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® PETERSON’S Pits Concentration Factors THIRD EDITION Walter D. Pilkey Deborah F. Pilkey CONTENTS INDEX TO THE STRESS CONCENTRATION FACTORS xvii PREFACE FOR THE THIRD EDITION 1 DEFINITIONS AND DESIGN RELATIONS 1 LL Notation / 1 1.2 Stress Concentration / 3 Selection of Nominal Stresses / 6 Accuracy of Stress Concentration Factors / 9 1.2.3. Decay of Stress Away from the Peak Stress / 9 13. Stress Concentration as a Two-Dimensional Problem / 10 1.4 Sess Concentration as a Three-Dimensional Problem / 11 15 Plane and Axisymmetric Problems / 13 1.6 Local and Nonlocal Stress Concentration / 15 1.6.1 Examples of Reasonable Approximations / 19 1.7 Multiple Stress Concentration / 20 18 Theories of Strength and Failure / 24 1.8.1 Maximum Stress Criterion / 25 1.8.2 Mohr's Theory / 26 vii Maximum Shear Theory / 28 von Mises Criterion 7 28 Observations on the Use of the Theories of Failure / 29 Stress Concentration Factors under Combined Loads: Principle of Superposition / 31 1.9 Notch Sensitivity / 35 1,10. Design Relations Por Static Stress / 40 1.10.1 Ductite Materials / 40 1.10.2 Brittle Materials / 42 LLL Design Retations for Alternating Stress. / 43 LILI Ductile Materials / 43 VIL2 Bridle Materials / 44 1.12 Design Relations for Combined Alternating and Static Sesses 44 1.12.1 Ductite Materials / 45 112.2 Brittle Materials / 48 1.13. Limited Number of Cycles of Alternating Stress / 49 1.14 Stress Concentration Factors and Stress Intensity Factors / 49 References / 54 NOTCHES AND GROOVES 3 21 Notation / 57 2.2 Stress Concentration Factors / 58 2.3 Notches in Tension / 60 2.3.1 Opposite Deep Hyperbolic Notcbes in an Infinite Thin Element: Shallow Elliptical, Semicizcular, U-Shaped, or Keyhole-Shaped Noiches in Serai-infinite Thin Elements; Equivalent Elliptical Notch / 60 Opposite Single Semicircular Notehes in a Finite-Width Thin Element / 61 2.3.3. Opposite Single U-Shuped Notehes in a Finite-Width Thin Element / 61 2.34 — Finite-Width Corrcetion Factors for Opposite Narrow Single Elliptical Notches in a Finite-Width Thin Element / 63 2.3.5 Opposite Single V-Shaped Notches in a Finite-Width Thin Element / 63 2. Single Notch on One Side of a Thin Element / 63 2.3.7 Notches with Flat Bottoms / 64 23.8 Multiple Notches ina Thin Element / 64 2.4.9 Analytical Solutions for Stress Concentration Factors for Notched Bars / 65 2A Depressions in Tension / 65 24.1 Hemispherical Depression (Pio) in the Surface of a Semi-infinite Body / 65 25 28 CONTENTS IK, 24.2 Hyperboloid Depression (Pit) in the Surface of a Finite-Thickness Element / 66 2.4.3 Opposite Shallow Spherical Depressions (Dimples) in a Thin Element / 66 Grooves in Tension / 67 2.5.1 Deep Hyperbolic Groove in an Infinite Member (Circular Net Section) / 67 25.2 U-Shaped Circumferential Groove in a Bar of Circular Cross Section / 67 2.5.3. Flat-Bottom Grooves / 68 2.5.4 Closed-Form Solutions for Gronves in Bars of Circular Cross Section / 68 Bending of Thin Beams with Notches / 68 2.6.1 Opposite Deep Hyperbolic Notches in an Infinite Thin Element / 68 ‘Opposite Semicircular Notches in a Flat Bean / 68. Opposite U-Shaped Notches ina Phu Beam / 69 ‘V-Shaped Notches in a Flat Beam Element / 69 Notch on One Side of a Thin Beam / 69 Single or Multiple Notches with Semicircular or Semielliptical Notch Bottoms / 70 2.6.7 Notches with Flat Bottoms / 70 2.6.8 Cloxed-Form Solutions for Stress Concentration Factors for Notched Beams / 70 Bending of Plates with Notches / 71 2.7.1 Various Edge Notehes in an Infinite Plate in Transverse Bending / 71 2.7.2 Notches ina Finite-Width Plate in Transverse Bending / 71 Bending af Solids with Grooves / 71 28.1 Deep Hyperbolic Groove in an Infinite Member / 71 28.2 U-Shaped Circumferential Groove in a Bar of Circular Cross Section / 71 2.83 Flat-Botlom Grooves in Bars of Circular Crass Section / 73 2.8.4 Closed-Form Solutions for Grooves in Bars of Circular Cross Section / 73 Direct Shear and Torsion / 73 2.9.1 Deep Hyperbolic Notches in an Infinite Thin Element in Direct Shear / 73 2.9.2 Deep Hyperbolic Groove in an Infinite Member / 73 2.9.3 U-Shaped Circumferential Groave in a Bar of Circular Cress Section Subject to Torsion / 74 294 V-Shaped Circumferential Groove in a Bar of Circular Cross Section Under Torsion / 75 X CONTENTS 2.9.5 Shaft in Torsion with Grooves with Flat Botioms / 76 6 — Closed-Forn Formulas for Grooves in Bars of Circular Cross Section Under Torsion / 76 2.10 Test Specimen Design for Maximum K; for u Given 1/D or +f / 16 References / 76 Charts / 81 3 SHOULDER FILLETS 135 3.1 Notation / 135 3.2 Stress Concentration Factors #137 3.3. Tension (Axial Loading) / 137 3.3.1 Opposite Shoulder Fillets ina Flat Bar / 137 Effect of Length of Klement / 138 Effect of Shoulder Geometry in a Flat Member / 138 Effect of a Trapezoidal Protuberunce on the Edge of a Flat Bar / 139 435 Fillet of Noncircular Comour in a Flat Stepped Bar / 140 2.3.6 Stepped Bar of Circular Cross Section with a Circumferen Shoulder Filler / 142 33.7 Tubes / 143 3.3.8 Stepped Pressure Vessel Wall with Shoulder Fillets / 143 34 Bending / 144 34.1 Opposite Shoulder Fillets ina Flac Bar / 144 Effect of Shoulder Geometry in a Flat Thin Member / 144 Elliptic Shoulder Fillet in a Flat Member / 144 Stepped Bar of Circular Cross Section with a Circumferential Shoulder Filler / 144 3.5 Torsion / 145 35.1 Stepped Bar of Circular Cross Section with a Circumferential Shoulder Fillet #145 25.2 Stepped Bar of Circular Cross Section with a Ciecumferential Shoulder Fillet and a Central Axial Hole 7-146 33.3 Compound Fillet / 146 3.6 Methods of Reducing Stress Concentration at u Shoulder / 147 References / 149 Charts / 151 4 HOLES 176 41 Notation / 176 4.2 Stress Concentration Factors / 178 4.3, Circular Holes with In-Plane Stresses / 180 4.4.1 Single Cirenlar Hole in an Infinite Thin Element in Uniaxial ‘Tension / 190 44 ABA 4as 43.6 43.7 43.19 Elliptical Holes in Tension / 44.1 442 443 444 CONTENTS x! Single Circular Hole in a Semi-infinite Element in Uniaxial Tension / 184 Single Circular Hole in a Finite-Width Element in Uniasial Tension / 184 Effect of Length of Element / 185 Single Cireular Hole in an lafinite Thin Element under Biaxial In-Plane Stresses / 185 Single Circular Hole in a Cylindrical Shell with Tension or Invermat Pressure / 187 Circular or Eltiptical Hole in a Spherical Shell with Internal Pressure / 189 Reinforced Hole near the Edge of a Semi-infinite Element in Uniaxial Tension / 190 Symmetrically Reinforced Hole in a Finite-Width Element in Uniaxial Tension / 192 Nonsymmetrically Reinforced Hole in a Finite-Width Element in, Uniaxial Tension / 193 Symmetrically Reinforced Circular Hole in a Biaxially Stressed Wide, Thin Element / 194 Circular Hole with Intemal Pressure / 201 ‘Two Circular Holes of Equal Diameter in a Thin Element in Uniaxial Tension ot Biaxial In-Plane Stresses / 202 ‘Two Circular Holes of Unequal Diameter in a Thin Element in Uniaxial Tension or Biaxial In-Plane Stresses / 208 Single Row of Equally Distributed Circular Holes in an Element in Tension / 208 Double Row of Circular Holes in a Thin Element in Uniaxial ‘Tension / 209 Symmetrical Pattern of Circular Holes in a Thin Element in Uniaxial Tension or Biaxial In-Plane Stresses. / 209 Radially Stressed Circular Flement with a Ring of Circular Holes, with or without a Central Circular Hole / 210 ‘Thin Eleraent with Circular Holes with Internal Pressure / 211 3 Single Elliptical Hole in Infinite and Fi in Uniaxial Tension / 215 th Correction Factor for « Cracklike Central Slit in a Tension Panel / 217 Single Elliptical Hole in an Infinite, Stressed / 218 Infinite Row of Elliptical Holes in Infinite- and Finite- Width Thin Elements in Uniaxial Tension / 227 Elliptical Hole with Internal Pressure / 228 -Width Thin Elements in Element Biaxially 45 4.6 47 48 Elliptical Holes with Bead Reinforcement in an Infinite Thin Element under Uniaxial and Biaxial Suesses / 228 Various Contigueations with In-Plane Stresses / 228 4st 45.12 Holes in Orthotrey 476 Bending Thin Element with an Ovaloid: Two Hotes Connected by a Stit under Tension: Eqnivalem Ellipse / 228 Circular Hote with Opposite Semiciecular Lobes in a Thin Element in Tension / 229 Infinite Thin Element with u Reet Comers Subject to Uniaxial or Biawi Finite-Width Tension Thin Element i Hole / 231 ‘Square Holes with Rounded Comers and Bead Reinforcement in an Infinite Panel under Uniaxial and Biaxial Stresses / 231 Round-Comered Equilateral Triangular [ole in an Infinite Thin Blement under Varions States af Tension #232 Uniaxially Stressed Tube or Bar of Circular Cross Section with a Transverse Circular Hole / 232 Round Pin Joint in Tension / 233 Inclined Round Hole in an Infinite Panel Subjected to Various States of Tension / 234 Pressure Vensel Nozzle (Reinforced Cylindrical Opening) / 235 Spherical or Ellipsoidal Cavities / 236 Spherical or Ellipsoidal Inclusions / 237 Thick Elements / 239 Countersunk Holes / 240 Cylindrical Tunnel / 241 Tntersecting Cylindrical Holes #242 Rotating Disk with a Hole / 244 Ring or Hollow Roller / 245 Pressurized Cylinder / 245 Pressurized Hollow Thick Cylinder with a Circular Hole in the Cylinder Wall / 246 Pressurized Hollow Thick Square Block with a Circular Hole in wulur Hole with Rounded Stress / 230 Round-Comered Square the Wall / 247 Other Configurations / 247 hin Members / 248 Pi Orthotropic Panel with an Elliptical Hoke / 248 Onthotropic Pane! with a Cireular Hole / 249 Orthotropie Panel with a Crack / 250 Isotropic Panel with an Elliptical Hole / 250 Isotropic Panel with a Circular Hole / 250 More Accurate Theory for a/b <4 / 250 7251 48.1 48.2 48.3 484 48.5 48.6 48.7 488 48.9 conTenTs — xili Bending of a Beam with a Central Hole / 252 Bending of a Beam with a Circular Hole Displaced from the Center Line / 253 Curved Beams with Circular Holes / 253 Bending of a Beam with an Elliptical Hole; Slot with Semicireular Ends (Ovaloid); or Round-Comered Square Hole / 253 Bending of an Infinite- and a Finite-Width Plate with a Single Circular Hole / 254 Bending of an Inf Plate with a Row of Circular Holes / 254 Plate with a Single Elliptical Hole / 255 Bending of an Infinite Plate with a Row of Elliptical Holes / 255 Tube oF Bar of Circular Cross Section with a Transverse Hole / 255 4.9 Shear and Torsion / 256 49.1 49.2 493 494 495 49.6 49.7 49.8 Shear Stressing of an Infinite Thin Element with Circular or Elliptical Hole, Unreinforced and Reinforced / 256 Shear Stressing of an Infinite Thin Element with a Round-Cornered Rectangular Hole, Unreinforeed and Reinforced / 256 ‘Two Circular Holes of Uneq Pure Shear / 257 Shear Stressing of an Infinite Thin Element with Two Cirenlar Holes or a Row of Circular Holes / 257 Shear Stressing of an Infinite Thin Element with an Infinite Pattern of Circular Holes / 257 ‘Twisted Infinite Plate with a Circular Hole / 258 Torsion of a Cylindrical Shell with a Circular Hole / 258 Torsion of a Tube or Bar of Circular Cross Section with a ‘Transverse Circular Hole / 258 | Diameter in a Thin Element in References / 260 Chants / 270 5.1__Notation_/ 401 5.2 Shaft with Keyseat / 402 52 5, 5.2.3 5.24 525 5.2.6 Bending / 403 Torsion / 404 ‘Torque Transmitted through a Key / 404 Combined Bending and Torsion / 404 Effect of Proximitiy of Keyseat to Shaft Shoulder Fillet / 405 Fatigue Failures / 406 5.3. Splined Shaft in Torsion / 406 54 GearTeeth / 407 xiv CONTENTS 5.5 Press- or Shrink-Fitted Members / 409 5.6 Boltand Nut / 411 5.7 Bolt Head, Turbine-Blade, or Compressor-Blade Fastening (T-Head) / 413 58 LugJoint / 415 58.1 Lugs with h/d <0.5 / 416 58.2 Lugs with h/d > 0.5 / 416 5.9 Curved Bar / 418 5.10 Helical Spring / 418 5.10.1 Round or Square Wire Compression or Tension Spring / 418 5.10.2 Rectangular Wire Compression or Tension Spring / 421 10.3 Helical Torsion Spring / 421 S.LL Crankshaft / 422 5.12 Crane Hook / 423 5.13 U-Shaped Member / 423 5.14 Angle and Box Sections / 424 5.15 Cylindrical Pressure Vessel with Torispherical Ends / 424 5.16 Tubular Joints / 424 References / 425 Charts / 430 STRESS CONCENTRATION ANALYSIS AND DESIGN 457 6.1 Computational Methods / 457 6.2 Finite Element Analysis / 461 6.3 Design Sensitivit 6.2.1 Principle of Virtual Work / 461 6.2.2 Element Equations / 463 6.2.3. Shape Functions / 466 62.4 Mapping Funetions / 470 6.2.5 Numerical Integration / 471 6.2.6 System Equations / 472 6.2.7 _ Stress Computation / 476 Analvsis / 482 63.1 Finite Differences / 483 63.2. Discrete Systems / 484 63.3 Continuum Systems / 486 6.3.4 Stresses / 489 63.5 Structural Volume_/ 489 3.6 Design Velocity Field / 490 64 Design Modification / 499 64.1 _ Sequential Linear Programming / 502 64.2 Sequential Quadratic Programming / 503 64.3. Conservative Approximation / 504 CONTENTS XV 644 — Equality Constraints / 505 645 Minimum Weight Design / 506 64.6 Minimum Stress Design / 506 References / 510 INDEX SS INDEX TO THE STRESS CONCENTRATION FACTORS xvii INDEX TO THE STRESS CONCENTRATION FACTORS — xix CHAPTER 2: NOTCHES AND GROOVES: U Tips | ane | aa] ae pa Plat bottom 274 236 uy Orretenateies hossng | Hse Pam | aa | 6 Singevehin | ea) XX INDEX TO THE STRESS CONCENTRATION FACTORS Depressions in ‘opposite sides of a thin element Shape of — | Section and Form of Seess Sires. Equation | Chan Raiser Loud Case Raiser Number | Number FTP Tension | Semiciwusr | 2.38 24 a4 Das 95 26 96 Multiple notches on Bending ‘Semi-clliptical 2.66 232 M3 ‘one side of ite et width thin clement - Bending | Semicie 271 2s | 19 (out-of-plane) TT Tension Ussaped 24 o 25 8s nN 26 36 253 wa Opposites notches in iite= Semicirlar | 2.32 23 83 id hin elerenn Vestaped 238 27 87 Fat baton 237 240 %0 Semicirautar | 262 224 | 108 (in-plane) , U-shaped 263 225 105 226 | 106 227 07 253 4 Flat bottom 2.67 2m 14 Bending ‘Abita 239 | 10 doutof-planey | shaped UU Tension Semicircular 238 22 2 23 93 NNN Opposite multiple otc i iite- ‘width hin elemens Uniaxial Spherical 243 207 7 tension o Conca gr00Ke INDEX TO THE STRESS CONCENTRATION FACTORS xxi Fam ots Stee “tganin | chon | Niner rasa testcase | acer | Nor | snter | rena Unt | Hemp | 2 en ° Vipatioe | 22 Ca Desi senile ly Ten | tome [aaa % Tosion | Hapaiwie [292 | aae | — Tam | tae [as 7 grove insta 3 zs | iat 2 | ass | aa | os Traimaw | Fatwow [267 | 2m ans male Toss [Usted | 205 7 4 Vorest [388 13 By Raton [298 3 xxii INDEX TO THE STRESS CONCENTRATION FACTORS. CHAPTER 3: SHOULDER FILLETS, ‘Stepped pressure vessel Shape ot | Section and Form of Stress Suess Equation | Chart | Number Raiser Load Case Raiser Number | Number | of Char [rein gle aaa ut 51 raius Fa.) _ fT Tapered 335 Shoulder filets in Bending | Single radi 3a 37 160 thin element elipical aaa 39 ise Tapered 333 Torsion “Tapered 335 | J | trension [Single radius 333 32 152 a) Tre aad 33 155 ‘Shoulder fillets preteens in thin element Bending | Single radius 342 38 161 “Tension | Single radius 336 a 1357 4 Bending Single radius 344 3.10 165 ——! 3 166 Should filt - in bor of ccolar Torsion gle radius 350 2 167 ‘cross section 3.13 tee Compound 358 36 173 radius 37 175 “Tension | Singloradus 337 35 158 P A Torsion Single radius 352 3.4 169 —I his 170 Shoukler filet in bar of circular cross section with xia hole Internal Stepped BAR 36 159 pressure ring INDEX TO THE STRESS CONCENTRATION FACTORS — xxii CHAPTER 4: HOLES Shape of Seetion and Pape Form of Stress Suess Equation Chat | Number Raiser Lond Case Raiser Number Number | of Chart Uniaxial Circular 431 fo vensio ys. (4.94.10) Elliptical aa 450 334 Eqs. (4.57) Hole in infinite and (4.58) {hin element Elliptical bole 45.12 450 34 with inclusion 475 366 Citeular hole 452 4.60 346 ‘with opposite semicircular lobes Rectangular 4.628 348 Eguilateral 4.65 355 triangular Inclined 459 4.70 361 Internal Circular, 43.12, 43.19, pressure | elliptical, and 445 ther shapes Eqs. (441) sand (4.77) Biaxial sess | Circular 435 (in-plane) Eqs. (4.17) and (4.18) Rectangular 453 4.2 a8 Various 45. 4683 382 shapes 453 Eguilateral 456 465 Elliptical 454 338 4 339 Inclined 4.69 360 Bending, Circular 44 491 382 Coutf-plane) and (4.130) Elliptical 487 494 385 Bags. (4.13; and (4.133) Shear Cireular or 49. 497 388 elliptical Rectangular 492 499 300 Twist Circular 496 4106 | 308 Eg, (4.138) xxiv INDEX TO THE STRESS CONCENTRATION FACTORS cee oa Oo vending | Cirutar Pano | aoe | aan ‘Transverse hole Torsion Circular 498 4.108, 400 ‘novus ee 000 = infinite thin element hates with looo |e Pe = Pep 0° 0°% o| | min cus | te |e Triangular pattern of holes: in-plane) 4.39,.441 | 321,325 | a9 enon 3 o-°o tension 44s 329 oO Xxxvi_ INDEX TO THE STRESS CONCENTRATION FACTORS Sew Toma | Gasp ae |e o vs a | Sy | ath © {Sy & su © Ba pats == 419 INDEX TO THE STRESS CONCENTRATION FACTORS: xxvii Shape of | Section and Page Form of Stress Equation Chan Number Lewd Case | Raiser Number Number | of Chart Uniaaiat | Circular 438 47 276 tension 435 4.64 383 Reinforced hole in semi« infinite thin element rol Uniaxial | Circular 439 48 27 tension 43.10 49 280 Eq, (4.26) 4.10 281 == au 282 Reinforced hole in finite swiduh thin element Internal | Circular 43.12 420 295 Oo presse Hole in panel Cirealar 4313 421 206 “Two holes in a finite thin clement Uniaxial | Circular 43.13 422,423, | 298,299, ° tension 43.14 424,426, | 300, 308, oO gs. (4.423, | 427,429, | 309,311 44eand | 430,431 | 312,313 (4.45) ‘Two holes in infinite thin element Biaxial | Circular 43.13 425 301 sarcsses 43.14 4.26 308 (in-plane) Eqs 428 310 (443-445) Shear Circular | 493,494 4.101 392 ial circular 3 685 wa 1 Circul at 446 330 SO) in-plane table stresses Inernal 43.19 447 331 Ring of holes in sure Table 4.2 circular thin element ps Xxvili__ INDEX TO THE STRESS CONCENTRATION FACTORS Shape of Section and Page Form of Stress Equation Char | Number Raiser Load Case Nuinber Number | of Chart Intersal 43.19 448 m2 pressure Table 4.2 Hole in cieular thin element Internal Ciecalar 43.19 449 23 pressure Table 4.2 Circular patteen of holes in eireular thin element Tension Circular 458 407 358 O Eqs. 4.83) rT sand (4.84) Pin joint with closely fiting pio 500] Pinned or riveted joint with multipte holes “Tension Circular cavity 45.1 an 362 ‘of elliptical ross section Cavity in infinite body Ellipsoidal cavity 45.1 472 363, Of crcl eros seton Uniaxial | ——_ Spica aS ro oO tention of ee ia 386)4.88) Cavities in te siresses panel and eylinder o Tension | Elipsodal as aa | as Ss cavity 2 Row of cavities in infinite clement INDEX TO THE STRESS CONCENTRATION FACTORS —Xxixt Stopeof | Section and Page Formof Sues sires rihen Somber teaver Lo! Cue aver Number orca Unix Naw waa as | sr - ‘emion cok | equ cteyon Gack in in tension clement Hygautc 462 an | pn emia) | ame | 36 ume! Toatng | Ceara ote saa am | 0 ceo sai None tea aa | ai net ‘ole Dak Diamevical nes aa | om pps inca a (08) once Tews ne Diana tas ie | om “opposite external: Bg, (4.106) concn reals Tua No holein te ae | ma @ | ree J csindervat | tap eet) futon im 1.103) ve war wa | on ‘cylinder wall Eg. (4.110) XXX INDEX TO THE STRESS CONCENTRATION FACTORS. CHAPTER 5: MISCELLANEOUS DESIGN ELEMENTS Shepeot | Sesion and Tee Fomot Stes Sees Bion | chan | Number Iai toatcue | ace | Naber | xonter | ofchan Bening | Senucicuse | 524 | ao SS cna ) = Seine [| s2 Kone Tosi | Sonic =p an cot a veningand | end torsion aiky Torsion 33 sa 2 rN Splined shatt Bending sa 35 mea | 56 and 5) 37 Gear tooth 58 Bending Shoulder 34 39 38 filets £4.55) Short beam Bending 35 Tables S.1 +r and 52 Prsefted member f=) Tension $6 Bolt and at mM Tensionand | Shoulder 37 510 9 beoing filets T-hcad INDEX TO THE STRESS CONCENTRATION FACTORS —XXxi Shape ot | Section and Page on of Stes Stress equation | Chat | Number Raiser Load Case Raiser Number | Number | of Chat aa Temsion Sauane 38 sal a ended 513 446 ° ound 3 va | as 1 ended 518 M6 Lag in | ening Unitoom 39 34 “7 [Se ie Eq, (5.) Curved bar ‘Nononiform 512 «rans hook, . whereas Kay decreases from 30 2. Either Ky, or Kj. can be used in calculating the maximum stress, It would appear that X,, is easier to determine as oF is immediately evident from the geometry of the bar. But the value of &,, is hard to read from a stress concentration plot for 4/H > OS, since the curve becomes very steep. In contrast, the value OF Ky easy to read, but it is necessary to culculate ihe net cross-sectional area to find the maximum stress. Since the stress of interest is usuully on the net cross section, Ky is the more generally used factor. In addition, in a fatigue analysis, only K,, be used t0 caleulme the stress gradient correctly, In conclusion, normally it is more convenient to give stress concentration factors using reference stresses based on the net arva ruther than the gross area. However, if a fatigue analysis is not involved and 4/H <0. the user may choose to use Ke to simplify calculations, 8 DEFINITIONS AND DESIGN RELATIONS Example 1.2. Torsion Bar with a Groove A bar of circular cross section, with a U- shaped circumferential groove, is subject 10 an applied torque 7, The diameter of the bs is 2D the radius of the groove is r. and the depth of the groove is ¢. The stress distribution for the cross section at the groove is shown in Fig. 1.4, with the maximum stress occurring at point A at the bottom of the groave. Among the alternatives to define the reference stress ae: a. Use the stress at the outer surface of the har cross section BB", which is far from the groove, as the reference stress. According to basic strengil af materials (Pilkey 2005), the shear stress is linearly distributed slong the radial dircction and (eT apt en ow Tw = tp b. Consider point A’ in the cross section B'-8!. The distance of A‘ from the central axis is same as that of point A, that is, d = D — 2¢. If the stress at A‘ is taken as the reference stress, then 167d te = SS = tom Q c. Use the surface stress of a grooveless bar of diameter d = D ~ 21 as the reference stress. This corresponds to a bar of cross section measured at A-A of Fig, 1b, For this urea 7d?7/4, the maximum torsional stress taken as a reference stress would be lor a= Thom 3 An a In fuct this stress based on the net area is an assumed value and never oceurs at any Point of interest in the bur with a U-shaped circumferential groove. However, it is intuitively appezling and easy to calculate, it is more often used than the other two reference stresses, Example 1.3 Cylinder with an Eccentric Hole A cylinder with an eccentric citcular hole is subjected to internal pressure p ax shown in Fig. 1.5. An clastic soloution for stress is difficwl to find. It is convenient 10 use the pressure p as the reference stress Fo =P so that These examples illustrate that there are many options for selecting « reference stress, In this hook the stress concentration factors are given based on a variety of reference stresses. each of which is noted on the appropriate graph of the stress concentration factor. Sometimes, more than one stress concentration factor is plolled on a single chart. The reader should select the type of fctor that appears to be the most convenient. STRESS CONCENTRATION 9 Figure 1.5 Circular cylindsr with an eccentric hole, in Factors 1.2.2 Accuracy of Stress Concentra Stress concentration factors are obtained analytically trom the elasticity theory, compu- tationally from the finite element method, and experimentally using methads such as. photoclasticity or strain gages, For torsion, the membrane analogy (Pilkey and Wundertich 1993) can be emplayed, When the experimental work is conducted with sulficéent precision, excellent agreement is often obtained with well-established analytical stress concentration factors. Unfortunately, use of stress concentration factors in analysis and design is not on as ficm a foundation as the theoretical basis for determining the factors. The theory of elasticity ons are based on formulations that include such assumptions as that the material must be isotropic and homogeneous, However. in actuality materials may be neither uniform nor homogencous, and may even have defects. More data are necessary because, forthe required ision in material tests, statistical procedures are often necessary. Disectional effects in Js must also be carefully taken into account. It is hardly mecessary (0 point out that the designer cannot wait for exact answers to all of these questions. As always, existing information must be reviewed and judgment used in developing seasomable appreximare procedures for design, tending toward the safe side in doubtful cases. ln time, advances will take pluce and revisions in the use of stress concentration fuctors will need to be mule accordingly. On the other hand, it can be said that our limited experience in using these methods has been satisfactory. 1.2.3 Decay of Stress Away from the Peak Stress There are a number of theories of elasticity analytical solutions For stress concentrations, such as for an elliptical hole in a panel under tension. As can be observed in Fig. 1d, these solutions show that typically, the stress decays approximately exponentially from the Jocation of the peak stresses to the nominal value at a remote location, with the rate of decay higher near the peak value of stress. 10 DEFINITIONS AND DESIGN AELATIONS. 1.3 STRESS CONCENTRATION AS A TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEM Consider u thin element lying in the .t, ¥ plune, loaded by in-plane forces upplied in the ,y plane at the boundary (Fig. 1.6a). For this case the stress components &-, 15: be assumed to be equal to zero. This state of stress is called plane stress, and the stress components o,, oF), Ty, tite functions of ¢ and ¥ only. Tf the dimension in the : direction of a long cylindsiesl or prismatic body is very large retative (o its dimensions in the x. y plane and the applied forees are perpendicular to the longitudinal direction (: d (Fig. 1.66). it may be assumed that at the midsection the = di i are equal to zero. This is called the plane strain state. These two-dimensional problems are referred 0 as plane problems. ‘The differential equations of equilibrium together with the compatibility equation for the stresses 74. Uy. Ty ina plane clastic body are (Pilkey and Wunderlich 1993) dirs a 13 Oy 3h ae aa where Fy. Fy denote the components of the applied body force per unit volume in the x. y directions and /¢) is @ function of Poisson’s ratio: te plane strain 14 for plane stress Foy jay ) Figure 1.6 a) Plune stress: (b) plane strain. STRESS CONCENTRATION AS A THREE-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEM = 11 The surface conditions are Pala, tm, as Pr = boy + ine where p., py are the components of the surface force per unit ara al the boundary in the y directions. Also, /,1m ae the direction cosines of the normal to the boundary. For constant body forces. 8B, fd = apy, /ay = 0, and Eq, (14) becomes: (ar a= 0 6 Equations (1.3), (1.5), and (1.6) are usually sufficient to determine the stress distribution foc two-dimensional problems with constant body forces. These equations do not contain material constants. For plane problems, if the body forces are constant. the stress distribution isa function of the body shape and loadings acting ou the boundary and not of the material This implies for plane problems that stress concentration factors are functions of the ‘geometry and loading und not of the type of material. Of practical importance is that stress concentration factors can be found using experimental techniques such as photoelasticty that utilize material different from the structure of interest. 1.4 STRESS CONCENTRATION AS A THREE-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEM For three-dimensional problems, there are no simple relationships similar to Egs. (1.3), (1.5), and (1.6) for plane problems that show the stress distribution to be a function of body shape snd applied loading only. In general, the stress concentration factors will change with different materials. For example. Poisson’s ratio 1 is often involved in a three-dimensional stress concentration analysis. In this book most of the charis for three-dimensional stress concentration problems aot only list the body shape and load but also the Poisson's ratio for the case. The influence of Poisson's ratio on the stress concentration factors varies with the configuration. For example. in the case of a circumferential groove ina round bar under torsional load (Fig. 1.7), the stress distribution and concentration fuctor do not depend en Poisson’s ratio. This is because the shear deformation due to torsion does not change the volume of the element, namely the cross-sectional wreas remain unchanged. Figure 1.7 Round bar with a circumferential groove und torsional loading, 42 DEFINITIONS AND DESIGN AELATIONS. Lf cs Figure 1.8 Hyperbolic circumferential groove in a round bar. around bar under ection is (Neuber As another example, consider a hyperbolic circumferential groove tension land P (Fig. 1.8). The stress concentration Factor in the axial 1958) Fame 1 ja, . Ky = im eg LotC + FOS ++ we + Ke Gee cafe oe eg LET FOS H NH MED) 7) and in the eiteumferential direction is afr Key = SOR it +0053 18 Tom aye BCH" ) a8) where ris the radius of curvature at the base of the groove, C is ya/r) + 1, and the reference stress yom is P/( 7). Obviously Ky, and Xp are Cunetions of v. Table 1.1 lists the stress concentration factors for different Poisson's ratios for the hyperbolic cireumferentinl gfoove when 2/r = 7.0, From this table it can be seeo that as the value of increases, Key dcoreases slowly whereas Kw increases relatively rapidly. When # = 0, Ky = 3.01 and Ky = 0.39, Ibis interesting thut when Poisson's ratio is equal to zero (there is no transverse contraction in (he round bar), Uie ma SUFESS Tana is Mot equal Lo 2F0. TABLE LI Stress Concentration Factor asa Function of Poisson's Ratio far a Shaft in Tension with a Groove’ " 00 02 os Ky 3.0L 2.89 st 79 Ke 0.30 0.78 038 101 “The shalt has a hyperbolic clxcumerectial growve with ase — 7.0.