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# Yang-Gyu Jei

## Senior Research Scientist.

Does Curve Veering Occur in the
Shafting and Rotor Dynamics Laboratory,
Korea Research Institute of Ships and Ocean
Engineering,
Eigenvalue Problem of Rotors?
Dae Duk Science Town, Korea
Recently, Crandall and Yeh {1989) reported an interesting phenomenon in the
Campbell diagram of a single spool machine. In their words, "It is interesting that
Chong-Won Lee . . . the two modes form a coupled system and the curves repel each other avoiding
Professor. an intersection" in the Campbell diagram, which is the so-called curve veering in
Department of Mechanical Engineering, the eigenvalue problem. In this paper, the existence of the curve veering in the
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and eigenvalue problem of general rotor-bearing systems are verified and the criteria of
Technology, the curve veering is evaluated. The abrupt but continuous changes of mode shapes
Dae Duk Science Town, Korea during veering are also illustrated.

1 Introduction
When the eigenvalues are plotted against a system parameter, tinuous anisotropic rotor-bearing system which consists of
the dependence of eigenvalues on the system parameter is il- nonuniform Rayleigh shafts, rigid disks, and discrete aniso-
lustrated by a family of loci. When two loci approach each tropic bearings (Lee and Jei, 1988) or an undamped continuous
other, they often cross (curve crossing) or abruptly diverge asymmetrical rotor-bearing system which consists of nonuni-
(curve veering). Although the name of curve veering in the form asymmetrical Rayleigh shafts, asymmetrical rigid disks,
eigenvalue problem of rotor-bearing systems has not been and discrete isotropic bearing is given as (Jei and Lee, 1991)
found, the curve veering phenomenon was already shown in
L^ r = XrM<>rinT = (0,Q r = 1,2,3, . . .
the literature in the field of rotor dynamics (Chivens and Nel-
son, 1975; Crandall and Yeh, 1989; Dimentberg, 1961; Huang, BA = 0 i=l,2,...,p (1)
1967; Yamamoto and Ota, 1964). In Crandall and Yeh's words where M, L, and B,- represent the homogeneous, linear, dif-
(1989), "It is interesting that when the curve for an even (odd) ferential operators defined in terms of system parameter E
rotor mode approaches the curve for an even (odd) stator such as bearing stiffness and rotational speed, and <jtr denotes
mode, the two modes form a coupled system and the curves the system eigenfunction vector. L is of order 2p while M and
repel each other avoiding an intersection" in the Campbell B; are of order 2p - 1 at most and M is positive definite over
diagram of the natural frequency of a uniform rotor rotating the range of E.
in a uniform stator as function of rotational speed.
Let us define the inner product of two complex state vectors
But since no attention was paid to mode shapes, the signif- a= (!, a2}T and b = [b{, b2}T as
icance of the curve veering could not be noticed. An important
characteristic of the curve veering is that the mode shapes <a, b> = <!,&!>+ <a 2 ,6 2 >
associated with the eigenvalues before veering are interchanged
during veering in a rapid but continuous way. The information = I b\aidx+ I b2a2dx (2)
of mode shapes as well as eigenvalues is important for the
rotor dynamic analysis (Jei, 1988; Jei and Lee, 1989).
where the bar denotes the complex conjugate. The adjoint
In this paper the curve veering in the eigenvalue problem of
eigenvalue problem associated with equation (1) is given by
continuous rotor-bearing systems is verified using the modal
analysis and exact solution methods developed by authors (Jei X.M'^L**, 5=1,2,3,... (3)
and Lee, 1991; Lee and Jei, 1988) and the perturbation tech- where M* and L* are the adjoints of M and L, respectively,
nique developed by Perkins and Mote (1986). As rotational and s is the adjoint eigenfunction vector. M and L are found
speed varies, the criteria of the curve veering are evaluated and to be (Jei and Lee, 1991; Lee and Jei, 1988)
the abrupt but continuous changes in mode shapes during
veering are also illustrated. M * = M r , L* = L 7 (4)
where T denotes transpose. <j>r and Vs may be biorthonor-
2 Curve Veering in the Eigenvalue Problem of Rotor malized so as to satisfy
Systems <M<j>r,%)=5rs
The eigenvalue problem associated with an undamped con- <L*r,*,>=M (5)

## Contributed by the Technical Committee on Vibration and Sound for pub-

where 5re is the Kronecker delta. The small variations in system
lication in the JOURNAL OF VIBRATION AND ACOUSTICS. Manuscript received June parameter E produce small perturbation in the operators L,
1990. M and q (0 < q < p) boundary operators B,. These operators

o
c
01

TO

TO

## Fig. 2 Asymmetrical cantilever shaft with a tip disk

System Parameter
Fig. 1 Curve veer away, together, with and curve cross in natural fre- Q
quencies (VTveer together, VAveer away, VWveer with, CCcurve Id
cross)
kJ
become L = L 0 + AL, M = M 0 + AM and B ; = B,0 + AB,-,
where AL, AM, and AB, are the perturbation operators with
norms of e where e represents small scale order. To evaluate
the criteria of the curve veering in the eigenvalue problem, J
assume there exist two nearly equal eigenvalues X in the un- (i
perturbed problem. Perkins and Mote (1986) evaluated the H
perturbation solutions up to second order for Xr and X^. I
When the eigenvalues are pure imaginary values, the per-
turbation solutions expanded in Taylor series about E = E0
3
can be rewritten as (Jei, 1988; Perkins and Mote, 1986)
1
cor(e) = a>? + - [DlcAe + - [Li1cr + Dldr}e1-- l&xj(ofi-a)]e
J 2j
28 30 48 50
"s(<0
llc. s,}e. ,+I -[D%
0 + l r [D r n 2 , nD%]e
+ 2-i,J
J 2/
1
l&X^ {<-<#)] (6) SPIN SPEED,c
Fig. 3 Whirl speeds of asymmetrical cantilever shaft with a tip disk (i2
= 0.00033, 5 = 1.4, /31 = 0.7, y] = 0.001667, y\ = 0.00233)
where
cr =(k- \armrr) ,dr = mrr(~ k + \mrr),
xrs= {k- \rmrs) (ksr- \rmsr),mrs= <AM<fc,*?>T ment and rotary inertia, and discussed whirl speed and mode
shape characteristics as rotational speed and boundary con-
* = <AL*?,*?>T+ 2 <AB(*,<*>1,,.Dfc = dVdE*l* bl ditions vary using modal analysis. When the cross couple terms
of supporting bearings disappear, mode shapes become planar
mode shapes (Jei, 1988; Lee and Jei, 1988). When Q = fi0 +
=1,2, . . . Afi, msr and ksr in equation (6) is given by
Note that xrs and xsr measure the coupling of the unperturbed
eigenfunction. When E?xrs, E?xsr are not zero, the loci con- m=AO] / , < , ) - dx
cavities depend strongly on their separation I o>r - <*>s\. When
the real values of Efxrs and I^xsr are both negative (positive),
kxr = 0 (7)
the cor(c) and cos(e) loci veer away (toward) from each other
as they approach. When the real values of E?xrs and E?xsr are where Jp(x) is the polar mass moment of inertia. When the
of opposite sign, the concavities of the av(e) and oj/e) loci are mode shapes in y, z directions, <t>ry and <j>rz, are planar, 4>n is
of the same sign. The loci now veer with each other as they a pure imaginary valued function whereas <j>ry is a real valued
approach. Some examples of the curves that veer away, toward, function. Let <j>rz = j(j>% where <j>% is a real valued function.
and with were shown by Perkins and Mote (1986), and sum- Then the EPx^ in equation (6) is given by
marized in Fig. 1. fd<j)Sy d(j>rz
D>xrs= - (o)?): R, (x)
dx dx
d(j>ry d<j>%
3 Anisotropic Rotor-Bearing System dx (8)
dx dx
Consider an undamped anisotropic rotor-bearing system
consisting of flexible nonuniform Rayleigh shafts, discrete rigid where Kr(= jRr) is determined from biorthonormality con-
disks, and anisotropic bearings. Lee and Jei (1988) derived the ditions. \/Kr is the so-called modal norm. When mode shapes
equations of motion including the effects of gyroscopic mo- are planar, Kr becomes a pure imaginary value. Since D xrs

## Journal of Vibration and Acoustics JANUARY 1992, Vol. 114/33

(b)
Fig. 4 Variations of the 3rd mode shape to the 1st mode shape during
curve veering

and LP'Xsr of equation (8) are both negative, the oir and us loci rigid asymmetrical disks, and isotropic bearings. Since the
veer away from each other as they approach. governing equations of the asymmetrical rotor system in sta-
The curve veering in the whirl natural frequency of an iso- tionary coordinates, S:oxyz, are of periodically varying coef-
tropic rotor-bearing system as rotational speed varies was shown ficients, the equations of motion are conveniently expressed
by Crandall and Yeh (1989). They treated a single spool ma- in rotating coordinates, R:OXYZ, defined relative to S:oxyz
chine with the uniform rotor rotating in the uniform stator by a single rotation Qt about x axis. The equations of motion
supported by isotropic springs. Since the rotor-bearing system including the effects of gyroscopic moments and rotary inertia
is symmetric about the midplane, the whirling modes can be are given in Jei (1988) and Jei and Lee (1991). When the mode
divided into two families: even and odd modes; i.e., modes shapes in y, z directions, 4>ry and 4>rz, are planar, <f>rz( = j<f>fz)
symmetrical and antisymmetrical about the midplane. They is a pure imaginary valued function whereas <j>ry is a real valued
reported that "It is interesting that when the curve for an odd function. When 0 = Q0 + AQ, the mrs and krs in equation (6)
(even) rotor mode approaches the curve for an even (odd) stator are given by
mode, there is no coupling between the modes and curve in-
tersect, each oblivious to the presence of the other. On the
other hand when the curve for an even (odd) rotor mode mrs = AURr 2pA(<j>sy<t>fz + 4>fz<j>ry)dX
approaches the curve for an even (odd) stator mode, the two
modes form a coupled system and the curves repel each other
avoiding an intersection." The reason can be explained by
equation (8). Between even and odd modes the integration of
equation (8) is zero. Therefore this is no coupling between the
\'A
)0pI[dX
3</> d<t>ry , d(j>sy 3<f>fz
dX +
dX dX
i

modes. But between even (odd) and even (odd) modes, the krs=j(AQ2 + 2QoAQ)Rr pA (4>sy<l>ry + <t>sz<t>rz)dX
integration of equation (8) is positive, and the curve veering
between the modes occurs. When the bearing stiffness varies,
the occurrence of curve veering has also been demonstrated in d<t>sy d<f>ry
(Ph- Ply)
y ~B -B dX
Jei (1988). ' dX dX

d<t>sz d^rz
4 Asymmetrical Rotor-Bearing Systems (Plx-Plz) dX
dX dX
Consider an undamped asymmetrical rotor-bearing system
consisting of flexible nonuniform asymmetrical Rayleigh shafts, JKrs (9)

## 3 4 / V o l . 114, JANUARY 1992 Transactions of the ASME

(b)

(*)
Fig. 5 Variations of the 1st mode shape to the 3rd mode shape during
curve veering

where pA (X) is the mass per unit length, plx (X), ply (X), and B in Fig. 3 implicitly indicate forward and backward precession
pIz(X) the mass moments of inertia about X, Y, and Z axes, resonances, respectively. The mode shape changes during the
respectively, and pl0 = plx - ply plz. When mode shapes veering near the region C are shown in Figs. 4 and 5. Along
are planar, Kr( = jRr) becomes a pure imaginary value (Jei, the arrow a around the region C of Fig. 3 the 3rd mode shapes
1988; Jei and Lee, 1991). Therefore, as shown in equation (9), abruptly change to the 1st mode shape as shown in Figs. 4(a)-
mrs and kfs( = kfr) are real constants. Therefore the coupling 4(d), and along the arrow b the 1st mode shape abruptly
factor xrs in equation (6) is given by changes to the 3rd mode shapes as shown in Figs. 5(a)-5(d),
respectively. As shown in Figs. 4 and 5, the mode shapes
xa= - (k?s-oormrs) d-u0rm) (10) abruptly but continuously change. As discussed in Jei and Lee
Since I\$xsr is negative, wr and us loci veer away from each (1991) and Jei (1988), once a solution of asymmetrical rotor
other as they approach. systems, o>, found, - o> become another solution, that is, com-
Consider the asymmetrical cantilever shaft with an asym- plex conjugate relations. And the mode shapes associated with
metrical tip disk as shown in Fig. 2. For convenience let us a> and - o) should be a complex conjugate pair. Therefore near
introduce the nondimensional variables, 5( = Iz/Iy, shaft asym- the regionsBu B2, andB3, i.e., so-called major unstable regions
metry), (= Y/), ij(= Z/l), Yf, 7,, and -y^, (nondimensional which are bounded by major critical speeds, the mode shapes
mass moment of inertia of tip disk). When the principal axes do not severely change although curve veering occurs.
of the asymmetrical tip disk are not coincident with the prin-
cipal axes of the asymmetrical shaft, that is, the relative ori-
entation angle between the principal axes of the shaft and the 5 Conclusions
tip disk, 6, is not zero, the mode shapes are nonplanar. If 9 Using the modal analysis and exact solution methods de-
= 0, </>{, and </>, become planar. The whirl speeds of the can- veloped by authors (Jei and Lee, 1991; Lee and Jei, 1988) and
tilever shaft with a tip disk are shown in Fig. 3 when 6 = 45 the perturbation technique developed by Perkins and Mote
deg. As shown in the whirl speed plot of Fig. 3 curve veerings (1986) the existence of the curve veering in the eigenvalue
occur as the loci of each mode approach each other. Similar problem of rotor-bearing systems including the effects of gy-
whirl speed plots were already shown by Dimentberg (1961), roscopic moments and rotary inertia is verified. The criteria
Yamamoto and Ota (1964), and Jei and Lee (1991). The F and of the curve veering is evaluated as rotational speed varies,

## Journal of Vibration and Acoustics JANUARY 1992, Vol. 114/35

and the abrupt changes of the mode shapes during veering are Jei, Y. G., and Lee, C. W., 1989, "Vibrations of Anisotropic Rotor-Bearing
also shown. Systems," Twelfth Biennial ASME Conference on Mechanical Vibration and
Jei, Y. G., and Lee, C. W., 1991, "Modal Analysis of Continuous Asym-
References metrical Rotor-Bearing Systems," Journal of Sound and Vibration, in press.
Chivens, D. R., and Nelson, H. D., 1975, "The Natural Frequencies and Huang, T. C , and Huang, F. C. C , 1967, "On Precession and Critical Speeds
Critical Speeds of a Rotating Flexible Shaft-Disk System," ASME Journal of of Two-Bearing Machines with Overhung Weight," ASME Journal of Engi-
Engineering for Industry, pp. 881-886. neering for Industry, pp. 713-718.
Crandall, S. H., and Yeh, N. A., 1989, "Automatic Generation of Component Lee, C. W., and Jei, Y. G., 1988, "Modal Analysis of Continuous Rotor-
Modes for Rotordynamic Substructures," ASME Journal of Vibration, Acous- Bearing Systems," Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 126, pp. 345-361.
tics, Stress, and Reliability in Design, Vol. I l l , pp. 6-10. Perkins, N. C , and Mote, C. D., Jr., 1986, "Comments on Curve Veering
Dimentberg, F. M., 1961, Flexural Vibration of Rotating Shaft, translated in Eigenvalue Problems," Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 106, pp. 451-
from Russian by Production Engineering Research Association, Butterworths, 463.
London. Yamamoto, T., and Ota, H., 1964, "On the Unstable Vibrations of a Shaft
Jei, Y. G., 1988, "Vibrations of Continuous Asymmetrical Rotor-Bearing Carrying an Unsymmetrical Rotor," ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics, pp.
Systems," Ph.D. Dissertation, KAIST. 515-552.

NCA-Vol. 11/FED-Vol. 130
Flow Noise Modeling, Measurement, and Control
Editors: T. M. Farabee, W. L. Keith, and R. M. Lueptow

Topics discussed: flow noise modeling; the fluid-structure coupling problem for turbulent flows;
measurement techniques utilized in quantifying flow noise characteristics; results of measurements
related to flow noise problems; and turbulent boundary layer control techniques pertinent to flow
noise.

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