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Hydrostatic Pressure Apparatus

Instruction Manual
F1-12

ISSUE 9

February 2013
Table of Contents
Copyright and Trademarks ...................................................................................... 1

General Overview ....................................................................................................... 2

Equipment Diagrams................................................................................................... 3

Important Safety Information....................................................................................... 4

Introduction.............................................................................................................. 4

Water Borne Hazards .............................................................................................. 4

Electrical Safety....................................................................................................... 5

Description .................................................................................................................. 6

Overview.................................................................................................................. 6

Balance arm, weight hanger and counterbalance ................................................... 6

Clear acrylic flotation tank ....................................................................................... 6

Water supply and drainage...................................................................................... 6

Installation ................................................................................................................... 7

Advisory................................................................................................................... 7

Installing the Equipment .......................................................................................... 7

Operation .................................................................................................................... 9

Operating the Equipment......................................................................................... 9

Equipment Specifications.......................................................................................... 11

Environmental Conditions...................................................................................... 11

Routine Maintenance ................................................................................................ 12

Responsibility ........................................................................................................ 12

General.................................................................................................................. 12

Laboratory Teaching Exercises................................................................................. 13

Index to Exercises ................................................................................................. 13

Nomenclature ........................................................................................................ 13

Exercise A ................................................................................................................. 15

Operating the Optional Software (F1-301) ................................................................ 22

Contact Details for Further Information ..................................................................... 29

ii
Disclaimer
This document and all the information contained within it is proprietary to Armfield
Limited. This document must not be used for any purpose other than that for which it
is supplied and its contents must not be reproduced, modified, adapted, published,
translated or disclosed to any third party, in whole or in part, without the prior written
permission of Armfield Limited.

Should you have any queries or comments, please contact the Armfield Customer
Support helpdesk (Monday to Thursday: 0830 1730 and Friday: 0830 - 1300 UK
time). Contact details are as follows:

United Kingdom International

(0) 1425 478781 +44 (0) 1425 478781


(calls charged at local rate) (international rates apply)

Email: support@armfield.co.uk

Fax: +44 (0) 1425 470916

Copyright and Trademarks


Copyright 2013 Armfield Limited. All rights reserved.

Any technical documentation made available by Armfield Limited is the copyright


work of Armfield Limited and wholly owned by Armfield Limited.

Brands and product names mentioned in this manual may be trademarks or


registered trademarks of their respective companies and are hereby acknowledged.

1
General Overview
Fluid mechanics has developed as an analytical discipline from the application of the
classical laws of statics, dynamics and thermodynamics, to situations in which fluids
can be treated as continuous media. The particular laws involved are those of the
conservation of mass, energy and momentum and, in each application, these laws
may be simplified in an attempt to describe quantitatively the behaviour of the fluid.

The Hydraulics Bench Description service module, F1-10, provides the necessary
facilities to support a comprehensive range of hydraulic models each of which is
designed to demonstrate a particular aspect of hydraulic theory.

The specific hydraulic model that we are concerned with for this experiment is the
Hydrostatic Pressure Apparatus, F1-12. A full description of the apparatus is given
later in these texts.

2
Equipment Diagrams

Figure 1: F1-12 Hydrostatic Pressure Apparatus

3
Important Safety Information
Introduction
All practical work areas and laboratories should be covered by local safety
regulations which must be followed at all times.

It is the responsibility of the owner to ensure that all users are made aware of
relevant local regulations, and that the apparatus is operated in accordance with
those regulations. If requested then Armfield can supply a typical set of standard
laboratory safety rules, but these are guidelines only and should be modified as
required. Supervision of users should be provided whenever appropriate.

Your F1-12 Hydrostatic Pressure apparatus has been designed to be safe in use
when installed, operated and maintained in accordance with the instructions in this
manual. As with any piece of sophisticated equipment, dangers exist if the equipment
is misused, mishandled or badly maintained.

Water Borne Hazards


The equipment described in this instruction manual involves the use of water, which
under certain conditions can create a health hazard due to infection by harmful
micro-organisms.

For example, the microscopic bacterium called Legionella pneumophila will feed on
any scale, rust, algae or sludge in water and will breed rapidly if the temperature of
water is between 20 and 45C. Any water containing this bacterium which is sprayed
or splashed creating air-borne droplets can produce a form of pneumonia called
Legionnaires Disease which is potentially fatal.

Legionella is not the only harmful micro-organism which can infect water, but it
serves as a useful example of the need for cleanliness.

Under the COSHH regulations, the following precautions must be observed:

Any water contained within the product must not be allowed to stagnate, ie.
the water must be changed regularly.

Any rust, sludge, scale or algae on which micro-organisms can feed must be
removed regularly, i.e. the equipment must be cleaned regularly.

Where practicable the water should be maintained at a temperature below


20C. If this is not practicable then the water should be disinfected if it is safe
and appropriate to do so. Note that other hazards may exist in the handling of
biocides used to disinfect the water.

A scheme should be prepared for preventing or controlling the risk


incorporating all of the actions listed above.

Further details on preventing infection are contained in the publication The Control
of Legionellosis including Legionnaires Disease - Health and Safety Series booklet
HS (G) 70.

4
Important Safety Information

Electrical Safety
The F1-10 Service Bench operates from a mains voltage electrical supply. The
equipment is designed and manufactured in accordance with appropriate regulations
relating to the use of electricity. Similarly, it is assumed that regulations applying to
the operation of electrical equipment are observed by the end user.

It is important to read the safety information contained within the F1-10 Instruction
Manual before operating the hydraulics bench.

5
Description
Where necessary, refer to the drawings in the Equipment Diagrams section.

Overview
A fabricated quadrant is mounted on a balance arm which pivots on knife edges. The
knife edges coincide with the centre of arc of the quadrant. Thus, of the hydrostatic
forces acting on the quadrant when immersed in water, only the force on the
rectangular end face gives rise to a moment about the knife edges (forces on the
curved surfaces resolve through the pivot and have no effect on the moment). This
moment is counteracted by variable weights at a fixed distance from the pivot
allowing the magnitude and position of the hydrostatic force to be determined for
different water depths. The quadrant can be operated with the vertical end face
partially or fully submerged, allowing the difference in theory to be investigated.

The balance arm incorporates a weight hanger for the weights supplied and an
adjustable counterbalance weight to ensure that the balance arm is horizontal before
immersing the quadrant in water. The assembled balance arm is mounted on top of a
clear acrylic tank which may be levelled by adjusting three screwed feet. Correct
alignment is indicated on a circular spirit level mounted on the base of the tank.

A level indicator attached to the side of the tank shows when the balance arm is
horizontal. Water is admitted to the top of the tank by a flexible tube and may be
drained through a cock in the side of the tank. The water level is indicated on a scale
on the side of the quadrant.

Balance arm, weight hanger and counterbalance


The balance arm incorporates two locating dowels and a clamping screw for securing
the quadrant in the correct position on the arm. The arm pivots on top of the flotation
tank via machined knife edges. The balance arm incorporates a locating groove to
ensure that the weight hanger is correctly positioned relative to the pivot. Rotation of
the counterbalance weight allows it to be moved relative to the pivot, allowing the
assembled balance arm to be levelled before immersing the quadrant in water.

Clear acrylic flotation tank


The flotation tank must be levelled before levelling the balance arm by adjusting the
screwed feet. Correct alignment is indicated by a circular spirit level mounted on the
base of the tank. A level indicator mounted on the end of the flotation tank shows
when the balance arm is horizontal.

Water supply and drainage


Water is admitted to the top of the tank by a flexible tube and may be drained through
a lever operated cock at the base. The water supply may be obtained from the
hydraulic bench or from an alternative source as required. Alternatively a suitable jug
may be used to pour water into the tank. In use the immersed depth of the quadrant
is indicated by a scale on the side of the quadrant.

6
Installation
Advisory
Before operating the equipment, it must be unpacked, assembled and installed as
described in the steps that follow. Safe use of the equipment depends on following
the correct installation procedure.

Installing the Equipment


The F1-12 Hydrostatic Pressure apparatus is supplied in component form and must
be assembled before use as follows:

Carefully remove the components from the cardboard packaging. Retain the
packaging for future use.

Wash the quadrant and flotation tank in warm water to which a few drops of wetting
agent have been added.

Place the flotation tank on the flat top of the F1-10 Hydraulics Bench or alternative
flat surface as required.

Attach the flexible tube to the lever operated cock at the end of the flotation tank.

Using the spirit level attached to the base, level the flotation tank in both planes by
adjusting the feet.

Attach the fabricated quadrant (torroid) to the balance arm with the flat end face
adjacent to the knife edges. Secure the quadrant to the arm using the knurled
clamping screw ensuring that the quadrant is located on the dowels and flat against
the underside of the balance arm.

Measure the following and record the values for future reference (refer to the
Nomenclature for details of symbols used):

Width of end face, B

Height of end face, D

Distance from knife edge to notch for weigh hanger, L

Distance from knife edge to bottom of end face, H

Actual weight of each balance weight (mark each weight to aid identification)

Screw the counterbalance weight onto the threaded end of the balance arm.

Locate the balance arm on the knife edges at the top of the flotation tank. Adjust the
position of the balance arm in the knife edges until the balance arm swings freely up
and down between the extremes of the gate on the level indicator at the end of the
flotation tank.

Locate the empty weight hanger in the notch at the end of the balance arm.

Adjust the position of the counterbalance weight until the balance arm is horizontal
(flat on balance arm adjacent to central index mark on level indicator).

Place a weight (typically 50g) on the weight hanger.

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Armfield Instruction Manual

Fill the flotation tank with water until the balance arm rises above the horizontal
(water can be poured into the tank using a suitable receptacle or pumped into the
tank from the F1-10 Hydraulics Bench using a flexible tube attached to the quick
release outlet fitting in the bed of the channel).

Gradually drain water from the flotation tank by opening the drain valve until the arm
is horizontal.

The level of the water on the end face which counterbalances the weight on the
weight hanger can be measured using the scale on the side of the quadrant.

8
Operation
Where necessary, refer to the drawings in the Equipment Diagrams section.

Operating the Equipment


Levelling the flotation tank
Before taking readings it is important to level the flotation tank so that the knife edges
are level from side to side and the level indicator is at the same height as the knife
edges. The tank stands on three height adjustable feet to aid levelling. These should
be raised or lowered as required until the bubble is central in the spirit level.

Adjusting the counterbalance weight


Before filling the tank with water it is important to balance the quadrant / balance arm
in air by adjusting the counterbalance weight. Assemble the quadrant onto the arm
and tighten the knurled screw. Place the arm onto the knife edges ensuring that it is
free to move then place the weight hanger in the locating groove at the end of the
balance arm. Adjust the position of the counterbalance weight until the balance arm
is horizontal, indicated by the central mark on the level indicator.

Note that the weight hanger must not be included when calculating the total weights
added because the weight of the hanger has been counterbalanced during setup.

Initial filling of the flotation tank


Manual Filling Using a Jug:

Water can be poured into the tank from a suitable receptacle such as a jug. Avoid
pouring water onto the quadrant or balance arm.

Filling Using the F1-10:

Water may be pumped into the flotation tank from the F1-10 Hydraulics Bench using
a flexible tube attached to the quick release outlet fitting in the bed of the channel. An
alternative source of water may be used if required.

Fill Volume:

Fill the flotation tank with water initially until the balance arm rises.

Filling the tank during experiments


After the initial filling of the tank, smaller quantities of water will be required to top up
the water level. Two methods are recommended for this:

Filling Using a Siphon:

Set a beaker, measuring cylinder or similar vessel (of similar height to the flotation
tank) beside the flotation tank. Fill the vessel with water to the same depth as the
flotation tank. Fill the flexible tube with water, and hold the ends sealed (a thumb
over each end is suitable). Place one end below the water surface in the vessel and
the other end into the flotation tank via the triangular cut-out at the pivot end. This will
set up a siphon system. Water can be added to the flotation tank by pouring it into
the vessel using the jug, then allowing time for the water levels to balance. Siphoning
allows greater control over the water entering the tank, and produces less
disturbance of the water within the tank. Water can be drained using the lever
operated cock at the end of the flotation tank

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Armfield Instruction Manual

Manual Filling Using a Jug:

Water can be poured gradually into the tank from a suitable receptacle such as a jug.
Water should be poured into the space between the quadrant and the tank sides,
with the flow aimed towards the tank side to minimise disturbance of the quadrant
and balance arm. Avoid pouring water onto the quadrant or balance arm. The
accessory will require some time to stabilise after adding water directly in this
manner.

Levelling the balance arm


Gradually add water until the balance arm rises to the horizontal. Alternatively,
slightly over fill the flotation tank so that the balance arm rises too far then open the
drain valve and gradually drain water from the flotation tank to allow the balance arm
to lower towards the horizontal. For better control, begin to close the valve before the
arm is fully horizontal.

The balance arm is horizontal when it is adjacent to the central index mark on the
level indicator.

Measuring the water Level


When the balance arm is horizontal, the level of water in the tank (which
counterbalances the weights on the weight hanger) can be measured using the scale
on the side of the quadrant. When reading the value from the scale, care should be
taken to ignore the meniscus by moving the head up and down until the eye is
sighting along the true surface of the water.

Draining the flotation tank


Water may be drained from the flotation tank by fully opening the drain valve and
allowing the tank to empty.

10
Equipment Specifications

Environmental Conditions
This equipment has been designed for operation in the following environmental
conditions. Operation outside of these conditions may result reduced performance,
damage to the equipment or hazard to the operator.

a. Indoor use;

b. Altitude up to 2000 m;

c. Temperature 5C to 40C;

d. Maximum relative humidity 80% for temperatures up to 31C, decreasing


linearly to 50% relative humidity at 40C;

e. Mains supply voltage fluctuations up to 10% of the nominal voltage;

f. Transient over-voltages typically present on the MAINS supply;

Note: The normal level of transient over-voltages is impulse withstand (over-


voltage) category II of IEC 60364-4-443;

g. Pollution degree 2.

Normally only nonconductive pollution occurs.

Temporary conductivity caused by condensation is to be expected.

Typical of an office or laboratory environment

11
Routine Maintenance
Responsibility
To preserve the life and efficient operation of the equipment it is important that the
equipment is properly maintained. Regular maintenance of the equipment is the
responsibility of the end user and must be performed by qualified personnel who
understand the operation of the equipment.

General
Little maintenance is required but it is important to avoid distortion of the fabricated
quadrant and to keep the knife edges clean and free from damage.

All water should be drained from the flotation tank when not in use. The tank and
quadrant should be dried thoroughly before storing the apparatus where protected
from damage. Ensure that the quadrant is stored flat, on its side, and not subjected to
extremes of heat or direct sunlight.

Following storage, wash the quadrant and flotation tank in warm water to which a few
drops of wetting agent have been added, before using the apparatus. This will
remove any dirt or grease adhering to the surfaces and improve the accuracy of
readings obtained using the apparatus.

12
Laboratory Teaching Exercises
Index to Exercises
Exercise A

Nomenclature
Name Unit Symbol Type Definition

Vertical height of quadrant face


Height of
m D Given (Nominal dimension 0.100m). May be
Quadrant
updated from your own measurements.

Horizontal width of quadrant face


Width of
m B Given (Nominal dimension 0.075m). May be
Quadrant
updated from your own measurements.

Length of balance arm (Nominal


Length of dimension 0.275m). May be updated
m L Given
Balance arm from your own measurements.

Note: measurement should be taken


from weight hanger to pivot point.

Quadrant To Distance from base of vertical quadrant


m H Given face to pivot (Nominal dimension
Pivot
0.200m). May be updated from your
own measurements.

Mass kg m Measured Weights applied to the weight hanger.

Note: Masses given in grams.

Depth of base of vertical quadrant face


Depth of
m d Measured beneath the free surface.
Immersion
Note: Apparatus scale calibrated in
mm.

Partially Submerged Body

Hydrostatic
N F Calculated
Thrust

Experimental
Calculated
Centre of m h
Pressure

Theoretical
Centre of m h Calculated
Pressure

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Armfield Instruction Manual

Fully Submerged Body

Hydrostatic
N F Calculated
Thrust

Experimental
Calculated
Centre of h
Pressure

Theoretical
Calculated
Centre of h
Pressure

14
Exercise A
Objective
To determine the hydrostatic thrust acting on a plane surface immersed in water
when the surface is partially submerged or fully submerged.

To determine the position of the line of action of the thrust and to compare the
position determined by experiment with the theoretical position.

Method
By achieving an equilibrium condition between the moments acting on the balance
arm of the test apparatus. The forces acting are the weight applied to the balance
and the hydrostatic pressure on the end face of the quadrant.

Equipment Required
In order to complete the demonstration we need a number of pieces of equipment.

The F1-12 Hydrostatic Pressure Apparatus (including set of weights)

Source of clean water (typically F1-10 Hydraulics Bench)

A jug (not supplied)

Calipers or ruler, for measuring the actual dimensions of the quadrant, if


desired (not supplied)

For siphoning water:

A beaker, measuring cylinder, or similar container of water of similar height to


the flotation tank

A length of small bore flexible tubing

Theory
When the quadrant is immersed in water it is possible to analyse the forces acting on
the surfaces of the quadrant as follows:

The hydrostatic force at any point on the curved surfaces is normal to the
surface and therefore resolves through the pivot point because this is located
at the origin of the radii. Hydrostatic forces on the upper and lower curved
surfaces therefore have no net effect no torque to affect the equilibrium of the
assembly because all of these forces pass through the pivot.

The forces on the sides of the quadrant are horizontal and cancel out (equal
and opposite).

The hydrostatic force on the vertical submerged face is counteracted by the


balance weight. The resultant hydrostatic force on the face can therefore be
calculated from the value of the balance weight and the depth of the water as
follows:

When the system is in equilibrium, the moments about the pivot point are equal:

mgL = Fh

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Armfield Instruction Manual

where:

m is the mass on the weight hanger,

g is the acceleration due to gravity,

L is the length of the balance arm,

F is the hydrostatic thrust, and

h is the distance between the pivot and the centre of pressure.

Hence by calculating the hydrostatic thrust and centre of pressure on the end face of
the quadrant, we can compare theoretical and experimental results.

Partially Submerged Vertical Plane


For the case where the vertical face of the quadrant is partially submerged:

where:

L is the horizontal distance between the pivot point and the weight hanger,

H is the vertical distance between the pivot and the base of the quadrant,

D is the height of the quadrant face, B is the width of the quadrant face,

d is the depth of water from the base of the quadrant, and

h' is the vertical distance between the surface and the centre of pressure.

The forces shown are F, the hydrostatic thrust, and m.g, the weight.

16
Exercise A

Hydrostatic Thrust
The hydrostatic thrust can be defined as:

F = gAh (Newtons)

where:

A is the area = = A = Bd

h is the mean depth of immersion

therefore:

(1)

Experimental Depth of Pressure


The moment, M, can be defined as

M = Fh" (Newtons)

A balancing moment is produced by the weight, W, applied to the hanger at the end
of the balance arm. The moment is proportional to the length of the balance arm, L.

For static equilibrium the two moments are equal, i.e.

Fh" = WL = mgL

By substitution of the derived hydrostatic thrust, F from (1), we have

(metres)

Theoretical Depth of Pressure


The theoretical result for depth of pressure P below the free surface is

(2)

where Ix is the 2nd moment of area of immersed section about an axis in the free-
surface. By use of the parallel axes theorem:

(3)

The depth of the centre of pressure below the pivot point is therefore given by:

h" = h" + H - d (m) (4)

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Armfield Instruction Manual

hence:

The turning moment can then be calculated.

Fully Submerged Vertical Plane


For the case where the vertical face of the quadrant is fully submerged:

Where:

d is the depth of submersion,

F is the hydrostatic thrust exerted on the quadrant,

h' is the depth of the centre of pressure,

h" is the distance of centre of pressure below the pivot,

B is the width of the surface, and

D is the depth of the surface

W is the weight on the hanger (=mg)

Hydrostatic Thrust

The hydrostatic thrust F can be defined as

(5)

18
Exercise A

Experimental Depth of Pressure

The moment, M, can be defined as

M = Fh" (Nm)

A balancing moment is produced by the weight, W, applied to the hanger at the end
of the balance arm. The moment is proportional to the length of the balance arm, L.

For static equilibrium the two moments are equal, i.e.:

Fh" = WL = mgL

By substitution of the derived hydrostatic thrust, F, from (5), we have

(m)

Theoretical Depth of Pressure

The theoretical result for depth of centre of pressure below the free-surface is

(6)

where Ix is the 2nd moment of area of immersed section about an axis in the free-
surface.

By use of the parallel axes theorem:

Ix = Ic + Ah

The depth of the centre of pressure below the surface is

h" = h' + H d (m)

Substitution as before then gives the theoretical result of:

The turning moment can hence be calculated.

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Armfield Instruction Manual

Equipment Set Up
For improved accuracy of results, measure the dimensions B, D of the quadrant end-
face and the distance H and L and record the values for future reference.

Position the empty F1-12 flotation tank on the F1-10 Hydraulics Bench or other
suitable level surface, then adjust the screwed feet until the built-in circular spirit level
indicates that the tank is level in both planes.

Position the balance arm on the knife edges and check that the arm is free to swing.

Locate the empty weight hanger in the groove at the end of the balance arm.

Move the counter-balance weight until the balance arm is horizontal, indicated by the
central index mark on the beam level indicator.

Procedure
Add a small mass (typically 50g) to the weight hanger.

Close the drain valve at the end of the tank then slowly add water to the tank. This
can be done in one of two ways:

Water can be poured into the tank from a suitable receptacle such as a jug or water
may be pumped into the flotation tank from the F1-10 Hydraulics Bench using a
flexible tube attached to the quick release outlet fitting in the bed of the channel.

Fill the flotation tank with water initially until the balance arm rises. Avoid wetting the
balance arm or the quadrant above the water level in the tank.

After initially filling the tank, small adjustments of water level are best performed
using a jug, allowing time for the water to settle before taking readings.

Alternatively, set a beaker, measuring cylinder or similar container full of water


beside the tank. Fill the flexible tube with water, and hold the ends sealed (a thumb
over each end is suitable). Place one end below the water surface in the cylinder and
the other end into the tank via the triangular cut-out at the pivot end. This will set up a
siphon system. Water can be added to the tank by pouring it into the vessel using the
jug, then allowing time for the water levels to balance. Siphoning allows greater
control over the water entering the tank, and produces less disturbance of the water
within the tank.

Add water until the hydrostatic thrust on the end-face of the quadrant causes the
balance arm to rise. Ensure that there is no water spilled on the upper surfaces of the
quadrant or the sides, above the water level. Continue to add water until the balance
arm is horizontal, checking this by aligning the flat of the balance arm with the central
mark on the level indicator. You may find it easier to slightly over-fill the tank, and
obtain the equilibrium position by opening the drain cock to allow a small outflow.

When the arm is horizontal read the depth of immersion from the scale on the face of
the quadrant. Care should be taken to ignore the meniscus by moving the head up
and down until the eye is sighing along the true surface of the water.

Repeat the above procedure for different load increments by adding further weights
to the weight hanger. The weights supplied allow increments of ten, twenty, and fifty
grams to be used, depending on the number of samples required. Fifty-gram

20
Exercise A

intervals are suggested for an initial set of results, which will give a total of nineteen
samples.

Continue until the water level reaches the top of the upper scale on the quadrant
face. Repeat the procedure in reverse, by progressively removing the weights.

Note any factors that you think are likely to affect the accuracy of your results.

Results
All readings should be recorded as follows:

Constants
Height of End Face: D (m)

Width of End Face: B (m)

Length of Arm: L (m)

Height to Pivot: H (m)

Variables

Conclusions
Comment on the variation of thrust with depth.

Comment on the relationship between the depth of the centre of pressure and the
depth of immersion.

For both of the above, comment on what happens when the plane has become fully
submerged.

Comment on and explain the discrepancies between the experimental and theoretical
results for the depth of centre of pressure.

21
Operating the Optional Software (F1-301)
Note: The diagrams in this section are included as typical examples and may not
relate specifically to an individual product.

The Armfield Software is a powerful Educational and Data Logging tool with a wide
range of features. Some of the major features are highlighted below, to assist users,
but full details on the software and how to use it are provided in the presentations
and Help text incorporated in the Software. Help on Using the Software or Using the
Equipment is available by clicking the appropriate topic in the Help drop-down menu
from the upper toolbar when operating the software as shown:

Load the software. If multiple experiments are available then a menu will be
displayed listing the options. Wait for the presentation screen to open fully as shown:

Presentation Screen - Basics and Navigation


As stated above, the software starts with the Presentation Screen displayed. The
user is met by a simple presentation which gives them an overview of the capabilities
of the equipment and software and explains in simple terms how to navigate around
the software and summarizes the major facilities complete with direct links to detailed
context sensitive help texts.

22
Operating the Software

To view the presentations click Next or click the required topic in the left hand pane
as appropriate. Click More while displaying any of the topics to display a Help index
related to that topic.

To return to the Presentation screen at any time click the View Presentation icon

from the main tool bar or click Presentation from the dropdown menu as
shown:

For more detailed information about the presentations refer to the Help available via
the upper toolbar when operating the software.

Toolbar
A toolbar is displayed at the top of the screen at all times, so users can jump
immediately to the facility they require, as shown:

The upper menu expands as a dropdown menu when the cursor is placed over a
name.

The lower row of icons (standard for all Armfield Software) allows a particular
function to be selected. To aid recognition, pop-up text names appear when the
cursor is placed over the icon.

Mimic Diagram
The Mimic Diagram is the most commonly used screen and gives a pictorial
representation of the equipment, with boxes to enter measurements from the
equipment, display any calculated variables etc. directly in engineering units.

To view the Mimic Diagram click the View Diagram icon from the main tool bar
or click Diagram from the View drop-down menu as shown:

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Armfield Instruction Manual

A Mimic diagram is displayed, similar to the diagram as shown:

The details in the diagram will vary depending on the equipment chosen if multiple
experiments are available.

Manual data input boxes with a coloured background allow measured variables,
constants such as Orifice Cd and Atmospheric Pressure, as appropriate, to be
changed by over-typing the default value. After typing the value press the Return key
or click on a different box to enter the value.

In addition to measured variables such as Volume, Time, Temperature or Pressure,


calculated data such as Discharge / Volume flowrate, Headloss etc are continuously
displayed in data boxes with a white background. These are automatically updated
and cannot be changed by the user.

After entering a complete set of data from measurements on the equipment click on

the icon to save the set of results before entering another set.

24
Operating the Software

The mimic diagram associated with some products includes the facility to select
different experiments or different accessories, usually on the left hand side of the
screen, as shown:

Clicking on the appropriate accessory or exercise will change the associated mimic
diagram, table, graphs etc to suit the exercise being performed.

Data Logging Facilities in the Mimic Diagram


Armfield software designed for manual entry of measured variables does not include
automatic data logging facilities and these options are greyed out where not
appropriate. When manually entering data the icon simply saves the set of entered
data into a spreadsheet as described above.

Tabular Display

To view the Table screen click the View Table icon from the main tool bar or
click Table from the View dropdown menu as shown:

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Armfield Instruction Manual

The data is displayed in a tabular format, similar to the screen as shown:

As the data is sampled, it is stored in spreadsheet format, updated each time the
data is sampled. The table also contains columns for the calculated values.

New sheets can be added to the spreadsheet for different data runs by clicking the

icon from the main toolbar. Sheets can be renamed by double clicking on the
sheet name at the bottom left corner of the screen (initially Run 1, Run 2 etc) then
entering the required name.

For more detailed information about Data Logging and changing the settings within
the software refer to the Help available via the upper toolbar when operating the
software.

Graphical Display
When several samples have been recorded, they can be viewed in graphical format.

To view the data in Graphical format click the View graph icon from the main
tool bar or click Graph from the View drop-down menu as shown:

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Operating the Software

The results are displayed in a graphical format as shown:

(The actual graph displayed will depend on the product selected and the exercise
that is being conducted, the data that has been logged and the parameter(s) that has
been selected).

Powerful and flexible graph plotting tools are available in the software, allowing the
user full choice over what is displayed, including dual y axes, points or lines,
displaying data from different runs, etc. Formatting and scaling is done automatically
by default, but can be changed manually if required.

To change the data displayed on the Graph click Graph Data from the Format
dropdown menu as shown:

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Armfield Instruction Manual

The available parameters (Series of data) are displayed in the left hand pane as
shown:

Two axes are available for plotting, allowing series with different scaling to be
presented on the same x axis.

To select a series for plotting, click the appropriate series in the left pane so that it is
highlighted then click the appropriate right-facing arrow to move the series into one of
the windows in the right hand pane. Multiple series with the same scaling can be
plotted simultaneously by moving them all into the same window in the right pane.

To remove a series from the graph, click the appropriate series in the right pane so
that it is highlighted then click the appropriate left-facing arrow to move the series into
the left pane.

The X-Axis Content is chosen by default to suit the exercise. The content can be
changed if appropriate by opening the drop down menu at the top of the window.

The format of the graphs, scaling of the axes etc. can be changed if required by
clicking Graph in the Format drop-down menu as shown:

For more detailed information about changing these settings refer to the Help
available via the upper toolbar when operating the software.

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Contact Details for Further Information

Main Office: Armfield Limited

Bridge House
West Street
Ringwood
Hampshire
England BH24 1DY

Tel: +44 (0)1425 478781


Fax: +44 (0)1425 470916
Email: sales@armfield.co.uk
support@armfield.co.uk
Web: http://www.armfield.co.uk

US Office: Armfield Inc.

9 Trenton - Lakewood Road


Clarksburg, NJ 08510

Tel/Fax: (609) 208 2800


Email: info@armfieldinc.com

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