandwidth should have higher
RSRP to reach the equivalent throughput
Capacitylayer Coveragelayer

EXPERTCONNECTION

Mobility Optimization
Inter-Frequency HO (2/2)
Suggested setting of A3 offset, examples.
This is based on the principle, that throughput in the target layer should not drop (i.e.
the user will not suffer)
If target layer bandwidth is the same (offset 3 dB)
If target layer bandwidth is half (offset 8 dB)
If target layer bandwidth is double (offset 0 2B)
Settings should (of course) be as such that ping-pong back to the source layer is
avoided (at least 5 dB margin)
HO Inter-frequency measurements should not be done too early
Otherwise user throughput is affected (as below)

EXPERTCONNECTION
Mobility Optimization
LTE-capable UEs are camping in 3G layer (1/2)
Target: all LTE UEs should camp and stay on LTE layer
Many terminals dont support inter-RAT HO, hence Idle-mode functionality is
crucial
Some networks/implementations support RRC Release with Redirect to LTE
(please see example below UE is redirected to LTE layer immediately after
RRC release)

EXPERTCONNECTION

Mobility Optimization
LTE-capable UEs are camping in 3G layer (2/2)
For UE camped on 3G layer, 3G-scope parameters define:
Priority of LTE Layer
Minimum RSRP of the LTE Layer to cell reselect
Timers for Cell reselection criteria
Parameters that define how often UE searches for the higher priority LTE cells
All the LTE-related parameters can be read from 3G SIB19

Kcarrier numberof
LTEcarriers

Example:oneLTE2.6GcarrierdefinedinSIB19and3GDRXcycle=640ms,
thenUEshallbeabletoreselecttheLTEcellin30seconds,providedthatLTE
RSRP>124dBm
EXPERTCONNECTION
Mobility Optimization
Ping-pong Examples (1/3)
For every pair-of layers, triggering thresholds should be checked for the
following:
Idle Idle ping-pong
Idle Connected ping-pong
Connected-Idle ping-pong
Connected-Connected ping-pong

Example of Idle-Connected ping-pong


3G-> LTE idle mode reselection has been setup when LTE received signal is min -
125 dBm
In LTE, the UE goes to Connected-mode due to always-on applications
RRC Redirect threshold to UTRA has been set to -120 dBm
Hence the UE goes back to 3G, as so on.

EXPERTCONNECTION

Mobility Optimization
Ping-pong Examples (2/3)
Another example, simultanoues activation of RSRP and RSRQ A3
handovers between two layers may lead to ping pong, e.g.:
RSRP is better on 1800 (lower path loss, better coverage)
RSRQ is better on 2600 (less interference, due to less sites)
The UE on 1800 layer measures 2600 neighbour with better RSRQ and
handovers to it. Then on 2600, it observes that coverage (RSRP) of 1800 is
better and handovers it back to 1800.

Another example with idle-mode intra-freq operations.


Operator set globally cell hysteresis to 1dB, but optional neighbour (PCI)-
specific offsets have been set only to intra-site neighbours.
Hence, the total margin for inter-site neighbours have been set to only 1 dB,
not sufficient resulting in ping-pong.

EXPERTCONNECTION
Mobility Optimization
Ping-pong Examples (3/3)

Pingpongbeforeoptimization Afteroptimization

EXPERTCONNECTION

Call Setup Optimization


Complete Signalling (Attach)

EXPERTCONNECTION
Signalling - Attach Request
Overview
Steps:
1. RandomAccess
2. InitialNAS
message
3. S1InitialContext
Setup
4. RRCSecurity/UE
Capability
5. RB2/DRBSetup

EXPERTCONNECTION

Random Access Procedure


Contention-based RA (1/2)

RandomAccessProcedure:
InitialAccess(fromRRC_Idle)
RRCReestablishment
procedure
Handover
DLDataArrivalduring
RRC_Connected whenULTA
synchronizationisnot
synchronized
ULDataArrivalduring
RRC_Connected whenULTA
synchronizationisnot
synchronizedorthereareno
PUCCHresourcesavailable
forSR

EXPERTCONNECTION
Random Access Procedure
Contention-based RA (2/2)
Message 1. A preamble will be selected by the UE and transmitted in the available subframe. The UE
identity at this step is RA-RNTI. RA-RNTI is derived from the time slot in which the PRACH is sent.

Message 2. The NB answers addressed to RA-RNTI. The following information is sent:


Timing Advance Value (UE needs to change its further timing to compensate radio propagation delay
Uplink PUSCH grant resource
Temporary C-RNTI for further communication

Message 3. UE sends on PUSCH the RRC Connection Request Message . The UE is identified by
temporary C-RNTI (as assigned by eNB in step above)The UE sends its ID. The following
information is sent:
- Connection Establishment cause
UE Identity (TMSI or Random Value)
TSMI is sent if the UE has been previously connected to the same network. With the TMSI value, the UE is
identified in the core network
Random Value is sent if the UE is connecting for the very first time.

Message 4. The contention resolution is performed, i.e. the NodeB addresses the message to the UE
using the TMSI value or a Random Number . This message contains new, unique C-RNTI that will be
used for further communication=identification.
EXPERTCONNECTION

Random Access Procedure


RACH MSG 3

RRCEstablishmentCause
mappingisprovidedinTS
24.301(nextslide)

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Random Access Procedure
RACH MSG 3

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Attach Request
Initial NAS message

EXPERTCONNECTION
Attach Request Initial NAS
RRC Connection Setup (SRB0, RLC TM)

EXPERTCONNECTION

Attach Request Initial NAS


RRC Connection Setup Complete (SRB1, RLC AM)

EXPERTCONNECTION
Attach Request Initial NAS
EMM Attach Request Piggybacked message with Initial
NAS (Content)

EXPERTCONNECTION

Attach Request Initial NAS


EMM Attach Request Piggybacked message with Initial NAS

EXPERTCONNECTION
Attach Request Initial NAS
PDN Connectivity Request Piggybacked message with
EMM Attach Request

EXPERTCONNECTION

Attach Request
NAS Security (1/2)

EXPERTCONNECTION
Attach Request
NAS Security (2/2)

EXPERTCONNECTION

Attach Request
S1 Initial Context Setup Request (1/3)

EXPERTCONNECTION
Attach Request
S1 Initial Context Setup Request (2/3) Information Elements

EXPERTCONNECTION

Attach Request
S1 Initial Context Setup Request (3/3) Information Elements

EXPERTCONNECTION
Attach Request
RRC Security and UE Capability

EXPERTCONNECTION

Attach Request
Security Mode Command and Security Mode Complete

EXPERTCONNECTION
Attach Request
UE Capability Enquiry (1/2)

EXPERTCONNECTION

Attach Request
UE Capability Enquiry (2/2)

EXPERTCONNECTION
Attach Request
UE Capability Information (1/3)

EXPERTCONNECTION

Attach Request
UE Capability Information (2/3)

EXPERTCONNECTION
Attach Request
UE Capability Information (3/3) Feature Group Indicators

EXPERTCONNECTION

Attach Request
SRB2 and DRB Establishment (1/4)

EXPERTCONNECTION
Attach Request
SRB2 and DRB Establishment (2/4)

EXPERTCONNECTION

Attach Request
SRB2 and DRB Establishment (3/4)

EXPERTCONNECTION
Attach Request
SRB2 and DRB Establishment (4/4)

Piggybackedmessage
ActivateDefaultEPS
BearerwithEMM
AttachAcceptmessage

EXPERTCONNECTION

Dedicated Bearer Establishment


Overview

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Dedicated Bearer Establishment
Activate Dedicated EPS Bearer Context Request

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Call Setup Optimization


Systematic Approach for Optimization

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Call Setup Phases
Overview

Thecallsetuphasfive
phases:
1. PRACHphase
2. SRB1setup
3. NASsecuritysetup
4. RRCsecurity+UE
capabilityenquiry
5. SRB2andDRB
setup

Phases12:monitored
fromPRACHandRRC
Signallingcounters
Phases35:monitored
fromS1APandERAB
counters
EXPERTCONNECTION

RACH Phase
Troubleshooting / Optimization

1. Is RACH Preamble heard by eNB?


2. Is Random Access Response heard by the UE?
3. Is RRC Connection Request (MSG3) heard by the eNB?
4. Is RRC Connectoin Setup (MSG4) heard by the UE?

EXPERTCONNECTION
Call Setup Phases
1. RACH Phase - Counters

UE eNB NumberofSetupAttempts

1.PRACHMACRAPreamble

NumberofSetupCompletions
2.PDCCHMACRARNTI

2.PDCCHMACRAResponse

3.PUSCHSRB0RRCConn.Req.
NumberofSignallingConnections
Establishments(typebreakdown)
4.PDSCHRRCConn.Setup
(ContentionResolution)

RACHSetupCompletionSuccessRate=RAResponses/RAPreambles

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RACH Phase Optimization


Preamble
Analysis: comparison of Cell trace-UE trace with
drive test logs to see if eNB receives the preamble
Preamble TX power is defined by open-loop PC,
hence it cannot take into account strong UL
interference
Three major parameters (3GPP) define the
open-loop PC
preambleInitialReceivedTargetPower
powerRampingStep
preambleTransMax
The wait period (before new preamble is sent is
defined with:
responseWindowSize
RA process is stopped and higher layers are
informed after preambleTranMax

PreambleTxP=min{PCMAX,preambleInitialReceivedTargetPower+DELTA_PREAMBLE
+(preamble# 1)xpowerRampingStep+PL}

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RACH Phase Optimization
MSG2 RA Response message
eNB may receive the preamble and send the RAR (MSG2), but the UE may
not be able to hear it due to bad RF
Generally, RAR power level cannot be influenced directly, but the RAR
quality can be influenced indirectly.

RAR PDCCH Aggregation Level can be modified (e.g. from Default 4 -> 8)
Also, PDSCH message can have coding rate adjusted (modulation is fixed:
QPSK, coding rate can be changed from the default 12%)

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RACH Phase Optimization


MSG3 RRC Connection Request

The power of the MSG 3 (RRC Connection Request) is calculated


based on the power of the last transmitted RA Preamble and two
adjustable parameters (to offset the power).

EXPERTCONNECTION
Call Setup Phases
2. SBR1 Setup - Successful

UE eNB

3.PUSCHSRB0RRCConn.Req. NumberofSetupAttempts

PDSCHSRB0RRCConn.Setup

NumberofSRB1SetupSuccesses
PUSCHRLCAMSRB1
RRCConn.SetupComplete(NAS)

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Call Setup Phases


2. SBR1 Setup Unsuccessful (1/3)

UE eNB SRB1may berejected due to:


Insufficient PUCCHresources
3.PUSCHSRB0RRCConn.Req. Maximumnumber ofRRC
Connected users exceeded
RACrejectstheRRC
Conn.Req.

PDSCHSRB0ConnectionReject

NumberofSignallingConnection
EstablishmentFailuresduetoRAC

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Call Setup Phases
2. SBR1 Setup Unsuccessful (2/3)

UE eNB

3.PUSCHSRB0RRCConn.Req.

PDSCHSRB0RRCConn.Setup
NumberofSignaling
EstablishmentFailuresduetoRRC
CompletionError

PUSCHRLCAMSRB1
RRCConn.SetupComplete(NAS)

Errorneous/Incompletemessage

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Call Setup Phases


2. SBR1 Setup Unsuccessful (3/3)
UE eNB
UEdoesnotreceiveRRCConn.
3.PUSCHSRB0RRCConn.Req.
SetupandUEtimer(T300,e.g.200
ms)expiresorUEreselectsto
anothercell

PDSCHSRB0RRCConn.Setup NoresponsefromtheUE half


openRRCconnection:
(separatetimer,e.g.200ms)

NumberofSignaling
EstablishmentFailuresduetoRRC
Completion(Missingmessages)

Traceexample:Userdeletedfrom
eNBaftertimeexpired(forhalf
openRRCconnections)

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SRB1 Setup Phase Optimization
MSG4 RRC Connection Setup
After transmission of RRC
Connection Request (MSG 3), UE
starts Contention Resolution Timer
Timer defines the maximum amount of
time allowed for contention resolution
(E.g. default Nokia: 64 ms)

Another parameter defines the


maximum number of HARQ
retransmissions in the DL
(E.g. default Nokia: 5)
The HARQ delay is 8 ms, including
additional 1 ms processing delays, 5
retransmissions => 5* 9 ms = 45 ms.

In a similar way as for MSG2, the


Aggregation Level for PDCCH and
Coding Rate for PDSCH can be
adjusted as well to increase the
probability of successful UE
reception.
EXPERTCONNECTION

SRB1 Setup Phase Optimization


MSG 5 RRC Connection Setup Complete
MSG5 (RRC Connection Setup Complete message) is the first UL message that UE sent
with Power Control.
Therefore, any modification/optimization of Power Control parameters
(Po_Nominal_PUSCH, PL Compensation factor) should be followed with monitoring of
RRC Setup Success Rate counters (especially the success of receiving RRC Setup
Complete message Msg5)

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Call Setup Phases
3. NAS Security, Successful / Challenges
3GPP Standardized MME timers:
T3460 for Authentication Request/Response and Security
Command/Complete

There are no RRC counters for NAS procedure, hence Authentication or


Secmode may fail on NAS layer, but it can still be successful on RRC level
Default MME timer is usually longer than radio link failure timers (3GPP
default 6 sec.) after which MME retransmits the NAS message
NAS security phase should not take longer than Timer for S1 connection
establishment (3GPP default 16 sec.)

EXPERTCONNECTION

Call Setup Phases


4. RRC Security (1/2)
UE eNB
S1AP:InitialContextSetupRequest(NAS)

PDSCHSRB1RRCSecurityCmd.

PDSCHSRB1UECapabilityEnq. 3GPP:Afterthispoint,RRC
ConnectionReestablishmentis
PUSCHSRB1RRCSecurityComp. possible,becausetheRRC
securityissetup.

Ifsignallingconnectiondrops
PUSCHSRB1UECapabilityInfo afterPRACHbutbeforethispoint,
thanRRCReestablishementisnot
possibleandUEmakescell
reselectionandTAUrequests

There are no RRC counters for this phase


Depending on the vendor configuration, in some implementations
UE Capability Enquiry can be sent before RRC Security Complete
message is received
EXPERTCONNECTION
Call Setup Phases
4. RRC Security (2/2)
UE eNB
S1AP:InitialContextSetupRequest(NAS)

PDSCHSRB1RRCSecurityCmd.

PDSCHSRB1UECapabilityEnq. IfRRCConnectionReestablishmentRequestis
receivedfromtheUEbeforeS1contexthasbeen
successfulysetup,eNBabortstheInitialContext
SetupProcedurewithS1AP:InitialContextSetup
FailurewithcauseRadioConnectionwithUElost
RRCGuardTimer TheRRCConnectionReestablishmentisrejectedby
theeNB.
RRCGuardTimer
S1AP:InitialContextSetupFailure(NAS)

IFRRCGuard Timer expires:


eNB triggers RadioLinkFailure
RRCConnectionReestablishmentis rejected (RRCConnectionRe
establishmentis notpossible)

EXPERTCONNECTION

Call Setup Phases


5. SRB2 / DRB Setup Successful

UE eNB
NumberofRBSetupAttempts
NumberofSRB2Setupattempts
PDSCHSRB1RRCConnectionReconf.

NumberodRBSetupCompletions
NumberofSRB2SetupCompletions
PDSCHSRB1RRCConn.Reconf.Com.

S1AP:InitialContextSetupResponse

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Call Setup Phases
5. SRB2 / DRB Setup Unsuccessful

UE eNB
NumberofRBSetupAttempts
NumberofSRB2Setupattempts
PDSCHSRB1RRCConnectionReconf.

NumberodRBSetupFailures
NumberofSRB2SetupFailures

RRCGuardTimer

S1AP:InitialContextSetupFailure

IFRRCGuard Timer expires:


eNB triggers RadioLinkFailure
RRCConnectionReestablishmentis rejected (RRCConnectionRe
establishmentis notpossible)
EXPERTCONNECTION

After S1AP Initial Context Setup


Failure cause from Signalling Logs
Bearer-independent failure causes

IfRRCConnectionReestablishmentRequestisreceivedfrom
theUEbeforeS1contexthasbeensuccessfulysetup,eNB
abortstheInitialContextSetupProcedurewithS1AP:Initial
ContextSetupFailurewithcauseRadioConnectionwithUE
lost
TheRRCConnectionReestablishmentisrejectedbytheeNB.

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After E-RAB Setup Request for Dedicated Bearer
Failure cause from Signalling Logs

ForGBRBearer

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Attach Reject from Core Network


Non-LTE subscriber (or with no LTE subscription) (1/2)
Attach Reject from Core Network (in case non-LTE susbcriber is trying to attach to LTE
network)
S1 Release with Failure Cause: UEContextReleaseCommand with NAS: Unspecified
Or in case LTE-Subscriber with no LTE-subscription is trying to attached to LTE network

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Attach Reject from Core Network
Non-LTE subscriber (or with no LTE subscription) (2/2)

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Call Drop Optimization

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Call Drop Optimization
3GPP KPI Definitions
3GPP TS 32.450 and TS 32.451 KPIs definition
Retainability KPI TS 32.450 Sec. 6.2, defined per QCI
Shows how often an end-user abnormally loosed an E-RAB
during the time the E-RAB is used

EXPERTCONNECTION

Call Drop Optimization


Drive test challenges
With some post-processing software e.g. Nemo Analyzer or Actix,
TAU, RACH SR, or PDCCH Order may be misinterpreted as a drop
RRC Release with cause Other is used for both normal and
abnormal releases

EXPERTCONNECTION
UE-Initiated Drop
Overview
UE eNB RRC Connection Reest. Can succeed if
contains:
UEmakescellresel.And PCI of the source cell
sendsReest.Request Short MAC-i of the source cell
Allocated C-RNTI in the source cell
RRCConnectionReestablishment
Request

RRCConnectionReestablishment

RRCReestablishmentComplete

Aim of RRC Reest. is to setup the SRB1


again
If successful, it re-activates RRC security Re-establishment causes:
without changing the algorithms Other Failure (UE Radio Link Failure)
Handover Failure (T304 Ho Timer Expiry
DRB is re-configured after SRB1 Reconfiguration Failure

EXPERTCONNECTION

UE-Initiated Drop
RRC Re-establishment Trigger Causes (Failure types)
RRC Re-establishment Trigger Causes
Radio Link Failure
T310 Expiry
Reaching maximum number of UL RLC retransmissions
Non-HO Random Access Failure
Handover Failure
T304 Expiry
Reestablishment Failure

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UE-Initiated Drop
T310 Expiry - Radio Link Failure (1/2)

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UE-Initiated Drop
T310 Expiry - Radio Link Failure (2/2)

TS 36.133 Sec 7.6


When the downlink radio link quality estimated over the last [e.g. 200 ms] period becomes worse than the threshold
Qout, Layer 1 of the UE shall send an out-of-sync indication to the higher layers within [e.g. 200 ms] Qout
evaluation period.
When the downlink radio link quality estimated over the last [e.g. 100 ms] period becomes better than the threshold
Qin, Layer 1 of the UE shall send an in-sync indication to the higher layers within [e.g. 100 ms] Qin evaluation
period.
Qout is defined as the level at which the downlink radio link cannot be reliably received and shall correspond to
[e.g. 10%] block error rate of a hypothetical PDCCH transmission taking into account the PCFICH errors with
transmission parameters specified in Table 7.6.1-1 of 3GPP TS 36.133.
Qin is defined as the level at which the downlink radio link quality can be significantly more reliably received than at
Qout and shall correspond to [e.g. 2%] block error rate of a hypothetical PDCCH transmission taking into account
the PCFICH errors with transmission parameters specified in Table 7.6.1-2 of 3GPP TS 36.133.

EXPERTCONNECTION
UE-Initiated Drop
Maximum UL RLC Re-Trns - Radio Link Failure

Included in RRC Connection Reconfiguration (DRB setup):


drb-ToAddModList
drb-ToAddModList value 1
drb-Identity : 1
rlc-Config
am
ul-AM-RLC
t-PollRetransmit : ms40
pollPDU : p32
pollByte : kB25
maxRetxThreshold : t8

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UE-Initiated Drop
T304 Expiration

T304 value is provided also in RRC Connection Reconfiguration


(e.g. 1000 ms)

EXPERTCONNECTION
UE-Initiated Drop
Non-HO Random Access Failure Radio Link Failure

Non-HO Random Access takes places:


Random Access Scheduling Request
No PUSCH resources, no PUCCH SR resources
PDCCH order-trigerred RA
Resources released, but there is data in the eNB buffer
EXPERTCONNECTION

HO cause
Complete
Signalling
(inter-eNB
over x2)

EXPERTCONNECTION
HO cause
T304 expiration)

c
c

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eNB-Initiated Drop
Overview (1/3)
RRC Re-establishment Trigger Causes:
eNB-detected Radio Link Failures (vendor-specified detection
methods)
PUSCH RLF
CQI RLF
HARQ Ack/Nack RLF
PDCCH Order RLF
TA Timer expiry
Maximum RLC retransmissions reached
GTP-U Failures

EXPERTCONNECTION
eNB-Initiated Drop
Overview (2/3)

3GPP does not specify accurately eNB-initiated radio link failures.


When a radio link problem is detected, an eNB-internal timer
(T_RLF) is started.
T_RLF is stopped when RL is recovered.
For a given UE, T_RLF is started when Radio any of the not-
received/when expected event happed, including, PUCH/ RLF,
CQI RLF, or HARQ RLF (set to ON)
For a given UE, T_RLF is stopped only if all RLFs are OFF
When the timer T_RLF expires, the UE is released from the eNB
using eNB initiated S1 release + RRC connection release > call
drop
T_RLF = T310 + T311

EXPERTCONNECTION

eNB-Initiated Drop
Overview (3/3)
RLF triggered by the eNB - Signalling

EXPERTCONNECTION
eNB-Initiated Drop
1. PUSCH RLF
Indicated by MAC when PUSCH transmission is not received when expected
(scheduled).
Parameters define RLF recovery, as in the given example

RLFTimer=T310
(RLrecovery)+
T311(RRCReest.)

EXPERTCONNECTION

eNB-Initiated Drop
2. CQI RLF
Likewise, indicated by MAC when and CQI raporting is configured,
but no reliable CQI transmission is detected from the UE
Only for Periodic CQI reporting

RLFTimer=T310
(RLrecovery)+
T311(RRCReest.)

EXPERTCONNECTION
eNB-Initiated Drop
3. HARQ RLF and 4. PDCCH-order RLF
HARQ RLF
Also, RLF may be detected based on number of not-received when
expected HARQ indications on PUCCH or PUSCH at known UL TTI
Likewise, the RL is recovered when for a given number of
contiguous ACK/NACK opportunities, ACK/NACK is detected

PDCCH-order RLF
PDCCH order fails (data in the buffer and UE is out-of-sync)

EXPERTCONNECTION

eNB-Initiated Drop
Out-of-sync -> In-Sync
Successful Failure

EXPERTCONNECTION
eNB-Initiated Drop
Out-of-sync -> In-Sync for Inactive user
Illustration of signalling for getting
the UE back to in-sync after
Innactivity Timer expiration
If eNB does not recognize any RA
by the UE -> RLF
Immediately UE Context Release is
sent

EXPERTCONNECTION

eNB-Initiated Drop
Maximum RLC retransmissions exceeded
For SRB1 or SRB2
eNB releases the UE immediately
(S1+RRC release)

For DRB
eNB starts T_RLC (T311 + 200 ms) to
wait for an UE triggered RRC
Connection Reestablishment.
If the timer expires: eNB relases the
UE
Otherwise: UE triggers RRC
Reestablishment

EXPERTCONNECTION
eNB-Initiated Drop
GTP-U Error Indication from S-GW
During connection (with active S1 bearer), eNB may receive GTP-
U Error Indication
In this case, eNB sends S1AP message: UE Context Release Request
with cause TNL Cause Transport Resource Unavailable
E.g. this type of failure may happen when S-GW relocation attempt
is not successful in X2 handover
In some vendor implementations (especially early LTE implementations)
S-GW relocation has not been supported.

EXPERTCONNECTION

Mobility-related drops
Intra-eNB HO (Successful)
UE SourceCell TargetCell MME SGW

Measurement
Configuration UL/DLData(Sourcecell)

RRCMeasurementReport

Successful
IntraeNB RACand
HOdecision resource
allocation
RRCConnectionReconf.

PRACHMsg1(Dedicatedpreamble)

Msg2L2ULAllocationandTA

RRCConnectionReconfigurationComplete

Sourceresources
released UL/DLData(Targetcell)

EXPERTCONNECTION
Mobility-related drops
Intra-eNB HO (Unsuccessful) (1/4)
UE SourceCell TargetCell MME SGW

Measurement
Configuration UL/DLData(Sourcecell)

RRCMeasurementReport

NoIntra
eNBHO
decision

Measurem
entreport
received
butHOnot
started

EXPERTCONNECTION

Mobility-related drops
Intra-eNB HO (Unsuccessful) (2/4)
UE SourceCell TargetCell MME SGW

Measurement
Configuration UL/DLData(Sourcecell)

RRCMeasurementReport

RACand
IntraeNB
IntraeNB Resource
HOdecision allocation
Failson
Targetcell

EXPERTCONNECTION
Mobility-related drops
Intra-eNB HO (Unsuccessful) (3/4)
UE SourceCell TargetCell MME SGW

Measurement
Configuration UL/DLData(Sourcecell)

RRCMeasurementReport

Successful
IntraeNB RACand
HOdecision resource
allocation

HO
preparation
nottrigerred

EXPERTCONNECTION

Mobility-related drops
Intra-eNB HO (Unsuccessful) (4/4)
UE SourceCell TargetCell MME SGW

Measurement
Configuration UL/DLData(Sourcecell)

RRCMeasurementReport

Successful
IntraeNB RACand
HOdecision resource
allocation
RRCConnectionReconf.

Timer(THOOverall)
Expires

EXPERTCONNECTION
Mobility-related drops
Inter-eNB HO (Successful)
UE SourceeNB TargeteNB MME SGW
UL/DLData

RRCMeasurement IntereNB
Control HOdecision
X2APHORequest
SuccessfulRAC
X2APHORequestAck andresource
allocation
RRCConnectionReconf. DLData
X2APStatusTrans.
PRACHMsg1(Dedicatedpreamble)

Msg2L2ULAllocationandTA
RRCConnectionReconfigurationComplete PathSwitch
Request UPUpdate
Request
GTPUendmarker
DLData
PathSwitch UPUpdate
RequestAck Response
X2APUEContext UL/DLData
Release
UEContext
Release EXPERTCONNECTION

Mobility-related drops
Inter-eNB HO (Unsuccessful) (1/4)
UE SourceeNB TargeteNB MME SGW

UL/DLData

RRCMeasurement IntereNB
Control HOdecision
X2APHORequest

RACand
Resource
allocation
FailsoneNB

X2APHOPreparation
Failure

EXPERTCONNECTION
Mobility-related drops
Inter-eNB HO (Unsuccessful) (2/4)
UE SourceeNB TargeteNB MME SGW

UL/DLData

RRCMeasurement IntereNB
Control HOdecision
X2APHORequest

TimerTx2RelocPrep

OrOtherFailurecauses
intheSourceCell

X2APHOCancel

EXPERTCONNECTION

Mobility-related drops
Inter-eNB HO (Unsuccessful) (3/4)
UE SourceeNB TargeteNB MME SGW
UL/DLData

RRCMeasurement IntereNB
Control HOdecision
X2APHORequest
SuccessfulRAC
X2APHORequestAck andresource
allocation
RRCConnectionReconf. DLData
X2APStatusTrans.
PRACHMsg1(Dedicatedpreamble)

Msg2L2ULAllocationandTA
RRCConnectionReconfigurationComplete PathSwitch
Request UPUpdate
Request
GTPUendmarker
DLData
PathSwitch UPUpdate
TimerTx2RelocOverall RequestAck Response
NoX2APUEContext X2APUEContext UL/DLData
Releaserecevied Release
UEContext
Release EXPERTCONNECTION
Mobility-related drops
Inter-eNB HO (Unsuccessful) (4/4)
UE SourceeNB TargeteNB MME SGW
UL/DLData

RRCMeasurement IntereNB
Control HOdecision
X2APHORequest
SuccessfulRAC
X2APHORequestAck andresource
RRCConnectionReconf. allocation

RRCConnectionReEstablishment
Request(Receivedatanytime
duringPreparationorExecution)

X2APHOCancel

EXPERTCONNECTION

Project Example: Call drop due to HO Failure


UL Log (Handover to Target Cell PCI: 29)

UE got RRC Connection


Reconfiguration for target cell
PCI (29) with dedicated
preamble information (45)

EXPERTCONNECTION
Project Example: Call drop due to HO Failure
Cell Trace in the Source Cell

Over
5,35s

RLC Layer detected issue on DL Data Acknowledgement (maximum number of 16


retransmissions were reached)
The UE context release was initiated by the Source cell eNB with cause
Tx2RelocOverall Expiry (no X2AP UE Context Release received by the source
eNB)
EXPERTCONNECTION

Project Example: Call drop due to HO Failure


Cell Trace in the Target Cell

Message 2 of RA procedure in the target cell was sent to the UE (C-RNTI 22729,
please compare with UE logs ), but the response RRC Connection Reconfiguration
Complete (Msg 3) was not received by the Target Cell (e.g. UL coverage issue), thus
HO was not further proceeded

EXPERTCONNECTION
EXPERTCONNECTION

Project Example: Call drop due to HO Failure


UE Logs: Random Access due to UL Data Arrival
eNB had already released
the RRC connection,
although the UE did not get
any RRC Connection
Release message.
Random Access procedure
was initiated by UL Data
Arrival, UE keeps sending
the requests until max
number of preamble
retransmissions (10) has
been reached

EXPERTCONNECTION
Project Example: Call drop due to HO Failure
UE Logs: RRC Connection Re-establishment attempt

After the failed random


access procedure,
RRC connection re-
establishment was
initiated by UE to the
target cell.
However, RRC
connection re-
establishment was
rejected by the eNB
because the UE
context was earlier
released due to
incomplete handover

EXPERTCONNECTION

Thank you
jacek.wszolek@expertconnection.co.uk

EXPERTCONNECTION