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Does Curve Veering Occur in the

Shafting and Rotor Dynamics Laboratory,

Korea Research Institute of Ships and Ocean

Engineering,

Eigenvalue Problem of Rotors?

Dae Duk Science Town, Korea

Recently, Crandall and Yeh {1989) reported an interesting phenomenon in the

Campbell diagram of a single spool machine. In their words, "It is interesting that

Chong-Won Lee . . . the two modes form a coupled system and the curves repel each other avoiding

Professor. an intersection" in the Campbell diagram, which is the so-called curve veering in

Department of Mechanical Engineering, the eigenvalue problem. In this paper, the existence of the curve veering in the

Korea Advanced Institute of Science and eigenvalue problem of general rotor-bearing systems are verified and the criteria of

Technology, the curve veering is evaluated. The abrupt but continuous changes of mode shapes

Dae Duk Science Town, Korea during veering are also illustrated.

1 Introduction

When the eigenvalues are plotted against a system parameter, tinuous anisotropic rotor-bearing system which consists of

the dependence of eigenvalues on the system parameter is il- nonuniform Rayleigh shafts, rigid disks, and discrete aniso-

lustrated by a family of loci. When two loci approach each tropic bearings (Lee and Jei, 1988) or an undamped continuous

other, they often cross (curve crossing) or abruptly diverge asymmetrical rotor-bearing system which consists of nonuni-

(curve veering). Although the name of curve veering in the form asymmetrical Rayleigh shafts, asymmetrical rigid disks,

eigenvalue problem of rotor-bearing systems has not been and discrete isotropic bearing is given as (Jei and Lee, 1991)

found, the curve veering phenomenon was already shown in

L^ r = XrM<>rinT = (0,Q r = 1,2,3, . . .

the literature in the field of rotor dynamics (Chivens and Nel-

son, 1975; Crandall and Yeh, 1989; Dimentberg, 1961; Huang, BA = 0 i=l,2,...,p (1)

1967; Yamamoto and Ota, 1964). In Crandall and Yeh's words where M, L, and B,- represent the homogeneous, linear, dif-

(1989), "It is interesting that when the curve for an even (odd) ferential operators defined in terms of system parameter E

rotor mode approaches the curve for an even (odd) stator such as bearing stiffness and rotational speed, and <jtr denotes

mode, the two modes form a coupled system and the curves the system eigenfunction vector. L is of order 2p while M and

repel each other avoiding an intersection" in the Campbell B; are of order 2p - 1 at most and M is positive definite over

diagram of the natural frequency of a uniform rotor rotating the range of E.

in a uniform stator as function of rotational speed.

Let us define the inner product of two complex state vectors

But since no attention was paid to mode shapes, the signif- a= (!, a2}T and b = [b{, b2}T as

icance of the curve veering could not be noticed. An important

characteristic of the curve veering is that the mode shapes <a, b> = <!,&!>+ <a 2 ,6 2 >

associated with the eigenvalues before veering are interchanged

during veering in a rapid but continuous way. The information = I b\aidx+ I b2a2dx (2)

of mode shapes as well as eigenvalues is important for the

rotor dynamic analysis (Jei, 1988; Jei and Lee, 1989).

where the bar denotes the complex conjugate. The adjoint

In this paper the curve veering in the eigenvalue problem of

eigenvalue problem associated with equation (1) is given by

continuous rotor-bearing systems is verified using the modal

analysis and exact solution methods developed by authors (Jei X.M'^L**, 5=1,2,3,... (3)

and Lee, 1991; Lee and Jei, 1988) and the perturbation tech- where M* and L* are the adjoints of M and L, respectively,

nique developed by Perkins and Mote (1986). As rotational and s is the adjoint eigenfunction vector. M and L are found

speed varies, the criteria of the curve veering are evaluated and to be (Jei and Lee, 1991; Lee and Jei, 1988)

the abrupt but continuous changes in mode shapes during

veering are also illustrated. M * = M r , L* = L 7 (4)

where T denotes transpose. <j>r and Vs may be biorthonor-

2 Curve Veering in the Eigenvalue Problem of Rotor malized so as to satisfy

Systems <M<j>r,%)=5rs

The eigenvalue problem associated with an undamped con- <L*r,*,>=M (5)

where 5re is the Kronecker delta. The small variations in system

lication in the JOURNAL OF VIBRATION AND ACOUSTICS. Manuscript received June parameter E produce small perturbation in the operators L,

1990. M and q (0 < q < p) boundary operators B,. These operators

Downloaded From: http://vibrationacoustics.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/pdfaccess.ashx?url=/data/journals/jvacek/28800/ on 05/29/2017 Terms of Use: http://www.asme.org/a

o

c

01

TO

TO

System Parameter

Fig. 1 Curve veer away, together, with and curve cross in natural fre- Q

quencies (VTveer together, VAveer away, VWveer with, CCcurve Id

cross)

kJ

become L = L 0 + AL, M = M 0 + AM and B ; = B,0 + AB,-,

where AL, AM, and AB, are the perturbation operators with

norms of e where e represents small scale order. To evaluate

the criteria of the curve veering in the eigenvalue problem, J

assume there exist two nearly equal eigenvalues X in the un- (i

perturbed problem. Perkins and Mote (1986) evaluated the H

perturbation solutions up to second order for Xr and X^. I

When the eigenvalues are pure imaginary values, the per-

turbation solutions expanded in Taylor series about E = E0

3

can be rewritten as (Jei, 1988; Perkins and Mote, 1986)

1

cor(e) = a>? + - [DlcAe + - [Li1cr + Dldr}e1-- l&xj(ofi-a)]e

J 2j

28 30 48 50

"s(<0

llc. s,}e. ,+I -[D%

0 + l r [D r n 2 , nD%]e

+ 2-i,J

J 2/

1

l&X^ {<-<#)] (6) SPIN SPEED,c

Fig. 3 Whirl speeds of asymmetrical cantilever shaft with a tip disk (i2

= 0.00033, 5 = 1.4, /31 = 0.7, y] = 0.001667, y\ = 0.00233)

where

cr =(k- \armrr) ,dr = mrr(~ k + \mrr),

xrs= {k- \rmrs) (ksr- \rmsr),mrs= <AM<fc,*?>T ment and rotary inertia, and discussed whirl speed and mode

shape characteristics as rotational speed and boundary con-

* = <AL*?,*?>T+ 2 <AB(*,<*>1,,.Dfc = dVdE*l* bl ditions vary using modal analysis. When the cross couple terms

of supporting bearings disappear, mode shapes become planar

mode shapes (Jei, 1988; Lee and Jei, 1988). When Q = fi0 +

=1,2, . . . Afi, msr and ksr in equation (6) is given by

Note that xrs and xsr measure the coupling of the unperturbed

eigenfunction. When E?xrs, E?xsr are not zero, the loci con- m=AO] / , < , ) - dx

cavities depend strongly on their separation I o>r - <*>s\. When

the real values of Efxrs and I^xsr are both negative (positive),

kxr = 0 (7)

the cor(c) and cos(e) loci veer away (toward) from each other

as they approach. When the real values of E?xrs and E?xsr are where Jp(x) is the polar mass moment of inertia. When the

of opposite sign, the concavities of the av(e) and oj/e) loci are mode shapes in y, z directions, <t>ry and <j>rz, are planar, 4>n is

of the same sign. The loci now veer with each other as they a pure imaginary valued function whereas <j>ry is a real valued

approach. Some examples of the curves that veer away, toward, function. Let <j>rz = j(j>% where <j>% is a real valued function.

and with were shown by Perkins and Mote (1986), and sum- Then the EPx^ in equation (6) is given by

marized in Fig. 1. fd<j)Sy d(j>rz

D>xrs= - (o)?): R, (x)

dx dx

d(j>ry d<j>%

3 Anisotropic Rotor-Bearing System dx (8)

dx dx

Consider an undamped anisotropic rotor-bearing system

consisting of flexible nonuniform Rayleigh shafts, discrete rigid where Kr(= jRr) is determined from biorthonormality con-

disks, and anisotropic bearings. Lee and Jei (1988) derived the ditions. \/Kr is the so-called modal norm. When mode shapes

equations of motion including the effects of gyroscopic mo- are planar, Kr becomes a pure imaginary value. Since D xrs

(b)

Fig. 4 Variations of the 3rd mode shape to the 1st mode shape during

curve veering

and LP'Xsr of equation (8) are both negative, the oir and us loci rigid asymmetrical disks, and isotropic bearings. Since the

veer away from each other as they approach. governing equations of the asymmetrical rotor system in sta-

The curve veering in the whirl natural frequency of an iso- tionary coordinates, S:oxyz, are of periodically varying coef-

tropic rotor-bearing system as rotational speed varies was shown ficients, the equations of motion are conveniently expressed

by Crandall and Yeh (1989). They treated a single spool ma- in rotating coordinates, R:OXYZ, defined relative to S:oxyz

chine with the uniform rotor rotating in the uniform stator by a single rotation Qt about x axis. The equations of motion

supported by isotropic springs. Since the rotor-bearing system including the effects of gyroscopic moments and rotary inertia

is symmetric about the midplane, the whirling modes can be are given in Jei (1988) and Jei and Lee (1991). When the mode

divided into two families: even and odd modes; i.e., modes shapes in y, z directions, 4>ry and 4>rz, are planar, <f>rz( = j<f>fz)

symmetrical and antisymmetrical about the midplane. They is a pure imaginary valued function whereas <j>ry is a real valued

reported that "It is interesting that when the curve for an odd function. When 0 = Q0 + AQ, the mrs and krs in equation (6)

(even) rotor mode approaches the curve for an even (odd) stator are given by

mode, there is no coupling between the modes and curve in-

tersect, each oblivious to the presence of the other. On the

other hand when the curve for an even (odd) rotor mode mrs = AURr 2pA(<j>sy<t>fz + 4>fz<j>ry)dX

approaches the curve for an even (odd) stator mode, the two

modes form a coupled system and the curves repel each other

avoiding an intersection." The reason can be explained by

equation (8). Between even and odd modes the integration of

equation (8) is zero. Therefore this is no coupling between the

\'A

)0pI[dX

3</> d<t>ry , d(j>sy 3<f>fz

dX +

dX dX

i

modes. But between even (odd) and even (odd) modes, the krs=j(AQ2 + 2QoAQ)Rr pA (4>sy<l>ry + <t>sz<t>rz)dX

integration of equation (8) is positive, and the curve veering

between the modes occurs. When the bearing stiffness varies,

the occurrence of curve veering has also been demonstrated in d<t>sy d<f>ry

(Ph- Ply)

y ~B -B dX

Jei (1988). ' dX dX

d<t>sz d^rz

4 Asymmetrical Rotor-Bearing Systems (Plx-Plz) dX

dX dX

Consider an undamped asymmetrical rotor-bearing system

consisting of flexible nonuniform asymmetrical Rayleigh shafts, JKrs (9)

(b)

(*)

Fig. 5 Variations of the 1st mode shape to the 3rd mode shape during

curve veering

where pA (X) is the mass per unit length, plx (X), ply (X), and B in Fig. 3 implicitly indicate forward and backward precession

pIz(X) the mass moments of inertia about X, Y, and Z axes, resonances, respectively. The mode shape changes during the

respectively, and pl0 = plx - ply plz. When mode shapes veering near the region C are shown in Figs. 4 and 5. Along

are planar, Kr( = jRr) becomes a pure imaginary value (Jei, the arrow a around the region C of Fig. 3 the 3rd mode shapes

1988; Jei and Lee, 1991). Therefore, as shown in equation (9), abruptly change to the 1st mode shape as shown in Figs. 4(a)-

mrs and kfs( = kfr) are real constants. Therefore the coupling 4(d), and along the arrow b the 1st mode shape abruptly

factor xrs in equation (6) is given by changes to the 3rd mode shapes as shown in Figs. 5(a)-5(d),

respectively. As shown in Figs. 4 and 5, the mode shapes

xa= - (k?s-oormrs) d-u0rm) (10) abruptly but continuously change. As discussed in Jei and Lee

Since I$xsr is negative, wr and us loci veer away from each (1991) and Jei (1988), once a solution of asymmetrical rotor

other as they approach. systems, o>, found, - o> become another solution, that is, com-

Consider the asymmetrical cantilever shaft with an asym- plex conjugate relations. And the mode shapes associated with

metrical tip disk as shown in Fig. 2. For convenience let us a> and - o) should be a complex conjugate pair. Therefore near

introduce the nondimensional variables, 5( = Iz/Iy, shaft asym- the regionsBu B2, andB3, i.e., so-called major unstable regions

metry), (= Y/), ij(= Z/l), Yf, 7,, and -y^, (nondimensional which are bounded by major critical speeds, the mode shapes

mass moment of inertia of tip disk). When the principal axes do not severely change although curve veering occurs.

of the asymmetrical tip disk are not coincident with the prin-

cipal axes of the asymmetrical shaft, that is, the relative ori-

entation angle between the principal axes of the shaft and the 5 Conclusions

tip disk, 6, is not zero, the mode shapes are nonplanar. If 9 Using the modal analysis and exact solution methods de-

= 0, </>{, and </>, become planar. The whirl speeds of the can- veloped by authors (Jei and Lee, 1991; Lee and Jei, 1988) and

tilever shaft with a tip disk are shown in Fig. 3 when 6 = 45 the perturbation technique developed by Perkins and Mote

deg. As shown in the whirl speed plot of Fig. 3 curve veerings (1986) the existence of the curve veering in the eigenvalue

occur as the loci of each mode approach each other. Similar problem of rotor-bearing systems including the effects of gy-

whirl speed plots were already shown by Dimentberg (1961), roscopic moments and rotary inertia is verified. The criteria

Yamamoto and Ota (1964), and Jei and Lee (1991). The F and of the curve veering is evaluated as rotational speed varies,

and the abrupt changes of the mode shapes during veering are Jei, Y. G., and Lee, C. W., 1989, "Vibrations of Anisotropic Rotor-Bearing

also shown. Systems," Twelfth Biennial ASME Conference on Mechanical Vibration and

Noise, Montreal, Canada.

Jei, Y. G., and Lee, C. W., 1991, "Modal Analysis of Continuous Asym-

References metrical Rotor-Bearing Systems," Journal of Sound and Vibration, in press.

Chivens, D. R., and Nelson, H. D., 1975, "The Natural Frequencies and Huang, T. C , and Huang, F. C. C , 1967, "On Precession and Critical Speeds

Critical Speeds of a Rotating Flexible Shaft-Disk System," ASME Journal of of Two-Bearing Machines with Overhung Weight," ASME Journal of Engi-

Engineering for Industry, pp. 881-886. neering for Industry, pp. 713-718.

Crandall, S. H., and Yeh, N. A., 1989, "Automatic Generation of Component Lee, C. W., and Jei, Y. G., 1988, "Modal Analysis of Continuous Rotor-

Modes for Rotordynamic Substructures," ASME Journal of Vibration, Acous- Bearing Systems," Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 126, pp. 345-361.

tics, Stress, and Reliability in Design, Vol. I l l , pp. 6-10. Perkins, N. C , and Mote, C. D., Jr., 1986, "Comments on Curve Veering

Dimentberg, F. M., 1961, Flexural Vibration of Rotating Shaft, translated in Eigenvalue Problems," Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 106, pp. 451-

from Russian by Production Engineering Research Association, Butterworths, 463.

London. Yamamoto, T., and Ota, H., 1964, "On the Unstable Vibrations of a Shaft

Jei, Y. G., 1988, "Vibrations of Continuous Asymmetrical Rotor-Bearing Carrying an Unsymmetrical Rotor," ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics, pp.

Systems," Ph.D. Dissertation, KAIST. 515-552.

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