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UniTest



2008
621.372.061
31.2
-75
:
. . , . . , . . , . . , . . ,
. . , . . , . .
-
-
"", 2007 .

:
;
- -

-75 . 1.0 [ ] : /
. . , . . , . . . . . (8 ).
: , 2008. ( : 56-2007 /
. . . . ). 1 . . (DVD). -
. : Intel Pentium ( -
) 1 ; 512 ; 8 -
; DVD ; Microsoft Windows 2000 SP 4 /
XP SP 2 / Vista (32 ) ; Adobe Reader 7.0 ( -
pdf).
ISBN 978-5-7638-1528-3 ()
ISBN 978-5-7638-1378-4 ( )
. 0320802741
22.12.2008 . ()
- -
, , ,
, , -
. , -
. .
: ; - (-
) ; ;
; k
m, ; ; -
.
210300.62 -
210000 , .

, 2008

. .
:
- ;

. -
. , , -
.

. 01.10.2008
8
: , 660041, , . , 79

............................................................... 10
1. ,

...................................... 11
. .................................................................................................... 11
. ................................................................................. 13

. .................................................................. 19
................................................................................................ 25
2. .
........................................... 26
. ........................................................................................ 26
. ...................................................................................................................... 27
. ................................................................. 28
................................................................................................ 30
3.
................. 31
. ............................. 31
. .............................................................................................. 32
. ......................................................................................................... 34
. ...................................................................................... 35
. ........................................................................... 38
................................................................................................ 41
4.
.............. 42
. ......................................................................................... 42
() . . 43
................................................................................................ 44
5. ... 45
. 45
. .......................................... 49
................................................................................................ 54
6.
......................................... 55
RLC. ............................. 55
RLC. ..................................... 58
................................................................................................ 60

 . -3-

7.
...................................... 61
. ................................................................................................ 61
. ..................................................................................................... 62
. ................................................................................................. 63
. ........................................................................................................ 64
.
. .......................................................................... 65
................................................................................................ 68
8.
() .......................................... 69
. . ................. 70
. .................................... 72
. ...... 74
. ................... 79
................................................. 80
........................................... 81

. ........................................................ 83
................................................................................................ 84
9.
.................................... 85

. ............................................................................................. 88
. .................... 90
. ...................... 90

. .............................................................. 91
................................................................................................ 93
10.
................................................................ 94
. .................................................. 94
. .............................................................. 96
................................................................................................ 98
11. .
.......................................... 99
. ................................................................................................................... 99
. .................................................................................................. 100
. ........................................... 102
. ....................................................... 104
.............................................................................................. 105

 . -4-

12.
...................................... 106
. ...................................................................................... 106
. ..................................................................................... 107
. ........................................................................................ 107
........................................................................................ 108
. ....................................................................................................... 108
. .................................. 109
.............................................................................................. 110
13.
...................................... 111
. ........................................................... 115
. ..................................................... 116
.............................................................................................. 119
14.
...................................... 120
. .......................................................................... 120
. .................................................................... 120
. .............................................................. 121
. ...................................................... 125
.............................................................................................. 127
15. ()
................. 128
. ........................................... 133
. ....................................................... 136
.............................................................................................. 138
16.

....................................... 139
. .............. 139
. ................................................................. 141
.............................................................................................. 142
17. . 143
. ....................................................... 143
. ....................................... 145
................................................. 146
- . .............. 147
- . .............. 148
. ................................................................................... 149
.............................................................................................. 152

 . -5-

18. ............... 153


. .......................................................... 153
. ..................................................................... 154
RL-. .......................................................................... 157
RL- . ................................................. 158
RL-. .................................................................................. 160
RL- . ........................................... 161
.............................................................................................. 164
19.
RC- ............................................................ 165
RC- . ................................................. 165
.......................................................................... 168
RC- . ........................................... 169
.............................................................................................. 171
20.
RLC .......................................................... 172
RLC- . ............................................... 173
RLC . ......................................... 180
.............................................................................................. 189
21.

...................................................................... 190
. ............................................... 190

. ............................................................................. 193
.............................................................................................. 200
22.
................................ 201
. ......................................................................................... 201
. ....................................................................... 203
. .................................................... 203
. .............................................................. 209
. .................................................. 210
. ....................................... 213
.............................................................................................. 219
23.

................................. 220
. .................................. 220

 . -6-

. ..................................................................................................... 221
. ......................................... 227
. .................................................................................................. 230
.............................. 231
. ......................................... 232
.............................................................................................. 236
24.
.............................................. 237
. .......................................................... 237
. .......................................................... 239
............................................................ 240
.............................................................................................. 243
25. ............ 244
.
. ....................................................... 247
k. .......................................................................................................... 253
. ........................................................................................... 253
. ........................................................... 258
.............................................................................................. 264
26. ......... 265
. ........................................................................... 265
. ............................................................................. 267
.............................................................................................. 268
27. ................... 269
...................................................... 269
. ............................................. 270
. .......................................................................................... 274
.............................................................................................. 277
28. m ........................... 278
m. ............................................................................. 283
m. ............................................................................ 288
m..................................................... 291
.............................................................................................. 293
29. ..... 294
RC- . .................................................................................... 294
RC- . ................................................................................... 295
RC-........................................................................................... 296
RC-. ................................................................................... 298
.............................................................................................. 299
30.
...................................................... 300

 . -7-

. ................................................................................................. 300
. .............................................................. 302
.............................................................................................. 305
31. .................. 306
. ....................................... 306
() . .................................... 310
.............................................................................................. 313
32. .................. 314
. .................................................................................................... 314
. .......................................................................................... 320
, . ........................................... 323
.............................................................................................. 327
33. ........... 328
. ................................................................................................ 333
. .......................................... 335
.............................................................................................. 337
34.
........................................... 338
. .............................................. 338
. ............................................... 338
.............................................................................................. 344
35.
................................................. 345

. ........................................................................................................ 347
......................... 349
. .......................................... 352
.............................................................................................. 355
36.
............................................ 356
. ................................................... 357
. ................................................................................ 360
.... 363
.............................................................................................. 372
37. ........... 373
. ............ 373
LC--. ................... 378
.............................................................................................. 388
38.
RC- ..................... 389

 . -8-

RC-. ............................................. 389


RC-. ....................... 391
RL-...................... 394
.............................................................................................. 397
39. RLC- ... 398
. . .................... 398
RLC-. ....................................................... 403
.............................................................................................. 409
40. .... 410
. ................................... 410
Z- . ..................................................... 411
K12XX. .............................................................................. 413
...................................................................................... 414
. ........................................ 415
.............................................................................................. 421
41.
........................... 422
RC-. ................................................................................................. 422
LC-. ................................................................................................. 430
. .............. 434
.............................................................................................. 436
42.
................................... 437
R2 (. 42.2). .................................. 438
,
(. 42.4). ............................................................ 441

(. 42.6). ............................................................. 443
........................................................ 451
........................ 452

 . -9-

, -
, -
,
().
, ,
-
. -
,
-
.
-
, -

, . -
, -
.
:
;
() ;
;
-
;
k m, -
;
;
-
.
-
.

.

.

 . -10-
1.
,

. ( -
).
.

.
, -
-
. (-
) .
, ()
. (-
, , , ,
. .), (,
, , , - .) -
. ,
.
, ()
(,
, . .). -
, .
.
-
, -
. -
, -
, ,
. ,

.
. -
: -
. -
, . , , -
, , -
.
, -
. -

 . -11-
1. ,

(
)

q dq
i = lim = ,
t 0 t dt

dq , dt .
().
dq -
dw = u dq. u
( )
. , -
-
. -
().
-
.
. -
-

, (. 1.1).
i

U
U
U = U

. 1.1


. ,
, ,
. -
-
.
U -
q,
: dw = u dq = ui dt.
, ,
, . . ,

 . -12-
1. ,

.
.
,
,

dw dq
p= =u = ui
dt dt

.
, t1 t2,

t2
W = p dt .
t1

(),
().

.
.
,
( , ,
.), . . -
.
. 1.2.
i
R

U
. 1.2

, , -

u = Ri i = Gu .
R G -
, G = 1/R.
(), ().
, ,
PR = ui = Ri 2 = Gu 2 .
,
t1 t2, :

 . -13-
1. ,

t2 t2 t2
WR = p dt = Ri dt = Gu 2 dt .
2

t1 t1 t1

i
0
. 1.3

, , -
- () -
. R , (. 1.3, ). R -
,
(. 1.3, )
.
, -
, .
-
, .
. 1.4.

L
i

. 1.4

(. 1.5, ), -
, S, i, -

= B ds ,
S

 . -14-
1. ,

B S.
(), ().
:


B ds
L= = S
,
i i

. . , -
.
().
n (. 1.5, ),
()
= n ,

, .

S
i
S
i

'
'

'
n
'

. 1.5

 . -15-
1. ,

. 1.6

n
L = .
i

(. 1.6, ), , .

, -
d
L = , -
dt

.
di
, u L = L = L -
dt
( ) .
,
t
1
iL (t ) = u L dt ,
L

. . , uL (. 1.7).

di
: pL = u Li = Li .
dt
,
t,
t t
Li 2
WL = pL dt = Lidi =
2
.
0

, t 0 .

 . -16-
1. ,

i UL

t t
t1 t2 t3 t4 t1 t2 t3 t4

. 1.7

, L1, -
L2, , -
.


M = 12 = 21 .
i2 i1
,

d12 di
e1M = = M 2 ;
dt dt

d 21 di
e2 M = = M 1 .
dt dt
,
, .
().
,
. -
. 1.8.

UC

i
C

. 1.8

 . -17-
1. ,

(. 1.9, ) -
+q,
.
E -
D

= Dds = q .
E -
U .

q
C= .
u

, , -
.
-
, . . (. 1.9, ).

, -

dq du
i = =C C .
dt dt


. 1.9

 . -18-
1. ,

, -
. E
d
. = iCM .
dt
,
i = iCM = i .
,
.
t
1
uC = idt .
C
0
1
t = 0 uC (0) = idt .
C
t
1
, uC (t ) = uC (0) + idt .
C0
pC
du
: pC = uC i = CuC C .
dt
,
t,
t uC
CuC2
WC = pC dt = CuC duC = 2
.
0

, t =
uC( ).


.
R, L, C , -
, , -
. ,
.

u
R= = ,
i S

 . -19-
1. ,

; ; S
.
-
, , , . -
.
, ,
, , -
. .

.
,

.
-
, ,
(. 1.10, ) -
.

, .
, . .
. , -
, . 1.10, .
, -
(. 1.10, ).
, -
.
. , -
, . ,
,
,
.

L r
r L r

. 1.10

 . -20-
1. ,

. 1.11

,
.

(. 1.11).

. ,
, ,
.
. 1.12, .


. 1.12


+ . ,
(+q) -
+, () -
.
wC
= lim ,
q 0 q

wC , q.

 . -21-
1. ,

, e(t), ,
e(t).
,
(. . -
).
, -
(. 1.12, ). -
-
. 1.13.


U =

0
U
I =
Ri

. 1.13

Ri


. 1.14

 . -22-
1. ,

, ,
.
, , -
, -
. . 1.14, .
,
, , ,
, , .
-
(. 1.14, ).


U = IRi

0
I = I

. 1.15

-
. 1.15.
, ,
-
.
, -

.
-
() , . . , -
, ,
.

 . -23-
1. ,


. (1 1')
(. 1.16, ),
(. 1.16, ), (2 2') -
. ,
(. 1.16, , ).
, , -
, , , , -
. : -
, (); , -
(); , (); -
, ().
I1
1 2 1 2

U1 HUU1 U2 HZI1 U2

1' 2' 1' 2'


I2 I1 I2
1 2 1 2

U1 HYU1 HiI1

1' 2' 1' 2'



. 1.16

(. 1.16, ) ,
I1 = 0,
U2 = HUU1, HU .
.
(. 1.16, ) I1 -
U2, : U1 = 0, U2 = HZI1, HZ
.
(. 1.16, ) I2 -
U1, I1 = 0 I2 U1 I2 = HYU1, HY -
.

 . -24-
1. ,

(. 1.16, ) I1,
I2 U1 = 0, I2 = Hi I1, Hi .
.

1. ?
2. ?
3. - () ?
4. ?
5. ?
6. ?

 . -25-
2. .

. . -
.

-
(. 2.1), (R, L, C)
(e, i) . , -
, , , .
,
. -
, .
.
, .
,
.

L1 R3

C1
R2
e2
R4 L3

R1

L2 C2 L4
R5 i1
e1

. 2.1

: C1 R1 e1, g L1 R3 e2, ab R2, bd R4, dg L3 . .


: , b, c, d, g.
: 1) a b c a, 2) a b d g a, 3) b d g c b . .
, -
, -
, -

 . -26-
2. .

. -
.

(), -
, .
-
( ).

.
,
- () ().
; -
, . ,
. 2.1, . 2.2, .
, -
(. 2.2, ).
, (. 2.2, ).
-
,
. .


. 2.2

. 2.3

 . -27-
2. .

, -
( ). . 2.3 -
(. 2.1).
, .
, -
, n = n 1.
, ( ), nBC = nB n =
= nB n + 1, nB , n .
.
,
, .
1. . R -
( ),
i R
U = R i.
2. . -
, , -

WR = U I t,

WR = 0,24U i t.
3. . , -
(. 2.4), .

i2
i3

i1

i4

i5

. 2.4

 . -28-
2. .

( , , , .)
, -
.

n
i1 + i2 i3 + i4 i5 = 0 ik = 0 ,
k =1

k , .
, -
.
-
, ,
,
.
4. . -

, :

n m
U k = e p .
k =1 p =1


. -
, dq,
dq -
, .

U2 e2

U1
U4

e1

e3 U3

. 2.5

 . -29-
2. .

(+),
( -
), (), . , (. 2.5)

U1 U2 U3 + U4 = e1 e2 e3.

,
, ,
:
n m
Rk ik = e p .
k =1 p =1

, ,
,

n
dik 1 m
k k k dt C k = e p .
R i + L + i dt
k =1 k p =1

1. ?
2. ?
3. ( )?
4. ?
5. ?

 . -30-
3.

.
. . .
.

.

,

.
, p q , -
, . -
.
q 1 -
. q- ,
, -
.
p q + 1
(
).
,
, .
1. (. 3.1) .

( , -
- () ().
I1
I1 E1

R1
I2
I2 E2 I5
b
a c
R2 R5
I3 I4
R4 I6 R6
I3 E3

R3 d
. 3.1

 . -31-
3.

,
(. 3.2).

a b
c

d
. 3.2

(-
. 3.2) .
(. 3.1),
( ):

I1 I 2 I 2 I 1 I 2 I 3 = 0 ;
I 2 + I 2 I 4 I 5 = 0 b;

I1 + I 1 + I 5 I 6 = 0 c;

E1 E2 = R1I1 R5 I 5 R2 I 2 I;
E2 E3 = R2 I 2 + R4 I 4 R3 I 3 II;

0 = R5 I 5 R4 I 4 + R6 I 6 III.

, ,
, .
(), -
.

.

,
.
.
, . . -
,
.

 . -32-
3.

E1

R1 I1
I11
E2 I2
b I5
a c
R2 R5
I22 R4
I6
E3 I4 I33 R6
R3 I3 d

. 3.3

(. 3.3) :

E1 E2 = ( R1 + R5 + R2 ) I11 R2 I 22 R5 I 33 I;

E2 E3 = R2 I11 + ( R4 + R2 + R3 ) I 22 R4 I 33 II;
0 = R5 I11 R4 I 22 + ( R6 + R4 + R5 ) I 33 III.

,

I1 = I11 , I 2 = I 22 I11 , I 3 = I 22 , I 4 = I 22 I 33 ,
I 5 = I 33 I11 , I 6 = I 33.

,
,
, , -
.
n- n :

E11 = R11I11 + R12 I 22 + ... + R1n I nn ;


E = R I + R I + ... + R I ;
22 21 11 22 22 2 n nn


Enn = Rn1I11 + Rn 2 I 22 + ... + Rnn I nn ,

R11, R22, ..., Rnn ;


Rik, ..., Rki i- k- .
E11, E22, ..., Enn ,
.

 . -33-
3.



1 n
I kk = Eii ik ,
i =1

R11 R12 ... R1n


R21 R22 ... R2 n
= ,

Rn1 Rn 2 ... Rnn

ik Rik,
k- i- -
(1)(i + k).

1
I11 = [ E1111 + E22 21 + ... + Enn n1 ],

1
I 22 = [ E1112 + E22 22 + ... + Enn n 2 ] ,


1
I nn = [ E111n + E22 2n + ... + Enn nn ].

k- , -
, , k-
. k- -
, :

1 n
I kk = Eii ik =E11 1k + E22 2 k + ... + Enn nk .
i =1

 . -34-
3.

,

k- . , E11 1k -

k- , E11. -
, -
.
, k- , -
, , -
, . -
.
, -
.
: ,
, , -
.
.
, -
.
-
, -
, -
, -
.

-
, -
.
, -
. , -
, -
( ).
, -
, . . -
. -
,
.

 . -35-
3.

( )
, -
, .
(. 3.4), 1.

I1

R1 I1
I2
I5
R2 b
a c
Ua I2 I4 Ub R5 Uc
I3 R4 I6 R6
R3
d
I3
. 3.4

a, b, ,
,

I 1 I 2 I 3 I1 I 2 I 3 = 0 ;

I 2 I5 I 4 + I 2 = 0 b;
I 1 + I1 + I 5 I 6 = 0 c,

I1, I2, I3 .
, ,
Ua Uc U a Ub Ua Ub
I1 = , I2 = , I3 = , I4 = ,
R1 R2 R3 R4
Ub Uc U
I5 = , I6 = c .
R5 R6

, :

I 1 I 2 I 3 g1 (U a U c ) g 2 (U a U b ) g3U a = 0;

I 2 g5 (U b U c ) g 4U b + g 2 (U a U b ) = 0;

I 1 + g1 (U a U c ) + g5 (U b U c ) g 6U c = 0;

gk = 1/Rk.

 . -36-
3.

( g1 + g 2 + g3 )U a g 2U b g1U c = I 1 I 2 I 3 ;

g 2U a + ( g 2 + g 4 + g5 )U b g5U c = I 2 ;

g1U a g5U b + ( g1 + g5 + g 6 )U c = I 1.

, , -
, , -
, ,
, .
, -
.
, q :

I11 = g11U1 + g12U 2 + ... + g1,q 1U q 1 ;



I 22 = g 21U1 + g 22U 2 + ... + g 2,q 1U q 1 ;


I
q 1,q 1 = g q1,1U1 + g q 1,2U 2 + ... + g q 1,q 1U q 1.

I11, I22, ..., Iq 1,q 1 ,


; gii i- ; gik
i- k- , ()
.
, :

1 q 1
U k = I ii ik ,
i =1

g11 g12 ... g1,q1


g 21 g 22 ... g 2,q 1
= ,

g q 1,1 g q 1,2 ... g q 1,q 1

ik gik,
k- i- -
( 1)(1 + k).

 . -37-
3.

:
1
U1 = I1111 + I 22 21 + ... + I q 1,q 1 q 1,1 ,

1
U 2 = I1112 + I 22 22 + ... + I q 1,q 1 q 1,2 ,


1
U q 1 = I111n + I 22 2 n + ... + I q 1,q 1 q 1,q 1 .

, -
,
, . . ,
, -
.

, . . . -
, -
.

, -
, .
-
(. 3.5). -
, , -
.
: -
.
.
, -
, , -
,
, ,
,
.

 . -38-
3.


.
(. 3.5, ).
,
R E1 E2,
(. 3.5, ) , , -
, .

: I = I1 + I2 (. 3.5, ). I1 -
E1. , I1 = 0,
. . .

I I E1 E2

R R


I1 E1 I2 E2

R R


I2 E2 = U Ri


. 3.5

I2 (. 3.5, ), E2
( -
), -

E2 U
I2 = I = = XX ,
Ri + R Ri + R

 . -39-
3.

Ri ,
-
. , -
-
(. 3.5, ).
(. 3.5, ) , -
E
I = .
Ri
,
-
U
Ri = XX .
I
-
,
.

,
(. 3.6).

Ri I I

R U I Ii Ri R U


. 3.6

(. 3.6, )

E = RIi + U U = E RiI.

(. 3.6, )

U = RI = RiIi = Ri (I I) = RiI RiI.

, E RiI = RiI RiI E = RiI.


E
I = , . . , -
Ri
.

 . -40-
3.

. -
,
, ,
, -
, , -
, .
-
:

E
I = = I = GiU XX ,
Ri

G = 1/Ri .
I Ri

U RRi 1 Ri
I= = I = I .
R R + Ri R R + Ri

1. ,
?
2.
?
3.
?
4. ?
5. ?

 . -41-
4.

. () -
.
.
,

u = Umcos(t + )

u = Umsin(t + ).
.
. 4.1 Um ( )
= 1/f, f .
= t + -
, . -
, -
.
f;
2f.
, . .
d 2
= , (/). = 2f = .
dt T

Umcos

. 4.1

 . -42-
4.

t = 0 -

u(0) = Umcos.

()
.

T
1
FCP = f (t )dt .
T0


, ,
f(t) ,
-
.
.
u = Umcos
T
4 T
2 2U 2
U CP =
T T U m cos tdt = T m sin t 4T = U m 0,637U m .
4
4

()

T
1
F=
T0 [ f (t )]2 dt .

, F2
[f(t)]2 , . . -
, , [f(t)]2
.
i = Imcost

 . -43-
4.
()

T T T
1 1 2 I m2 I

2 2
I= [i (t )] dt = I m cos tdt = (1 + cos 2t )dt = m .
T0 T0 2T 0 2

, , -
,
T T T
T
W = Pdt = uidt = Ri 2 dt =RI m2 .
0 0 0
2


2
W = RI const T.

,
T I
RI m2 = RI const
2
T , I = I const = m , . . -
2 2
-
, , R
, , i.

1. ?
2. ?
3. ()
?

 . -44-
5.

-
. (
, ).


.
-
,
.
, -
,
. -
.
-
U m
(. 5.1)
.

Im

u(t) = Umsin(t + )
t2
t1

Re
t2 t1 0 0
0

t1
t2

u(t) = Umcos(t + )

. 5.1

 . -45-
5.

-
,

U(t) = Umcos(t + ),

U(t) = Umsin(t + ).

-
:

U m = ReU m + j ImU m , j = 1 ;

U m =| U m | e j , U m ; ;

U m =| U m | cos + j | U m | sin .

( ReU m ) + ( ImU m ) ( ReU m ) + ( ImU m )


2 2 2 2
| U m |= | U m |= ,
ImU m
= arctg .
ReU m
U m
= t + .
, ,

U ( t ) = U m e j e j t ;

U ( t ) = U m cos ( t + ) + j U m sin ( t + ) .

, -

(. 5.2).

 . -46-
5.

Im Im
u(t) = jUmsin(t + )
jt jt
u(t) = Umcos(t + ) jt


Re 0 Re


jt jt

. 5.2

e j ( t + ) + e (
j t + )
u ( t ) = U m cos ( t + ) = U m
2

*
U m j t U m j t
u (t ) = e + e ,
2 2
*
U m = U me j , U m = U me j - .

e j ( t + ) e j ( t + )
u (t ) = U m sin(t + ) = U m
2j

*

1 U m jt U m jt
u (t ) = e e .
j 2 2

(
(. 5.2) , , ,
,
.
, -
, -
-, -

 . -47-
5.

-
.
I

. 5.3

-
,
t = 0.
. 5.3
.
,
, .
U I
:

U
Z BX = .
I

, ,

1 I
YBX = = .
Z BX U

U m j( U i )
, U m = U me jU I m = I me ji , Z BX = e .
Im
Um
(); U i
Im
.
, -
, -
:

Z BX =| Z BX | e j ,

 . -48-
5.

Z BX = RBX + jX BX ,
R ;
X ;

Z BX = Z BX cos + j Z BX sin .
,
2 2 X BX
Z BX = RBX + X BX , = arctg .
RBX

.
.
R,

U U
I = , I = I me ji = m e jU ,
R R

Um
. . I m = ,
R
= U i.
(. 5.4) -
; Z BX = RBX = R, X BX = 0 , YBX = 1/ R .

Im

U = i
Re
0
. 5.4

u ( t ) = U m cos ( t + U ) ,
U
i = m cos ( t + U ) .
R
, ,

 . -49-
5.

PR = ui = U m I m cos 2 ( t + ) = UI 1 + cos 2 ( t + ) ,

. . PR (. 5.5).

. 5.5


T T
1 1 U I
PA = PR dt = m m 1 + cos 2 ( t + ) dt = UI = RI 2 .
T0 T0 2

.
U I
( U = m I = m .)
2 2

. -
,
di
UL = L .
dt
,

 . -50-
5.

UL = L
(
d I me ji e jt ) = jLI me ji e jt = U me jU e jt ,
dt

j i
j i + j


U Lm = jLI me = LI me 2
, j = e 2 = cos + j sin .
2 2

,
ULm = LIm = XLIm,

1
XL = L , bL = -
L
.

, . . = U i =
2

(. 5.6).
2

Im


2
U
i
Re
0

. 5.6


U I m e j i j
Z BX = = j L j i
= j L = L e 2 = jX ,
L
I I me

.
i(t) = Imcos(t + ).

di
uL = L = LI m sin ( t + ) = U m cos t + + .
dt 2

 . -51-
5.

, , :

PL = ui = U m I m sin ( t + ) cos ( t + ) =
U m Im
= 2sin ( t + ) cos ( t + ) = UI sin 2 ( t + ) .
2

. 5.7

Li 2 LI m2 LI 2
WL = = cos ( t + ) =
2
1 + cos 2 ( t + ) ,
2 2 2

. . ,
(. 5.7), -
, , ,
.

 . -52-
5.

. -

dU
iC = C .
dt
,

IC = C
(
d U me jU e jt ) = CU m e jU j e jt = I m e ji e jt ,
dt

j U +
ji jU
I = I me = jCU me = CU me 2
.
,

Um
I m = CU m = bCU m = ,
XC

1
bC = C , X C = .
C

= U i = ,
2
. . /2 (. 5.8).

Im


2
i
U
Re
0

. 5.8

,


U U me jU 1 1 1 - j2
Z BX = = = = j = e ,
I jCU me jU j C C C

 . -53-
5.

1
XC = .
C
,


P = ui = U m I m cos ( t + ) cos t + + = UI sin 2 ( t + ) .
2

CU 2 CU m2 CU 2
WC = = cos ( t + ) =
2
1 + cos 2 ( t + ) .
2 2 2

, -
, ,
, .

1. -
?
2. -
?
3. -
?
4. ?

 . -54-
6.

RLC. -
RLC.

RLC.


. -

( ) ( ) ( )
i1 ( t ) = Re I m1e jt , i2 ( t ) = Re I m 2e jt , ... , in ( t ) = Re I mne jt ,

n
Re ( I mk e jt ) = 0 .
k =0
-
,
n
Re I mk e jt = 0 .
k =0
,
t = 0.
n
I mk = 0 .
k =0

, .
, -
,
.
(. 6.1)

di 1
e ( t ) = Ri + L
dt C
+ idt .

 . -55-
6.
RLC

. 6.1

E = Eme jt , I = I me jt ,
Em I m .

( )
Re( Eme jt ) = R Re I me jt + L
d
dt
( ) 1
( )
Re I me jt + Re I me jt dt .
C
-
-
, :


( ) d 1
Re Eme jt = Re RI me jt + L I me jt + I me jt dt .
dt C

:


( )
Re Eme jt = Re RI me jt + jLI m e jt +

1
jC
I m e j t .

eit, -
1
Em = RI m + jLI m + I m , -
j C
,
Em = U Rm + U Lm + U Cm .

:
1
Em = R + jL + I m = ZI m ,
j C

Z .

 . -56-
6.
RLC


.


n n
Z k I k = Ek ,
k =1 k =1

Z k I k
k- , Ek k- .

RLC- (. 6.2).
. 6.2 :
1 1
U R = RI , U L = jLI , U C = I =j I.
j C C
1 1 X
L > X = L > 0, = arctg > 0 , -
C C R
-
, ,
(. 6.2, ).
1 1 X
L < X = L < 0, = arctg < 0 , -
C C R
,
(. 6.2, ).

Im >0 Im <0

2

2
0
0


0 Re 0 Re

. 6.2

 . -57-
6.
RLC

Im Im

U p = U L + UC

>0 >0
0 0
Re <0 Re
Ua =


. 6.3

,
, (-
(. 6.3, ).
-
> 0 (. 6.3, )
X < 0 (. 6.3, ).

RLC.


R, L, C (. 6.4) :
U U
I = I R + I L + IC = + + jCU = YU .
R jL

. 6.4

I R U ; -

I L ; I C -
2

.
2

 . -58-
6.
RLC

1
Y = g j C = g jb -
L
; g = 1/R ; b
.
I = YU .
RLC-
(. 6.5).
1
L < -
C
I U (. 6.5, ).
1
L >
C
I U (. 6.5, ).

Im
Im


2

2
< 0
>0



Re Re
0 0

. 6.5

Im
Im Im
<0
Re Re
0 >0 0 >0 0 Re


. 6.6

I A = I R ,
I P = I L + I C I (. 6.6, ).

 . -59-
6.
RLC

,
1
; L <
C
1
(. 6.6, ) (. 6.6, ) L > .
C

1. ?
2.
?
3.
?

 . -60-
7.

. . .
. -
. .

RX (. 7.1), -
.

. 7.1

u = Umcos t ( = 0)
i = Imcos (t ).

, P = ui = U m I mcost cos ( t ) =
U I
= m m cos + cos ( 2t ) : -
2
U I U I
m m cos m m cos ( 2t ) , -
2 2
.
. 7.2 , -
.

 . -61-
7.

cos
0

. 7.2

, . 7.2,
, -
(. 5.7), , , . 5.7, , -
, -
. ,
R, , -
(. 5.5).
-
X, .


P = ui = U m I m cos t [ cos t cos + sin t sin ] =
UmIm U I
= cos (1 + cos 2t ) + m m sin sin 2t.
2 2
, -
, . . , -
.

.

,
T
1 U I
PA = uidt = m m cos = UI cos .
T0 2

 . -62-
7.

, ,
PA = UI = RI2, PA < UI.
,
, cos ,
. , cos ,

.

-

U I
Q = m m sin = UI sin .
2
Q . Q > 0,
; Q < 0,
.
U I
, Q = m m = UI ,
2
U m Im
Q < .
2
X I I m2 X
sin = = X , Q = = I2X .
Z U 2
- ().
, ,

2 LI m2
QL = UI sin = LI = = WL max ,
2 2

WL max ,
.
, ,

2 CU m2
QC = UI sin = CU = = WC max ,
2 2

WC max ,
.
, ,
Q = (WL max WC max).

 . -63-
7.

,
S = UI,
- ().
PA = UIcos = Scos, Q = UIsin = Ssin, ,
S = PA2 + Q 2 ;
2

Q
tg = .
PA

-
,
.
Z
U m = U me jU -
I m = I me ji .

U m = U me jU , -
*
I m = I me ji .
,

U m I m j( U ji ) U m I m j U m I m U I
S= e = e = cos + j m m sin .
2 2 2 2

,
PA, Q.

(. 7.3), -
.
-
, :

*
U m I m U m I m j( i U ) U m I m j U m I m U I
= e = e = cos j m m sin .
2 2 2 2 2
*
U m Im
= PA jQ .
2

 . -64-
7.

Im


Re
0

. 7.3

, -

1 * *
1 * *

PA = U m I m + U m I m , Q = U m I m U m I m .
4 4j


1 * * 1 * *
PA = U I + U I , Q = U I U I .
2 2j


. .
(. 7.4)
Z i = Ri + jX i Z H = RH + jX H .

Zi

I Z

. 7.4

Em
I m = .
( Ri + RH ) + ( Xi + XH )
2 2

 . -65-
7.
.

, ,
1 2 1 RH Em2
PA = RH I m = .
2 2 ( Ri + RH )2 + ( X i + X H )2

, PA
XH = Xi.
, ,
1 RH Em2
PA max = .
2 ( Ri + RH )2

RH ,
,
( ) :

dPA max 1 Em ( Ri + RH ) 2 ( Ri + RH ) RH Em
2 2 2
= = 0.
( i H)
4
dRH 2 R + R
Ri = RH.
Em2 E2
PA m m = = m .
8 Ri 8 RH
,
RH + jXH = Ri jXi.
, ,
.
. 7.5 PA max RH/RI.
, -
,

.
:

PA
= ,
Pi + PA

Pi , .

 . -66-
7.
.

1,0

0,8


0,6

0,4

0,2

R
0 1 2 3 4 5 Rt

. 7.5

1 1
, PA = RH I m2 Pi = Ri I m2 ,
2 2
RH 1
= = .
Ri + RH 1 + Ri
RH


RH/RI . 7.5.
(Ri = RH) -
, 50 %, . . -
, , -
. RH > Ri -
RH,
, .
,
, RH > Ri.

,
Ri = RH.

 . -67-
7.

1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. -
?

 . -68-
8. ()

. .
. -
. -
. -
. -
.
.

-
() .
-
, ,
.

(. 8.1).
. 8.1, ,
, -
.
.

f1 f2 f3 f4

f1 f2 f3 f4

f

. 8.1

 . -69-
8. ()


, . 8.1, . -
, f. , -
, f f3,
.
(. 8.1, ) -
.
-
, f .
,
(. 8.1, ), ,
(. 8.1, ) -
, () .

. .
, -
,
, (. 8.2).

. 8.2

E = Eme jt
E 1
I = , Z = R + jL + = R + jX ,
Z j C

X 1
Z =| Z | e j , | Z |= R 2 + X 2 , = arctg , X = L .
R C
R -
. -
1
X = L L,
C
C, (. 8.3).

 . -70-
8. ()
.


0 0

. 8.3

>0
0 0
<0


. 8.4


:
1
1) L > , X > 0, -
C
, (. 8.4, );
1
2) L < , X < 0, -
C
, (. 8.4, );
1
3) 0 L = , X = 0,
0C
(. 8.4, ), .

 . -71-
8. ()
.

1
L 0 = ,
LC
.
Z = Z p = R , -
E
I p = .
R
:

1 LE 1 E
U LP = U CP = 0 LI P = I P , U LP = 0 , U CP = ,
0C R 0C R

U LP U CP 1 L
= = 0 L = = = ,
IP IP 0C C

.
>> R, U LP = U CP E , -
.
U LP U CP 1 R
= = = Q , d = = -
E E R Q
.

.
= 0,
U LP = U CP .
iP = ImPcos 0t, -

U CP = U CmP sin 0t .
2
, -
:

LiP2 LI m2 P
WL = = cos 2 0t ,
2 2

CU C2P 2
CU Cm
WC = = P
sin 2 0t .
2 2

, -
WL WC . 8.5.

 . -72-
8. ()

ip, UCp

UCp ip
Imp UCmp

WLmax
WCmax

0
. 8.5


22 2
LI m2 P L U CmP L U CmP CU Cm
= = = P
,
2 2 0 L 2 1 2 2
L
LC

WL max = WC max, . .
.
, -
20,
:

LI m2 P LI m2 P 2
CU Cm
WL + WC =
2
( cos 2 2
0t + sin 0t = ) 2
=
2
P
.

, -
, L C
, .
L C -
R.
Z = Z = R
, -
, R.

 . -73-
8. ()

(R = 0),
,
.

1 2
0 L L I mP W W
Q= = = 0 2 = 0 L max = 2 L max ,
R R 1 PA PAT0
R I m2 P
2
1 2
T0 = = .
f 0 0

, -
, , WR,T = PAT0,
R T0.

E, L, C, R

E E
I ( ) = = .
2 2
1 1
R 2 + L L
C C
R 1+
R2

I ( ) 1 E
n ( ) = = , I P = ,
IP X
2 R
1+
R

() X R -
.
X
() = arctg .
R

X X
n . 8.6.
R R

 . -74-
8. ()


. 8.6

-
, /0.
R ,
(. 8.7):

1 1
n = = =
0 1
2
L 1
2

L 1+ 0
C
1+ R 0 0 LC
R2
1 0
= , = arctg Q .
2
0 0
2
0
1+ Q
0
. 8.8

(L = 20 , = 10 , = 1 ).
:
E
U L ( ) = LI ( ) = Ln ( ) I P = Ln ( ) ,
R
1 1 1 E
U C ( ) = I ( ) = n ( ) I P = n ( ) .
C C C R

 . -75-
8. ()


n
0
Q = 50 0
Q = 200 Q = 100
Q = 50
Q = 100


0 0
Q = 200


. 8.7

UR, =1

1,0
Q = 40 (R = 40 )
0,75
20 (80 )
0,5 10 (160 )
8 (200 )
0,25
0 f,
7 10 14

,
100
Q = 40
20
50
10
8
0 f,
7 10 14
50
100

. 8.8

UL UC -
L = 20 , = 10 , = 1 -
. 8.9.

 . -76-
8. ()

UL, UC,
=1
10
R = 160

7,5

240

5,0
320
U
400
2,5 UL

0 f,
7 max 10 max 14

. 8.9

,
( )
(, -
UL = UC = QE) , -
. -
, :

1 f0
fC max = f 0 1 f L max = .
2Q 2 1
1
2Q 2

, -
.
. 8.10 , -
,
L = 20 , = 10 , R = 800 .
,
, -
, , , -
, U CP = QE .

 . -77-
8. ()

UL, UC,
1
XC =
2fC
2,4
XL = 2
2fL
UC UL
1,8

1,2 =1

I
0,6

0 f0
6 fC max 10 fL max 15 f,

. 8.10

,
, -
, .
-
, ,
, U LP = QE ,
.
, ,
L C .

0.

0 X
Q = = ,

0 R

.
,

0 2 02 ( + 0 )( 0 ) ( + 0 )
= = = 2 , = 0 -
0 0 0 0 0

, 1 ( 0)
0

 . -78-
8. ()

2 1
=Q n ( ) = , () = arctg .
0 1+ 2


X X
n .
R R

1 0
Z = R + jX = R + j L = R 1 + j = R [1 + j] .
C R 0

Z
Z

0
0

. 8.11


- , -

.
Z = R 1 + 2 (. 8.11).
= arctg .

2

R 1 + 2Q
Z .
0

 . -79-
8. ()

.
,
1

2
(. 8.12).

1 1
n () = = = 1 ,
1+ 2 2


Q 0 = 1, Q 0 = 1 ,
0 0

n()
1
1
2 2

0
H 0 B
()

90
45
0
H 0 B
45
90

. 8.12

d d2 d d2
= 0 + 1 + , = 0 + 1 + ,
2 4 2 4

1
d = , 2 = = 0 d = 0 .
Q Q

 . -80-
8. ()

= 1 (1) = 45, . .
45 = H +45 = B.

.
-
(. 8.13, )

0
jQ
U E 1 1 1 .
KC = C = = =
E Z j C E 0 1 + j
jCR 1 + jQ
0


. 8.13

0
Q
K C = = n Q 0 .

1 + 2 0

C = arctg .
2
-
(. 8.13, )


jQ
U E 1 j L 0
K L = L = jL = = ,
E Z E 0 1 + j
R 1 + jQ
0


Q
0
K L = = n Q , L = arctg .
1 + 2 0 0 2

 . -81-
8. ()


-j
K CP = Qe K CP = Q, C = ,
2,
2

j
K LP = Qe 2 , K LP = Q, L = .
2
. 8.14.


0 0


. 8.14

, L -
, .

1
KCmax C max = 0 1 ,
2Q 2
0
K Lmax L max = .
1
1
2Q 2

1
Q >> 1 0 K Lmax = K Cmax = Q .
2Q 2

 . -82-
8. ()


.
(. 8.15) -

Q = < Q = , ,
R + Ri R
-
(. 8.16).
RH,
,
.
QH -
RH = 0
(. 8.17).

. 8.15


n
2 0

2
0,707
n
Q
Q n

0
0
. 8.16

 . -83-
8. ()

R R


. 8.17

(. 8.17, , )

1
RH
j C RH RH RH2 0C
Z RHC|| = Z RBHC = = = j ,
1 + 1 + ( 0 RHC ) 1 + ( 0 RHC )
2 2
RH + 1 j R
0 H C
j C
1
= << RH.
0C

RH2
RH 2 1 2
Z RHC|| = j 2 = j = RBH j , RBH = .
RH
2
RH RH 0C RH
2


Q = < Q , =
2 R + R
R+
R
-
.

1. ?
2. -
?
3. -
?
4. -
?

 . -84-
9.


. .
.
-
.

(. 9.1), -
, -
.

. 9.1

Ri = 0, E = U K -
I = I L + I C ,
E E
I L = , IC = .
RL + jL 1
RC +
j C
,
1
, . . RL << L RC .
C
1
XL = L X C =
C
.
1 E E
L > I L = .
C RL + jL jL

 . -85-
9.

L
L = arctg , -
R
L 2
RL << L.
E
I C = jCE .
1
RC +
j C
1
I C C = arctg , -
R
C C 2
1
RC .
C
, IC > IL. I -
, . . -
.

. 9.2, .

L L
L
=0


. 9.2

1
L < , IC < IL. I (. 9.2, )
C
, . .
.

 . -86-
9.

1
0 L = , IC IL. I (. 9.2, )
0C
, . .
. ,
,
.
RL RC

1 1
YB = + = g jb ,
RL + jL RC + 1/ jC

L 1/ C
b = .
+ ( L ) + (1/ C )
2 2
RL2 RC2

b = 0 0 ,

0 L RC2 + (1/ 0C ) 1/ 0C RL2 + ( 0 L ) = 0 ,


2 2

0 =
1

( L / C ) RL2 =
1

2 RL2
.
LC ( L / C ) RC2 LC 2 RC2

RL = RC RL << ,
RC << ,
1
, 0 0 = , . .
LC
,
U
L C. I L P I CP K = I K .

(RL = RC = 0) I L P = I CP -
, , -
.
-
-
.

 . -87-
9.

( RL +jL ) ( RC + 1/ jC )
Z B = ,
RL + RC + j ( L 1/ C )
1
RL <<L RC ,
C

L/C 2 2
Z = = = ,
R + j ( L 1/ C ) Z . R (1 + j )

Z . = RL + RC + j ( L 1/ C ) -
, .
2
Z = R = = Q , Q = 100200
R
= 1001000 , Z = R = 10 200 .
-
, :

R R R
Z = = 2 j 2 = R jX .
1 + j 1 + 1+

R
Z = .
2
1+
Z 1
- = = n ( )
R 1+ 2

, ;
.

 . -88-
9.

R X Z
, ,
R R R
Z
1
R
R
R 90
0,5
1
=
0 2Q
1 0 0 0
=
0 2Q 0
0,5 X 90
R

. 9.3 . 9.4

Z / R , RB / R , X / R -
. 9.3.

XBX
2
dX B R 1 + R 2
=
(= 0,
)
d 1+ 2 2
( )
1
1 + 2 2 2 = 0 , = 1 = 2Q = 1 = .
0
0 m 2Q
= arctg () . 9.4.
(
)

IR
U K = IZ = , U K max = IR ,
1 + j
UK Z BX 1
= = = n(),
U K max R 1+ 2

UK
. . = n() -
U K max
, R, -
.

 . -89-
9.

I L U K / jL Z B
K IL = = = ( RL L ) .
I U K / Z B jL
Z BX 0 R 0 2
K IL = = n ( ) = Qn ( ) 0 ,
L 0 R R


.
I C U K / ( jX C ) Z
K IC = = = B ( RC 1/ C ) .
I U K / Z B jX C


K IC = Q n ( ) ,
0
, -
.
IK
= 0, n(0) = 1, I LP = I CP = I P , K IL = K IC = = Q ,
I
. . Q , -
.

, -
E
I L , I C jCE .
jL
(Q = 13) -
,
(. 9.5).
,
, -
, , , -
, -
.

 . -90-
9.


L max 0 C max

. 9.5

,
,
, , , -
, -
.
-
, ,
, , -
.

RH, , -
,
Q 2
QH = = = < Q , RBH =
R + RBH 2 1 + R RH
R+
RH RH

 . -91-
9.

, , -
.

. (. 9.1) -
, , -
Ri,
, .
Q
Q = = < Q . -
2 R
R+ 1+
Ri Ri
, -
.
(Ri = ), Q = Q,
-
. 9.7.
(Ri = 0)
, -
E
I P = (. 9.7).
R

E
IP =
I = I R
0 0 0 0

. 9.6 . 9.7

 . -92-
9.

U Ri = 0 I
E Ri = 0

Ri < R
Ri < R
E
E R Ri = R
2 Ri = R E
Ri > R Ri > R
2 R
Ri =
0 0 0 0

. 9.8


-
, (. 9.8).

1. ?
2. -
?
3. -
?
4. -
?

 . -93-
10.

.
.



. , -
Ri = RH.
, Ri -
, -
,
R .
II III -
. 10.1.

C1
L1 L2
C2

R1 R2 R1 R2


. 10.1

L1 L2, C1 C2 .
,
, X1 = X2. II (. 10.1, )

1
0 L1 = 0 L2 ( R1 X 1 R2 X 2 ) .
C
0
1 1 0
0 ( L1 + L2 ) = 0 0 = f0 = ,
0C LC 2
L = L1 + L2.

 . -94-
10.

L1
p = , X1 = 0L1 = p0L,
L
0L = .

X 12 P p 22
Z BX P = R = = = p 2 R max ( R = R1 + R2 ) .
R R
, II -
L2C
1 1 02
X 2 = 02 L2 = 0, 02 = > 0 f 02 = .
02C L2C 2

= 02 -
R2.
L2 = L L1 = L(1 p),
1 0
02 = = ,
L (1 p ) C 1 p

. . , 02 0.

R max
Z BX = p 2 .
2
1+

,
, |Z|.
. 10.2, -
L1 = L2 = 25 , = 7,5 , R = 40 -
= 1 Ri = 10 .
II , 0,
, I , , 02.
. 10.2, , -
- .
, 0 < < 0
, -
(. 10.1, ) -
, . 0 < <
< 02 -
, L2C < 02

 . -95-
10.

. > 0 -
X1 X2 90 .
,
90.
1,0

0,8

0,6

0,4

0,2

0
2 f0 10 f02 20 30 f,

150 ,

100

50

50

100
2 f0 10 20 30 f,


. 10.2

.
III (. 10.1, ) X1 = X2
1 1
0 L = , ( R1 X 1 R2 X2 ) .
0C1 0C2
1 CC
0 = , C = 1 2 .
LC C1 + C2
C
= p ,
C2

 . -96-
10.

1 1 2 2
R = = =p = p 2Q .
R( 0C2 )
2 2
C R
R 0
p
II , III -
, X1 = 0
1 1 01
01L = 0, 01 = < 0 f 01 = .
01C1 LC1 2
L = 50 , 1 = 2 = 15 ,
R = 40 E = 1 B -
Ri = 10 . 10.3.
1,0 U,

0,8

0,6

0,4

0,2

0
2 f01 f0 10 20 30 f,

150 ,

100

50

50

100
2 f0 10 20 30 f,

. 10.3

, -

Ri R Ri 2 2
pOPT = = Ri = R = pOPT .
2 R max R

 . -97-
10.

1. ?
2. ?
3. -
?

 . -98-
11. .

. . -
. .
-
-
, -
.
, -
. .
.


() (. 11.1, , ) (. 11.1, , )
. -
(. 11.2, ).
, ,
, ,
.

C1 M C2 C1 L1 L2 C2

E L1 L2 L12
E
R1 R2 R1 R2


( ) ( )

C2 L1 C12 L2
L1 C1 L2

E C12 E C1 C2
R1 R2 R1 R2



. 11.1

 . -99-
11. .

C1 C2 Z1 Z2

L1 L2
E E Z12
R1 C12 I1 I2
R2


. 11.2


(. 11.2, ).
Z1 Z 2 L1, C1, R1 L2, C2, R2,
, Z12 L12, C12, R12, .
L, C, R,
: L11, C11, R11 L22, C22, R22.
1
Z11 = R11 + jL11 + ,
jC11
,
1
Z 22 = R22 + jL22 + .
jC22
1
Z12 = R12 + jL12 + .
jC12
, Z11 = Z1 + Z12 , Z 22 = Z 2 + Z12 .

.

. , , -
(. 11.1, ).
I1 . ,
L22, L11
E2 jMI1 M
k1 = = = ,
U L11 jL11I1 L11
k1 , -
.

 . -100-
11. .

,
M
, k2 = .
L22
-
, k1k2.
k = k1k2 .
M
k = .
L11L22
k -

.

X 12 M M
k= = = .
L11L22 L11L22 L11L22

(. 11.1, )

X 12 L12 L12
k= = = .
L11L22 L11L22 L11L22

(. 11.1, )

1 1
C12 C12 C11C22
k= = = ,
1 1 1 1 C12
C11 C22 C11 C22

C1C12 CC
C11 = , C22 = 2 12 .
C1 + C12 C2 + C12
C12 0
k = 1 k = 0.
1
C12 = 0 , C12 0
C12
.

, -
,

 . -101-
11. .

X 12
, k=
12
1 2 ()
.

(. 11.2, ) -

E = Z11I1 Z12 I 2 ,

0 = Z12 I1 + Z 22 I 2 .

,
Z12 E E Z12
I2 = I1 , I1 = 2
, I2 = 2
,
Z 22 Z 12 Z 12 Z 22
Z11 Z11
Z 22 Z 22

Z 22
E Z Z E Z
I2 = 2
12 11 = 2
12 .
Z 12 Z 22 Z 22 Z Z
Z11 Z 22 12 11
Z 22 Z11 Z11

,
-
, Z11 , . .
2
Z 12 E
Z1BH = , I1 = .
Z 22 Z11 + Z1BH

2
Z 12
Z 2BH = .
Z11

Z12 = jX 12 ,

2 X 122
Z 12 = X 122 Z1BH = .
Z 22

 . -102-
11. .

Z 22 = R2 + jX 22
X 122 X2 X2
Z1BH = = 2 12 2 R2 j 2 12 2 X 22 ,
R2 + jX 22 R2 + X 22 R2 + X 22
Z1BH = R1BH + jX 1BH .

X 122 X 122
Z 2BH = = = R2BH + jX 2BH ,
Z11 R1 + jX 11

X 122 X 122
R2BH = 2
R1, X 2BH = j 2
X 11 .
Z11 Z11
,
.
, -
.

,
1
X 22 = L22 ,
C22

> 02 X22 > 0 X1BH < 0, < 02 X22 < 0, X1BH > 0,
02 .
,
, .

X 122
= 02 X 22 = 0, X 1BH = 0, R1BH = ,
R2

. . , -
-
.
, Z1BH Z 2BH
Z 22 Z11

X 1BH X X 2BH X
= 22 , = 11 .
R1BH R2 R2BH R1

 . -103-
11. .

-
(. 11.3, ).

R1BH X1BH (. 11.3, ).

:

E = Z11I1 Z12 I 2 ,

0 = Z12 I1 + Z 22 I 2 .

1
E = R
11 + j L 11 + I1 jMI 2 ,
jC11

0 = jMI + R + jL + 1 I .
1 22 22 2
jC22

R11 = R1 + R1BH, R22 = R2 + R2BH.

C1 M C2 C11 L11 R1
E

I1 L1 L2 I2 E I1 R1BH
R1 R2

X1BH

. 11.3

 . -104-
11. .

1
I2
jC22
jL22 I 2
jM I1

I2
90 R22 I 2

jL11 I1
1
I1
jC11

R11 I1
jM I 2

I1
. 11.4

, ,
. . . -
.
I 2 ,
R22, I 2 (. 11.4). -
L22 , C22

I 2 . -
2
jMI1 .

I1 jMI1 .
2
.

1. ?
2. ?
3. ?

 . -105-
12.

. . -
. . .
.

-
, ,
,
,
.
-
-
.
E E
I1 = = .
Z11 + Z1BH R1 + R1BH + j ( X 11 + X 1BH )

E
I1 = ,
2 2
2 2
R1 + X 12 R2 + X 11 X 12 X 22
Z
2
Z
2

22 22
E X 12
I2 = .
2 2
2 2 R22 + 2
X 22
R1 + X 12 R2 + X 11 X 12 X 22
Z
2
Z
2

22 22
, -
, .

,
, , ,
X 122
X 11 2
X 22 = 0 ,
Z 22

 . -106-
12.

E E X 12
I1max = , I 2 max = .
X 122 X 122 Z 22
R1 + 2
R2 R1 + 2
R2
Z 22 Z 22
,

.
, I2max
.

.
.
-
,
|X12|.
X2 X2
E R1 Z 22 + 12 R2 2 12 R2
dI 2max Z 22 Z 22
= 2
= 0.
d X 12 2
R1 + X 12 R2 Z 22 2
Z
2

22
X 122 opt
R1 Z 22 R2 = 0
Z 22
R1
X 12opt = Z 22 .
R2

E E
I 2 mm = , I1max( X12 opt ) = .
2 R1R2 2 R1

-
,
X 122
X 22 2
X 11 = 0 ,
Z11

 . -107-
12.
.

E X 12
I2 = ,
2 2
2 2 R12 + X 112
R + X 12 R + X X 12 X
2 Z 2 1 22 Z 2 11
11 11
E X 12
I 2 max = .
X 122 Z11
R2 + R
2 1
Z11

-
,

E E Z 22
I 2 mm = , I1max( X12 opt ) =
2 R1R2 2 R2 Z11
R2
X 12opt = Z11 .
R1


. -
.
,
. -
.

X 22 = X 11 = 0, Z11 = R1 , Z 22 = R2 .

E X E X 12
I 2 max = 2
12 = ,
X 12 R1 R1R2 + X 122
R2 + 2 R1
R1

=
( 2 2
dI 2max E R1R2 + X 12 2 X 12
= 0,
)
d X 12
( 2 2
R1R2 + X 12 )

 . -108-
12.

E E
X 12opt = R1R2 , I 2 mm = , I1max( X12 opt ) = .
2 R1R2 2 R1

-
. ,
, -
, .
, ,

X 12 R1R2 1
kopt = = = d1d 2 ,
12 12 Q1Q2

1 1
Q1 = , Q2 = .
d1 d2
, , -
100300,
.

.
,
R2,

P2
= ,
P1 + P2

P1 , R1; P2 , -
R2; P1 P2 , .
I12m I 22m I12m X 122 I12m
P1 = R1 , P2 = R2 = R1BH = R
2 2
.
2 2 2 Z 22 2

X 122
Z 22 p = R2 , R1BH =
R2

P2 R1BH X 122 1
= = = = .
P1 + P2 R1 + R1BH R1R2 + X 12 1 + R1
2

R1BH

 . -109-
12.

,
R1BH
, . . R1 ( -
R1
,
= 0,80,9).
R1R2
X 12 = R1R2 = = 0,5 ,
R1R2 + R1R2
. . -
.

E R1, , , P2max -
R1 = R1BH, . . = 0,5. P2max -
.

1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?

 . -110-
13.

. -
.

. , -
:
1 1
01 = 02 = 0 = = .
L11C11 L22C22


X
Z11 = R1 + jX 11 = R1 1 + j 11 ,
R1

X
Z 22 = R2 + jX 22 = R2 1 + j 22 .
R2

X 0 2 ( 0 )
1, = = Q Q
0 R
0 0

Z11 = R1 + jX 11 R1 (1 + j1 ) ,
Z 22 = R2 + jX 22 R2 (1 + j 2 ) ,

1, 2 .

E E
I1 = = =
X 122 X 122
Z11 + R1 (1 + j1 ) +
Z 22 R2 (1 + j2 )

=
E

(1 + j2 ) .
R1 X2
1 12 + 12 + j ( 1 + 2 )
R1R2

 . -111-
13.


X 12
j
E jX 12 E R1R2
I2 = = .
X2 Z 22 R1R2 X2
Z11 + 12 1 1 2 + 12 + j ( 1 + 2 )
Z 22 R1R2

X 122 X2
, , = 12 1 2 = k 2Q1Q2 .
R1R2 12 R1R2
E E
= 2 I 2 mm , = 2 I1max X
,
R1R2 R1 ( 12 opt ) .
, ,

I1 2 1 + 22
e ( 12 2 ) ,
j
n1 = =
I1max
(1 )
2
+ ( 1 + 2 )
2
( X12 opt ) 1
2
2 + k Q1Q2


I2 2k Q1Q2 j 12
n2 = = e 2
,
I 2 mm
(1 )
2
+ ( 1 + 2 )
2 2
1 2 + k Q1Q2

1 + 2
12 = arctg 2
, 2 = arctg 2 , X 12 , + -
1 1 2 + k Q1Q2 2 2

, .
2
,
:
Q1 = Q2 = Q, 1 = 2 = ;
-

2 1 + 2 2kQ
n1 = , n2 = ;
(1 2
+k Q 2
)
2 2
+ 4 2
(1 2
+k Q 2
)
2 2
+ 4 2

 . -112-
13.

2 2
1 = arctg 2 2
arctg , 2 = arctg
2 2 2 2
.
1 + k Q 1 + k Q 2
. 13.1 -
kQ. (kQ -

.)
n2 2,

kQ = 3
kQ = 2,41 kQ = 3
kQ = 2 kQ = 2,41
kQ = 1
kQ = 0,5
kQ = 2
kQ = 1
kQ = 0,5


. 13.1

- (. 13.1, ) ,
kQ < 1 -
( = 0, = 0). kQ = 1 -
, kKP = 1/Q
. kQ > 1
-
. ( )
dn
2 = 0
d
1 = k 2Q 2 1, 11 = k 2Q 2 1 ,

1 2 1 1 2 1
1 = 0 1 k 2 , 11 = 0 1 + k 2 .
2 Q 2 Q

(. 13.1, ), -
, /2
/2 .
(. 13.2) -
, -

 . -113-
13.

.
, (
).
1,
n1
kQ = 0,1
kQ = 0,1
kQ = 0,5 kQ = 0,5
kQ = 1
kQ = 1 kQ = 3

kQ = 3


. 13.2

, -
, (. 13.2, ). -
(. 13.2, )
, ( = 0)
.
,
(Q1 > Q2, -
, ), -

d1 + d 2
k > kKP = ,
2
1 1
d1 = d2 = .
Q1 Q2
-
,
0 0
1 = , 11 = .
2 2 2 2
1+ k kKP 1 k kKP

 . -114-
13.

.

1
,
2
-
. -
kQ, : kQ < 1, kQ = 1 kQ > 1.
1. kQ < 1. Q1 = Q2 = Q 01 = 02 =
= 0,
2kQ
n2 ( 0 ) = .
1 + k 2Q 2

:
n2 ( 0 ) 2kQ 2kQ
= = ,
2 (
2 1 + k 2Q 2 ) (
1 02 +k Q 2 2 2
) + 402

0 = k 2Q 2 1 + 2 1 + k 4Q 4 . ( )
kQ 1, 0 = 1 + 2 0,41 0,64

2CB = 0 0 = 0,64 2 , . . 2CB
Q
0,64 2 .
2. kQ = 1

0 = 1 1 + 2 (1 + 1) = 2, . . 2CB = 2 2 .

3. kQ > 1 -

1 2kQ
= ,
2
( 1 02 +k Q 2
)
2 2
+ 402

0 = k 2Q 2 + 2kQ 1 .
,
. , kQ > 2,41 -

 . -115-
13.

1

2
.
, , -
2,41.
kQ = 2,41,
2CB = 3,12,

. . 3,1 .
. 13.3
kQ.

kQ

. 13.3

, (kQ << 1) -
0,64 .
( kQ = 1 -
1,41 ). -
kQ
, kQ = 2,41
1
-
2
, 3,1 . kQ >> 2,41 -
, ,
= 0, , .

.
, -
.

 . -116-
13.

U2
K= ,
E

1
U 2 = I 2 , U 2 = I 2 jL2 ,
j C2
.

2kQ E
I 2 = n2 I 2 mm = ,
(1 ) 2R
2 2
+ k 2Q 2 + 42

, -

1
I2
C 2 2kQ E 1
K = = .
2 R C2 E
E
( )
2
1 2 + k 2Q 2 + 4 2

1
= Q , ,
RC2
kQ
K =Q .
2
( 2 2 2
1 + k Q + 4 2
)
,
, . -
kQ < 1, ,
kQ > 1, . (kQ = 1)
|K| = Q/2, . . , -
.
,
,
/2 ( -
/2) /2
( /2).

 . -117-
13.

R1 1 L1 L2 2
200
5 25 25 5

UL2 UC2
R2
L12 UR2 200
1
10

. 13.4
UR2,

F

UL2,

F

UC2,

F

. 13.5

, (. 13.4) kQ > 1
(. 13.5, ), -
(. 13.5, , ) ,
1
UC 2 = I2 , U L 2 = I 2L2 , 1 < 11 .
C 2

 . -118-
13.

1. - ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?

 . -119-
14.

. .
. -
.


(, )
(. 14.1), () (-
). -
, . -
.
, , ,
, . .

I1 I 2
Zi I1 I2
1 2

U1 U2 Z

1 2
. 14.1

.
. -
,
. ,
. -
, -
.
. -
,
. -
, , -

 . -120-
14.

, , -
.
.
, -
, -
. .
. -
,
, . .
. .
.

( ) ,
, .
.

.

, -
. I1 , I 2 (. 14.1)
, I1, I 2 . ,
I1 = I1, I 2 = I 2 .
, ,
, -
. , -

.
1.
:

I1 = Y11U1 + Y12U 2 ,

I 2 = Y21U1 + Y22U 2 .

Y11, Y12 , Y21, Y22 Y-


.
,

 . -121-
14.

I1
Y11 = -
U1 U
2 =0

.
I
Y22 = 2
U 2 U =0
1

(22) .
I
Y12 = 1 ()
U 2 U =0
1

.
I
Y21 = 2 ()
U1 U = 0
2

.
Y12 = Y21 . -
, Y11 = Y22 -
(, Y11, Y12 ).
2. ,
:

U1 = Z11I1 + Z12 I 2 ,

U 2 = Z 21I1 + Z 22 I 2 .
U1
Z11 = (11) -
I1 I 2 =0
.
U
Z12 = 1 () -
I 2 I =0
1

(11).
U
Z 21 = 2 () -
I1 I =0
2

(22).
U
Z 22 = 2 (22)
I 2 I =0
1

(11).

 . -122-
14.

Z12 = Z 21 . -
, Z 22 = Z11
(, Z11, Z12 ).
3. ,
, -
( U 2 , I 2 ), , -
( U1 , I1 ). -
-
:
U1 = A11U 2 + A12 I 2 ,

I1 = A21U 2 + A22 I 2 .

U1
A11 = .
U2 I 2 =0

I1
A21 = ,
U2 I 2 =0
.
U
A12 = 1 , -
I 2 U =0
2

.
I
A22 = 1 .
I 2 U =0
2

A - Y -. -
Y -

I1 = Y11U1 + Y12U 2 ,

I 2 = Y21U1 + Y22U 2 .

Y22 1
I 2 = I 2 = Y21U1 + Y22U 2 , U1 = U2 I2 .
Y21 Y21

Y --
, :

 . -123-
14.

Y 1 Y Y Y Y Y
I1 = Y11 22 U 2 I 2 + Y12U 2 = 11 22 12 21 U 2 11 I 2 .
Y21 Y21 Y21 Y21

Y22 1
U1 = Y U 2 Y I 2 ,
21 21

I = Y11Y22 Y12Y21 U Y11 I .
1 Y21
2
Y21
2

Y22 1 Y11Y22 Y12Y21 Y Y11


A11 = , A12 = , A21 = = , A22 = ,
Y21 Y21 Y21 Y21 Y21

Y = Y11Y22 Y12Y21 , Y -.
, A -, :

Y12
A = A11 A22 A12 A21 = .
Y21

Y12 = Y21 A = A11 A22 A12 A21 = 1 .


4. (22) (11) -
:

U 2 = B11U1 + B12 I1,



I 2 = B21U1 + B22 I1.

B -
( I1 = 0 ) (U1 = 0 ) .
5. I1
U 2 , U1 I 2
H -:

 . -124-
14.

U1 = H11I1 + H12U 2 ,

I 2 = H 21I1 + H 22U 2 .

H - -
(U 2 = 0 ) ( I1 = 0 ) .
6. , U1 I 2 , I1
U 2 G -:

I1 = G11U1 + G12 I 2 ,

U 2 = G21U1 + G22 I 2 .

G -
( I 2 = 0 )
(U1 = 0 ) .
-
, ,
.

.
, ,
(. 14.2):

U1 U
Z BX1 = Z BX2 = Z B = 2 .
I1 I 2


(. 14.2, ) (. 14.2, ).

. , -
A -.

U1 A11U 2 + A12 I 2 A11Z H + A12


Z BX1 = = = , Z H = U 2 / I 2 .
I1 A21U 21 + A22 I 2 A21Z H + A22

 . -125-
14.

I 2
1 I1 2
I2

U1 U2 ZH

1 2
Z 1

I1 I 2 2
1

Z1 U1 U2

1 2
Z 2

. 14.2

(. 14.2, ) -
. A - -
I1 I1 I 2 I 2 U 2 I 2 ,
B -, A --
.

U 2 A22U1 + A12 I1 A22 Z1 + A12


Z BX2 = = = ,
I 2 A21U11 + A11I1 A21Z1 + A11

Z1 = U1 / I1 .

. ,

A12
+ ZH
A11 A11 Z + ZH Z + Z1
Z BX1 = = Z1X 2K Z BX2 = Z 2X 1K ,
A21 A22 Z 2X + Z H Z1X + Z1
+ ZH
A21

 . -126-
14.

A11 A
Z1X = , Z1K = 12
A21 A22
A22 A
, Z 2X = , Z 2K = 12 -
A21 A11
.
, -
, ,
.

1. ?
2. -
,
?
3. ?

 . -127-
15. ()

.
.

(-
) , -
() -
. : , -
( ) .
, Z i -
Z H Z i = Z H . -
, -
-
Z BX1 -
, . . Z i = Z BX1 , -
-
, . . -
Z BX2 = Z H . ,
Z i = Z BX1 Z BX2 = Z H , .
, -
,

A11Z H + A12 A Z + A12


Z BX1 = = Z i , Z BX2 = 22 1 = ZH .
A21Z H + A22 A21Z1 + A11

-
Z1C Z 2C .
, Z BX1 = Z i = Z1C Z BX2 = Z H = Z 2C ,

A11Z 2C + A12 A Z + A12


Z1C = , Z 2C = 22 1C .
A21Z 2C + A22 A21Z1C + A11

 . -128-
15. ()

A11 A12 A22 A12


Z1C = , Z 2C = .
A21 A22 A21 A11

A11 A12 A22 A12


= Z1X , = Z1K , = Z 2X , = Z 2K , -
A21 A22 A21 A11
-
:

Z1C = Z1X Z1K , Z 2C = Z 2X Z 2K .

, . .

U2 A22 A12
ZH = = Z 2C = ,
I2 A21 A11

A - :

A12 A21 A11


U2 U = U A + ,
U = A U + A ,
1 2
11 A
1 11 2 12 22
Z 2C
I = A Z I + A I . A12 A21 A22
1 21 2C 2 22 2 I =
1 2 22
I A + .
A
11

U A22
1 = A11 A22 + A12 A21 ,
U
2 A11

I1 A11
I A = A11 A22 + A12 A21 .
2 22

A11 Z1C
= = nT
A22 Z 2C
.

 . -129-
15. ()

Z BX1 = Z1C = nT2 Z 2C = nT2 Z H ,

. . -
nT2 .
,
1 U1 I
= nT 1 = A11 A22 + A12 A21 = e g ,
nT U 2 I2

g ( ) -
.
A11 = A22 , Z1C = Z 2C , nT = 1 ,

g = ln
U1
U2
I
= ln 1 = ln
I2
( )
A11 A22 + A12 A21 ,

. . -
.
A - -
Z1C , Z 2C , g .

e g = A11 A22 + A12 A21 ,

1
e g = .
A11 A22 + A12 A21


A11 A22 A12 A21 , A = A11 A22 A12 A21 = 1 ,

e g = A11 A22 A12 A21 .

,
e g + e g e g e g
= A11 A22 = ch g = A12 A21 = sh g ,
2 2

ch g , sh g .

 . -130-
15. ()

A12 Z1C A11


Z1C Z 2C = = .
A21 Z 2C A22

, -
,
Z1C
A11 Z1C A11 = ch g ,
= , Z 2C
A22 Z 2C
A A = Z 2C ch g ,
22
A = Z1C Z 2C ,
12
Z1C
21
A12 A21 = sh 2 g , A12 = Z1C Z 2C sh g ,
2
1
A11 A22 = ch g , A21 = sh g.
Z1C Z 2C

A --
,
:
Z1C
U1 =
Z 2C
(U 2 ch g + Z 2C I 2 sh g ) ,


Z 2C U2
I1 = I 2 ch g + sh g .
Z1C Z 2C

Z1C = Z 2C ,

U1 = U 2 ch g + Z 2C I 2 sh g ,

U2
I1 = I 2 ch g + Z sh g .
2C

Z H = Z 2C , Z 2C I 2 = U 2 , ch g + sh g = e g

Z1C
U1 = U 2e g ,
Z 2C

Z 2C
I1 = I 2e g .
Z1C

 . -131-
15. ()

g = a + jb .

Z1C = Z1C e j1C , Z 2C = Z 2C e j2C .




:

Z 1
a jU 2 2 ( 1C 2C ) jb
j
U e jU 1 = 1C
U e e e e ,
1 Z 2C 2


Z 1
j ( 2C 1C )
= I2 e e e 2
j I 1 2C a j
I1 e I 2
e jb .
Z1C

, -

. b


1 1
U 1 U 2 = ( 1C 2C ) + jb, I 1 I 2 = ( 2C 1C ) + jb .
2 2

U1 e jU 1 = U 2 e a e jU 2 e jb ,

j a j jb
I1 e I 1 = I 2 e e I 2 e .

b
b = U 1 U 2 = I 1 I 2 .

U1 I1
a = ln = ln ().
U2 I2

= 1 -
= 2,718 .

 . -132-
15. ()

-
, , ,
. :
U1I1 S
a() = lg = lg 1 .
U2I2 S2
S1 U12 I12 U I
= 2 = 2 , a() = 2lg 1 = 2lg 1 .
S2 U 2 I 2 U2 I2

0,1 -
.
U I S
a() = 20lg 1 = 20lg 1 = 10lg 1 ,
U2 I2 S2

1 0,115 ; 1 8,7 .

.
-

.
-
Z i Z H (. 15.1).
Zi I1 I2
1 2

U1 U2 ZH

1 2

. 15.1

-
-
,

1 S
aP = ln 0 ,
2 S2

 . -133-
15. ()

S0 , -
, ; S2 ,
, .
,
:
2
E E2
S0 = = Z i I12
Zi = .
2Zi 4Zi
, ,

U 22
S2 = U 2 I 2 = .
ZH

1 E 2 ZH E 1 ZH
aP = ln = ln + ln .
2 4 Z i U 22 2U 2 2 Z i

( )
E = U1 + Z i I1 = A11U 2 + A12 I 2 + Z i A21U 2 + A22 I 2 .
U2
, I 2 = ,
ZH

E A ZA
= A11 + 12 + Z i A21 + i 22 .
U2 ZH ZH

Z1C 1
A11 = ch g , A12 = Z1C Z 2C sh g , A21 = sh g ,
Z 2C Z1C Z 2C

Z 2C
A22 = ch g
Z1C

,
:

 . -134-
15. ()

Z i + Z1C Z H + Z 2C
aP = a + ln + ln + ln 1 p1 p2e 2 g ,
2 Z i Z1C 2 Z H Z 2C

Z i Z1C Z Z 2C
p1 = , p2 = H -
Z i + Z1C Z H + Z 2C
.
, .
.

, -
. ,
, , . .
. , -
.
,
( Z i = Z1C ) , . -
( Z H = Z 2C ) ,
, -
.

. , -
, ,
, . .
1 S
aBH = ln 12 ,
2 S2

E 2ZH
S12 = , -
( Zi + Z H )
2

.

1 S S 1 S 1 S 1 S
aBH = ln 12 0 = ln 0 ln 0 = aP ln 0 .
2 S2 S0 2 S 2 2 S12 2 S12

 . -135-
15. ()

1 S0 Z + ZH
ln = ln i .
2 S12 2 Zi Z H

Zi + Z H
aBH = aP ln ,
2 Zi Z H

. . , -
.
aP = 0,
. aP < 0, .

.


-
.
,

,
U2 I
KU = Y21 = 2 ,
E E
KU ; Y21 -
.
-
, -
,

U2 I
KU = Y= 2,
E E
I2 U
KI = Z 21 = 2 ,
I1 I1

K I ; Z 21
.
-
. ,

 . -136-
15. ()

U2 U2 ZH
KU = = = .
E A11U 2 + A12 I 2 A11Z H + A12

( Z H = )

1
KUXX = .
A11

( Z H = Z 2C )

A22 A12
Z 2C A21 A11 1
KUC = = = = e g .
A11Z 2C + A12 A22 A12 A11 A22 + A12 A21
A11 + A12
A21 A11

-

.

. ,

I2 I2 1
KI = = = .
I1 A21U 2 + A22 I 2 A21Z H + A22

1
K I = .
A22

(A
11 )
= A22 , -
-
.

 . -137-
15. ()

1. () -
?
2. -
?
3. ?
4. (
) ?
5. ?
6. ?

 . -138-
16.


.
.


, A - ( -
g , Z1C , Z 2C ). , -
, -
. -
,
, .
Z a , Z b , Z c - -
(. 16.1, ). A - -
.

U1 = A11U 2 + A12 I 2 ,

I1 = A21U1 + A22 I 2 ,

U1 U1 Z I1 I1 1
A11 = = =1+ a , A21 = = = ,
U2 U1 Zc U2 I1Z c Z c
I 2 =0 Zc I 2 =0
Za + Zc

U1 U1 Z a Zb
A12 = = = Z a + Zb + ,
I2 U U1 Z Z 1 Zc
2 =0 b c
Zb Z c Zb + Z c Zb
Za +
Zb + Zc

I1 I1 Z
A22 = = =1+ b .
I2 U Z Z 1 Zc
2 =0 I1 b c
Zb + Zc Zb

 . -139-
16.

I1 Za I2 I1 Zb I2
1 2 1 2

U1 Z U2 U1 Z U2

1 2 1 2

I1 Za Zb I2 I1 Z I2
1 2 1 2

U1 Z U2 U1 Za Zb U2

1 2 1 2

. 16.1

- :

A11 A12 Za + Zc
Z1C =
A21 A22
=
Zb + Z c
( Z a Zb + Z c Zb + Z a Z c ) ,

A22 A12 Zb + Zc
Z 2C =
A21 A11
=
Za + Zc
( Z a Zb + Z c Zb + Z a Z c ) ,


g = Arch A11 A22 = Arch
( Z a + Zc )( Zb + Zc ) .
Zc

- ( Z a = Z b , A11 = A22 : )
Z + Zc
Z1C = Z 2C = ZT = Z a ( Z a + 2Z c ) , g = Arch a .
Zc
-
- , Z b = 0 (-
. 16.1, ), Z a = 0 ( . 16.1, ).

 . -140-
16.

,
- .
: -
( )
Z a , Z b , Z c - - . -
, , -
,
- - .

.
,
(, , . .),
,
. -
- (. 16.2).

I1 Y12 I 2 I1 Z11 Z12 Z 22 Z12 I 2


1 2 1 2

U1 Y11 + Y12 Y22 + Y12 U2 U1 Z12 (Z 21 Z12 ) I1


U2

1 2 1 2
(Y21 Y12 )U1

. 16.2


(. 16.2, )

I1 = (Y11 + Y12 )U1 + ( Y12 )(U1 U 2 ) = Y11U1 + Y12U 2 .

I 2 = (Y22 + Y12 )U 2 + ( Y12 )(U 2 U1 ) + (Y21 Y12 )U1 = Y21U1 + Y22U 2 .

, (. 16.2, ) -
Y -.
.

 . -141-
16.

Y21 = Y12 (Y21 Y12 )U1 = 0 , . .


- .

(. 16.2, )

U1 = ( Z11 Z12 ) I1 + Z12 ( I 2 + I1 ) = Z11I1 + Z12 I 2 .

U 2 = ( Z 21 Z12 ) I1 + ( Z 22 Z12 ) I 2 + Z12 ( I 2 + I1 ) = Z 21I1 + Z 22 I 2 .

, (. 16.2, ) -
Z -. -
. -
Z 21 = Z12 , . . -
- .
-
. - -
- ( -
)
.

1. -
?
2. ?

 . -142-
17.
. -
. .
- . -
- . -
.
, -
, , -
. -
, -
.
() , -
.

.
, . .
(. 17.1, ).
A

U1 A11 A12 U2 U2
= = Aa ;
I1 a
A21 A22 a
I2 a
I2 a

U1 A11 A12 U2 U2
= = Ab .
I1 b
A21 A22 b
I2 b
I2 b

I1 = I1 I 2 = I1b I 3 = I 2b I1 = I1 I 3 = I 2b

U1 A U2 Ab U3 ZH U1 A U3 ZH


. 17.1

U1 = U1a , U 2 = U 2 a = U1b , U 3 = U 2b ,
I1 = I1a , I 2 a = I1b , I 3 = I 2b .

 . -143-
17.

U1 U2 U3
= Aa Ab = A .
I1 I2 b
I3

, A (. 17.1, ) -
:

A = Aa Ab .

,

.
-
Z 2Ca = Z1Cb ,
Z 2Cb = Z H , -
:

Z1Cb Z1Ca Z1Ca


U2 = U 3e gb , U1 = U 2e g a U1 = U 3e ga + gb .
Z 2Cb Z 2Ca Z 2Cb

,
:

Z 2Ca Z 2Cb gb Z 2Cb ga + gb


I1 = I1a = I 2 a e ga , I 2 a = I1b = I 3e I1 = I 3e .
Z1Ca Z1Cb Z1Ca

, -
,
, Z1Ca Z 2Cb , -
, g = g a + gb , . . -
a = aa + ab b = ba + bb.
,
,
, :
n
g = a + jb = gi .
i =1

 . -144-
17.

.
,
,
(. 17.2).
Z-,
.

I1 = I1 I 2 = I 2

U1 Za U 2 I1 I 2

U1 I1b U2 Z U2
I 2b U1

U1b Zb U 2b


. 17.2

U1 Z11Z12 I1 I1
= = Za ,
U2 a
Z 21Z 22 a
I 2 a
I 2 a

U1 Z11Z12 I1 I1
= = Zb .
U2 b
Z 21Z 22 b
I 2 b
I 2 b

-
:

U1 = U1a + U1b , U 2 = U 2 a + U 2b ,
I1 = I1a = I1b , I 2 = I 2 a = I 2 b .
,
U1 I1
= Z a + Z b ,
U2 I 2

 . -145-
17.
.

. . (. 17.2, )

Z = Z a + Zb .

,
(. 17.3).

I1 I1 I 2 I 2

U1 Ya U2
I1 I 2

U1 Y U2
I1b I 2b

Yb


. 17.3

(. 17.3, ) -
Y-:

I1 Y11Y12 U1 U1
= = Ya ,
I 2 a
Y21Y22 a
U2 a
U2 a

I1 Y11Y12 U1 U1
= = Yb .
I 2 b
Y21Y22 b
U2 b
U2 b

-
(. 17.3, ):
U1 = U1a = U1b , U 2 = U 2 a = U 2b ,
I1 = I1a + I1b , I 2 = I 2 a + I 2 b .

 . -146-
17.

,
I1 U1
= Ya + Yb .
I 2 U2

(. 17.3, )

Y = Ya + Yb .

- .

, (. 17.4).
-:

U1 H11H12 I1 I1 U1 I1
= = Ha , = Hb .
I 2 a
H 21H 22 a
U2 a
U2 a
I 2 b
U2 b

I1 I 2 I 2

U1 H U2
I1 I 2

U1 U1 H U2
I 2b

U1b Hb


. 17.4

(. 17.4, ) -
:

U1 = U1a + U1b , U 2 = U 2 a = U 2b ,
,
I1 = I1a = I1b , I 2 = I 2 a + I 2 b .

 . -147-
17.
-

U1 I1
= H a + H b ,
I 2 U2

. . - :

H = Ha + Hb .

- .

(. 17.5, )
, .

G-

I1 G11G12 U1 U1 I1 U1
= = Ga , = Gb .
U2 a
G21G22 a
I 2 a
I 2 a
U2 b
I 2 b

I1 I1 I 2

U1 G U 2
I1 I 2

U2 U1 G U2
I1b

Gb U 2b


. 17.5

(. 17.5, ) ,

U1 = U1a = U1b , U 2 = U 2 a + U 2b ,
,
I1 = I1a + I1b , I 2 = I 2 a = I 2 b .

(. 17.5, ) :

 . -148-
17.
-

I1 U1
= G ,
U2 I 2

G = Ga + Gb .

, -
, . . ,
.

.

. , -
-
(. 17.6, ).
-
(. 17.6, ). , -
,

U1 = U 2 2 Z a I 2 a , I1a = I 2 a ;
U1 = U 2 + 2 Z b I 2 b , I1b = I 2 b .

I1
I1 I 2 I 2
1 2
Z Z
U1 U2
1 2 Z
1 2
Zb Zb

I1b I 2b
Zb
1 2
Z Zb


. 17.6

 . -149-
17.

1 1 1 1
I = U
1a 2Z 1 2 Z U 2 , = +
1b 2 Z 1 2 Z U 2 ,
I U
a a b b

I = 1 U + 1 U , I = 1 U + 1 U .
2 a 2Z a
1
2Z a
2
2b 2 Z b 1 2 Zb 2

Z a + Zb Z a Zb
2Z a Zb 2Z a Zb
Y = .
Z a Zb Z a + Zb
2Z a Zb 2Z a Zb

Z a + Zb 2Z a Zb
Zb Z a Zb Z a
A = .
2 Z a + Zb
Zb Z a Zb Z a

-
:

A12 Z + Zb 2 Z a Zb
Z CM = = Z a Z b , ch g = A11 = A22 = a , sh g = A12 A21 = .
A21 Zb Z a Zb Z a

g Za
th = .
2 Zb

 . -150-
17.

ZH Z CM
K CM = = .
A11Z H + A12 A11Z CM + A12

, :

Z CM Z a
K CM = .
Z CM + Z a


, Z a Z b . -
:
Z CM = Z a Z b = X a X b = RC .

Z CM jX a RC jX a
K CM ( j) = = .
Z CM + jX a RC + jX a

, K CM ( j) = 1 ,
,
.

2 X a RC
M = arctg
X a2 RC2

, , . -

.

 . -151-
17.

1. ?
2. -
?
3. -
?
4. -
?
5. -
?

 . -152-
18.

.
. RL-. RL-
. RL-. RL- -
.

-
,
, ,
. , -
, -
, , , -
. , -
, . -
, -
, .
-
, ,
(-
) .
-
, , ,
,
. -

( ,
).


( ), -
. -
,
, P = dW/dt
, -
, .

,

 . -153-
18.

.
.
: -
,
, : iL(0).
: -
, -
, : UC(0) = UC(0).
, -
: ) R L; ) R .

(t = 0) .
(iL(0) = 0)
( ),
,
, , -
.
(UC(0) = 0) , -
. -

,
.
, -

LiL2 (0) CU C2
WL = ; WC = .
2 2


, . . -
t = 0.

.
-
-
.
, ,
. .
, R, L, C
e(t) (. 18.1). RLC- -

 . -154-
18.

t = 0, t 0

di 1
idt = e ( t ) .
dt C
Ri + L +

t=0 R L

( t ) C

. 18.1

d 2i di i de
L 2 +R + = .
dt dt C dt

-
. ,
,
: Y(t) = Y1(t) + Y2(t), Y1(t) ,
() ,
( F(t) = de/dt), Y2(t)
( F(t) = 0), -
,

() .
, Y(t) = Y(t) + Y(t).

-
.
Y(t)

1
Lp 2 + Rp + = 0.
C

(,

 . -155-
18.

di Ae pt i
i ( t ) = Ae ,
pt
= pAe = pi, idt = Ae dt =
pt pt
= .
dt p p
, , -
, ,
1 2).
, -

i ( t ) = A1e p1t + A2e p2t .

-

n- :

d nY d n1Y dY
an n + an1 n1 + + a1 + a0Y = F ( t ) ,
dt dt dt

Y(t) ( ); , 1, ...; 1, 0 -
, ; F(t) -
, .
, -
F(t) = 0:

+ 11 +...1 + 0 = 0.

, -

n
Y ( t ) = A1e p1t + A2e p2t + + An e pnt = Ak e pk t ,
k =1

1, 2, ..., ,
( n 1
).

, -
, t, , -
.

 . -156-
18.

iL(0) = iL(0) + iL(0), iL = iL(0) iL(0),

UC(0) = UC(0) + UC(0), = UC(0) = UC(0) UC(0),

. . -
.
, -
, , -
.
( ),
. , -
.

RL-.
,
(. 18.2), -
t = 0, t 0

di
Ri + L = e (t ),
dt

i(t) = i(t) + i(t), i(t) = Aept,

R + Lp = 0, p = R/L; A -
, i(t) e(t).

t=0 R

( t ) i
L

. 18.2

 . -157-
18.

RL- .

0 t < 0
e (t ) =
E t > 0

. 18.3. , -
, ,

E E
i (t ) = + A e pt , = i ( t ) .
R R

. iL(0) = 0, i(0) + iL(0) = 0 =


= i(0) + i(0) = (/R) + A, A = E/R.

U, i

( t )
UR i
/R
i UL
0 t
t
0
i
/R

. 18.3 . 18.4

, i ( t ) =
E
R ( Rt
1 e L . )
U R ( t ) = Ri = E 1 e ( RL t
).
di Rt
U L ( t ) = L = Ee L .
dt
, UR(0) = 0, UL(0) = E, t = 0

di
eL = L , eL ( 0 ) = E .
dt

-
, (. 18.4).

 . -158-
18.
RL-

, -
di/dt t = 0. t,

di E R RL t di ER E 1
= e , (0) = = ,
dt R L dt R L R L

L = L/R RL-.
[L/R] = [/] = [ /] = [],
([] = [U/i/t] = [//]).
, ,
(. 18.5).
t = L i(L) = I(1 e1)
0,623I, I = E/R, :
iCB(L) = Ie1 0,368I, = 2,718.

i(t)

R
1
2 > 1

0 t

. 18.5

,
t = (4 5) L, t = 5 L 0,99 -
.
- -
-
, (. 18.6)
.
,
. 18.7.

 . -159-
18.
RL-

i(t) UR


t t
0 ( t ) 0

UL
0
t


t
0

. 18.6 . 18.7

RL-.

, (. 18.8),
(t), .
i(0)
WL. ,
, , -
, . . , ,
i(t) = iCB(t). , .
,
,
, , -
.
,
t

i ( t ) = i ( t ) = Ae L
.

i(0) = iCB(0) = iL(0),


t

i ( t ) = iL ( 0 ) e L
.


t

U R ( t ) = Ri ( t ) = R iL ( 0 ) e L
.

 . -160-
18.
RL-


t

di
U L ( t ) = L = R iL ( 0 ) e L .
dt
, t > 0 UR(t) + UL(t) = 0. (. 18.9).

U, i
Ri(0)
R R UR
i(0)
t=0 i
L t
( t ) i(t) 0 L 2L
UL
Ri(0)

. 18.8 . 18.9

, -
, R. -

t
2 t
L 2 Li 2 ( 0 )
W = Ri ( t ) dt = i ( 0 ) e
2 2 L
dt = Ri ( 0 )
2
e L
= = WL .
0 0
2R 2
0

RL- .

RL- e(t) = Emcos(t + ),


-

i ( t ) = I m cos(t + ),
Em
Im = ;
|Z |
L
Z |= R 2 + ( L ) , = arctg
2
.
R
iL(0) =
= i(0) + iCB(0), 0 = Imcos( ) + A,

 . -161-
18.
RL-

A = Imcos( ).

, t 0

i ( t ) = I m cos ( t + ) cos ( ) e .
L

U R (t ) = Ri ( t ) = RI m cos ( t + ) cos ( ) e .
L

di
t

U L ( t ) = L = I m L sin ( t + ) + R cos ( ) e .
L
dt

, -
R L -
.
= /2 (
), i U

(. 18.10).
-
, =
= (. 18.11). (L >> T, T
) , , -
, -

(. 18.12).

 . -162-
18.
RL-

i(t), (UR)
i(t), (UR) i(t)
Im
t 0 t
0
2Im
i(t)
i(t) = i(t) + i(t)

. 18.10 . 18.11

,
.
(. 18.12)

E cos ( t + ) 0 < t < ,


e (t ) = m
0 t < 0 t > .

0 t
, t = 0.
,
UR UL,
t > e(t) = 0.

e( t ) i(UR = Ri)

Im i() = I
Em

t t
0 0

. 18.12 . 18.13

t

iL() = I, i ( t ) = i ( t ) = Ae L
t = iL ( ) = I = Ae L
,


( t )
A = Ie , , t > i ( t ) = Ie
L L

 . -163-
18.
RL-


(t - )

( t - )
di
U R ( t ) = Ri ( t ) = RIe , U L ( t ) = L = RIe
L L
,
dt
UR + UL = 0 t > .

, RL-
, . 18.13.

1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. RL-?

 . -164-
19.
RC-

RC- . -
. RC- .

, ,
.
, RC- (. 19.1) t = 0
e(t).
t 0 e(t) = R i(t) + UC.

dU C dU C
i (t ) = C , e ( t ) = RC + UC .
dt dt

RCp + 1 = 0, p = 1/RC -
C = RC []. [RC] = [ ] = [ /] = [ /].
t

C
, U C = U C + U C , U C (t ) = U C + Ae .

t=0 R

e( t ) UC
i(t) C

. 19.1

RL- U(t)
R .

RC- .

RC-
(. 18.2)
, t,
,
(. 19.2).

 . -165-
19. RC-
RC-


, UC(0) = UC(0) = UC + UCCB, 0 = + , = ,

t
t
dU C E C
U C ( t ) = E 1 e C
. i ( t ) = C = e .
dt R

t

U R ( t ) = Ri ( t ) = Ee C
.

U, i UC
E

E/R UR UC

i
t
0

UC

. 19.2


U(0), t = 0 U(0) = E + A, A = U(0) E.
,

t
E U ( 0 ) C
t

U C ( t ) = E [ E U (0) ] e C
, i ( t ) = e .
R

-
, , ,
.
. 19.3 U(t) i(t) > U(0),
. 19.4 E < U(0).

, t

CE 2
WC max = .
2

 . -166-
19. RC-
RC-

, , -
R. , ,
, .
U, i
U, i U(0)
UC

UC
U(0)
U ( 0) 0 t
i C
R
i
0 C
t U (0) E
R

. 19.3 . 19.4

UC


C1
e( t )
C2 > C1
t
0
UR

t
0
C2
C1
t
0

. 19.5 . 19.6


t
t 2
E 2 2 E 2e RC CE 2
, WR = Ri dt = e
2 RC dt = = = WC max .
R 2 2
0 0 R
RC 0
RC-
(. 19.5)

, . 19.6.

 . -167-
19. RC-
RC-

. 19.6 , = RC,
.

.
t = 0 (. 19.7).

U, i
E
t=0
UC

E C 0 t
i
R UR UC (0) = E
E UR

R
E

. 19.7 . 19.8

-
, t 0 -
e(t) = 0, UC = 0

t

U C ( t ) = U C ( t ) = Ae C
.
t

t = (0+) UC(0) = = , U C ( t ) = Ee C
,

t
dU C E
i (t ) = C = e C .
dt R

UR(t) = Ri(t) = UC(t).


. 19.8.
, , -
, t = (4 5) .

 . -168-
19. RC-

t
E 2 2 CE 2
WR = Ri dt =
2
e RC dt = = WC max .
0
R 0
2

RC- .
RC- e(t) = Emcos(t + ),


U C = U m cos(t + ) ,
2
2
E 1 1
2 1
U m = m , Z = R + , = arctg ,
Z C C CR
/2-, .
UC(0) = UC(0) +
+ UCCB(0),

0 = U m cos + A, A = U m sin ( ) .
2

t

, U C ( t ) = U m cos t + + sin ( ) e C
.
2
dU C 1
t

i ( t ) = C = CU m sin t + sin ( ) e C
.
dt 2 RC
t = (0+)
Em R 1
i (0 +) = sin + sin ( ) =
R Z 2 C Z

Em E
= cos cos ( ) + sin sin ( ) = m cos ,
R R

Em cos = e ( 0 ) ,
. . , -
-
t = 0.

 . -169-
19. RC-
RC-

RL- RC-
. =

. = /2, -

C >> T (T )
t = T/2 , -
(. 19.9).

UC
2Um UC UC (t) = U + U

Um Um


t t
0 0
U()
2
U

. 19.9 . 19.10

RC- 0 < t <


, t = 0.
-
R , -
t = .
t = UC() = U, t >
t

C
U C = Ae ,

t

U C ( ) = U = Ae C
U C ( t ) = Ue C
.
t
dU C U C
t > i ( t ) = C = e .
dt R
, RC- ,
. 19.10.

 . -170-
19. RC-

1. ?
2. -
?
3. -
?
4. RC- -
?

 . -171-
20.
RLC

RLC- .
RLC .

RLC- (. 20.1),
,
t = 0, t 0
di 1
idt = e ( t ) ,
dt C
Ri + L +

i(t) = i(t) + iCB(t).

t=0
R L

e(t) C
i(t)

. 20.1

i ( t ) = A1e p1t + A2e p2t ,


p1 2
2
2 1 R R 1
Lp + Rp + = 0, p1,2 = ,
C 2L 2 L LC

R 1
= , 0 = , p1,2 = 2 02 .
2L LC
1 2 ,
; i(t) ,
e(t) R, L, C.

 . -172-
20. RLC

RLC- .

i(t) = 0,
:
di
i ( t ) = i ( t ) = A1e p1t + A2e p2t ,
= p1 A1e p1t + p2 A2e p2t .
dt
di di E
t = 0 e ( 0 ) = Ri ( 0 ) + L ( 0 ) + U C ( 0 ) , (0) =
dt dt L

( iL(0) = iL(0) = 0, UC(0) = UC(0) = 0).

A1 + A2 = 0,

, E
p1 A1 + p2 A2 = L ,
E
A1 = A2 = ,
L ( p1 p2 )

, i ( t ) =
E
L ( p1 p2 )
(
e p1t e p2t . )
0 (0 ) -
:
R 1 L
) > 0 , > , R>2 = 2, Q = < 0,5 ( ).
2L LC C R

(. 20.2).
(. 20.3).

Im i(t)
A1
A1e p1t

p2 p1 i
0
0 Re t
A2 e p2t

A2 = A1

. 20.2 . 20.3

 . -173-
20. RLC
RLC-

U R = Ri ( t ) =
ER
L ( p1 p2 )
( )
e p1t e p2t ,

UL = L
di
=
E
dt ( p1 p2 )
(
p1e p1t p2e p2t , )

U C = E U R U L = E 1 +
1
(
p2e p1t p1e p2t . )
( p1 p2 )
UR, UL, UC . 20.4.
U(t)

E
UC

UR

t
0 UL
. 20.4

U(t)

E
UC
EU

UR
U

0
UL
. 20.5

 . -174-
20. RLC
RLC-

U,
t = 0
di
E = L +U,
dt
di E U E U
(0) = A1 = A2 = ,
dt L L( p1 p2 )
E U
, i ( t ) = (
L ( p1 p2 )
)
e p1t e p2t .


. 20.5.
) = 0, R = 2, Q = 0,5 ( ).
p1,2 = , -
0/0, ,

i ( t ) = lim
E
p1 p2 L ( p p )
( ) E
e p1t e p2t = te t ,
L
1 2

E U E U t
i ( t ) = lim
p1 p2 L ( p p )
( )
e p1t e p2t =
L
te
1 2

(, p1 -
( p1 ) Ete p1t E t
i ( t ) = lim = lim = te ).
p1 p2 = ( p ) p1 L L
1
R, L, C
, Q = 0,5
.
) < 0, R < 2, Q > 0,5, p1,2 = jCB ( ).
- (. 20.6).
= 02 2 () .

 . -175-
20. RLC
RLC-

+j i
E t

1 j L


+ t
0 0

2 j E t

L

. 20.6 . 20.7

p1,2 = jCB

i (t ) =
E
2 j L
(
e(
+ j )t
e(
j )t
=)
E
= e t ( cos t + j sin t cos t + j sin t ) =
2 j L

E
= et sin t.
L

, -
, -
(. 20.7).
:
ER t
U R = Ri = e sin t ,
L

di
UL = L = 0 Ee t sin ( t ) ,
dt


U C = E U R U L = E 1 0 e t sin ( t + ) ,


= arctg .

 . -176-
20. RLC
RLC-

UR, UL, UC . 20.8.

U
UC

E
UR

t
0

UL
. 20.8

2 2
TCB = = .
CB 02 2

, , .
e T -
, TCB , -
ne T = T .
,

= 0 1 ( 0 ) = 0 1 ( R 2 L0 ) = 0 1 (1/ 2Q ) ,
2 2 2

CB 0 TCB T0 -

R R0 2T
= T = T = .
2L 2 0 L 2QT Q

-
et,

1 2L
( 4 5) = ( 4 5) = ( 4 5 ) K ,
R

K . t -
N ,

 . -177-
20. RLC
RLC-

t ( 4 5 ) 2 L0 ( 4 5 ) 2Q
N= = = Q.
T R0 20

, , -
.
. -

, ,
R, L, C
.
-
(R = 300 , L = 25 , C = 10 )
. 20.9, (R = 300 , L = 70 , C = 40 )
. 20.10.

U,

t,

. 20.9

 . -178-
20. RLC
RLC-

U,

t,

. 20.10



(. 20.11).
Im Im Im

p2 p1 0 Re p2 p1 0 Re p2 = p1 = 0 Re

i
i
i

0 t 0 t 0 t


R >> 2 R > 2 R = 2

. 20.11

 . -179-
20. RLC
RLC-

Im
Im p1 Im p1 j = j0
j
p1 j

0 Re 0 Re 0 Re

p2 j
j p2 j = j0
p2

i i i

0 t 0 t 0 t


R < 2 R << 2 R0
. 20.12

. 20.12
( ).
, R,
R -
.

RLC .
, -
.
t 0 e(t) = Emcos(t + ), -

Em
i ( t ) = I m cos ( t + ) , I m = ,
Z

1
2 L
1 C .
Z = R 2 + L , = arctg
C R

 . -180-
20. RLC
RLC


i ( t ) = I m cos ( t + ) + A1e p1t + A2e p2t .

iL(0) = 0, UC(0) = 0 t = 0
i(0) = iL(0) = 0 = i(0) + iCB(0).

di e ( 0 ) Em
I m cos ( ) + A1 + A2 = 0, (0) = = cos ,
dt L L

di di di
( 0 ) = ( 0 ) + ( 0 ) = I m sin ( ) + p1 A1 + p2 A2 ,
dt dt dt

I m cos ( ) + A1 + A2 = 0,

Em
I m sin ( ) + p1 A1 + p2 A2 = L cos .

p2 Em
A1 = I m sin ( ) + I m cos ( ) + cos ,
p1 p2 p1 p2 L ( p1 p2 )

p1 Em
A2 = I m sin ( ) I m cos ( ) cos .
p1 p2 p1 p2 L ( p1 p2 )
A1 A2 -
,

i ( t ) = I m cos ( t + ) +
Im
p1 p2
( )
cos ( ) p2e p1t p1e p2t +

L
+
Em
cos +
L ( p1 p2 ) Z
(
sin ( ) e p1t e p2t . )

-
i iCB. (-
)
. . 20.13, , -
R > 2 ( ), -
(. 20.13, ) (. 20.13, ) -
.

 . -181-
20. RLC
RLC

R < 2
( . 20.13,
< CB, . 20.13, > CB).

i(t) i(t) = i(t) + i(t)


i(t) i(t)
i(t) = i(t) + i(t)
i(t)
i(t)
i(t)

0 t 0 t


i(t) i(t) = i(t) + i(t) i(t)
i(t) = i(t) + i(t)

i(t) i(t) i(t)

i(t)

0 t 0 t


. 20.13

(R << ).
p1 p2 = 2 j e p1t e p2t = 2 je t sin CBt ,

p2e p1t p1e p2t = ( j ) e(


+ j )t
( + j ) e(
j )t
=

= 2 j ( sin t + cos t ) e t = 2 j
2
+ 2 ( cos t sin C +

+ sin t cos C ) e t = 2 jet sin ( t + C ) ,


C = arctg .

 . -182-
20. RLC
RLC

0
i ( t ) = I m cos ( t + ) I m cos ( ) e t sin ( t + C ) +

Em L
+ cos + sin ( ) e t sin t.
L Z

, -
,
, .
( << 0) -
, .
= /2, . .
, CB 0 , |Z| = R, = 0, C = /2,

i (t )
Em
R
( )
1 e t sin 0t.

,
,
E
m (. 20.14).
R

Em
Im =
R

0 t

. 20.14

 . -183-
20. RLC
RLC

di
,
dt
(
I ( t ) = I m 1 e t . )
di R R
( 0 ) = I m, = = 0 = 0 = K ,
dt t =0 2 L 20 L 2Q 2

di I
( 0) = K Im = m .
dt t =0 2 K

, ,
, (. 20.15).

i Q1 i Q2 > Q1

Em Em
R R

0 t 0 t


. 20.15


, (0 )
i(t) = Imsin(t ) + Imet sin(0t ).
( = 0),
i ( t ) I m sin ( t ) + I m sin ( 0t ) =

0 + 0
= 2 I m sin t sin t ; > 0 ,
2 2

 . -184-
20. RLC
RLC

. . -
+ 0
-
2
0
sin t , (. 20.16).
2
, ,
.

,
Im (. 20.17).
i

2Im

t
0

. 20.16
i

Im

0 t

. 20.17

-
0 ,
t = 0. t =

I(t) = Im1etsin(t ),
Im1 -
t = . ,
,
. 20.18, , = 0 . 20.18, > 0.

 . -185-
20. RLC
RLC

Im

0 t
Q1 < Q2


i

Im

0 t

Q2 > Q1


. 20.18
i

0 t

. 20.19


, -
.
, << 0.

1
2 L

Z = R 2 + L
1 1 C ,
, = rctg
C C R 2

 . -186-
20. RLC
RLC

1
L .
C

0
i ( t ) = I m cos ( t + ) I m cos ( ) et sin ( t + C ) +

Em L
+ cos + sin ( ) e t sin t.
L Z


0 C = arctg
2


i ( t ) I m cos t + + I m 0 cos + e t sin t + +
2 2 2

Em L t
+ cos + sin + e sin t.
L Z 2

i ( t ) I m sin ( t + ) + I m sin e t cos 0t +

Em
+ [cos + LC + cos ] et sin 0t =
0 L

= I m sin ( t + ) + I m sin e t cos 0t +


I m 2 t
+ 1 2 cos e sin 0t.
0 LC 0

>> 0 = 0 (
, Em)
0 t
i ( t ) = I m sin t + I m e sin 0t .

 . -187-
20. RLC
RLC

t << 1, -

0 1 . -

.

1 1 0 t
UC (t ) = ( )
C
i t dt = I m sin t + I m e sin 0t dt =
C
Im e t
= cos t + I m ( sin 0t 0 cos 0t ).
C (
0 2 + 02 )
ax e ax
e sin bxdx = 2 2 ( a sin bx b cos bx ) .
a + b
Im
<< 0 U Cm =
C
UC(t) UCmcost UCmetcos0t.
UC(t)
(. 20.20).
UC
2UCm 0
UCm

0 t

. 20.20

>> 0, |Z| L, /2

i(t) = Imsin(t ) Imsinetcos0t.

/2, . . ,

i(t) Imcost Imetcos0t.


 . -188-
20. RLC
RLC

U C (t ) =
1
C i (t ) dt =
1
C
( )
I m cos t I me t cos 0t dt =

Im 1 e- t
= sin t + I m ( cos 0t 0 sin 0t ) =
C C 2 + 02
Im I
= sin t m et sin 0t , ( 0 ) .
C 0C
ax e ax
e cos bxdx = 2 2 ( a cos bx + b sin bx ) .
a + b
, , t << 1, -
-
( UC(t) . 20.20). -

,
Im Im
= U Cm .
0C C

,
( ).
-
.


1. RLC- ?
2. RLC- ?
3.
RLC-?
4. RLC-?
5. RLC- ?

 . -189-
21.

.
.

,
, , -
().
, -
, -
-
, -
( ) ,
t = 0, . .

i(t) = i(t) + iCB(t), U(t) = U(t) + UC(t).


, -
, , -
, ,
.

-
, .
() -
, -
.

,
.

( ,
-
. .). :
) )
.

 . -190-
21.

, , -

. -
-
( ).
, -
,
, . . , .

i ( t ) = Ae ,
di d Ae
pt
( ) i
idt Ae dt =
pt pt
= = i , .
dt dt p

di 1 1
C
L Lpi i dt i ,
dt pC

-
. ,
k-
k
ik = ,

; k , k-
,
, . . k = 0. , -
, , = 0.
(p) = 0 -
. .

. , -
. ,

.
n ,
n
i ( t ) = Ak e pk t ,
k =1

Ak .

 . -191-
21.

-
: )
( RL
RC); ) -
( RLC-), -
( ) -
- (-
RLC-).

i ( t ) = A1e p1t + A2e p2t = A1e t e jk t + A2et e jk t =

= e t ( A1 cos k t + A1 j sin k t + A2 cos k t A2 j sin k t ) =

= e t ( A1 + A2 ) cos k t + j ( A1 A2 ) sin k t =

= e t ( M cos k t + N sin k t ) = Ae t sin ( k t + ) ,

N
A = M 2 + N 2 , = arctg .
M
-
-
.
, -
(n 1)- -

t = 0 , . . -

( ) ( ) ( ) Ak ;
i 0 = i 0 i 0 =
k =1
n
( 0 ) = i ( 0 ) i
i ( 0 ) = pk Ak ;
/

k =1


( n1) ( n1) ( n-1)
n
i ( 0 ) = i ( 0 ) i ( 0 ) = pkn1 Ak .
k =1

 . -192-
21.

k, -
i(t) = i(t) + iCB(t), U(t) = U(t) + UCB(t).
,
:
1. ,

t = 0. , -
iL(0) UC(0).
2. .
3. .
4. (-
). -

t = 0.
5. .
6. i(t) = i(t) + iCB(t), U(t) =
= U(t) + UCB(t).

1. (. 21.1) = 100 .

R1 R2
i1 i3

i2
E I C II L
R3 R4

t=0
. 21.1

R1 = 10 , R2 = 20 , R3 = 50 , R4 = 20 , L = 1 , C = 100 .
iL = i3.
. 1. iL(0) =
= i3(0) UC(0), :

 . -193-
21.

E 100
iL ( 0 ) = = = 1 A;
R1 + R2 + R3 + R4 10 + 20 + 50 + 20

U ( 0 ) = iL ( 0 ) ( R2 + R4 ) = 1 40 = 40 B.

2. -
:
1
( )
C
E = R1 + R 3 i1 + i2 dt ,

1 di3
0 = i2 dt + R2i3 + L ,
C dt
0 = i1 i2 i3.

1
0 = ( R1 + R3 ) i1CB + C i2CB dt ,

1 di3CB
0 = i2CBdt + R2i3CB + L ,
C dt
0 = i1CB i2CB i3CB.

, :

1
0 = ( R1 + R 3 ) i1CB + i2CB ,
pC

1
0 = i2CB + ( R2 + Lp ) i3CB ,
pC
0 = i1CB i2CB i3CB.

, ,
, . .

 . -194-
21.

1
R1 + R3 0
pC
1
( p) = 0 R2 + Lp = 0.
pC
1 1 1

, -
:

1 1
( R1 + R3 ) + ( R2 + Lp ) + ( R1 + R3 ) ( R2 + Lp ) = 0;
pC pC

( R1 + R3 ) LCp 2 + ( R1 + R3 ) R2 pC + Lp + R1 + R3 + R2 = 0;

( )
60 103 104 p 2 + 60 20 104 + 103 p + 80 = 0;

p1 = 680, p2 = 19480.

3. iLCB(t)

iL ( t ) = A1e p1t + A2e p2t .

4. :
E 100
iL = = = 1,25 A .
R1 + R2 + R3 80

5. iL(0) = iL(0) UC(0) = UC(0) -


di
L t = 0 ( -
dt
). t = 0

di3
U ( 0 ) + R2i3 ( 0 ) + L ( 0 ) = 0,
dt

 . -195-
21.

di3 U ( 0 ) R2i3 ( 0 ) 40 20
(0) = = 3
= 20 103 /.
dt L 10

6. A1 A2:

i3 ( t ) = i3 + A1e p1t + A2e p2t ,



di3 di3
= + p1 A1e p1t + p2 A2e p2t ,
dt dt
i3 ( 0 ) = iL (0) = i3 + A1 + A2 ,

di3
dt ( 0 ) = 0 + p1 A1 + p2 A2 ,
1 1, 25 = A1 + A2 ,
3
20 10 = 680 A1 19480 A2 ,

A1 = 0,805; A2= 1,055.


7.

i3(t) = i3(t) + i3CB(t) = 1,25 + 0,805e680t 1,055e19480t.

i3(t), A
i3(t)
i3

0,805 680t

t,
1,0

1,055 19480t

. 21.2

, -
. 21.2.
2. , 1, -

e(t) = 100cos(t + 60), = 10000P/C.

 . -196-
21.

. 1. UC(0) iL(0).

E
UC ( 0 ) = Z,
R1 + R3 + Z

R2 + R4 + jL
Z = .
1 + ( R2 + R4 + jL ) jC
R, L, C, E,

20 + 20 + j104103
Z= 1e 89 ,
(
1 + 20 + 20 + j10 10 4 3
) j10 10
4 4

100e j 60
UC (0 ) = 89
1e 89 = 1,64e j150 ,
10 + 50 + 1e

UC (0 )
IL (0 ) = = 0,04e j137 .
R2 + R4 + jL

UC(t) = 1,64cos(t + 150), iL(t) = 0,04cos(t + 137),

t = 0 UC(0) = 1,64cos150 = 1,42 ,


iL(0) = 0,04cos137 = 0,03 A.


, , 1. -

, .
i3. -

E Z 1
I L = ,
R1 + R3 + Z R2 + jL

R2 + jL
Z = .
1 + ( R2 + jL ) jC
R, L, C, E,

 . -197-
21.

I L = 0,076 e j 53 , iL ( t ) = 0,076cos ( t 53 ) ,

t = 0 iL(0) = 0,04cos(53) = 0, 046 .

di3
t = 0
dt

di3 U ( 0 ) R2i3 ( 0 ) 1, 42 20 0,03


(0) = C = = 820 /.
dt L 103

1 2:

i3 ( t ) = i3 + A1e p1t + A2e p2t ,



di3 di3
= + p1 A1e p1t + p2 A2e p2t ,
dt dt

di3
= 0,076sin ( t 53 ) ,
dt
t = 0
di3
( 0 ) = 104 0,076sin ( 53 ) = 610 B/.
dt

i3 ( 0 ) = iL ( 0 ) = i3 ( 0 ) + A1 + A2 ,

di3 di3
dt ( 0 ) = dt ( 0 ) + p1 A1 + p2 A2 ,

0,3 = 0,046 + A1 + A2 ,

820 = 610 680 A1 19480 A2 ,

1 = 0,1548, 2 = 0,0788.
:

i3(t) = 0,076cos(t 53) = 0,546e680t + 0,0788e19480t.



. 21.3.

 . -198-
21.

i3(t), A

0,0788 19480t i3

t,

i3(t)

0,1548 680t
. 21.3

, -
-
, . , -
iC(0) = iC(0) + 1 + 2.
, ,
di/dt , . -
,
1
C iC dt = U C , iC = A1e p1t + A2e p2t ,

1
C
1
( )
iCdt = A1e p1t + A2e p2t dt = U C ( t ), ,
C

1 A1e p1t 1 A2e p2t


+ = U C ( t ) ,
C p1 C p2
1 A1 1 A2
t = 0 + = U C ( 0 ) = U C ( 0 ) U C ( 0 ) .
C p1 C p2
,
iC ( 0 ) iC ( 0 ) = A1 + A2 ,

1 A1 1 A2
U C ( 0 ) U C ( 0 ) = C p + C p .
1 2

 . -199-
21.

,
:
1
iL ( t ) =
L
U L dt ,

U L ( 0 ) U L ( 0 ) = A1 + A2 ,

1 A1 1 A2
iL ( 0 ) iL ( 0 ) = L p + L p .
1 2


1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. -
?

 . -200-
22.

. . -
. -
. .
.


.
,
. -
p = c + j -
t.
.

, ,

.
, , -
t -
p = c + j,
.

.
1. f(t), , -
. -
F(p) f(t).
2. ,
, -
.
3. F(p).
4. F(p) f(t), -
.

.
f(t) (-
), :

 . -201-
22.

1. f(t) t.
, :
.
2. f(t) t:
f(t) = 0 t < 0.
3. f(t) -
: > 0 C0 , t

f (t ) | Me0t .

, -
f(t) .
, f(t) ,

f (t ) e
pt
dt
0

-
p = c + j Rep = > c0 (. 22.1).

f(t)
+c
0 c0 E

t
0

. 22.1 . 22.2


F ( p ) = f ( t ) e pt dt ,
0

f(t) ; F(p) :
F(p) f(t), f(t) F(p),

 . -202-
22.

1. (. 22.2)

0 t < 0,
f (t ) =
E t > 0.

Ee pt E E
F ( p ) = f ( t ) e dt = E e dt =
pt pt
= , E i =i .
0 0
p p p
0

, -

0 t < 0, 1
1( t ) = 1 i =i .
1 t > 0, p

2. f ( t ) = et


t ( p ) 1 1
F ( p ) = f (t ) e e ( ) =
t p
pt
dt = e e
t pt
dt = e dt = ,
0 0 0
p 0
p

1
e t i = i Rep > Re.
p

= j,
1
f ( t ) = e j t i = i .
p j

Im Um
I me jt + = I me jt i =i , U m e j t i = i .
p j p j

, -
, . . f(t) -
F(p) .

 . -203-
22.

. -

f(t) F(p).
,

F ( p ) = a f (t ) e pt
dt = a f ( t ) e pt dt = aF ( p ) .
0 0
,
( -
: -
)
n n
ak f k ( t ) i=
i
ak Fk ( p ) .
k =1 k =1

. , f(t)
F(p),
. f(t) = (t). () (t).

( p ) = (t ) e pt
dt = f ( t ) e pt dt .
0 0

,


( p ) = e pt
f ( t ) ( p ) f ( t ) e pt dt = f ( 0 ) + pF ( p ) ,
0
0

( VdU = VU UdV , V =e pt , dU = f ( t ) dt ,

dV = pe- pt , U = f ( t ) dt = f ( t ) ) f ( t ) i =i pF ( p ) f ( 0 ) .

[f(0) = 0]
p:

f ( t ) i =i pF ( p ) , f k ( t ) i =i p k F ( p ) .

 . -204-
22.

.
f(t). ,
t
f(t). ( t ) = f ( t ) dt , f ( t ) = ( t ) i =i p ( p ) ( 0 ) ,
0

0
( 0 ) = 0 f ( t ) dt = 0 , f ( t ) = ( t ) i =i p ( p ) ,

0

F ( p) t F ( p)
( f ) i = F ( p ) , F ( p ) = p ( p ) , ( p ) =
i
, f ( t ) dt i =i .
p 0
p

t t t
F ( p)
dt dt f ( t ) dt i=
i
.
0 0 0
pn
n

.
f(t t1), f(t) ,
t1 (. 22.3)

0 t < t1 ,
f ( t t1 ) =
f ( t t1 ) t > t1.

f(t)

f(t) f(t t1)

t1 t
0

. 22.3


( p ) = f ( t t1 ) e pt
dt = f ( t t1 ) e pt dt ,
0 t1

(0 t1) f(t t1) = 0.

 . -205-
22.

= t t1, t = + t1, dt = d.

( p ) = f ( t t1 ) e dt = f ( ) e ( 1 ) d =
pt p +t

t1 0

f ( ) e d = e pt1 F ( p ) .
pt1 p
=e
0

, t1 -
e pt1 .
. , -

et, .

(t) = f(t)et.


( p ) = (t ) e dt = f ( t ) e ( ) dt = F ( p ) .
pt p t

0 0

,
-
p p .
-
. ,
(t) = sintet.
Im
, I me jt + = I me jt i =i ,
p j

1 p + j
e jt = cos t + j sin t i =i = 2 .
p j p + 2

p
cos t i =i 22
, sin t i =i 2 .
p + p + 2

 . -206-
22.


( t ) sin te t i =i .
( p + )
2 2
+

( -
) .

f1(t) F1(p), f2(t) F2(p),

t t
( p ) = F1 ( p ) F2 ( p ) i = i
f1 ( ) f2 ( t ) d = f1 ( t ) f 2 ( ) d .
0 0
, -
. -
.
( ) -
,
. , , -

1
( p) = .
( p + )
2

() -
:
1 1
( p) = = F1 ( p ) F2 ( p ) ,
p+ p+

1
F1 ( p ) = F2 ( p ) = i t
i= e .
p+

,
t t
( t )
(t ) = e e d = e t
d = te
t
.
0 0

-
.
f(t) F(p). (t) = f(at), -
.

( p ) = f ( at ) e pt dt .
0

 . -207-
22.

1
at = x, dt = dx
a
p
x 1 1 p
( p) = f ( x) e a dx = F .
0
a a a


1 p
f (a, t ) i =i
F .
a a


.


.
lim f ( t ) = lim pF ( p ) , lim f ( t ) = lim pF ( p ) .
t 0 p t p 0

, -
() , -
,
.
,
-
t j.

(. 22.4).

U(t) ()

0
t U(t)
0
..
.

t
0

. 22.4

 . -208-
22.

,

: -
.

.
.
. -

, -
:
c + j
1
f (t ) = F ( p ) e pt dp .
2j c j

F(p) f(t), -
: ) F(p) -
c + j
Rep > C0; ) |p| ; ) F ( p ) dp -
c j
.
,
F(p)

f ( t ) = Re s F ( p )e pt (t > 0) ,
pk

f (t ) = 0 ( t < 0).
,
c + j
1 1
f (t ) = ( ) F ( p)e dp = Re s F ( p )e pt .
2j c j
pt pt
F p e dp =
2j pk

( ,
> C0, -
, F(p)). F(p)
p, F(p) = ).
,
2j ,
.

 . -209-
22.

-
, .
, -
-
.
-
, :
F ( p)
F ( p) = 1 , F1(p) F2(p) .
F2 ( p )
, F2(p) n
p1, p2, ..., pn, :

F1 ( p ) i n F1 ( pk ) e pk t
f ( t ) i= i=
i
.
F2 ( p ) k =1 F2 ( p k )
-
, .

, ,
. , -
. -
. -
, -
. ,
.
.
. (. 22.5),
.

i4
i1 C e(t)
R L t=0
i2 i

i3 i5
. 22.5

 . -210-
22.

di
U = U R + U L + U C e ( t ) , U R = Ri, U L = L ,
dt

1
UC = UC ( 0 ) +
C
idt.

di 1
U = Ri + L + U C ( 0 ) + idt e ( t ) .
dt C
iL(0) = iL(0), UC(0) = UC(0) -
:
di i
U R i =i RI ( p ) , Li = LpI ( p ) LiL ( 0 ) ,
dt
1 U ( 0) I ( p )
U C ( 0 ) + idt i =i C + , e ( t ) i =i E ( p ) ,
C p pC

UC (0) I ( p )
U ( p ) = RI ( p ) + LpI ( p ) LiL ( 0 ) + + E ( p ).
p pC
,
UC (0)
U ( p ) + LiL ( 0 ) + E ( p)
p
I ( p) = ,
Z ( p)

1
Z ( p ) = R + Lp + .
pC
-
, , -
.
LiL(0) ,
-
U (0)
. C ,
p
-
. , LiL(0) ,
UC (0)
.
p

 . -211-
22.


(. 22.6).

U C (0) 1 I4(p)
I1(p) R pL Li(0) p p E(p) t=0
I(p)
I2(p)
I3(p) I5(p)

. 22.6

, -
, -
: I(p) = U(p)/Z(p).
. -
, -

I(p) = 0.

. ( -
. 22.7). i(0) 0, UC(0) 0.

R1 e1(t) t = 0
L
i1
i2
R2 R3 e3(t) i3
C

. 22.7

,
:

di1 1
R1i1 + L + R3i3 + i3dt + U C ( 0 ) R2i2 = e1 ( t ) e3 ( t ) .
dt C

 . -212-
22.

U C ( 0 ) I 3 ( p )1
R1I1 ( p ) + LpI1 ( p ) LiL ( 0 ) + R3 I 3 ( p ) + + R2 I 2 ( p ) = E1 ( t ) E3 ( t ) ,
p pC

Z1 ( p ) I1 ( p ) Z 2 ( p ) I 2 ( p ) + Z 3 ( p ) I 3 ( p ) = E1 ( t ) E3 ( t ) + E ( p ) ,

1 U (0)
Z1 ( p ) = R1 + Lp, Z 2 ( p ) = R2 , Z 3 ( p ) = R3 + , E ( p ) = LiL ( 0 ) C ,
pC p
n n
Z k ( p )I k ( p ) = Ek ( p ).
k =1 k =1

,
, -
.

.

:
1. -
-
.
2. -
.
3. -
.
4. .
, -
, ,
, -
. -
, j
.
3. , 1, -
. (. 21.1), .
. 1. , ,
1:
iL(0) = iL(0) = 1 A, UC(0) = UC(0) = 40 B.

 . -213-
22.

,
. 22.8.

R1 I1(p) I3(p) R2

1 I2(p)
E pL
p p
U C (0)
R3 p LiL(0)

. 22.8

1. , 1:

1
( )
C
E = R1 + R 3 i1 + i2 dt ,

1 di3
0 = i2 dt + R2i3 + L ,
C dt
0 = i1 i2 i3.

2.

E UC ( 0) 1
= ( R1 + R3 ) I1 ( p ) + I2 ( p ),
p p pC
U C ( 0 ) 1
+ LiL ( 0 ) = I 2 ( p ) + ( R2 + pL ) I 3 ( p ) ,
p pC
0 = I1 ( p ) I 2 ( p ) I 3 ( p ) .

3. :

 . -214-
22.

1 E UC ( 0)
R1 + R3 )
pC p p
1 UC (0)
0 + LiL ( 0 )
pC p
1 1 0

I3 ( p ) = =
1
R1 + R3 ) 0
pC
1
0 R2 + pL
pC
1 1 1

60 103 p 2 + 2410 p + 106 F1 ( p )


= = .
(
p 60 103 p 2 + 1210 p + 80 104 F2 ( p )

4.

F1 ( p ) i n F1 ( pk ) e pk t
f ( t ) i= i=
i
,
F2 ( p ) k =1 F2 ( pk )

pk F2(p), F2(p) p = 0, p1 = 680,


p2 = 19480.

F1(p) = 6010-3p2 + 2410p + 106;

(
F2 ( p ) = p 60 103 p 2 + 1210 p + 80 104 ;

F2 ( p ) = 3 60 103 p 2 + 2 1210 p + 80 104 ;

p = 0 F1 ( 0 ) = 106 , F2 ( 0 ) = 80 104 ;

p1 = 680 F1 ( p1 ) = 62,04 104 , F2 ( p1 ) = 77 104 ;

p2 = 19480 F1 ( p2 ) = 23,18 106 , F2 ( p2 ) = 21,96 106.

 . -215-
22.

,
i(t) = 1,25 + 0,805e680t 1,055e19480t.

4. ,
2,
e(t) = 100cos(t + 60), = 10000 /.
. , ,
2:
iL(0) = iL(0) = 0,03 A, UC(0) = UC(0) = 1,42 B.


(. 22.8), , , -
:

UC ( 0) 1
E ( p ) = ( R1 + R3 ) I1 ( p ) + I2 ( p ),
p pC
U C ( 0 ) 1
+ LiL ( 0 ) = I 2 ( p ) + ( R2 + pL) I 3 ( p ) ,
p pC
0 = I1 ( p ) I 2 ( p ) I 3 ( p ) .

100 ( p cos sin )


e ( t ) = 100cos ( t + 60 ) i =i = E ( p ).
p 2 + 2
, :

 . -216-
22.

1 100 ( p cos sin ) U C ( 0 )


R1 + R3 )
pC p 2 + 2 p
1 U C (0)
0 + LiL (0)
pC p
1 1 0

I3 ( p ) = =
1
R1 + R3 ) 0
pC
1
0 R2 + pL
pC
1 1 1

18 104 p 3 85,3 p 2 + 32,4 104 p 171 108 F1 ( p )


= = .
(p 2
)(
+ 2 60 103 p 2 + 1210 p + 80 104 ) F2 ( p )

.
F2(p) p1 = 680, p2 = 19480, p3,4 = j10000.

F ( p) i n
F1 ( pk ) e pk t
f ( t ) i= 1 i
F2 ( p )
i= F( p ) .
k =1 2 k

F1 ( p1 ) = 18 104 ( 680 ) 85,3 ( 680 ) + 32,4 104 ( 680 ) 171 108 =


3 2

= 174 108 ;

F1 ( p2 ) = 18 104 ( 19480 ) 85,3 ( 19480 ) + 32, 4 104 ( 19480 ) 171 108 =


3 2

= 424 108 ;

( ) ( ) ( )
3 2
F1 ( p3 ) = 18 104 j104 85,3 j104 + 32,4 104 j104 171 108 =

= 1010 e j150 ;

 . -217-
22.

( ) ( ) ( )
3 2
F1 ( p4 ) = 18 104 j104 85,3 j104 + 32, 4 104 j104 171 108 =

= 1010 e j150 ;

F2 ( p ) = 60 103 p 4 + 1210 p 3 + 680 104 p 2 + 1210 108 p + 80 1012 ;

F2 ( p ) = 4 60 103 p 3 + 3 1210 p 2 + 2 680 104 p + 1210 108 ;

F2 ( p1 ) = 0,24 ( 680 ) + 3630 ( 680 ) + 1360 ( 680 ) + 1210 108 = 11,3 1010 ;
3 2

F2 ( p2 ) = 0,24 ( 19480 ) + 3630 ( 19480 ) + 1360 ( 19480 ) + 1210 108 =


3 2

= 0,54 1012 ;

( ) ( ) ( )
3 2
F2 ( p3 ) = 0,24 j104 + 3630 j104 + 1360 j104 + 1210 108 = 2,62 1011 e j 203 ;

( ) ( ) ( )
3 2
F2 ( p4 ) = 0,24 j104 + 3630 j104 + 1360 j104 + 1210 108 =

= 2,62 1011 e j157 ;

1010 e j150 1010 e j150 174 108 680t


i3 ( t ) = e j10000t
+ e j10000t
e +
2,62 1011 e j 203 2,62 1011 e j157 11,3 1010

424 108 19480t


+ e = 0,038cos (10000t 53 ) + j 0,038sin (10000t 53 ) +
0,54 1012

+0,038cos (10000t + 307 ) j 0,038sin (10000t + 307 ) 0,15e 680t + 0,79e 19480t =

= 0,076cos (10000t 53 ) 0,15e 680t + 0,79e 19480t .

2.

 . -218-
22.


1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5.
?

 . -219-
23.

.
. . -
. .
.
-
.
,
, -
.
,
, .
,
, , ,
. -
: ) ( );
) ( ).

.
,
t < 0 t > 0 (. 23.1, ):

0 t < 0, 0 t < t1 ,
1( t ) = 1( t t1 ) =
1 t > 0, 1 t > t1.

l(t) l(t t1)


l l

t t
0 0 t1


. 23.1

-
e(t) = f(t) t = 0 -
1(t) f(t). t < 0
f(t) t > 0.

 . -220-
23.

t = 0, -
t1 (. 23.1, ), -
1(t t1) f(t).
-
h(t) (
t = 0 t = t1 1 ).
, -
. ,
. -
.
, ,
, - , -
,
. , -
-
.


. , -
-
.

.
, -
, -
(. 23.2).
.
(t)
2 k
1

(0)

t
0 1 2 3 k
t

. 23.2

 . -221-
23.

t -
. ,
t = 0 -
t. ,
0 t, e(t), i(t)
t e() i() -
.
e() . -
, = 0 e(0)1(t),
. -
1 e1, 2
e2 . .
e ( t ) e ( 0 )1( t ) + e11( t 1 ) + e21( t 2 ) + + ek 1( t k ) + + en1( t n ) =
n
= e ( 0 )1( t ) + ek 1( t k ) .
k =1

-
, . -
e(0)1(t) i(t) = e(0)h(t),
. 1
e11(t 1) i1 = e1h(t 1),
e1 t 1.
2
e2, -
i2 = e2h(t 2).
, k ek
ik = ekh(t k).

, t, . .
i ( t ) = e( 0) h( t ) + e1h( t 1 ) + e2h( t 2 ) ++ ek h( t k ) ++ enh( t n ) =
n
= e( 0) h( t ) + ek h( t k ) .
k =1

,
, -
(n ), -
d. de
de/dt
d, . . de = e ( ) d .

 . -222-
23.

e(t)
R1 I1(p) I3(p) R2
Em

1 1 I2(p) (Em = 10 )
Em
pL
2
R3
t
b 0

2
. 23.3

t
i ( t ) = e ( 0 ) h ( t ) + e ( ) h ( t ) d .
0

.
, -
:

t
i ( t ) = e ( 0 ) h ( t ) + e ( t ) h ( ) d .
0

5. , 1, -
(. 23.3).
.
. -

:

U ab ( p ) I1 ( p ) Z ab ( p ) 1
H ( p ) = I3 ( p ) = = , I1 ( p ) = ,
R2 + pL R2 + pL p ( R1 + R2 + Z ab ( p ) )

1
( R2 + pL ) R2 + pL
pC
Z ab ( p ) = = ,
R2 + pL +
1 ( R2 + pL ) pC + 1
pC

 . -223-
23.

H ( p) =
1 ( R2 + pL ) =
R2 + pL ( ( R2 + pL ) pC + 1) ( R2 + pL )
p R1 + R2 +
( R2 + pL ) pC + 1
1
= .
60 107 p 3 + 1210 104 p 2 + 80 p

F1 ( p ) i n F1 ( pk ) e pk t
f (t ) i= i=
i
,
F2 ( p ) k =1 F2 ( p k )
pk F2(p), F2(p) p = 0, p1 = 680,
p2 = 19480.

F1 ( p ) = 1; F2 ( p ) = 60 107 p 3 + 1210 104 p 2 + 80 p;

F2 ( p ) = 3 60 107 p 2 + 2 1210 104 p + 80;

p = 0 F1(0) = 1; F2 = 80 ;
p1 = 680, F2 ( p1 ) = 76,2 ;
p2 = 19480, F2 ( p2 ) = 2196
, h(t) = 1,251021,3102e680t+ 4,56104e19480t.
h(t) . 23.4.

h(t),

t,

. 23.4

 . -224-
23.

. t = 0
h(0) , -
( -
-
). , h(0) 0. t
,
1
i3 = , h ( ) = 0,0125 = i3.
R1 + R2 + R3

.

0 t e11 = kt ,
2
E
k = m e11 ( ) = k .

h ( t ) = A0 + A1e p1t + A2e p2t ,

A0 = 1,25102, A1 = 1,3102, A2 = 4,56104.



0
2
t
i3 ( t ) = e ( 0 ) h ( t ) + e ( ) h ( t ) d .
0

(0) = 0, -

t t
Em
i3 ( t ) = e ( ) h ( t ) d = A0 + A1e 1( ) + A2e 2 ( ) d =
p t p t

0

0

Em

A0 d + A1e e d + A2e e 2 d =
p1t p1 p2t p
=
0 0 0
t
Em A1e p1t e p1 A2e p2t e p2
= A0 + + =
p1 p2 0

Em A1 A2 A1e p1t A2e p2t


= A0t + + .
p1 p2 p1 p2

 . -225-
23.


( ) = 0 . ,
12(t) = Em, e12
2
E
t = m .
2 2
,

2
Em E
i3 ( t ) = A0 + A1e 1( ) + A2e 2 ( ) d + m h t +
p t p t

0
2 2

t
( ) A0 + A1e p1( t ) + A2e p2 (t ) d .
+ e12


2


2
Em E
i3 ( t ) = A0 + A1e 1( ) + A2e 2 ( ) d + m h t + 0 =
p t p t

0
2 2


Em A1e e p1t p1 p2t p2
A2e e 2
= A0 + + +
p1 p2 0

Em p2 t

p1 t
+ A0 + A1e 2
+ A2e 2 =
2

A A p1 t A p2 t A
= Em 0 + 1 e 2 + 2 e 2 + 0 +
2 2 2 2


p1 t

p2 t
Ae 2
Ae 2
A1e p1t A2e p2t
+ 1 + 2 .
p1 p2 p1 p2

t =
,
, Em. , t >

 . -226-
23.


2
Em E
i3 ( t ) = A0 + A1e 1( ) + A2e 2 ( ) d + m h t Em h ( t ) =
p t p t

0
2 2



p1 t
A0 A1 p1 t 2 A2 p2 t 2 A0 A1e 2
= Em + e + e + + +
2 2 2 2 p1


p2 t
p t
2 p1t p2t
A2e Ae Ae
A0 A1e 1( ) A2e 2 ( ) .
p t
+ 1 2
p2 p1 p2

-
. 23.5 ( = 3/|p1|).

i(t),

i(t)

t

2

. 23.5

, -
t, 1/ t S = 1 (. 23.6).

0 t < 0, t > t ,

( t , t ) = 1
t 0 < t < t.

 . -227-
23.

(t, t)

1
t

t
0
1 t
t

. 23.6

,
:
1 1 1( t )1( t t )
( t , t ) = 1( t ) 1( t t ) = .
t t t

, (t 0),
(A = 1/t ):
1( t )1( t t )
lim ( t , t ) = lim = ( t ).
t 0 t 0 t
(t).
- .
:
1) t < 0 t > 0, . . (t) = 0 t 0;
2) t = 0: (0) = ,
3) ,

( t )dt = 1.

t = 0, -
, . . ,
(t ).

( t )dt = 1.

 . -228-
23.


, ,
.

d1( t )
( t ) = 1 ( t ) = .
dt

:
t
1( t ) = ( t )dt.

- -
,

f ( t ) ( t )dt = f ( 0 ) f ( t ) ( t )dt = f ( ) ,

f(t) .
,
t = . f(t) f(). f() -
, -
:

f ( t ) ( t )dt = f ( ) ( t )dt = f ( ) .

, -

, -
.

-, -
. :

Y (t )
g (t ) = ,
S
S = (t) ; Y (t) .
=
[ ] .
[][t ]

 . -229-
23.

,
. t1,
.

.
-
. ,
e(t) (. 23.7).

e(t)

t
0
k
ek t

(k)

t
0
k

. 23.7

e()
en(t) :

1( t k ) 1( t k +1 )
ek ( t ) = e ( k ) 1( t k ) 1( t k ) = e ( k ) ,

k = k , 0 e ( k ) = e ( ) d ( t ) .

() -
e() d (t )

dik(t) = e()g(t )d,

g(t ) t
.

 . -230-
23.

, -
, di(t),

:
t
i (t ) = e ( ) g (t ) d .
0

.
,
t
i (t ) = e (t ) g ( ) d .
0

.
h(t) g(t) , , ,
. ,
:

d1( t )
( t ) = 1 ( t ) = .
dt
-
h(t), -
, ,
-
, . . g(t) -
h(t):
dh ( t )
g ( t ) = h ( t ) = .
dt
g(t) h(t) , -
Em1(t).
i(t) = Emh(t).
,
t t
i ( t ) = Em ( t ) g ( ) d = Em g ( ) d ,
0 0

 . -231-
23.

dh
t
h ( t ) = g ( ) d = g ( t ) .
dt 0

h(t)

h(0)
0 t
h1(t)
h1(t)
0 t
h2(t) h(0) 1(t)
h(0)

0 t

. 23.8


, h(t)
t = 0 (. 23.8).

h(t) = h1(t) + h2(t) = h1(t) + h(0)1(t)

g ( t ) = h ( t ) = h1 ( t ) + h ( 0 ) ( t ) .

h1(t)
h2(t) = h(0), h(0),
t = 0, ,
h(0) (t). h(t) h1(t)
t, t = 0, -
, t = 0.

.
-
,
t t t
i ( t ) = e ( t ) g ( ) d = e ( t ) h ( ) d + h(0) e ( t ) ( ) d .
0 0 0

 . -232-
23.

e (t ) ( ) d = e (t ) .
0

t t

e ( t ) g ( ) d = e ( t ) h ( 0 ) + e ( t ) h ( ) d .
0 0

,
t t
e ( 0 ) h ( t ) + e ( ) h ( t ) d = e ( t ) h ( 0 ) + e ( t ) h ( ) d .
0 0

6. , 1, -

e(t) (. 23.3).
.

h ( t ) = A0 + A1e p1t + A2e p2t ,

A0 = 1,25102, A1 = 1,3102, A2 = 4,56102.


dh ( t )
g ( t ) = h ( t ) = = p1 A1e p1t + p2 A2e p2t = 8,9e680t 8,9e19480t .
dt

. 23.9

 . -233-
23.

g(t), /

t,

. 23.9
Em
0 t e11 ( ) = k , k = ,
2
t
i3 ( t ) = kt ( A0 + A1 + A2 ) + e11 ( ) g ( t ) d =
0

t
= kt ( A0 + A1 + A2 ) + k p1 A1e 1( ) + p2 A2e 2 ( ) d .
p t p t

0


A0 + A1 + A2 = h(0) = 0
, , 5.

A A p1 t A p2 t A
i3 ( t ) = Em 0 + 1 e 2 + 2 e 2 + 0 +
2 2 2 2

p1 t

p2 t
Ae 2
Ae 2
A1e p1t A2e p2t
+ 1 + 2 .
p1 p2 p1 p2



2

 . -234-
23.


2
Em
i3 ( t ) = p1 A1e 1( ) + p2 A2e 2 ( ) d +
p t p t

0

t
p1( t )
+ Em h ( 0 ) + Em p1 A1e + p2 A2e 2 ( ) d .
p t


2

, A0 = A1 + A2, , -
5.
A A p1 t A p2 t A
i3 ( t ) = Em 0 + 1 e 2 + 2 e 2 + 0 +
2 2 2 2


p1 t

p2 t
A1e 2
A2e 2
Ae Ae
p1t p2t
+ + 1 2 .
p1 p2 p1 p2

t > -


2
Em
i3 ( t ) = p1 A1e 1( ) + p2 A2e 2 ( ) d +
p t p t


+ Em p1 A1e 1( ) + p2 A2e 2 ( ) d .
p t p t


2


p1 t
A0 A1 1 2 A2 2 2 A0 A1e 2
p t p t
i3 ( t ) = Em + e + e + + +
2 2 2 2 p1


p2 t
p t
2 p1t p2t
A2e Ae Ae
A0 A1e 1( ) A2e 2 ( ) .
p t
+ 1 2
p2 p1 p2

, -
.

 . -235-
23.

1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4.
?
5. ?
6. ?

 . -236-
24.

.
. .

.


e ( t ) = Ee st ,
E s : ()
E = Ee j , () s = + j .
, -
, e(t).
Jms 0 ,

e(t) = Eejetejt


(. 24.1):

) = 0 e ( t ) = Ee j e jt ;
) > 0 e ( t ) = Ee j et e jt ;
) < 0 e ( t ) = Ee j e t e jt ;
Jms = = 0 , e ( t ) = Ee j et ;
) = 0 e ( t ) = Ee j ;
) > 0 e ( t ) = Ee j et ;
) < 0 e ( t ) = Ee j e t .

, s = + j ,
,
, -
.
, -
,

 . -237-
24.

, -
.

e(t) e(t)

t t
0 0


e(t) e(t)

t
0
t
0

e(t) e(t)

t
0
t
0


. 24.1

e ( t ) = Ee st

Ee st dU C 1 1
IR = , IC = C = sCEe st , I L = U L dt = Ee st .
R dt L sL

e(t ) 1
Z (s) = , Z R ( s ) = R, Z C ( s ) = , Z L ( s ) = sL.
I (t ) sC

 . -238-
24.

s = p,
, s = j -
.
, -
() -
e ( t ) = Ee st .

.
, -
(. 24.2).

Ii Ikk
i
Ui Zk Uk

i k
. 24.2

, , Hki(p) -

Y(p) X(p)
:
Yk ( p )
H ki ( p ) = , Yk ( p ) i =i yk ( t ) , X i ( p ) i =i xi ( t ) .
Xi ( p)

Yk
X i = X i e pt , H ki ( p ) = .
Xi X i = X ie pt


() j, . .
= j.

.
, -
. , -
, , :
1.

 . -239-
24.

Ui ( p )
Z ii ( p ) =
;
Ii ( p )
2.

Ii ( p )
Yii ( p ) = ;
Ui ( p )

3.

Uk ( p)
K ki ( p ) = ;
Ui ( p )

4.

Ik ( p )
K Iki ( p ) = ;
Ii ( p )

5.

Uk ( p)
Z ki ( p ) = ;
Ii ( p )

6.

Ik ( p )
Yki ( p ) = ;
Ui ( p )

.
-
, , -
, .
Ei(p),
i- , , k-

ik ( p )
I k ( p ) = Ei ( p ) ,
Z ( p )

 . -240-
24.

Z(p) , -
( ); ik(p) -

ik(p) = (1)i + kikm(p).

ikm(p) , i-
, i- , Ei(p), k- -
, k- . ,

Ei ( p ) ik ( p ) Z k ( p )
U k ( p ) = Ik ( p ) Zk ( p ) =
Z ( p )

Ei ( p ) Z ( p ) I ( p ) ii ( p )
Z ii ( p ) = = ; Yii ( p ) = i = ;
I i ( p ) ii ( p ) Ei ( p ) Z ( p )

U k ( p ) ik ( p ) Z k ( p ) U ( p ) ik ( p ) Z k ( p )
K ki ( p ) = = ; Zki ( p ) = k = ;
Ei ( p ) Z ( p ) Ii ( p ) ii ( p )

I k ( p ) ik ( p ) I ( p ) ik ( p )
K Iki ( p ) = = ; Yki ( p ) = k = .
I i ( p ) ii ( p ) Ei ( p ) Z ( p )

Z(p), ii(p), ik(p) -


-
, -
, -
,
. .

N ( p ) an p n + an1 p n1 + + a1 p + a0
H ki ( p ) = = .
M ( p ) bm p m + bm1 p m1 + + b1 p + b0

N(p) = 0 M(p) = 0 N(p) M(p) -


,

H ki ( p ) = K
( p p01 )( p p02 )( p p0n ) ,
( p p X 1 )( p p X 2 )( p p Xm )

 . -241-
24.

an
K = ; p01, p02, ..., p0n ; pX1,
bm
pX2, ..., pXm Hki(p).
, -
( ,
), K.
-
. , -
,
Yk(p) = Hki(p)Xi(p).
,

1
H ( p ) = H ki ( p ) X i ( p ) 1 h(t ) i =i H ( p ) = H ki ( p ) .
X i ( p )= p
p

G ( p ) = H ki ( p ) X i ( p ) X i ( p )=1 , g ( t ) i =i G ( p ) = H ki ( p ) ,



X i ( p ) = 1 i = ( t ) ( t ) i = ( t )e dt = 1 .
i i pt

7. , 1, -
, -
.
. (. 24.3).

R1 I1() I3() R2

I2()
E1() 1 L

R3

. 24.3

I3 ( p ) E1 ( p ) Z ( p) 1
Y31 ( p ) = = ,
E1 ( p ) ( R1 + R3 + Z ( p ) ) ( R2 + pL ) E1 ( p )

 . -242-
24.

R2 + pL
Z ( p) = .
1 + ( R2 + pL ) pC
R, L, C ,

1
Y31 ( p ) = ,
60 10 p + 1210 10-4 p + 80
-7 2

Y31 ( p )
h ( t ) i =i
p

g ( t ) i =i Y31 ( p ) .

1. ?
2. , , -
?
3. ?
4. , -
?

 . -243-
25.

. -
. k. .
.

, , -
,
.
, -
, ,
,
.
, -
-
. , -
, ().
().
.
1. () :
) , = 0 ( )
, -
(). . 25.1 -
a() K(), a() -
; K() .
. -
-
.

(. 25.2).
= 0 X -
a, k -
amin. X
k .
) -
, (. 25.3).
) (. 25.4) , -
:

0 < 1 < 2 < .

 . -244-
25.

() () () ()

1
1 1
2
amin

a

0 0 0 k 0

. 25.1 . 25.2

() ()

1
1
2


0 0

. 25.3

()

1 1
1
2
min

0 1 2 0 1 2

. 25.4 . 25.5

) , , (, ) -
0 < 1 < 2 < ,
Kmin (. 25.5).
) -
, -
()
(. 25.6).
) , ,
, , -
(, ), . 25.7.

 . -245-
25.

() ()


0 0 20 30 40 0 0 20 30 40

. 25.6 . 25.7

Z1/2 Z1/2 Z1/2 Z1

2Z2 Z2 2Z2 2Z2

. 25.8

Z1

Z2 Z2

Z1

. 25.9 . 25.10

2. .
-, - -
(. 25.8).
(. 25.9)
(), . 25.10, .
3. :
) k ( -, - -);
) m ( );
) mm, m1m2 .;
) (
);
) ( ).
4. :
) (LC-);
) (RC-);
) RC-;

 . -246-
25.

) (
);
) (, -
).

.
.
,
Z1 = jX1 Z2 = jX2, - -
- - (. 25.8), .
,
, .
, -
, :
, ;
;
( ).

Z1
I1 2 I2

ZT U1 2Z 2 U2 Z = Z

. 25.11

- - (. 25.11)
:

U1 = A11U 2 + A12 I 2 ,

I1 = A21U1 + A22 I 2 .

- -
:

 . -247-
25.
.

U1 U1 Z1
A11 = = =1+ ,
U2 U1 4Z 2
I 2 = 0( ) 2Z 2
Z1
+ 2Z 2
2
I1 I1
A22 = = = 1,
I2 U 0( )
I1
2=

I1 I1 1
A21 = = = ,
U2 I 2 = 0( )
I1 2 Z 2 2 Z 2

U1 U1 Z1
A12 = = = .
I2 U 0( )
U1 2
2=
Z1
2
, -
( ) -
- :

A11 A12 Z Z Z
Z C1 = Z T = = 1 + 1 1 2 Z 2 = Z1Z 2 1 + 1 ,
A21 A22 4Z 2 2 4Z 2

A22 A12 Z1Z 2


ZC 2 = Z = = .
A21 A11 Z1
1+
4Z 2

( ) g = a + jb -

g Z1
sh = A12 A21 = .
2 4Z 2

- - -
-
(. 25.12),
- -.
- -

 . -248-
25.
.

Z1
ch g = A11 A22 = A11 = A22 = 1 + .
2Z 2

Z1 2 Z1 2 Z1 2

2Z 2 2Z 2 2Z 2 2Z 2

. 25.12
-
- .
, -
, -

U1 I1
= = eg .
U 2 I2

, = 0; -
b .
g = a + jb

Z1
ch g = ch jb = cos b = 1 + .
2Z 2

e jb + e jb 1
ch g = ch jb = = ( cos b + j sin b + cos b j sin b ) = cos b.
2 2

cosb , -
-
Z1 Z2, . . Z1 = jX1 ( ),
Z2 = jX2 () . -
, .
cosb 1 +1, ,

Z1 Z X
1 1 + 1, 1 1 0, 1 1 0 .
2Z 2 4Z 2 4X2

 . -249-
25.
.

,
, X1 X2 , -
X1 4 X2: |X1| < 4| X2|.
( ) -
,

Z1
1 0.
4Z 2

1. Z1() Z2(), -

Z1

(= 1,
)
2
4 Z ( )

Z1 (
= 0.
)

4 Z 2 ( )
2. Z1() Z2() ,
-
(. 25.13).
3. -
, , . . -
:

Z Z1Z 2
ZT = Z1Z 2 1 + 1 , Z = .
4 Z 2 Z
1+ 1
4Z 2

Z Z
L1 L1
Z1() Z1()
2 2

Z2()
L2 4Z2()

C2 0 0

. 25.13

 . -250-
25.
.

Z1() Z2(),

Z1 Z1
1 1+ 0
4Z 2 4Z 2

() Z2() , -
,
. -
-
ZX ZK, -
, ZX ZK -
(. 25.14).
,

Z1
ch g = A11 = 1 + ,
2Z 2

U1 1 U
A11 = , A11 = , = 2 -
U2 I 2 = 0( )
U1
.

1 A11 1 ,

,
1
1 1 1 1.

1.

() = 1.

 . -251-
25.
.

Z ZT = Z Z
L1
Z()
2

Z()
L2

2 0 0

. 25.14

, ,
. -
.
:
() - ;
b() .
-
-

g Z1 a b a b a b X1
sh = = sh + j = sh cos + j ch sin = j
2 4Z 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4X2

Z1 = jZ1 Z2 = jZ2.

a b
sh cos = 0,
2 2

ch a sin b = X 1 .
2 2 4X2

a a
= 0, , sh = 0, ch = 1
2 2
b X1
sin = .
2 4X2
X1 X2 ,

()

 . -252-
25.
.

X 1 ( )
b ( ) = 2arcsin .
4 X 2 ( )

- () = 0
.
a b
a 0, sh 0, , cos = 0,
2 2
b a x1
b = sin = 1 , , ch = .
2 2 4 x2

x1
a ( ) = 2Arch .
4 x2

b() = .

k.
, ,

1
Z1 2 Z 2 = Z1Z 2 = Z T Z = k 2
2
(k ), k.
.
() , -
= 0 , -
= .
, -
, ;
: ,
.

(. 25.15) Z1 = 0 Z1 = 4Z2.

1
Z1 = jL, Z 2 = .
j C

 . -253-
25.

L L L
2 2 2 L



2 2 2

. 25.15

2 4
Z1 = 0 = 0 L = . =
C LC
, ,

2
0 .
LC

(. 25.16)

Z1()

4Z2()

0

. 25.16

, - a()
b() :

X1 LC
a ( ) = 0, b ( ) = 2arcsin = 2arcsin = 2arcsin ,
4X2 4

2
LC = .

 . -254-
25.

X1
a ( ) = 2Arch = 2Arch , b ( ) = .
4X2

. 25.17.

2



1
2


0 1,0 0 0,5 1,0

. 25.17

. 25.17
, , -
.
-

2
Z
Z T = Z1Z 2 1 + 1 = k 1 ,
4 Z 2

Z1Z 2 k
Z = = .
Z1
2
1+
1
4Z 2

. 25.18 Z Z .
,
(
, ).
(. 25.17) ,

b, .

 . -255-
25.

Z Z


k


k


0 0,5 1,0 0 0,5 1,0

. 25.18


, -
(. 25.19), .
U1 = U1e j ,

I1 (. 25.20).
I1 /2.

Im
L U L1
I1 L I2
2 2
n
U L1 U L2 U
U1 I U Z U 2

I1
U1
Re

. 25.19 . 25.20

U C = U1 U L1 ,

,
,
(. 25.20).
/2
(. 25.21).
n (. 25.19) ,

 . -256-
25.

I 2 = I1 I C .

U L1 Im U L1 Im

I I
U L2
I1 U1 I1 U1

0 Re 0 Re
b>0
I2 I2

U U
U2

. 25.21 . 25.22

-
, -
/2 (. 25.22).
, (. 25.22) , -

( U 2 I 2
U1 I1 ,
).

 . -257-
25.



RH,
.
-
(. 25.23), -
RH.

Ri L

I
U1 R U2
2 2

. 25.23

U 2 IZ U1 Z 1
K= = = = ,
U1 U1 ( jL + Z )U1 1 + jLY

1 1 C
Y = = +j .
Z RH 2

1 1
K = = ,
2 2 2
2 C 2 L
2
2 2
1 L + 2 1 2 2 + 4 2 2
2 RH RH

L
= .
C

 . -258-
25.

||
R = b
2
Z = Z R =
Z = Z
1,0 0,5 R = 2
2

1,0 1,0
0 0,5 0 0,5

8 ||
6,4
R = 10
4,8
3,2

1,6
R = 2
2 f0 10 20 30 f,

b,
240
R = 10
180
120
R = 2
60

2 10 20 30 f,

. 25.24


RH (. 25.24, ).
(RH = )
1
K XX = .
2
1 2 2


=
2
,
L, /2,

 . -259-
25.

1 1
0 = = .
C 2
L
2

-
Q ,
(Q ). -


Q = ,
2
Ri + R +
RH

Ri ; R
.
,

U1
a ( ) = 0, = eg ,
U2
,
U2
K = = e a ,
U1

. .
.
(. 25.24, ) , = 0
= || = 1.
(. 25.24, ) -
-
L, /2, .
= 0 b = /2, -
,
( )
/2.
: Q, -
.
. 25.24, - -
L = 20 , RL = 30 , C = 15 ,

 . -260-
25.

Ri = 30 -
.
1. - (. 25.25),
,
. -
.
L = 25 , C = 10 , U1 = 150e j 60 B, = 2500 /.

I1 IL L I2
UL
U1 I 1 I 2 U2 Z = Z

. 25.25

. -

Z1 = jL = j 2500 25 103 = j 62,5 ,

1 1
2Z 2 = , Z2 = j = j 20 .
j C 2 2500 105

Z1 < 4 Z 2 , , -
= 0.

Z1Z 2
ZC 2 = Z = = 75 .
Z1
1+
4Z 2

Z1 62,5
b ( ) = 2arcsin = 124 .
4Z 2 80

 . -261-
25.

2
= ,
LC

2
C = 2C = = 2820 / .
2 25 103 105

( .)

U 2 = U1e g = U1e jb = 150e j 60 e j124 = 150e j 64 = 65,8 j135 .

U L = U1 U 2 = 75 + j130 ( 65,8 j135 ) = 9, 2 + j 265 .

U1 150e j 60
I1 = = = 2e j 60 = 1 + j1,73 A,
Z 75

U1 150e j 60
I C1 = = = 3,75e j150 = 3,25 + j1,88 A,
2 Z 2 2 ( j 20 )

U 2 150e j 64
I2 = = = I1e g = 2e j 64 = 0,87 j1,8 A,
Z 75

U 2 150e j 64
IC 2 = = = 3,75e j 26 = 3,37 + j1,64 A,
2 Z 2 2 ( j 20 )

UL
IL = = I1 I C1 = 1 + j1,73 ( 3, 25 + j1,88 ) = 4,25 j 0,15 A.
Z1

,
, . 25.26.

 . -262-
25.

Im UL

U1

I 1 I1
I 2

0 I L Re

I2

U2

. 25.26

2. , -
, = 4000 /.
Z1 = jL = j 4000 25 103 = j100 O,

1 1
2Z 2 = , Z2 = j = j12,5 O.
j C 2 4000 105

Z1 > 4 Z 2 , , b = 180 -

Z1Z 2
Z = = j 35 .
Z1
1+
4Z 2

Z1 100
a = 2Arch = 1,76 .
4Z 2 4 12,5


U 2 = U1e g = U1e a e jb = 150e j 60 e 1,76e j180 = 25,7e j120 .

U L = U1 U 2 = 150e j 60 25,7e j120 = 175,7e j 60 .

 . -263-
25.

:
U1 150e j 60
I1 = = = 4, 24e j150A,
Z j 35

U1 150e j 60
I C1 = = = 6e j150A,
2 Z 2 2 ( j12,5 )

U 2 25,7e j120
I2 = = = I1e g = 0,73e j 30A,
Z j 35

U2 25,7e j120
IC 2 = = = 1,03e j 30A,
2 Z 2 2 ( j12,5 )

UL 175,7e j 60
IL = = I1 I C1 = = 1,757e j 30A.
Z1 j100

Im UL

U1

I 1
I1

I 2

IL Re
I2
U2

. 25.27

-
. 25.27.

1. ?
2. ()?
3. ()?
4. ?
5. ?
6. - -
?

 . -264-
26.

. .

() , -
= 0 ,
= .
(. 26.1).

2 2 2

2L L 2L 2L

. 26.1

1 Z1 1
Z1 = , Z 2 = jL, = 1 = 1,
j C 4Z 2 4 L
1
= Z1 = 0 = , . .
2 LC
1
= .
2 LC
. 26.2
.


0
1

42

. 26.2

 . -265-
26.

- a() b() -
:
X1
a ( ) = 0, b ( ) = 2arcsin = 2arcsin ;
4X2

Z1
a ( ) = 2 Arch = 2Arch , b ( ) = .
4Z 2

,
. . .
. 26.4
- (. 26.3), ,
,
( ).
UL
Im

U 2
U2
b<0
U1
I1 2 2 I2 I2
I1
IL U 2
U1 U 1 UL U ZH = Z 0 Re
L 2 IL

U 1

. 26.3 . 26.4

b
1,0
0


2

0 1,0
. 26.5

 . -266-
26.


, . 26.5.

,
, . .

2
Z
ZT = Z1Z 2 1 + 1 = k 1 ,
4Z 2

Z1Z 2 k
Z = = .
Z1
2
1+
4Z 2 1

Z T Z
. 26.6.
, -
Z T Z

L
k = Z1Z 2 = .
C

ZT
Z


0 1,0 0 1,0

. 26.6

|K(f)|

 . -267-
26.

7,5

6,0

4,5
R = 5
3,0
R = 3
1,5
R =
0
3 10 30 f,

b,
50

0
R = 5
50
R =
100 R = 3
150

200
3 10 30 f,

. 26.7

, -
. . 26.7
-
.

1. ?
2. - -
?
3.
?

 . -268-
27.

. -
. .

-
, -
, ,
.
(. 27.1)
0, ; -
.

L1 L1 L1
21 21 21 L1 1
2 2 2

2L2 2
2L2 L2 2 2L2
2 2
2
2
2


. 27.1
L1 L1
Z1 = 0 Z1 = 0 21 21
2 2

Z2 = 2 L2


. 27.2

(, -)
. 0 -
, -
(. 27.2, ).
, . .
a = 0 (|| = 1). > 0 -

 . -269-
27.

,
(. 27.2, ). , -
,
= 0 = B.
< 0 -
, .
(. 27.2, ) , -
, H = , = 0.

1 0
Z1 = j L1 = j1 ,
C1 0

L2
C2 2
Z2 = = .
1 0
j L2 j
C2 0

L1 L2
1 = , 2 = , ( ) -
C1 C2
B, H = 0 ( q + 1 q ) ,
1 1 L C
0 = = , q = 2 = 1 , 0 = H B , . . -
L1C1 L2C2 L1 C2

H B.
. 27.3 -
.
.
- a() -
b() ,

Z1 1 0
a ( ) = 0, b ( ) = 2arcsin = 2arcsin ;
4Z 2 2q 0

Z1 1 0
b ( ) = , a ( ) = 2Arch = 2Arch .
4Z 2 2q 0

 . -270-
27.

. 27.4.
j

42
1


0 0
42


0 0

. 27.3



0 0

0

0


. 27.4

 . -271-
27.

U2 Z2 1 1
K XX = = = = .
U1 Z1 Z1
1 0
2
Z2 + 1+
2 2 Z 2 1 + 2q
0
, -
= 0, = H = .
= 1
(. 27.5), 2C1, L2,
= 11 K XX ( ) , -
L1/2 C2.
|K|
Z =

Z = Z


0 I 0 II
. 27.5

-
, , -
.
-
2
Z L1 1 0
Z T = Z1Z 2 1 + 1 = 1 .
4Z 2 C2 4q 0

Z T . 27.6, .
-
L1
Z1Z 2 C2
.
Z = =
Z1 2
1+ 1 0
4Z 2 1
4q 0

 . -272-
27.

Z . 27.6, .
-
, (. 27.7).

Z Z


L1
L1
C2 C2



0 0 0 0

. 27.6

|K(f)|
2,5
R = 4500
2,0

1,5

1,0

0,5
R = 1500

1 10 100 f,
b(f),
240 R = 4500
120

0
R = 1500
120

240
1 10 100 f,

. 27.7

 . -273-
27.

(. 27.8) , -
.

L1 L1 L1
L1
2 2 2

2L2 2L2 2L2


2C1 2C1 L2 2C1 2 C1
2 2
2 C2 2 2

. 27.8

= 0 , -
(. 27.9, ), . . -
.
> 0 -
, , . .
(. 27.9, ), -
B.
, , 0, -
, -
.
(. 27.9, ),
.

L1 L1
Z1 = Z1 = 21 21 2 2

Z2 = 0 L2 C2


. 27.9

 . -274-
27.

(. 27.10)
L1
C1 1 1 0
Z1 = = Z 2 = j L2 = j2 ,
1 0 C 2 0

j L1 j
C1 0

0 1 1
B, H = + 16 ,
4 q q
L2 C1
q = = .
L1 C2

42
1

0 0

. 27.10

Z1 1
a ( ) = 0, b ( ) = 2arcsin = 2arcsin ,
4Z 2 0
2q
0

Z1 1
b ( ) = , a ( ) = 2Arch = 2Arch .
4Z 2 0
2q
0

. 27.11.

 . -275-
27.

b
a

0 0


0 0
. 27.11

- -
:

Z L1 1
ZT = Z1Z 2 1 + 1 = 1 2
,
4Z 2 C2 0
4q
0

L1
Z1Z 2 C2
Z = = .
Z1 1
1+ 1 2
4Z 2 0
4q
0

Z T Z . 27.12.

Z
Z





L1 L1
C2 C2


0 0 0 0

. 27.12

 . -276-
27.

|K(f)|
3,0

2,4
R = 4500
1,8

1,2

0,6 R = 1500

1 10 100 f,

b(f),
200

100
R = 1500
R = 4500
0

100

200
1 10 100 f,

. 27.13


< 0, > 0, -
-
(. 27.13).

1. ?
2. ( )
?
3. -
?
4. ?
5. ?

 . -277-
28. M

m. m.
m.

k -
, , -
,
, . ,
k-
, -
.
k
m .
m -
, ,
-
.
m - (. 28.1, a) k,
Z1 Z2 , , , -
, k-,
. (. 28.1, ) -
-,

Z1m = mZ1 , 0 < m < 1, ZT = ZTm

Z Z
Z1Z 2 1 + 1 = Z1m Z 2 m 1 + 1m ;
4Z 2 4Z 2m

Z Z
Z1Z 2 1 + 1 = Z1m Z 2 m 1 + 1m =
4Z 2 4Z 2m

mZ1 m 2 Z12
= mZ1Z 2 m 1 + = mZ1Z 2 m + ,
4 Z 2m 4

Z 2 1 m2
Z 2m = + Z1 ,
m 4m

 . -278-
28. M

. . Z2m . -
m (. 28.1, ) -
-. - -
m.

Z1 Z1m mZ1
2 2 2
2Z 2
Z m
2Z2 Z = Zm 2Z2m Zm 1 m2
Z1
2m


. 28.1

k-- -
Z
-, Z 2 m = 2 , 0 < m < 1 ,
m

Z1Z 2 Z1m Z 2 m
Z = Z m , = ,
Z1 Z1m
1 + 1 +
4Z 2 4Z 2m

Z2
Z1m
Z1Z 2 m ; Z Z + mZ1Z1m = Z1m Z 2 + Z1m Z1 ,
= 1 2
Z1 Z1m m 4 m 4m
1+ 1+
4Z 2 4Z 2

1 1 1 m2 1
= + ,
Z1m mZ1 4m Z 2

. . Z1m
(. 28.2, ) - . -
- - (. 28.2, , ).

 . -279-
28. M

mZ1 mZ1 mZ1


mZ1
2 2 2

Zm 2m 2m 2m 4m 2Z 2
Z2 Z2 Z2 2Z 2 Z2
1 m 2
Zm 1 m 2
Z2 1 m 2 1 m2 m
2Z 2 m
m
m

. 28.2

Z1m Z2m -
, -
m

Z 1 m2
mZ1 2 + Z1
m 4m Z1
Z m =
Z1m Z 2 m
Z
=
mZ1
= Z 1 + 1 m 2
4Z 2
( )
1 + 1m 1+
4Z 2m Z2 1 m2
4 + Z1
m 4m

Z ZT
ZTm = Z1m Z 2 m 1 + 1m = .
4 Z 2 m 1 + 1 m 2 Z1
4 Z 2
( )

Z1 Z1
Z1Z 2 1 + 1+
k Z 4Z 2 4Z 2 Z1
= Tm = = = F .
Z m k Z1 Z1 4Z 2
(
Z1Z 2 1 + 1 m 2 )
4Z 2
(
1 + 1 m
2
) 4 Z 2

. 28.3 ,

Z1
= ,
4 Z 2

 . -280-
28. M


Z1
= .
4Z 2

k Z m
,
Z m k

m = 0,3 m = 0,4
1,5
m = 0,6
1,0
m = 0,75

0,5 m=1

Z1

0 1,0 4Z 2
0,5
( = )

. 28.3

, m
. -
Zm ZTm m = 0,6,
.
k
m .
,

Z1
m2
Z1m 4Z 2
= .
(
4 Z 2 m 1 + 1 m 2 Z1
4Z 2
)
Z1m Z Z1m Z
, = 0 , 1 = 0 , = 1 , 1 = 1 .
4Z 2m 4Z 2 4Z 2m 4Z 2

m.
- a() = 0,

 . -281-
28. M

Z1
m2
Z1m 4Z 2
a ( ) = 2Arch = 2Arch .
4Z 2m
(
1+ 1 m 2 Z1
4Z 2
)

(
1 + 1 m 2 ) 4ZZ
4
Z1m
1
Z
=0
, ,
2 2m
. , -
(. 28.1, )
, -
, .
- (. 28.2)
,
.
Z
1 , k -
4Z 2
, m ,
Z1m m2
. - m
4Z 2m 1 m2
. 28.4. , m,
-
a().

6 m = 0,75
m = 0,6

4 m = 0,3

m=1



Z1
0 1,0 4Z 2
1,5 2,0
( = )
. 28.4

 . -282-
28. M

m.

m -
, (. 28.5, , ) -
- ; . 28.6 -
).
L mL
2 2 mL

Zm 1 m2 1 m2
Z Z = Zm 1 m2 L
L L 2m
2m m 2m m m
2
2 2 2


. 28.5

mL mL mL
L 2 2 2
2

Z = Zm m Zm
Z
1 m2 1 m2 1 m2
2
2 2m 2m m 2m


. 28.6

k (. 28.5, )
, -
. ,
(. 28.6, , ), , -
.
(. 28.6)
, , -
.
-
(. 28.5, , ) (. 28.6) :

 . -283-
28. M
m

1 2
= 0 = = = ,
(1 m ) L mC
2
LC 1 m 2 1 m2
2m 2
1
= 0 = = .
(1 m ) C mL
2
1 m2
2m 2
m = 1 m k (. 28.5, ).
- m
. 28.7.


0 0

. 28.7
k m
(. 28.7, ),
. . -
. ,
> .
-
, ,
-
(. 28.8, ). ,
- , > 0 -
, , m
(. 28.8, ).
/2
(. 28.8, ), -
/2, -
. (. 28.8, )

 . -284-
28. M
m

/2 (. 28.8, ),
/2, , .
, m
, k, -
.
, -
(. 28.9, )
, > k
, m.
. 28.9, -
m, - k
L = 20 , RL = 30 , C = 15 , m = 0,6 -
Ri = 30 .
, m, k, -
. -
, ,
k m. -
k m, -
.
. 28.10
, - - -
m k. . 28.11 , -
- - m
k.
I I

U1 U2 U1 U2

Im Im
U1 I U1
90
U2 U2

0 90 Re 0 Re


. 28.8

 . -285-
28. M
m

Z =

b
Z = Z, m Z = Z, m

1 k
Z = Z, Z =
2
2
2

0 0 0 0

5 |K|
4 R = 4

1 R = 1
2 10 20 30 f,

225 b,
150 R = 4

75
R = 1
0

75
2 10 20 30 f,

. 28.9
mL L L mL
2 2 2 2

1 m2 2 Zm
L
Zm = Z Z = Zm 1 m L
2m C 2m m
m
Zm
2 2

. 28.10

 . -286-
28. M
m

mL mL
L

m m
1 m2 1 m2
2 2 2 2
2m 2m

. 28.11

a = k + m

m 1
k

0
0

1,25 |K|
1
R = 800
0,75
k m
0,5
0,25
k+m
2 10 20 30 f,

b,
480

360
k+m
240
120 k
m
0
120
2 10 20 30 f,

. 28.12

 . -287-
28. M
m


k m:
= ak + am ,

ak am k m (. 28.12, ).
. 28.12, -
.
. 28.12, : -
- m, -
k L= 20 , RL = 30 ,
C = 15 , m = 0,6, -
Ri = 30 , (. 28.10),
RH = 800 .

m.
m -
k (. 28.13, , ) - (. 28.13, , )
- (. 28.13, , ) .

2
2 m m

2L 2L 2L
2L m m m
2m 2m 2m

1 m2 1 m2 1 m2

2m 2m 2m
L L L
1 m 2
1 m 2 1 m2
2

2 2L 2 L 2
2L
m m m m m


. 28.13

 . -288-
28. M
m

5 |K|

4 R = 4

1
R = 1

1 2 10 20 30 40 f,

b,
50
R = 4
0

50
R = 1
100

150

200
1 2 10 20 30 40 f,

. 28.14

m, -
, . 28.14, , .

 . -289-
28. M
m

= 0 = -
, > ,
-
.
. 28.14, -
m, - k
L= 20 , RL = 30 , C = 15 , m = 0,6,
Ri = 30 .

a = k + m

2 2 m
m 2 2 m
2L 2L
2m m L m 2m
k
1 m 2 1 m2

0

1,25 |K|
1,00
m
0,75
k
0,5
0,25
k+m
1 2 10 20 30 40 f,
b,
100
0 m
100 k
k+m
200
300
400
1 2 10 20 30 40 f,

. 28.15

 . -290-
28. M
m

-
. -
k- m- (. 28.15, ), -
. 28.15, .
. 28.15, : -
- m, -
k L = 20 , RL = 30 , C = 15 ,
m = 0,6,
Ri = 30 , (. 28.15, ), -
RH = 800 .

m.
, -
m -
- -, - - .
. 28.16, - k, -
- -
(. 28.16, ) - - (. 28.16, ) -
m .
2m 2m
L2 21 21 L2
2
L1 1 m m m 1 m2
21 mL1 mL1 2L1
2 2 2
1 m2 1 1 m2
L1 L1
2m 2 2m
2m 2m
1 m2 1 m2 1
2L2 2 2 L 2 1 m 2 1 m2 1 m2
2m 2
m2 2m
2 2L2 2 2L2
2
m m2 m
2


. 28.16

-
(. 28.16, , ) . 28.17, , . -
, , -
k, -
, k.
. 28.17, -
- k, m- (. 28.16, ),
RH = 1,5 .

 . -291-
28. M
m

1 1

0 0 2 2


0 1 1 0 2 2

1,6 |K|

1,2

R = 1,5
0,8
m

0,4
k

0
0,3 1 20 30 100 f,

. 28.17

2m 2m
L1 L2 mL1 mL1 L2
mL1 1 m2
2 1 m2 2 2

2L2 1 2L2
21 m m m
m2 m2 1 m2 21 2L2 21
2m 2 m 1 m2
2 1 2 m m 2
2 1 m2 2m 2m
2L 1 m2
2 2 1 m2 L1 m2
L1 2m
2m 2m 2
1
1 m2


. 28.18

 . -292-
28. M
m

a
b


0 1 1 0 2 2

1 1
0 0 2 2

1,6 |K|
R = 1

1,2

k
0,8

0,4
m

0
1 10 20 30 40 f,

. 28.19

- - -
- m,
- k (. 28.18, ), . 28.18, , . -
-
. 28.19, , .
. 28.19, -
- k m-
(. 28.18, ), RH = 1 .


1. m?
2. m -
m ?
3. m?
4. m
k?

 . -293-
29.

RC- . RC- . -
RC-. RC-.

, ,
.
(RC-), -
. ,
, . .
.

RC- .

(. 29.1) -
. , .
, -
, .
, , --
(. 29.1, ).
R R R
I R
2 2 2

U1
U2
2 2 2


. 29.1

1
1
0
2

4

0
2

. 29.2

 . -294-
29.
RC-

U2 2 U1
K= , U2 = I , I= ,
U1 j C R 2
+
2 j C

U1 2 U1
U2 = = .
R
+
2 jC 1 + jCR
2 j C 4

U2 1
K= = ,
U1 1 + j

4
= ; = (-
RC
R 2
, = ).
2 C

K = K e j .

1
K () = , ( ) = arctg .
2
1+

, ,
. 29.2.

RC- .
RC- -
, RC- (. 29.3).
, -

U2 1
K= = ,
U1 1 + 1
j

 . -295-
29.
RC-

1
= .
4RC

I 2 2
2

U1 U2 R 2R 2R
2R


. 29.3


1
1
2
2
4

0 0

. 29.4


1 1
K () = , ( ) = arctg .
1
1+
2
. 29.4.

RC-.
RC-
- (. 29.5). -
, .

I1 I2
R
m

U1 U min R U2

. 29.5

 . -296-
29.
RC-

,
:
U mn
U 2 = I 2 R, I 2 = , U mn = I1Z mn ,
1
R+
j C

1 1
+ R
U1 jC jC
.
I1 = , Z mn =
R + Z mn 1 1
+ +R
j C j C


U1 R 1
K= Z mn =
R + Z mn 1 U1
R+
jC
1 1
= = ,
1 1
3 + j CR 3+ j
CR
1
0 = ; = .
RC 0

1 1 1
K = , = arctg .
1
2 3
2
3 +

. 29.6.
,
RC- , ( = 30).
, ,
2
,
1 1
= .

2 3 2
1
32 +

 . -297-
29.
RC-


1
max = 2
3

max
4
2

0 0,30 0 3,30

4
0 0,30 0 3,30


2


. 29.6


2
1 2
9 + = 18 11 + 1 = 0,

1 2
1 = 0,3 2 = 3,3 = 0,3, = 3,3 1 = 0,30,
0 0
2 = 3,30.
0 -
, -
.

RC-.
RC- (. 29.7), -
- .
RC- .

I2

R R

I1 2 R
U1 U2
2

. 29.7

 . -298-
29.
RC-



1 2


0 0

0 0

2

. 29.8


( ) ( ). -
, -

- , , -
. ,
, -
(. 29.8).
RC-
.
,
, , , .

1. RC-?
2. RC- -
?
3. RC- ?
4.
?

 . -299-
30.

. .


, -
. -
, , -
, , . ., , -
,
-
. -
, ,
.

, ,
-
.
.
-
( , -
, -
. ., (0,050,1), -
).
() -
, 16 ,
,
(. 30.1, ).
.
. -
, -
, .
.
200 .
- , .
, -
(. 30.1, ), -
().

 . -300-
30.

, , -
,
. .



. 30.1


. 30.2

( ) -
(. 30.2, )
. -
. -
.
, -
(. 30.2, ).
. -
-
. ,
, ,
.

 . -301-
30.

, . -
,
.

.
, , -
( ),
, , .
-
(. 30.3).

, . . , :
dL
L1 = , /; C1 = dC ,
dx dx
dR dg
/; R1 = , /; g1 = -
dx dx
, /.
Z

. 30.3

-
.
, , -

.
X <<
, X 0
, .
(. 30.4),
L = L1X, C = C1X,
R = R1X, g = g1X.

 . -302-
30.

i ( + ) i( )
R1 L1 Z1 Z1 Z1

Y1 Y1
1 g1 U ( )
U ( + )

. 30.4 . 30.5

-
(. 30.5), Z1 = R1+jL1 -
, Y1 = g1 + jC1 -
. . . .
. U ( X + X ) , U ( X ) , I ( X + X ) , I ( X ) -

-
,

U ( x + x ) U ( x ) Z1x I ( x ) = 0,

I ( x + x ) I ( x ) Y1x U ( x + x ) = 0.

I ( x + x ) I ( x ) Y1x U ( x ) = 0 .

U ( x + x ) U ( x )
= Z1 I ( x ) ,
x

I ( x + x ) I ( x ) = Y U x .
1 ( )
x
X 0,
, -

 . -303-
30.

dU
x = Z1 I ( x ) ,

dI = Y U ( x ) .
x 1

,
-
, :

d 2U dI d 2U
2 = Z1 = Z1YU 1 , Z1YU
1 = 0,
x dx x 2
2
d I = Y dU = Z YI , d 2I
Z1Y1I = 0.
x 2 1
dx
1
x 2


, :

U ( x ) = Ae kx + Be kx ,

I ( x ) = Ce + De ,
kx kx

k = Z1Y1 .

, -
.
:
= 0 U ( x ) = U H , I ( x ) = I H

U ( 0 ) = A + B = U H ,

I (0) = C + D = IH ,

dU ( 0 ) = k A B = Z I ,
( )
dx 1 H


dI ( 0 ) = k C D = YU
( ) 1 H,
dx

 . -304-
30.

1 1
A=
2
(U H + Z B I H ) , B=
2
(U H Z B I H ) ,
1 U 1 U
C = IH + H , D = IH H ,
2 ZB 2 ZB
Z1
Z B = .
Y1

U ( x ) I ( x ) ,

( )
U ( x ) = U H ch kx + Z B I H sh kx ,

( )
U
( )
I ( x ) = I H ch kx + H sh kx .
ZB
( )

R1 = g1 = 0,
.
k= ( R1 + jL1 )( g1 + jC1 ) = j L1C1 = j ,
,
.

R1 + jL1 L
ZB = = 1 = ,
g1 + jC1 C1

U ( x ) = U H cos ( x ) + jI H sin ( x ) ,

UH
I ( x ) = I H cos ( x ) + j sin ( x ) .


,
.

1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?

 . -305-
31.

. (-
) .

, -
, .
RH = , U H = I H,

U ( x ) = U H cos ( x ) + jU H sin ( x ) = U H e jx ,

I ( x ) = I H cos ( x ) + jI H sin ( x ) = I H e .
jx

U H = U mH e (
j t + )
,

U ( x ) = U mH e j( t +x+ )
j ( t +x + )
I ( x ) = I mH e ,

u ( x, t ) = U mH cos ( t + x + ) ,

i ( x, t ) = I mH cos ( t + x + ) .

:
1. -
, -
.
2. -
.

X = V(t2 t1) (. 31.1).

 . -306-
31.

3.
x (. 31.2)
( x) .
U(, t) I(, t)
t2 > t1 U(, t1) U(, t2)

I(, t1) I(, t2)

= V(t2 t1)

. 31.1

t
t
t

U(x, t)

2
T=


2 1 x1 0
x2 t =
t =

. 31.2

x = -
2
2, . . x = = 2, = .

 . -307-
31.

V 2V
= = , V . -
f
1
, = L1C1 , , V = = = , . .
2 L1C1
L1 1.
4. -
.
5.

U ( x)
Z BX = = ,
I ( x)

-
, .

k= ( R1 + jL1 )( g1 + jC1 ) = + j ,

(
); . -
.

Z H = Z B .

( ) ( )
U ( x ) = U H ch kx + sh kx = U H e kx ,

U ( x ) = U mH ex e (
j t +x + )
,

u ( x, t ) = U mH ex cos ( t + x + ) .

( )
I ( x ) = I H ch kx + sh kx ,
( )
U H kx U mH x j( t +x +Z )
I ( x) = e = e e ,
ZH ZB

U mH x
i ( x, t ) = e cos ( t + x + Z ) .
ZB

 . -308-
31.

U m 0 = U m e ,
I m 0 = I m e , ,

1 U m0 1 I m0
= n = n .
U mH I mH

,
(. 31.3).

U mn , I mn
U m0
Um
U mn
I m0
Im

I mn
Z= x
0

. 31.3

U, i
U
i

z
=

. 31.4

-
. . 31.4
.
, z, -
.

 . -309-
31.

() .
()
k Z B .

k 2 = 2 + 2 j 2 = R1g1 2 L1C1 + j ( L1 g1 + C1R1 ) ,

2 2 = R1 g1 2 L1C1 ,

2 = ( L1 g1 + C1R1 ) .
:

=
1

2
R1 g1 2 L1C1 + (R 2
1 )( )
+ 2 L12 g12 + 2C12 ,

=
1 2
2
L1C1 R1 g1 + (R2
1 )( )
+ 2 L12 g12 + 2C12 .

,
R1 << L1, g1 << C1.

R g R g
k= jL1 1 j 1 jC1 1 j 1 = j L1C1 1 j 1 1 j 1 .
L1 C1 L1 C1
R g1
1 1 1 ,
L1 C1

R1 R g1 g
1 j 1 j 1 , 1 j 1 j 1 ,
L1 2L1 C1 2C1

x x2
1 x 1 x 1 .
2 4

R g Rg
k j L1C1 1 j 1 j 1 21 1 .
2L1 2C1 4 L1C1

 . -310-
31.
()

R1g1
, ,
42 L1C1

R1 C1 g1 L1
k + + j L1C1 .
2 L1 2 C1

,
R C1 g1 L1
( 0 ) R1 g1 ( ) 1 + (. 31.5),
2 L1 2 C1
.
, g1 0,
R C1 R1
= 1 .
2 L1 2

,
, -
.

,
R1 C1 g1 L1
+
2 L1 2 C1

R1g1

. 31.5

ZB =
R1 + jL1
=
( )=Z
R1 1 + j RL11
e j z .
g (1 + j )
B
g1 + jC1 1
C1
g1

 . -311-
31.
()

R1 L1
= 0 Z B = , Z B = .
g1 C1

R12 + 2 L12 1 L C
ZB = 4 2 2 2
, z = arctg 1 arctg 1 .
g1 + C1 2 R1 g1
C L
1 > 1 ,
g1 R1
(. 31.6).

Z B , Z
R1
ZB
g1

L1
C1

0
Z

. 31.6

, -
, ,
.


V= = =
1 2
2
L1C1 R1 g1 + ( R12 + 2 L12 )( g12 + 2
C12 )

1 1
= .
L1C1
1 Rg R12 g12
1 2 1 1 + 1 + 1 +
2 L1C1 2 L12 2C12

. . . , V -
22,5 . . 31.7

 . -312-
31.
()

V, /

f,

. 31.7

1 ,
2 , 3
.
V f , -
;
.

( ):

V
= = VT < .
f

1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
6. ?

 . -313-
32.

. . ,
.

:
) ;
) ;
) (L C).
.
,
, ,
,
.

U ( x ) = U H cos ( x ) = U mH cos ( x ) e j( t + ) ,

UH U mH

j t ++ 2
I ( x ) = j sin ( x ) = sin ( x ) e .


u ( x, t ) = U mH cos ( x ) cos ( t + ) ,

U mH
i ( x, t ) = sin ( x ) cos t + + .
2
:
1. -
.
2. cosx,
sinx (. 32.1).
, -
t . , -
, cosx = 0
sinx = 0 , , n-

X n 0 = ( 2n + 1) n- X n 0 = n , n = 0, 1, 2...
4 2

 . -314-
32.

, , -
.

cosx = 1 X nm = n sinx = 1 X nm = ( 2n + 1) .
2 4
3. -
, -
(. 32.2).

Umn i (x, t )
t1

t1 = ,

t6 t3 t2
t2 = t1 + ,
X 8
0

5 3 t4 t3 = t1 + ,
2 4
4 4 4
3
t5 t4 = t1 + ,
8

t5 = t1 + ,
i (x, t ) 2
U mn 3
t6 t6 = t1 + .
4
t1 t2
t5
X
5 3 t4 0

4 4 4
2
t3

. 32.1

 . -315-
32.

t
t
t

3
U(x, t) 5 2
4
X 3
4
5 3 2
4
4 2 04
4
. 32.2

4.
U ( x ) U H cos x
Z BX = = = j ctg x ,
I ( x) UH
j sin x

. . . -
, , ,
, .

. 32.3.
XBX ,
XBX , .

X BX = n X = ( 2n + 1) , -
2 4
.

X = n XBX , -
2
.

UH
( )
U ( x ) = U H ch kx , I ( x ) =
ZB
sh kx( )

 . -316-
32.

-
,
.

3
X
4 2 4
0

. 32.3

-
, ,
+ j -
:

U ( x ) = U H ch ( + j ) x = U H [ ch x cos x + j sh x sin x ] ,

UH U
I ( x) = sh ( + j ) x = H [sh x cos x + j ch x sin x ].
ZB ZB

ch 2x = ch 2 x + sh 2 x, cos 2x = cos 2 x sin 2 x,

ch 2 x sh 2 x = 1

 . -317-
32.

1
U ( x) = U H ( ch 2x + cos 2x ) ,
2

UH 1
I ( x) = ( ch 2x cos 2x ).
2

. 32.4 -
. . 32.4 , -

.

|U()| |I()|

|U|

X X
0 0

. 32.4

, -
-
. -
, -
,
.
,
.

U ( x) U ch kx
Z BX = = H = Z B cth kx = RBX + jX BX .
I ( x) UH
sh kx
ZB

 . -318-
32.

X
3 0
4 2 4

X
3 0
4 2 4


. 32.5

chkx shkx
,

th x
RBX = ,
th x cos 2 x + sin 2 x
2

1 1 sin 2 x
X BX = 1 2 .
2 th x cos 2 x + 1 sin 2 x
th 2 x

 . -319-
32.


. 32.5.

Z H = 0 U H = 0 ,

U ( x ) = jI H sin x,

I ( x ) = I H cos x.


u ( x, t ) = [I mH sin x ] cos t + + ,
2
i ( x, t ) = [ I cos x ] cos ( t + ) .
mH

, , ,
. :
1. sinx,
cosx, , -
-
.
2.
, -
, .
3.

U ( x ) jI H sin x
Z BX = = = j tg x = jX BX ,
I ( x) I H cos x

. . -
/2 .
. 32.6
.
, /4, -
,
. , /4,
, , , -
.

 . -320-
32.


, -
, (. 32.7). -
11 -
,
. -
, . .
.

X
3 0
4 2 4

. 32.6

1
1


4
4

. 32.7

( ) ( )
U ( x ) = Z B I H ch kx , I ( x ) = I H sh kx .

 . -321-
32.

1
U ( x) = I H ( ch 2x cos 2x ) ,
2

1
I ( x) = I H ( ch 2x + cos 2x ).
2

. 32.8.

Z B I H sh kx
Z BX = = Z B th kx = RBX + jX BX .
I H ch kx

|U()| |I()|

|I|


0 0
. 32.8


3 0
4 2 4
. 32.9

 . -322-
32.


3 0
4 2 4

. 32.10



1
RBX = th x ,
1
2
cos 2 x + sin 2 x
th x
1 1 sin 2 x
X BX = 2 .
2 ch x cos 2 x + th 2 x sin 2 x


. 32.9, . 32.10.

, .

Z H = jX H ,
U H = I H jX H .


U ( x ) = U H cos x + sin x ,
XH

I x = j U H sin x cos x .
( )

XH

 . -323-
32.
,

X H2 + 2 XH
= cos b , = sin b ,
XH X H2 + 2 X H2 + 2

. . X H2 + 2
U ( x) = U H cos x cos b + sin x ,
XH X H2 + 2

. . X H2 + 2
U ( x) = U H cos ( x b ) ,
XH
. U X H2 + 2
I ( x) = j H sin ( x b ) ,
XH


b = arctg .
XH

X 2 + 2
u ( x, t ) = U mn
cos ( x b ) cos ( t + ) ,
X
U X 2 + 2
i ( x, t ) = mn
sin ( x b ) cos t + + .
X 2
:
1) , ,
;
X H2 + 2
2) ,
XH
;
3) , os(x b) = 0, . .
b
x b = ( 2n + 1) , X 0 n = ( 2n + 1) + ;
2 4 2
4) sin(x b) = 0, . .
b
X 0i = n + .
2 2
1
X H = ,
C H

b = arctg < 0 < b < 0
XH 2

 . -324-
32.
,

3
; -
4 4
(. 32.11). , -

< .
4
1
j ctg = j ,
CH

1 1
= arcctg .
C H

(X = L > 0),

3
X 0n = ; ( 2n + 1) (. 32.12).
4 4 4
|U|, |I|
|U|

|I|


3 0
4 2 4

0 1
= =
3
4 2 4

. 32.11

 . -325-
32.
,

|U|, |I|
|I| |U|


3 0
4 2 4

= = L
3 0
4 2 4

. 32.12



< , -
4
, X = L.

j tg = jLH ,

L
= arctg H .
2

 . -326-
32.


1. ?
2. -
?
3. -
?
4.
?
5. ,
/4?

 . -327-
33.
. .

, , -
RH , ,
.
, -
RH.
, RH , U H = RH I H ,


U ( x ) = U H cos x + j sin x ,
RH

UH R
I ( x) = cos x + j H sin x .
RH

2

U ( x ) = U mH 2
cos x + sin x ,
RH
2
U R
I ( x ) = mH cos 2 x + H sin x .
RH

-
-
.
. 33.1
RH > .

. -
2
,
,
:
U U U
RBX min = min = min max = = K ,
I max U max I max K CB
U m
U max = U m , U min = .
R

 . -328-
33.

|U(x)|
|Umax|

. .
|Umin|
. .

3 0
4 2 4 |I(x)|
|Imax|
. .

. .
|Imin|

3 0
4 2 4

. 33.1

|Umin| |Imin| -
, RH ,
. RH (RH )
.
-
()

U min I
K = = min = < 1.
U max I max RH

, ,
()

1 U I
K = = max = max > 1 .
K U min I min

-
.

 . -329-
33.

U
U =
U


I
i = .
I

U ( x ) = A e kx + B e kx = U + U ,

I ( x ) = e kx + e kx = I + I .

B 2 kx U H Z B I H 2 kx
U = e = e ,
A U H + ZBIH

D 2 kx U Z B I H 2 kx
i = e = H e .
C U H + ZBIH

. . U = i . x = 0
U H ZBIH ZH ZB
= U = = .
U H + ZBIH ZH + ZB

, K K.
,

U min U U 1
K = = = .
U max U + U 1 +

R < , -
,
. -

U min R 1
K = = = .
U max K

 . -330-
33.

, ,

U ( x ) U H cos x + jI H sin x R cos x + j sin x


Z BX = = = H .
I ( x) UH cos x + jRH sin x
I H cos x + j sin x

Z BX = RBX + jX BX ,

2 RH
RBX = 2 ,
cos 2 x + RH2 sin 2 x

X BX =
( )
2 RH2 sin 2x
.
cos x + RH2 sin 2 x
2 2

R X R >
. 33.2.
R
R
=5 5

R
=2 2


3 0
4 2 4
X
2
R
=5

3 0
4 2 4
R
=2
2

. 33.2

 . -331-
33.

R X R < -
. 33.2, = 0 -

0 < x < -
4
.
, = n/4 (n = 1,
2, 3, ...), , , -
(
) ( -
). -
.
n/4 . -
n/4 -
, ,
-
. , -
Z H = RH + jX H . -

(. 33.3).

|U()|, |I()|
|I()| |U()|
|U|
|I|


+ + 3 + +
0
4 2 4 R, X
R


R
0
+ 3
+ + +
4 2 4

. 33.3

 . -332-
33.

-
, -
:

U ( x ) U H cos x + jI H sin x Z cos x + j sin x


Z BX = = = H ,
I ( x) UH cos x + jZ H sin x
I H cos x + j sin x

2 RH
RBX = 2 ,
cos 2 x + ( RH2 + X H2 )sin 2 x X H sin 2x

X BX =
( 2
)
RH2 X H2 sin x cos x + X H cos 2x
.
2 2
cos x + ( RH2 + X H2 )sin 2 x X H sin 2 x

, -
,
.
-
, ,
, , , -
, :

U max U max U min


RBX max = = = K CB ,
I min U min I min

U min U U 1
RBX min = = min max = = K .
I max U max I max K CB

, ,
, ,
,
KCB .

.
, -
, ,

 . -333-
33.

, , -
.
,
:
1. -
, . . .
2.
, . . V ;
V = /, ,
.
, -
,
-
, -
.
3. .
4. -
.
5. .

.
,
R
1+ 1
R1 + jL1 jL1 jL1
ZB = = ,
g1 + jC1 jC1 1 + g1
jC1

R1 g1 L R1
= ZB = = 1 = .
L1 C1 C1 g1

R1 L
k = ( R1 + jL1 )( g1 + jC1 ) = ( g1 + jC1 ) Z B = g1 + jC1 1 =
g1 C1
= R1 g1 + j L1C1 = + j.

, ,
R g
1 = 1 ( ; 1893 .)
L1 C1
, ,
.

 . -334-
33.


.
L1 C1
< . ,
R1 g1
L1 g1 R1 C1.
R1 ,
. g1 . -
C1 , -
. -
-
-
, 1900 .

, :
) ;
) ;
) ,
.
, -
-
.
.

.
, , -
-
.
PH
= ,
P0
PH , PH = P.H P.H; P0 -
, P0 = P 0 P 0.
2 2
P. . U . U .
= = ,
P 0 0 2
U 2
0 U 0

2
U . 2
U .
2
U 0
2
U 0

.
P = , = , P = , = .
Z
.
Z
0
Z
0
Z
B B B B

 . -335-
33.

2
U .H
2 1 2
U . U U 1
2

= . = .
U 0 2 2
,
U U
0 1 0
1 0
U 0

U U
= .H , 0 = 0
U . U 0
.
U.H = U 0 U 0 = U.H , |0| = || ,
2 2 2
2 1 2 1 1
= 2
= 2
= 2
.
1 0 1 4 2 2

= 0, 01 = 0, 02
= 0, 03

= 0, 08

= 0,12

. 33.4

, .
= (||) . 33.4.
,
(|| = 0). || = 0, -
:
max = 2 , << 1 max 1 2 .
. 33.4 , || = 1 ( ), = 0, . .
.

 . -336-
33.


1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. -
?
6.
?

 . -337-
34.
. -
.
.
, -
, -
, .

,
( Z H Z B ) . -
, .
, -
Z H ,
. , -
, , -
.
.
11
(. 34.1, ) , Y11 -
YB = 1/.
,
. . 1931 .

(t )
(t )
Z R =


Um

(t ) 1
1 Z
(t )
L

1 1


. 34.1

 . -338-
34.

-
,
( ). -
,
.
, -
,
. -
, 11
YB = 1/, (. 34.1, ) -
(, ).
-
11 -
,
-
Y11 ( Y
). -
-
(. 34.1, ), ZK
.
, 11
, , . . -
11
. 11
.
,
. 34.1, . ,
, ,
11.

,
.


Z H + j tg ( x )
Z = ,
+ jZ H tg ( x )

Z H = RH
1 1 + jRH tg ( x )
YBX = = .
Z RH + j tg ( x )

 . -339-
34.

-
,

1 RH + RH tg ( x ) 1 R tg ( x ) tg ( x )
2 2 2
YBX = +j .
R2 + 2 tg 2 ( x ) R2 + 2 tg 2 ( x )

,
1/

1 1 RH + RH tg ( X )
2
= ,
R2 + 2 tg 2 ( X )

R2 + 2 tg 2 ( X ) = RH + RH tg 2 ( X ) ,

RH R2 RH RH
tg ( X ) = 2
2
= , tg ( X)= ,
RH

R
X = arctg H .
2

-
-
11:
)

Z = j tg ( ),

1 R tg ( X ) tg ( ),
2 2
1 X
= j
j tg ( ) R2 + 2 tg 2 ( X )

(
RH 2

R 2 )
j tg ( )= j ,
R2 + RH

RH RH
= arctg ;
2 RH

 . -340-
34.

)
RH RH
= arctg .
2 RH
-

U
K = min .
U max
RH <
RH
K = ,

1 1 K
X
= K
= arctg
1 K
arctg K , ,
2 2

1 K

= arcctg
1 K
.
2
. 34.2 -
, -
.
-
() , -

.




. 34.2

 . -341-
34.

(t ) Z

1 2

1 2


. 34.3

-
( ),
, -
. -
(. 34.3).
,
3/8.
-
, 11
1/.
.
-
1 2 .
22

1 1 + j Z H tg ( ) = G +
Y22 = = X
jBH ,
Z BX Z H + j tg ( X)
H

Y 22 = GH + j ( BH + B2 ) .

11 -
.

 . -342-
34.

11

1
+ j tg ( )
1 GH + j ( BH + B2 )
Y11 = + jB11
= G11 ,
1
+ j tg ( )
GH + j ( BH + B 2 )


+ j ( B11
Y11 = G11 + B1 ) = G11
+ jB 11 .

-
:
1
= , B 11 = 0 .
G11


B1 B2:
1
GH sin 2
1 1 ,
B1 =
tg ( ) GH cos 2


1
G
H G
H sin 2

1 1 .
B2 =
tg ( )

2
cos

, , -

1
> GH sin 2 ,

. .
.
:
1 1
jB1 = , jB2 = .
j tg ( 1 ) j tg ( 2 )

 . -343-
34.

1 2 3
(t ) Z
1 2 3

1 2 3

2
1 3

. 34.4

-
(. 34.4).
/8 3/8.

. (, )
/4.
, (
).
-
, (), -
( ).
.

1. ?
2.
?
3. ?
4.
?

 . -344-
35.


. -
. .

-
, /4, -
(. 35.1).

U U

0 0

1 1 2
(t ) R ( t ) Z
1 1 2


4 4

. 35.1

,
Z H + jT tg ( x )
Z = T .
T + jZ H tg ( x )

2 2
x = x = = , Z = T .
4 4 2 ZH
, -
.
Z H ( Z H = RH ) , -
Z .

T = RH .

, 11 (. 35.1, ) -
.
, .

 . -345-
35.

,

.
-

T = 12 .

,

60 D
= n ,
d

; D ;
d . ,
, -
(. 35.2).

D D D
n = n n .
dT d1 d 2

d1 d d2

. 35.2

-
, .
-
, (. 35.1, ). -
, , -
RBX1 = /KCB. -
RBX2 = KCB.
:

T1 = , T2 = K CB .
K CB

 . -346-
35.

, -
,
:
Z + j tg ( )
Im H = 0,
+ jZ H tg ( )

2 xH 2 xH
tg ( 2 )= = arctg 2 .
RH2 + xH2 2 4 RH + xH2 2


.
-
,
, . . -
, .
-
.

T = 12 .


2 + jT tg ( T),
Z = T
T + j2 tg ( T)

2 0 0
tg ( T ) = tg = tg = tg =
4 2 2 0


= tg 1 + = tg + = ctg ,
2
0 2 2 0


= .
2 0

Z = T
( ) (
T2 1 + ctg 2 j 2 22 ctg ) .
2 + 22 ctg

 . -347-
35.

j (2 22 ) tg
1, tg 1 Z T T 2 .
0 22

2
N= ,
1

T = 12

1
Z 1 1 + j N tg .
N
, -
-
, , , -
,
, .

1
1 j N tg
Z 1 N
= = .
Z + 1 1
1 2 + j N tg
N
tg << 1

1 1
j N tg .
2 N

1 1
1N tg
1 2 N 1
K = = 1 N tg .
1+ 1 1 N
1+ N tg
2 N

|| -
, N. -
K,

 . -348-
35.

2 4 1 K
= = arctg .
0 1
N
N

1
0,9
0,8

0,7
0,6 N=2
0,5
0,4
0,3 N=3
N=4
0,2 N=5
0,1

0 0,05 0,1 0,15 0,2 0,25 0
. 35.3

. 35.3 -

-
0
.
, K
, .

.
,
, -

1
Z 1 1 + j N tg .
N

2 < 1 (N < 1), . .


, -
< 0 ( < 0) > 0 ( > 0).
, ,
0, = 0 -
, ( < 0, > 0) -
, ( > 0, > 0)

 . -349-
35.

. ,

, -
( -
), . 35.4.

1 2 2 < 1
1

0 0
0
4 4
4


. 35.4

2 0
X K = K ctg = K ctg =
4 2 0


= K ctg + = K tg .
2 2 0

1 1
Z 1 1 + j N tg + jK tg = 1 + j K + 1 N tg .
N N

-
-

1 1 N 2
K = 1 N = 1 , ( N 1) .
N N

, -
-
:

 . -350-
35.

2 4 1 K
= = arctg.
1 0
1
N 2
N N
,
23 ,
.

-
(. 35.5).
0 0
4 4


2 1 < 2 1 < 2
2

0
0
4
4


. 35.5

0 0
4 4


2 1 < 2 2 1 < 2

0 1
4 0
1 2 0
4 2
4


. 35.6

(N > 1), -

( > 0) ( < 0).

 . -351-
35.

0
.
,
-
-
.

N
K = 1 2
,
N 1

2
N = > 1.
1
,
.
,

(. 35.6).

.
-
,
.
, -
, . , -

, -
-
.
-
(. 35.7).

0
1 1 2 2

0 0 0
4 4
. 35.7

 . -352-
35.

, -

1 1
Z 1 1 + j N tg = 1 2 + j 1 2 N 1 2 tg .
N 2 2 N
2
N = T = 12
1

T2 2
Z = + jT 1 T2 tg .
2 2

,
00,
2
T1 2
Z = + jT1 1 T1
2
tg ,
1 1

, ,

2
T2 T22

Z = + jT2 1 2 tg .
2 2

1 < 2, > 0
.
T1 T2.
, -
00 :

2
T1 2
T2
= ,
1 2

1 T1 = 1 T2 .
2 2

T1
12
T2
22

T1 = 1 12 , T2 = 2 12 .

 . -353-
35.

, , -
,

1 2
K 1 N
tg .
N

2 4 1 K
= = arctg .
0 1
N
N

-
. , -

.
,
. ,
, -
-
.

-
( -
); -
.
, -
N n0/4 -
. -
: -
N, || -
2
.
0
-
.
-
.

 . -354-
35.


1. ?
2. -
?
3. ?
4. -
?
5. ?

 . -355-
36.

.
. .


,
, , , , -
, -
. . -
.
,
, -
, , , -
, .
, -
, -

, . . .
, -
, -
R, C, L ( -
M), .
, -
-
. , ,
, ,
.
, -
, .

, ,
, . . , -
-
.
, -

.
, , -
. -

 . -356-
36.

( ) -
, -
. , -
.
. , -
, ,
, . . -
.

.
( )
, -
-
.
(. 36.1) ,

U ( p)
Z ( p) = .
I ( p)

i
n

I U

. 36.1

I ( p)
Y ( p) = .
U ( p)

1
, Y ( p ) = .
Z ( p)
-
,
.

 . -357-
36.

, , -
,
Z11 ( p ) I1 ( p ) + Z12 ( p ) I 2 ( p ) + + Z1n ( p ) I n ( p ) = E11 ( p ) ,

Z 21 ( p ) I1 ( p ) + Z 22 ( p ) I 2 ( p ) + + Z 2 n ( p ) I n ( p ) = E22 ( p ) ,


Z ( p ) I ( p ) + Z ( p ) I ( p ) + + Z ( p ) I ( p ) = E ( p ) ,
n1 1 n2 2 nn n nn

1
Z ik = Rik + pLik + ( i = k)
pCik
; Eii .
I1(p),

1
I1 ( p ) = ,

; 1 , -
.

Z11 Z12 Z1n E11 Z12 Z1n


Z 21 Z 22 Z 2n E22 Z 22 Z 2n
= , 1 = .

Z n1 Zn2 Z nn Enn Zn2 Z nn

, , -
, , , . .

E11 ( p ) = E1 ( p ) , E22 ( p ) = E33 ( p ) = = Enn ( p ) = 0.

11 ( p )
I1 ( p ) = E1 ( p ) , 11(p) ,
( p)
(p)
.
( p) ( p)
, Z ( p ) = , Y ( p ) = 11 .
11 ( p ) ( p)
(p) 11(p), Z(p)
Y(p) -
:

 . -358-
36.

an p n + an1 p n1 + + a1 p + a0 M ( p ) 1
Z ( p) = = = .
bm p + bm1 p + + b1 p + b0 N ( p ) Y ( p )
m m 1

pk () , pk N(p)
Z(p). -
, Z(p) :
n

an ( p p1 )( p p2 )( p pn ) ( p pk )
Z ( p) = = H km=1 ,
bm ( p p1 )( p p2 )( p pm )
( p pk )
k =1

an
H = .
bm
, p = p1,
p = p2, ..., p = pm. p1 p2 ... pm.
k , k-
().
p = p1 , p = p2 , ..., p = pn .
, p1 p2 ... pn , k ,
k.
, -
-
.
p = + j
j, Z(j) Y(j) .
, Z(j) Y(j) -
:

Z(j) = Z()ej(), Y(j) = Y()ej(),

Z() Y() - ; () -
.
Z() Y()
.

 . -359-
36.

.
-

I k , k-
n n
1 n 1

ki i
R I I k + p ki i p C ki i
L I I k + I I k = Ekk k .
I
i =1 i =1 i =1
n ,
n n n n
1 n n 1 n
Rki Ii I k + p Lki Ii I k + p C ki Ii I k = Ekk I k .
k =1 i =1 k =1 i =1 k =1 i =1 k =1

-
, .

n n
F0 = Rki I i I k ,
k =1 i =1

n n
T0 = Lki I i I k ,
k =1 i =1

n n
1
V0 = Ii I k ,
k =1 i =1 C ki

1
F0 + pT0 + V0 = S ,
p
F0, T0, V0 .
(p = j)
, .
F0 -
RI 2
F0 = 2 .
2

 . -360-
36.

T0 ,
LI 2
T0 = 2 = 2WL .
2
V0 2 , -
I2 2 CU
2

V0 = = 2 = 22WC .
C 2
,
, -
, ,

V
F0 + j T0 02 = S .

, -
F0, T0, V0 0.
(E) (I)
() I(p).

V0
F0 + pT0 + = EI.
p

2
I I = I ,

V0
F0 + pT0 +
p EI E ( p)
= = = Z ( p) .
I
2
I I I ( p)

|I|2 . -
|I| = 1

V
Z ( p ) = F0 + pT0 + 0 .
p I 2 =1

F0, T0, V0 -
, |I|2 , :
) Z(p) .

 . -361-
36.

1
Re Z ( p ) = F0 + T0 Re p + V0 Re =
p

V0

= F0 + T0 Re p + 2 Re p, p = j, Re p = Re p ;
p

) ReZ(p) 0 Rep 0.
Y(p) = 1/Z(p):
) Y(p) ,
) ReY(p) 0 Rep 0.
,

1 1 1
Y ( p) = = = =
Z ( p ) Z ( + j) R ( , ) + jX ( , )

R ( , ) X ( , )
= j .
R 2 ( , ) + X 2 ( , ) R 2 ( , ) + X 2 ( , )

, R(,) 0 > 0, ReY(p) 0 Rep 0.


, . () (), -
().
, -
.
,
2
V F F V
Z(p) = 0, Z ( p ) = F0 + pT0 + 0 = 0 p1,2 = 0 0 0 .
p 2T0 2T0 T0
p1,2,
F0, T0, V0 . -
.
1. F0, T0, V0 , -
p1,2 , Z(p)
(. 36.2).
V
2. (LC-) F0 = 0 p1,2 = j 0 ,
T0
. . ( )
(. 36.2, ).

 . -362-
36.

Im Im Im Im

1 1

F0 V0
p= p=
T0 F0
Re Re Re Re
0 0 0 0

2 2


. 36.2
V0
3. (LC-) F0 = 0 p1,2 = j ,
T0
. . ( )
(. 36.2, ).
F
4. RL- V0 = 0 p = 0
T0
(. 36.2, ).
V
5. R- T0 = 0 p = 0 -
F0
(. 36.2, ).


.
, -
, , ,
- ,
.
,
:
) ;
) ;
) ;
) .
.

 . -363-
36.

, , -
.

.
F(p)

an p n + an1 p n1 + + a1 p + a0 M ( p )
F ( p) = =
bm p m + bm1 p m1 + + b1 p + b0 N ( p )

, -
an, an1, ... a0, bm, bm1, ... b0 .
, F(p) (Z(p) Y(p) -
, -
. , M(p) N(p) ,
, .
, :
(p ) -
1
, . . Z(p) pL, Z ( p ) ,
pC
Z(p) R.
a
, F ( p ) = Z ( p ) n p nm p .
bm
, Z(p) pL n m = 1,
1
Z ( p) m n = 1 Z(p) R m = n.
pC
,
, . . M(p) N(p)
( )
(p + ), (p + j) p 2 + k2 , , , k . -
, an, an1, ... a0, bm, bm1, ... b0 -
. ,
, ,
M(p) N(p)
, , -
(LC-).
-
, , F(p)
. , M(p)
N(p) ( , ).

 . -364-
36.

, -
, .
, -
. , -
.
, -
, , , , .
.
L(p)
F(p). L(p) : L(p) = m(p) + n(p), m(p)
L(p) p: p0, p2, p4, ..., n(p)
L(p) p: p, p3, p5, ...
[5], L(p) , -
( -
) -
.
1. ,
L(p) = 36p5 + 12p4 + 48p3 + 10p2 + 15p + 1
.
. , -
.
36 p 5 + 48 p 3 + 15 p n ( p )
( p) = = .
12 p 4 + 10 p 2 + 1 m( p)

36 p 5 + 48 p 3 + 15 p 12 p 4 + 10 p 2 + 1

(
36 p 5 + 30 p 3 + 3 p ) 3p .

18p 3 + 12 p
n1 ( p ) 18 p 3 + 12 p
( p ) = C0 + = 3p + , C0 > 0 .
m( p) 12 p 4 + 10 p 2 + 1

m( p)
1 ( p ) = ,
n1 ( p )
, :

 . -365-
36.

12 p 4 + 10 p 2 + 1 18p 3 + 12 p

(
12 p 4 + 8 p 2 ) 2
3
p .

2p 2 + 1

2 2 p2 + 1
1 ( p ) =
p+ .
3 18 p 3 + 12 p

18p 3 + 12 p 2p 2 + 1
n1 ( p ) 18 p 3 + 12 p
2 ( p ) =
m1 ( p )
=
2 p2 + 1
, (
18p 3 + 9 p ) 9p

3p
3p n2 ( p )
2 ( p ) = 9 p +
= 9 p + .
2 p2 + 1 m1 ( p )

2p 2 + 1 3 p
2
2p 2 p
3
1

2 1 2 m ( p)
3 ( p ) = p+ = p+ 2 .
3 3p 3 n2 ( p )
3p 1
, 3 p 3p .
0
:

1
( p) = 3 p + ,
2 1
p+
3 1
9p +
2 1
p+
3 3p

 . -366-
36.

, , L(p)
.

2. ,

L(p) = 2p5 + 3p4 + 7p3 + 7p2 + 6p + 1

.
2 p5 + 7 p3 + 6 p
( p ) =
3 p4 + 7 p2 + 1
:
n( p) 2 1
( p) = = p+ .
m( p) 3 9
p+
1
7 49 1
p+
3 1 1
p+
77 11 p

, -
L(p) .

.
: 1) p = 0 ( ), 2) p = ,
3) p = ji.
M ( p)
F ( p ) =
N ( p)
:

kj
k0 q 2ki p
F ( p ) = k p + + 2 + +H,
p i =1 p + i2 j =1 p p j

k, k0, ki, kj F(p) ,


, . kj-
p = pj (p pj)
p pj. , -
kj, .

M ( p)
lim (
p p j N ( p )
)
p pj = kj .

 . -367-
36.

F(p) p ,
p = 0

M ( p)
k0 = lim F ( p ) p = .
p 0 N ( p) p =0

M(p) N(p)
, k .
F(p) ,
. -
k p = , , k0, -
.
F(p) p = ji, -
( )
N(p) ( p ji )( p + ji ) = p 2 + i2 .

ki ki 2k p
+ = 2 i 2,
p + ji p ji p + i

2ki = 2lim 2
(
F ( p ) p 2 + i2 ),
p i p
.

-
. F(p) -
, ReF(p) 0 Rep 0, . .
F(p) ,
p = j +.
F(p) ,
:

M ( p ) m1 + n1
F ( p) = = ,
N ( p ) m2 + n2

m1 m2 , n1 n2 .

m1 + n1 m2 n2 ( m1m2 n1n2 )( m2n1 m1n2 )


F ( p) = = .
m2 + n2 m2 n2 m22 n22

 . -368-
36.

F(p) ,
, , p = j

m1m2 n1n2
= Re F ( j) ,
m22 n22 p = j

m2 n1 m1n2
= Im F ( j) .
m22 n22 p = j

m22 n22 = N ( j) N ( j) = N ( j)
2

, : ReF(j) 0,
( )
A 2 = ( m1m2 n1n2 ) p = j 0 . A(2) , -
, 0 .
x = 2,
A(2) = A(x) = Cnxn + Cn 1xn 1 + ... + C1x + C0 = k(x x1)(x x2)...(x xn),

xi = i2 A(x) = A(2).
A(x) ,
.
. -
. , xi = a jb, (x a + jb)(x a + jb) =
= (x a)2 + b2 0 0 x .
,
.
-
.
, ReF(j) -
, A(x) x -
. : , ,
. , -
A(x) = 0, -
a x b (a b -
A(x). ,
a x b |na nb|, na
a nb b -
x. -

 . -369-
36.

. -
:

S0(x) = A(x); S1(x) = A(x); S2(x); ...; Sm = const,

S0(x) S1(x) ; S2(x) -


S0(x) S1(x); S3(x) -
S1(x) S2(x) . .; Sm -
.
na

S0(a), S1(a); S2(a); ...; Sm

nb
S0(b), S1(b); S2(b); ...; Sm,
|na nb|.
1. ,

5 p 2 + 10 p + 9
F ( p) = .
p 2 + 0,5 p + 4
. ReF(p) p = j.

( ) ( )( )
A 2 = m1m2 n1n2 = 5 p 2 + 9 p 2 + 4 10 p 0,5 p =

= 5 p 4 + 20 p 2 + 9 p 2 + 36 5 p 2 = 5 p 4 + 24 p 2 + 36 =
p = j

= 54 242 + 36.

( )
A 2 = A ( x ) = 5 x 2 24 x + 36.

S0(x) = A(x) = 5x2 24x + 36

S1(x) = A(x) = 10x 24x.

 . -370-
36.

S2(x), S0(x)/S1(x)

5 x 2 24 x + 36 10 x 24

(
5 x 2 12 x ) 1
2
x
6
5
S0 ( x ) S ( x ) 12 x + 36
= 1 x + 1 + 2 ,
S1 ( x ) S1 ( x ) 144
12 x +
5
36
5

36
S0 ( x ) 1 6 36
= x + 5 , S2 ( x ) = .
S1 ( x ) 2 5 S1 ( x ) 5


x(x = 0, x = );

S0 ( x ) = 5 x 2 24 x + 36, S0 ( 0 ) = 36, S0 ( ) = ,
S1 ( x ) = 10 x 24, S0 ( 0 ) = 24, S0 ( ) = ,

36 36 36
S2 ( x ) = , S2 ( 0 ) = , S2 ( ) = .
5 5 5
, na = 1, nb = 1, na nb = 0 A(x) -
0 x , , -
F(p) .
2. ,

2 p 4 + 3 p3 + 5 p 2 + 5 p + 1
F ( p) = .
(
2 p 4 + p3 + 3 p 2 + p + 2 )
. m1m2 n1n2.
A(p) = (2p4 + 5p2 + 1)(2p4 + 6p2 + 4) (3p3 + 5p)(2p3 + 2p) =
= 4p8 + 16p6 + 24p4 + 16p2 + 4.
p = j A(2) = 48 166 + 244 162 + 4.
2 = x A(x) = 4x4 16x3 + 24x2 16x + 4.

 . -371-
36.

,
,
. A(x) 0,25,
A(x) = S0(x) = x4 4x3 + 6x2 4x +1.

S1 ( x) = S0 ( x) = 4 x3 12 x 2 + 12 x 4 .
S2(x), S0(x)/S1(x),
x 4 4 x3 + 6 x 2 4 x + 1 4 x3 12 x 2 + 12 x 4

(
x 4 3x3 + 3x 2 x ) 1
4
x
1
4
x3 + 3x 2 3x + 1

(
x3 + 3x 2 3x + 1 ),
0
S0 ( x ) 1 1
= x .
S1 ( x ) 4 4
-
. ,

S1(x) = 4(x3 3x2 + 3x 1)

x3 3x2 + 3x 1 = [x(x2 2x + 1)] = (x 1)3.

, (x 1)3 S0(x), . .
S0(x) = 0 3 x = 1 , -
A(x) 0 x , F(p)
.

1. ?
2.
?
3. ?
4. -
?

 . -372-
37.
.
LC-.

.
, F(p) -
, ,
. -
, -
:
( -
);
.
1. .
F(p) -
, .
M ( p)
F ( p ) = .
N ( p)
M(p)/N(p) F(p) = Hp + F1(p), H -
. , .
F(p) = Z(p) , Z(p) = Hp + Z1(p)
Hp ; F(p) = Y(p) ,
Y(p) = Hp + Y1(p) Hp .
F(p) p = 0,
k0/p
M ( p ) k0
F ( p) = = + F1 ( p ) ,
N ( p) p

k0 F(p) p = 0.
F(p) = Z(p)- k0/p -
, F(p) = Y(p)- k0/p -
. ,
.
F(p) p = jk,
kk kk 2k p
F ( p) = + + F1 ( p ) = 2 k 2 + F1 ( p ) ,
p jk p + jk p + k
kk p = jk.

 . -373-
37.

F(p) = Z(p)- -
1 2k
Ck = Lk = 2k
2k k k

2k k p 1
2 2
= 2
.
p + k p 2k
+
2k k p 2kk p

F(p) = Y(p)- -
1 2k
Lk = Ck = 2k
2k k k

2k k p 1
2 2
= 2
.
p + k p 2k
+
2k k p 2kk p

F(p) q, -
q.
F(p)
-
,
F(p)- . -
,
, F(p) = Z(p),
, F(p) = Y(p).
, R = k minReF(j),
F(p) k = F1(p) (-
k > minReF(j), ReF1(j) ,
, F(p) ).
-
,
, , -
, RL-
RC-.
, -
, , , ,
(. 37.1).
. 37.1
. -
, -
.

 . -374-
37.

2k1 2k q
L1 = Lq =
1 12 2q
k0 R=k

1 1
F(p) = Z(p) 1 = q =
2k1 2k q

1 1
L1 = Lq =
2k1 2k q
F(p) = Y(p) 1
1
k0 R=
2k1 k
C1 = 2k q
12 q =
2q


. 37.1

2.
.
(. 37.2).
, Z(p) = Z1(p) + Zab(p),
1
Z ab ( p ) = . .
1
Y2 ( p ) +
Z 3 ( p ) + Z cd ( p )
1
Z ( p ) = Z1 ( p ) + .
1
Y2 ( p ) +
1
Z3 ( p ) +
1
Y4 ( p ) + +
Yn ( p )

Z1(p) a Z3(p) c Zn1(p)

Z(p) Y2(p) Y4(p) Yn(p)


b d

. 37.2

 . -375-
37.


, :

M ( p ) an p n + an1 p n1 + + a1 p + a0
F ( p) = = .
N ( p ) bm p m + bm1 p m1 + + b1 p + b0

F(p) = Z(p) n = m + 1, -
p = , -
:
M 1( p )
Z ( p ) = A1 p + = A1 p + Z1 ( p ) .
N ( p)

Z1 ( p ) p = ,
1
Y1( p ) = p = -
Z1 ( p )
:

Y1( p ) = A2 p + Y2 ( p ) .

1
Z 2 ( p ) = = A3 p + Z 3 ( p ) .
Y2 ( p )

n ,

1
Z ( p ) = A1 ( p ) + .
1
A2 ( p ) +
1
A3 ( p ) +
1
A4 ( p ) + +
An ( p )

, (. 37.2),

A1(p) = Z1(p), A3(p) = Z3(p), ..., An1(p) = Zn1(p),


A2(p) = Y2(p), A4(p) = Y4(p), ..., An(p) = Yn(p).

 . -376-
37.

() -
.
-
1
, p = 0.
p
1
F(p) pn = q ,
p

an + an1q + an2q 2 + + a1 p n1 + a0q n


F (q) = .
bm q nm + bm1q nm+1 + + b1q n1 + b0 q n

F(q) = Z(q) ,

1
Z ( q ) = B1 ( q ) + .
1
B2 ( q ) +
1
B3 ( q ) +
1
B4 ( q ) + +
Bn ( q )

,
(. 37.2)

B1 B B
B1 ( q ) = = Z1 ( p ) , B3 ( q ) = 3 = Z 3 ( p ) , , Bn1Bn1 ( q ) = n1 =
p p p

Bn1
= Z n1 ( p ) = = Z n1 ( p ) ,
p

B2 B B
B2 ( q ) = = Y2 ( p ) , B4 ( q ) = 4 = Y4 ( p ) , , Bn ( q ) = n = Yn ( p ) .
p p p

-
.

 . -377-
37.

LC--.
, -
(LC)
V0 V
Z ( p ) = F0 + pT0 + = pT0 + 0 ,
p p

F0 0 , .
V
Z(p) p = j 0 .
T0
, p = + j,

V0 V V
Z ( p ) = ( + j) T0 + = T0 + 2 0 2 + j T0 2 0 2 =
+ j + +
= R ( , ) + jX ( , ) .

p = j ( = 0)
Z(j) = jX(), R(,) = 0.
Y(p) = 1/Z(p) p = j:

Y(p) = G(,) + jB(,) = jB().

, LC- -
, . . .
-
. , -
,
u + jv = f(x + jy) ,

u v u v
= , = ,
x y y x

-
.

Z(p) = R(,) + jX(,)

 . -378-
37.
LC--

R ( , ) X ( , )
= ,

X ( , ) dX ( ) d V0 V0
= =
0T = T0 + > 0.
=0 d d 2 + 2 =0 2

X() B() ,
Z(p) Y(p) . .

Z(p) Y(p) p 2 + k2 p. ( )
, LC- -
-
, , Z(p) Y(p)
p = 0 p = . , -

.
:

Z ( p )
F ( p) =
( p 2 + 12 )( p 2
) ,
+ 32
=H 2
Y ( p ) ( p + 22 )( p 2
+ )
2
4

1 3,... : 2,... 0 1 < 2 < 3 < 4 ...


M(p) , N(p) , ,
N(p) , M(p) .
, -
(. 37.3).
) M(p) N(p), p;
) M(p) N(p), p ;
) M(p) N(p), p ;
) M(p) N(p), p .

() ()

 . -379-
37.
LC--

0 0


() ()

0 0


. 37.3
, -
, .
-
, -
Z(p):
k0 q 2 k k p
Z ( p) = H p + + 2 .
p k =1 p + k2

() :

H = lim
Z ( p)
, k0 = lim Z ( p ) p , 2kk = 2lim 2
(
Z ( p ) p 2 + k2 ) .
p p p 0 p k p

Zk(p)
L, C0 .
, -
. 37.4.

 . -380-
37.
LC--

2k1 2k q
L1 = Lq =
1 12 2q
k0

1 1
Z(p) 1 = q =
2k1 2k q

. 37.4

Z(p)
L = H C0 = 1/k0. Z(p)
( . 37.3, ),
L = H C0, (
(. 37.3, ), L = H C0
. Z(p) ( -
(. 37.3, , ) L,
C0.
1.

Z ( p) =
( )( p + 8 10 ) .
102 p p 2 + 4 104 2 4

( p + 2 10 )( p + 6 10 )( p + 10 10 )
2 4 2 4 2 4

. , -
.
Z(p) 1 = 0, 3 = 2 102 , 5 = 8 102 , 3 = ,
2 = 2 102 , 4 = 6 102 , 6 = 10 102 .

1 = 0 2 3 4 5 6 =

|Z()| . 37.5.
Z(p)

2k2 p 2k p 2k p
Z ( p) = 2 2
+ 2 4 2+ 2 6 2.
p + 2 p + 4 p + 6

, -
(. 37.6) 2, 4, 6.

 . -381-
37.
LC--

|Z()|

0
2 102 6 102 10 102
2 102 8 102

. 37.5

L2 L4 L6

Z(p) 2 4 6

. 37.6

1 (
Z ( p ) p 2 + k2
= 2kk = 2lim 2
) ,
Ck p k p

1
= lim
( )( )(
102 p p 2 + 4 104 p 2 + 8 104 p 2 + 2 104 ) = 300 1 ,
C2 (
p 2 2104
)( )(
p 2 + 2 104 p 2 + 6 104 p 2 + 10 104 p )

8

1
= lim
( )( )(
102 p p 2 + 4 104 p 2 + 8 104 p 2 + 6 104 ) = 25,
C4 p 2 6104
( )( )(
p 2 + 2 104 p 2 + 6 104 p 2 + 10 104 p )

1
= lim
( )( )(
102 p p 2 + 4 104 p 2 + 8 104 p 2 + 10 104 ) = 300 1 .
C6 p 2 10104
( )( )(
p 2 + 2 104 p 2 + 6 104 p 2 + 10 104 p )

8

 . -382-
37.
LC--

C2 = 0,0267 , C4 = 0,04 , C6 = 0,0267 .

2k k 300
Lk = 2
, L2 = 4
= 1,88 103 ,
k 8 2 10

25 3 300
L4 = 4
= 0, 42 10 , L6 = 4
= 0,375 103 .
6 10 8 10 10


Y(p).

2. ,

Y ( p) =
(
103 p 2 + 2 106 )( p 2
+ 6 106 )( p 2
+ 10 106 ).
(
p p 2 + 4 106 )( p 2
+ 8 106 )
. Y(p) 0 = 0, 2 = 2 103 ,
4 = 8 103 , = , 1 = 2 103 , 3 = 6 103 , 5 = 10 103 .
|Y()| . 37.7.

|Y()|

0
2 10 2
6 102 10 102
2 102 8 102
. 37.7

 . -383-
37.
LC--

L0 =
1 L1 L3
k0
Y(p)
=
C1
C3

. 37.8

Y(p) :

k0 2k p 2k p
Y ( p) = H p + + 2 1 6+ 2 3 6.
p p + 4 10 p + 8 10

, . 37.8.

Y ( p ) 3
C = H = lim = 10 ,
p
p

1
= k0 = lim Y ( p ) p =
L0 p 2 0

= lim
( )( )( )
103 p 2 + 2 106 p 2 + 6 106 p 2 + 10 106 p 18
= 103 ,
1
p 2 0
( )(
p p 2 + 4 106 p 2 + 8 106 ) 4

L0 = 0,022103 ,

 . -384-
37.
LC--

1
= lim 6
(
Y ( p ) p 2 + 4 106 ) = 2 10 3 1 3
L1 p 2 410
p , L1 = 0,5 10 ,

1
= lim 6
(
Y ( p ) p 2 + 8 106 ) = 1,5 10 3 1 3
L3 p 2 810
p , L3 = 0,67 10 ,

2k1 2 103 3 2k3 1,5 103


C1 = 2 = 6
= 0,5 10 , C3 = 2 = 6
= 0,187 103 .
2 4 10 4 8 10

-
p = .
3. -

Z ( p) =
( )( p + 8 10 ) .
102 p p 2 + 4 104 2 4

( p + 2 10 )( p + 6 10 )( p + 10 10 )
2 4 2 4 2 4

. Z(p)

102 p 5 + 12 106 p 3 + 32 1010 p


Z ( p) = 6 .
p + 18 104 p 4 + 92 108 p 2 + 120 1012

Z(p) ,
Z1(p). Y(p) = 1/ Z(p) -
, , Y2(p);

p 6 + 18 104 p 4 + 92 108 p 2 + 120 1012 102 p 5 + 12 106 p 3 + 32 1010 p

( )
p 6 + 18 104 p 4 + 92 108 p 2 + 120 1012 10-2 p = Y2 ( p ) = C2 p .

6 104 p 4 + 60 108 p 2 + 120 1012

102 p 5 + 12 106 p 3 + 32 1010 p


Z ( p ) = .
6 104 p 4 + 60 108 p 2 + 120 1012
Z ( p ) p = , , Z3(p):

 . -385-
37.
LC--

102 p 5 + 12 106 p 3 + 32 1010 p 6 104 p 4 + 60 108 p 2 + 120 1012

(
102 p 5 + 12 106 p 3 + 32 1010 p ) 1 -2
6
10 p = Z 3 ( p ) = L3 p .

2 106 p 3 + 12 1010 p
-
Y4(p):
6 104 p 4 + 60 108 p 2 + 120 1012 2 106 p 3 + 12 1010 p

( )
6 104 p 4 + 60 108 p 2 + 120 1012 3 10-2 p = Y4 ( p ) = C4 p .

24 108 p 2 + 120 1012


. .
2 106 p 3 + 12 1010 p 24 108 p 2 + 120 1012

(
2 106 p 3 + 12 1010 p ) 1
12
10-2 p = Z 5 ( p ) = L5 p.

2 1010 p
24 108 p 2 + 120 1012 2 1010 p

( )
24 108 p 2 + 120 1012 12 10-2 p = Y6 ( p ) = C6 p,

120 1012

2 1010 p 120 1012

(
2 1010 p ) 1
60
10-2 p = Z 7 ( p ) = L7 p.

0
, , . 37.9.

L3 = 1,67 103 L5 = 0,83 103 L5 = 0,167 103

2 = 102 4 =3 102 6 =12 102


Z(p)

. 37.9

 . -386-
37.
LC--

, -
1/p, -
p = 0.
.
4. -

102 p 5 + 12 106 p 3 + 32 1010 p
Z ( p) = 6 .
p + 18 104 p 4 + 92 108 p 2 + 120 1012
. Z(p) , -
. Z(p)
p = 0, Y(p) = 1/Z(p), -
p = 0. Z(p)
, Y2(p):
120 1012 + 92 108 p 2 + 18 104 p 4 + p 6 32 1010 p + 12 106 p 3 + 102 p 5

(
120 1012 + 45 108 p 2 + 3,75 104 p 4 + p 6 ) 375
p
= Y2 ( p ) =
1
L2 p
.

47 108 p 2 + 14,25 104 p 4 + p 6



32 1010 p + 12 106 p 3 + 102 p 5
Z ( p ) = .
47 108 p 2 + 14,25 104 p 4 + p 6
Z(p) p = 0, , Z3(p):

32 1010 p + 12 106 p 3 + 102 p 5 47 108 p 2 + 14, 25 104 p 4 + p 6

(
32 1010 p + 9,7 106 p 3 + 68 p 5 ) 68
p
= Z3 ( p ) =
1
C3 p
.

2,3 106 p 3 + 32 p 5
p = 0, :
47 108 p 2 + 14,25 104 p 4 + p 6 2,3 106 p 3 + 32 p 5

(
47 108 p 2 + 6,54 104 p 4 + p 6 ) 2040
p
= Y4 ( p ) =
1
L4 p
2,3 106 p 3 + 32 p 5 7,71 104 p 4 + p 6

(
2,3 106 p 3 + 30 p 5 ) 30p = Z ( p ) = C1p
5
5

 . -387-
37.
LC--

7,71 104 p 4 + p 6 2 p 5
3,855 103 1
7,71 10 p 4 4
= Y6 ( p ) =
p L6 p
2 p5 p6 .

2 1
2 p 5 = Z7 ( p ) =
p C7 p
0
, Z(p) :
.
1
Z ( p) =
1 1
+
2,7 103 p 1
+
1
0,015 p 1 1
+
0,5 103 p 1
+
1
33,3 103 p 1
+
1
26 103 p 1
0,5 p
. 37.10.

3 =0,015 5 =33,3 103 7 =0,5

L2 = 2,7 103 L4 = 0,5 103 L3 = 26 106

. 37.10
-
, -
, .
p = p = 0, -
p, ,
.

1.
?
2. ?
3. ?
4. LC-?

 . -388-
38.
RC-
RC-.
RC-. -
RL-.

RC-.

RC-
V0
Z ( p ) = F0 + .
p
(T0 0 .) ZRC(p)
V0
p = , , ,
F0
RC- , V0 F0 -
.
V0 V V
Z RC ( p ) = F0 + = F0 + 2 0 2 j 2 0 2 = R ( , ) jX ( , ) .
p + +
,
( > 0) . , ZRC(p)
p = ,
Hp, . , H > 0
> 0, X(,).
, ZRC(p)
.
,
R X Z RC ( p ) X V0 V0
= , = = 2 = < 0.
=0 =0 + 2 2
:
1
YRC ( p ) = , YRC ( , ) = g ( , ) jb ( , ) ,
Z RC ( p )

YRC b V0
= = > 0,
=0 =0 F0 + V0
. ., LC-, -
( ZRC(p) YRC(p) ), -

 . -389-
38. RC-
RC-

, -
(. 38.1).
YRC(p)
ZRC(p)

Z(0) Y() Y(0)


Z()
0 0


. 38.1

RC-

Z RC ( p ) = H
( p + 2 )( p + 4 )( p + n ) =
( p + 1 ) ( p + 3 )( p + m )

p n + an1 p n1 + + a1 p + a0
=H m ,
p + bm1 p m1 + + b1 p + b0

0 1 < 2 < 3..., m = n n = m 1.


ZRC(p)

m
k0 kk
Z RC ( p ) = + +H,
p k =1,3,5... p + k

k0 p = 0;

k0 = lim pZ RC ( p ) , H = lim Z RC ( p ) .
p 0 p

kk = lim Z RC ( p ) ( p + k ) .
p k

 . -390-
38. RC-
RC-

ZRC(p) ,

Z RC ( 0 ) = , Z RC ( ) = H ,
R
m
kk
R = H + , .. Z RC ( 0 ) Z RC ( ) .
k =1,3,5... k

ZRC(p) ( p = 0).

ZRC(p) ( p = ).
Zk = kk/(p + k) -
.
,
1 p + k p
Yk = = = + k,
Zk kk kk kk

1 1 k
Yk = pCk + , Ck = , Rk = k .
Rk kk k

, (. 38.2).
1 1
C1 = Cm =
k1 km
1
C0 =
k0 R=H

ZRC(p)
k1 km
R1 = Rm =
1 m

. 38.2

RC-.

1.

 . -391-
38. RC-
RC-

Z ( p) =
(
103 p + 3 103)( p + 5 10 ) . 3

( p + 2 10 )( p + 4 10 )
3 3

. Z(p) 2 = 3103, 4 = 5103,


1 = 2103, 3 = 4103.
ZRC()

Z() Z(0)
3 3
4 10 2 10 0

. 38.3
C1 C3

R=

ZRC()
R3

. 38.4

ZRC() . 38.3.
Z(p) p = 0, k0 = 0,

H = R = lim Z RC ( p ) = lim
(
103 p + 3 103 p + 5 103 )( ) = 10 .
3
p p
(
p + 2 103 p + 4 103 )( )

Z(p)
k1 k3
Z ( p) = H + + ,
p + 2 103 p + 4 103

 . -392-
38. RC-
RC-

( )
k1 = lim 3 Z ( p ) p + 2 103 = 1,5 106 ,
p 210

p 410
( )
k3 = lim 3 Z ( p ) p + 4 103 = 0,5 106.

Z(p)
. 38.4.

1 1
C1 = = 0,667 106 , C3 = = 2 106 ,
k1 k3

k3 0,5 106 k1 1,5 106


R3 = = = 125 , R1 = = = 750 .
3 4 103 1 2 103


YRC(p). YRC() (. 38.1, )
,
( p = 0), , YRC(0)p YRC().
YRC(p), -
,
YRC(p).
,
YRC(p)/p, -
.

YRC ( p ) k0 m
kk
= + +H.
p p k =2,4,6... p + k

p,
m
kk p
YRC ( p ) = k0 + + H p,
k = 2,4,6... p + k

Y ( p ) Y ( p )( p + k )
k0 = YRC ( 0 ) , H = lim RC , kk = lim RC .
p
p p k
p
, k0 = 1/R0 ; Hp , -
p = , H = C.

 . -393-
38. RC-
RC-

kk p
Yk = -
p + k
Rk Ck.
,

1 p + k 1 1 k
Zk = = = + k , Rk = , Ck = k .
Yk kk p kk kk p kk k

R1 Rm

Y(p) R0 C

C1 Cm

. 38.5

, ,
. 38.5.
RC-
.
,
.
ZRC(p) ,
R1 -
YRC(p) =1/ZRC(p).

YRC
, , , -
.

RL-.
RL-
Z RL ( p ) = F0 + pT0 = F0 + ( + j) T0 .

Z RL ( p ) = F0 + F0 + jT0 = R ( , ) + jX ( , ) .

 . -394-
38. RC-
RL-

R X Z RL ( )
= = = T0 > 0 .
=0


1
YRL ( p ) = , YRC ( , ) = g ( , ) jb ( , ) ,
Z RL ( p )

YRL ( ) b T0
= = < 0,
=0 =0 F0 + T0
YRL ( , ) = g ( , ) + jb ( , ) .

F0
ZRL(p) p = , -
T0
, RL-
, , ZRL() -
, YRL() ,
.
ZRL(p) YRL() YRC()
ZRC(), . 38.1. , -
RL- p = ,
p = 0,
. , ZRL(p) ,
.
,
, .
, ,
ZRL(p), , YRL(p) , ,
ZRL(p) , YRL(p) -
. , ZRL() ZRL(0), YRL() YRL(0).
ZRL(p) YRL(p) ,
YRC(p) ZRC(p), , RL--
RC-.
ZRL(p) -
ZRC(p):
m
k0 kk
YRL ( p ) = + +H.
p k =1,3,5... p + k

 . -395-
38. RC-
RL-

-
. 38.6.

R1 Rm
YRL(p) 1
1 L0 =
H= k0
R L1 Lm

. 38.6

k0 = lim pYRL ( p ) , H = lim YRL ( p ) .


p 0 p

kk = lim YRL ( p ) ( p + k ) .
p k

1 kk
Yk = = -
Z k p + k
1
Lk = Rk = k .
kk kk
p + k p k
, Z k = + = pLk + Rk .
kk kk kk
-
ZRL(p)/p, YRC(p)/p:
m
kk p
Z RL ( p ) = k0 + p +
+ H p,
k = 2,4,6... k

Z ( p) Z RL ( p ) ( p + k )
k0 = Z RL ( 0 ) , H = lim RL , k k = lim .
p
p p k
p
, k0 = R0 = ZRL(0) : Hp = Lp -
, p = .
k p
Z k = k -
p + k
Rk Lk.
,

 . -396-
38. RC-
RL-

1 p + k 1 k
Yk = = = + k , Rk = kk , Lk = k .
Zk kk p kk kk p k

, (. 38.7).
Lm
L=H R0 = k0

ZRL(p) R2 Rm

. 38.7

-
RC-, ZRL(p) YRC(p).
-
ZRL(p), -
,
YRL(p), .

ZRL(p) -
, YRL(p),
.

1.
RC-?
2.
RC-?
3.
RL-?

 . -397-
39. RLC-
. . -
RLC-.

. .

-

, -
.
, . , -
,
, -
-
, ( )
.
, -
.
1.
, , -

. , -
, p = 0
p = , .

, ,

j. , -
,
-
F(p).

 . -398-
39. RLC-
.

Re F(j)

min Re F(j)


0 1
. 39.1

2. -

(. 39.1).
minReF(j)
R1, F(p) ,
() , F(p) -
(. 39.2).
F1(p) = F(p) minReF(j) -
, -
p = j1(ReF(j1) = 0),
.

LC R1 LC
Z(p) LC Z1(p) Y(p) R1 Y1(p)
LC

. 39.2

, -
, , -
L C R1 (. 39.2),
.
3. , R1 j1,
F1(j1) -
.

 . -399-
39. RLC-
.

F1(p) = Z1(p) -

M ( p ) an p n + an1 p n1 + + a1 p + a0
Z1 ( p ) = = .
N ( p ) bm p m + bm1 p m1 + + b1 p + b0

p = j1, ReF(j1) = 0, Z1(j1) = jx1, . . Z1(j1) .


Z1(j1) = jx1 Z1(j1) = +jx2.
Z1(j1) = jx1 -
x
L1 = 1 (. 39.3).
1

L1 < 0
Z1(j1)

. 39.3

L1 < 0

L2
Z1(p) Y3(p)

. 39.4

Z1(p) pL1,
Z2(p) = Z1(p) pL1, p = +j1
(, Z2(j1) ReZ1(j1) = 0
L1 Z2(j1) = 0).
M ( p)
Z 2 ( p ) = Z1 ( p ) pL1 = 2 .
N ( p)

M2(p) M(p)
( Z1(p)).
4. Y2(p) = 1/Z2(p) p = +j1,
. Y2(p)

 . -400-
39. RLC-
.

p 2 = 12 (. 39.4) -
L2 C.
. 39.4 , 1 -
L2C .

L2 =
1 1
, C = 2 , 2k2 = 2lim 2
Y2 ( p ) p 2 + 12 (
.
)
2k 2 1 L2 p 1 p

5. L2C-
2k2 p M ( p)
Y3 ( p ) = Y2 ( p ) = 3
p + 1
2 2
N3 ( p)
M3(p), n 2, n 1,
, .
Z3(p) = 1/Y3(p) p = -
, L3 > 0 (. 39.5).
L1 < 0 L3 < 0

L2 > 0
Z1(p) Z4(p)

. 39.5

M4 ( p)
Z 4 ( p ) = Z 3 ( p ) pL3 = -
N4 ( p )
M4(p) N4(p), n 2.
,
Z4(p) -
.
, ,
(. 39.6).

I 2

 . -401-
39. RLC-
.

L1 L3 I 2
I1 I1 M

L2
U1 U2 U1 LP LS U2


. 39.6

(. 39.6, , )
:

U1 = Z11I1 + Z12 I 2
.
U 2 = Z 21I1 + Z 22 I 2

- (. 39.6, )
U U1 U
Z11 = 1 = = p ( L1 + L2 ) , Z12 = 1 = pL2
I1 I =0 U1 I 2
2
( 1
pL + pL2)
I1 =0

U2 U2
Z 22 = = p ( L1 + L3 ) , Z 21 = = pL2 .
I 2 I1 =0
I1 I 2 =0

(. 39.6, ) :

U1 = pLP I1 + pM I 2 ,

U 2 = pM I1 + pLS I 2 ,
Z11 = pLp, Z22 = pLS, Z12 = pM.

L1 + L2 L2 LP M
[ ZT ] = p =
L2 + L3 M LS
.
L2
, Lp = L1 + L2, LS = L2 + L3, M = L2.

M L2
kCB = = .
LP LS ( L1 + L2 ) ( L2 + L3 )

 . -402-
39. RLC-
.

kCB = 1, ,
, (kCB = 0,99).

L22 L1L2 + L1L3 + L2 L3
=1 = 1,
( L1 + L2 ) ( L2 + L3 ) ( L1 + L2 ) ( L2 + L3 )

L1L2 + L1L3 + L2L3 = 0.

, -
.

RLC-.

1.

p 5 + 3 103 p 4 + 7 106 p 3 + 12 109 p 2 + 11 1012 p + 6 1015


Z ( p) = .
2 p 5 + 103 p 4 + 107 p 3 + 4 109 p 2 + 8 1012 p
. 1. Z(p)

Z ( p) =
( )( ) ( )(
103 p2 + 3106 2 p2 +103 p + 2 106 + p2 + 4 106 p2 +103 p + 2 106 p ) =
( )(p p2 + 4 106 2 p2 +103 p + 2 106 )
10 ( p + 3 10 ) p + 10 p + 2 10
3 2 6 2 3 6
= + = Z P ( p ) + Z1 ( p ) .
p ( p + 4 10 ) 2 p + 10 p + 2 10
2 6 2 3 6

Zp(p) .
Zp(p) p = j 3 103 , p = ; p = 0, p = j2103.
Zp(p) , . 39.7.

L2
Ca

ZP(p) 2

. 39.7

 . -403-
39. RLC-
RLC-

:
1 3
= k0 = lim pZ P ( p ) = 103 , C0 = 1,33 103 ,
C0 p 0 4

2k2 =
1
= lim
(
Z P ( p ) p 2 + 4 106 ) = 10 3
, C2 = 4 103 ,
C2 2
p 410 6
p 4

1 1
L2 = = 3
= 62,5 106 .
C2 4 10 4 10
2 6

Z1 ( p )
, Z1 ( p )
.
2. Z1 ( p )
.
p = j

2 + j103 + 2 106
Z1 ( j) = .
22 + j103 + 2 106

24 5 106 2 + 4 1012 103 3


Z1 ( j) = j 4 .
44 7 106 2 + 4 1012 4 7 106 2 + 4 1012

,
d

d
( Re Z1 ( j) ) = 0 . min Re Z1 ( j)
:

24 5 106 2 + 4 1012
4 6 2 12
= 0, 35 8 106 3 + 4 1012 = 0 ,
4 7 10 + 4 10

8 106 64 1012 48 1012 2


1 = 0, 22,3 = , 22 = 2 106 , 32 = 106 .
6 3

 . -404-
39. RLC-
RLC-

7
( 1
) 2
Re Z1 ( = 0 ) = 1, Re Z1 22 = 2 106 = , Re Z1 32 = 106 = .
3 3 5

, Z1 ( p ) -
1
R1 = 2 = 2 103 .
3
R1,

p 2 + 103 p + 2 106 1 p 2 + 2 103 p + 4 106


Z1 ( p ) = Z1 ( p ) R1 = = ,
(
2 p 2 + 103 p + 2 106 3 3 2 p 2 + 103 p + 2 106 )
.

(. 39.8).
L2
Ca R1

Z(p) 2
Z1(p)

. 39.8

3. Z1(p)
2 = 2 103 .

2 + j 2 103 + 4 106
Z1 ( j) = =
(
3 22 + j103 + 2 106 )
24 8 106 2 + 8 1012 103 3
= j .
(
3 44 7 106 2 + 4 1012 ) 44 7 106 2 + 4 1012

 . -405-
39. RLC-
RLC-

Re Z1 ( p ) 2 103
= 0 , , Z1(j) -
2=

2
Im Z1 ( j) 3 = = x1 = L1,
2= 2 10 3

x1 2 1
L1 = = = 103 .
3 2 10 3
3

L1 Z1(p),

p 2 + 2 103 p + 4 106 103 p


Z 2 ( p ) = Z1 ( p ) pL1 = + =
(
3 2 p 2 + 103 p + 2 106 ) 3

=
(
2 103 p 3 + p 2 + 2 103 p + 2 106 ) = 2 ( p + 2 10 )(10 p + 1) .
2 6 3

(
3 2 p 2 + 103 p + 2 106 ) 3 ( 2 p + 10 p + 2 10 )
2 3 6

Z2(p)
Z1(p), p = j 2 103 .
1
L1 = 103
3

L2
Z1(p) Y3(p)

. 39.9

4. Y2(p) = 1/Z2(p) 2 = 2 103 .


L2C (. 39.9).

 . -406-
39. RLC-
RLC-

2k 2 = lim
(
Y2 ( p ) p 2 + 2 106 ) = 1500, L2 = 0,67 103 ,
2
p 210
6
p

1 1
C= 2
= 6 3
= 0,75 103 .
1 L2 2 10 0,67 10

5.
2k 2 p
Y3 ( p ) = Y2 ( p ) =
p + 2 106
2

=
(
3 2 p 2 + 103 p + 2 106 )
3 103 p
=
3
.
(
2 p 2 + 2 106 )(103 p + 1 ) ( 2 p 2 + 2 106 ) (
2 103 p + 1 )

Z 3 ( p ) =
1
=
(
2 103 p + 1 )
Y3 ( p ) 3
p = , L3.

2 2
Z 3 ( p ) = 103 p + = L3 p + R,
3 3

L3 = 0,67 103 , R = 0,67 .

, , -
. 39.10, . 39.11.

0 R1 L1 L3
L2

2 L2
Z(p) R
C

Z1 ( p ) Z1(p) Z2(p) Z3(p)

. 39.10

 . -407-
39. RLC-
RLC-

0 L2 R1
M
LP = L1 + L2

2 R
Z(p) LP LS LS = L2 + L3

M = L2
C

. 39.11

Z1(j1) = + jx1
x
L1 = 1 > 0 pL1 Z1(p). Z2(p) = Z1(p) pL1 -
1
,
M1 ( p )
Z1 ( p ) pL1 = pL1 Z2(p) -
N ( p)
. Z2(p) p = j1,
Y2(p) = 1/Z2(p) p = j1,
, L2
C (. 39.9).
2k p
Z3(p) = 1/Y3(p), Y3 ( p ) = Y2 ( p ) 2 2 2 ,
p + 1
, ,
L3 < 0 (. 39.12).
L1 > 0 L3 > 0

L2
Z1(p) Z4(p)
C

Z2(p) Z3(p)

. 39.12

 . -408-
39. RLC-
RLC-

Z1(p) LP LS Z4(p)

. 39.13

L3
Z4(p), .
, , -
(. 39.13).

1. ?
2.
?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?

 . -409-
40.

.
Z- . K12XX.
. .

I1
Z I 2

U U1 U2 Z

. 40.1

U = U1 + I1 Z , U 2 = I 2 Z H .

(. 40.1)

U2 I 2 Z H I 2 Z H
K12 = = = ,
U U1 + I1 Z Z11I1 + Z12 I 2 + I1Z

U1 = Z11I1 + Z12 I 2 , Z 21I1


I 2 Z H = Z 21I1 + Z 22 I 2 , I 2 = .
U 2 = Z 21I1 + Z 22 I 2 , Z H + Z 22

U2 Z H Z 21I1
K12 = = =
U Z 21I1
( Z H + Z 22 ) Z11I1 + Z12 + I1 Z
Z H + Z 22

Z H Z 21
= =
Z11Z 22 Z 21Z12 + Z H Z + Z 22 Z + Z H Z11

Z H Z 21
= .
Z H Z + Z 22 Z + Z H Z11 + Z

 . -410-
40.

(
Z21 = Z12)
U Z ( p ) Y12 ( p )
1. Z = 0, Z H , K12XX ( p ) = 22XX = 12 = .
U1 Z11 ( p ) Y22 ( p )

Z12 ( p ) Z H ( p )
2. Z = 0, K12 ( p ) = .
Z11 ( p ) Z H ( p ) + Z

3. Z = 0 ZH = 0

I 2 ( p )
= Y12 ( p ) .
U1 ( p )

4. |Z|- |Y|-,

Y12 ( p ) YH ( p )
Y12 ( p ) = .
Y22 ( p ) + YH ( p )

5. Y = 0

U 2 ( p ) Z12 ( p ) Z H ( p )
Z12 ( p ) = = .
I1 ( p ) Z 22 ( p ) + Z H ( p )

R = 1 O

Z12 ( p ) Y ( p)
Z12 ( p ) = ; Y12 ( p ) = 12 .
Z 22 ( p ) + 1 Y22 ( p ) + 1

Z- .
(. 40.2) :

U1 = Z11I1 + Z12 I 2 ,
U = a1U1 + a2U 2 , I1 = a1I , I 2 = a2 I .
U
2 = Z I
21 1 + Z I
22 2 ,

U = a1Z11I1 + a1Z12 I 2 + a2 Z 21I1 + a2 Z 22 I 2 .

Z 21 = Z12 , U = a12 Z11I + 2a1a2 Z12 I + a22 Z 22 I .

 . -411-
40.
Z-

U
Z ( p) = = a12 Z11 + 2a1a2 Z12 + a22 Z 22 .
I
Z(p) (Z(p) 0) Re P 0.

I1
I I 2
a1 : 1 1 : a2

U1 U2

. 40.2

Z11(p) Z22(p) ,
j -
. , Z(p) .
k11, k12 k22 Z11(p), Z12(p) Z22(p) j.
, Z11(p) Z22(p)
, Z(p)
k > 0.
k = a12 k11 + 2a1a2 k12 + a22 k22 > 0 .

, k11 0, k22 0 k12 .


k11k22 k122 0 .

Z(p)

Re Z ( j) = a12 r11 + 2a1a2 r12 + a22 r22 0 .

r11 > 0 r22 > 0 r11r22 r122 0 (Re P 0).


, r12 -
, Z(p) .

 . -412-
40.

K12XX.
U 22XX Z12 ( p )
K12XX ( p ) = = .
U1 Z11 ( p )

1. K12XX .
2. Z12(p), -
Z11 (p). Z11 (p) (, Z12(p)
K12XX. Z12(p) -
, K12XX -
. (Z12(p) , -
.)
3. K12XX ,
Z11(p), j (Z12(p) -
).
4. K12XX j .
, Z11(j) = 0, r11 = 0 r22 , -
r12 = 0 , Z12(j)
.

Z12 ( p ) Z
K12XX ( p ) = = 2 122 ( Z11 ( j) 0 ) .
Z11 ( p ) (
p + 1 Z11 )
Z12 2k1 p A
= Z + .
( )
p 2 + 12 Z11
12
p 2
+ 2
1 Z
11

K12XX p = j1

Z12
( p j1 ) =
( )
p 2 + 12 Z11


p = j1

2k p A ( p j1 )
= Z12 2 1 + = ( Z12 k1 ) p = j .
p + j1
Z11
p = j1 1

Z12(j) , K12XX
.

 . -413-
40.
K12XX

5. K12XX = 0 = . ,
Z11(0) = 0, Z12(0) 0, Z12(0) . , Z12(0)
, r11 = 0
( r11r22 r122 0 ).

.
(. 40.3)
(. 40.4).
I1 I1 Z22 Z12
I 2 Z11 Z12 I 2

U1 U2 U1 Z12 U2

. 40.3 . 40.4

(Z11 Z12), (Z22 Z12) Z12 -


, .

am p m + am1 p m1 + + a1 p + a0
Z12 ( p ) = ,
q( p)

bn p n + bn1 p n1 + + b1 p + b0
Z11 ( p ) = ,
q( p)
ck p k + ck 1 p k 1 + + c1 p + c0
Z 22 ( p ) = ,
q( p)

Z . (Z11 Z12),
(Z22 Z12) Z12 , ai 0; bi ai;
ci ai . m n m k ,
n k.
Z ( p)
K12XX ( p ) = 12 , ,
Z11 ( p )
(
, ) .
,

 . -414-
40.

0 < K12XX() 1.
(. 40.5)

U 22 ( p ) U 21 ( p ) U 21 ( p )
K12XX = = ,
U11 ( p ) U11 ( p )

U 21 ( p ) U 21 ( p )
K12XX = .
U11 ( p ) U11 ( p )

1 2

1 2

. 40.5

K12XX
.
bi |ai|; ci |ai| 1 K12XX () 1.

.
( -
) , -
();
(, Z11(p) ,
( Z12(p)).

. -
(. 40.6)

1 1
U1 = Z11I1 + Z12 I 2 , Z11 Z12 2 ( Z b + Z a ) ( Z b Z a )
= 2
.
U 2 = Z 21I1 + Z 22 I 2 , Z 21 Z 22 1 1
( Zb Z a ) ( Zb + Z a )
2 2

 . -415-
40.

I1 Za Za
I 2

Zb Zb Zb
U1 U2

Za

. 40.6

. -
, -
( ).
, Z11, Z12 Z11 = Z22, -
,
.
[Z]

Za = Z11 Z12 = Z22 Z12,


Zb = Z11 + Z12 = Z22 + Z12.

Z(p) , -
, rik = ReZik(j) -
r11r22 r122 0 Rep 0.
r11 = r22, r112 r122 0 , (r11 r12)(r11 r12) 0 (ReZa)(ReZb) 0
Rep 0.
r11 > 0,
, ReZa 0 ReZb 0 Rep 0. , Za Zb
.
, -
().

1.

 . -416-
40.

3 p 4 + 9 p3 + 7 p 2 + 5 p + 2
Z11 = ,
(
2 p p 2 + 1 ( 2 p + 1) )
p 4 + p3 + p 2 3 p 2
Z12 = .
(
2 p p 2 + 1 ( 2 p + 1) )

2 p 4 + 8 p3 + 6 p 2 + 8 p + 4
Z a = Z11 Z12 = =
( )
2 p p 2 + 1 ( 2 p + 1)

=
( ) ( ) (
p2 p2 + 1 + 4 p p2 + 1 + 2 p2 + 1 )=
p ( p + 1) ( 2 p + 1)
2

p2 + 4 p + 2 p 2
= = + .
p ( 2 p + 1) 2 p + 1 p
4 p 4 + 10 p 3 + 8 p 2 + 2 p
Z b = Z11 + Z12 = =
( )
2 p p 2 + 1 ( 2 p + 1)

=
(
2 p 2 p3 + p 2 + 4 p 2 + 2 p + 2 p + 1 )=
(
2 p p 2 + 1 ( 2 p + 1) )
p 2 ( 2 p + 1) + 2 p ( 2 p + 1) + ( 2 p + 1)
= =
( )
p 2 + 1 ( 2 p + 1)

p2 + 2 p + 1 2p
= =1+ .
(p 2
+1 ) (p 2
)
+1

Za Zb.
1. Za = 0,
C0.

 . -417-
40.

2 1 1
Z a = Z a + Z a; Z a = ; = lim pZ = 2; C0 = .
p C0 p0 2

p 1
Z a = p 0 Z a 0 p Z a ,
2 p +1 2
. . -
(. 40.7).
Z a ( p + k ) 1
R2 = k2 , kk = lim , k = ,
p k p 2

1 1
p p +
2 1 1 k
k2 = lim = , R2 = , L2 = 2 = 2 = 1 .
p
1 1 2 2 2 1
2 2 p + p
2 2

L2

R2
. 40.7
L2
0

R2

. 40.8

, Za , . 40.8.
2. Z b = Zb + Zb, Zb = 1 .

 . -418-
40.

2p
Z b = -
p2 + 1

1
= lim
(
Z b p 2 + 22 ) , 22 = 1, C2 =
1 1
, L2 = 2 = 2 .
C2 p 2 22 p 2 2C2

, Zb , . 40.9.
(. 40.10).
L2

2
R

. 40.9

L2
0
R2

R L2

. 40.10

-
Z12.
, Zb Za = 2Z12.
Za Zb.
(LC, RC RL),
2Z12 .

1 2 p 3 + 3 p 2 12 p
2. Z12 = .
2 p2 + 9 ( p + 2)( )

 . -419-
40.

3 p 2 + 6 p 2 p 3 18 p
2 Z12 = Z b Z a = =
(p 2
)
+ 9 ( p + 2)

=
3 p ( p + 2) 2 p p2 + 9 ( )= 3p

2p
.
(p 2
)
+ 9 ( p + 2) p +9 p+2
2

Za Zb.
2p
1. Z a = -
p+2
(. 40.7).

Z a ( p + 2 ) 2 p ( p + 2 )
R2 = k2 = lim = = 2 .
p 2 p ( p + 2) p

k2 2
L2 = = = 1 .
2 2

3p
2. Z b =
p2 + 9

1
= lim
(
Z b p 2 + 22 ) = lim
(
3 p p2 + 9 ) =3 1 , 22 = 9,
C2 p 2 22

p

2
p 9
(p 2
)
+9 p

1 1 1 3 1
C2 =
, L2 = 2 = = .
3 2C2 9 3
,
Z0Z0 Za Zb Z12.
(. 40.11).

 . -420-
40.

L2
Z0
R2

Z0
L2

. 40.11

-
Z12, Za Zb -
.
:
1. , -
.
2. .

1. Z- ?
2. Z(p)?
3. -
?
4. ?
5. -
?

 . -421-
41.

RC-. LC-. -
.

U2 Z12 ( p )
K12XX ( p ) = = .
U1 I 2 =0
Z11 ( p )

,
.
. 41.1.

U1 U2

. 41.1

-
, :
1)
( );
2) 0 (
).

RC-.
RC-
, K12XX(p)
.
(R
C), : = 0 = , -
, ,
= 0, = .

 . -422-
41.
RC-

(. 41.2), RC-,
= .

U1 U2

. 41.2

U1 U2

. 41.3

(. 41.3) -
= 0.
Z ( p) n ( p) n ( p)
K12XX ( p ) = 12 , Z11 ( p ) = 11 , Z12 ( p ) = 12 ,
Z11 ( p ) d11 ( p ) d12 ( p )
n12 ( p ) d11 ( p )
K12XX ( p ) = .
d12 ( p ) n11 ( p )
, -
, Z12(p) ,
Z11(p) Z22(p), . . d11(p) , d12(p).
( k11k22 k122 0 .)
Z12XX(p) .
RC-

kp m kp m
K12XX ( p ) = n = ,
p + bn1 p n1 + + b1 p + b0 B ( p )

0 m n; B(p)
.

 . -423-
41.
RC-

k
p 0, m 0, lim K12XX ( p ) lim p m , . . K12XX(p)
p 0 p 0 b
0
m
p .
p m n lim K12 XX ( p ) lim kp (
p p
( mn )
) , . . K
12XX(p) -
1
. ( nm )
p
, K12XX(p) m p 0 (n m)
p .
, -
Z11(p) Z22(p)
d11(p) = d12(p).
n ( p)
, K12XX ( p ) = 12 , n11 ( p ) = B ( p ) , a n12 ( p ) = kp m .
n11 ( p )

:
1) m = 0, p = ;
2) m = n, p = 0;
3) 0 < m < n, m p = 0, n m p = .
k
1. m = 0, K12XX ( p ) = n ,
p + bn1 p n1 + + b1 p + b0
p = .
K12XX(p) Z11(p)
, . . Z11(p) p = .

1.

k
K12XX ( p ) = .
( p + 3)( p + 5)
Z12 ( p ) k
. K12XX ( p ) = = 2 .
Z11 ( p ) p + 8 p + 15

Z11(p) , p = 3 p = 5
Z11(p) -
.

Z11 ( p ) =
( p + 3)( p + 5) = p 2 + 8 p + 15
,
( p + 1)( p + 4 ) p2 + 5 p + 4

 . -424-
41.
RC-

k
Z12 ( p ) = .
( p + 1)( p + 4 )

1
Z11 ( p ) = 1 + .
1 1
p+
3 9 1
+
4 2 p+ 1
3 1
2

. 41.4.

9

1 4 2
U1 1 U2
3 3
2

. 41.4

, p = K12XX(p) = 0, ,
K12XX(p) Z12(p).

2. m = n,

kp n kp n
K12XX ( p ) = n = ,
p + bn1 p n1 + + b1 p + b0 B ( p )

p = 0.
, -
. 41.3.

2.

kp 2 kp 2
K12XX = = .
( p + 2 )( p + 4 ) p 2 + 6 p + 8

 . -425-
41.
RC-

. Z11 ( p ) =
( p + 2 )( p + 4 ) = p2 + 6 p + 8
,
( p + 1)( p + 3) p2 + 4 p + 3
kp 2
Z12 ( p ) = .
( p + 1)( p + 3)

1 3 1
Y11 ( p ) = = + .
Z11 ( p ) 8 32 + 1
7 p 49 + 1
88 22 44 + 1
21 p 3
44

. 41.5.

7 21

32 968

8 88 44
U1 U2
3 49 3

. 41.5

3. 0 < m < n, m p = 0, n m
p = .

kp m kp m
K12XX ( p ) = n = .
p + bn1 p n1 + + b1 p + b0 B ( p )

RC- Z11(p) -
p = 0, p = .
. ,
.
3.

 . -426-
41.
RC-

kp
K12XX = .
( p + 2 )( p + 5)
. Z11 ( p ) =
( p + 2 )( p + 5) = p 2 + 7 p + 10
,
( p + 1)( p + 4 ) p2 + 5 p + 4
kp
Z12 ( p ) = .
( p + 1)( p + 4 )
Z11(p) p = ( )

p 2 + 7 p + 10 p 2 + 5 p + 4

(
p2 + 5 p + 4 1 )
p2 + 5 p + 4 2p + 6

(
p2 + 3 p ) 1
p
2 .
2p + 4

p = , ,
1
p , Z11(p)
2
, (. 41.6).
1 2p + 4
Z11 ( p ) = 1 + , Y ( p ) = .
1 2p + 6
p + Y ( p )
2

1
1
Y ( p)
2

. 41.6

 . -427-
41.
RC-

1

9

3
3
2

. 41.7


(. 41.7)
2 1
Y ( p ) = + .
3 9+1
p 1
3
(. 41.8).
,
.
K12XX(p) Z11(p)
p = 0. ,
(. 41.9).
1
=
( p + 1)( p + 4 ) .
Z11 ( p ) ( p + 2 )( p + 5 )
47
p2 + p
Z ( p ) = 11 -
3 2 11
p + p
5 5
p = (. 41.10)
5 1
Z ( p ) = + .
3 99 p + 1
100 100
33 11

 . -428-
41.
RC-

1

2 9

1
1 3
3
2 2

. 41.8

11

50

5
Z ( p)
2

. 41.9

5

3 99 100

100 33 11

. 41.10

11

50

5

5 3 99 100

2 100 33 11

. 41.11

, . 41.11.

 . -429-
41.

LC-.

kp m kp m
K12XX ( p ) = n = ,
p + bn1 p n1 + + b1 p + b0 B ( p )

m n .

B(p) 0 m n.
RC- :
1) m = 0, p = ;
2) m = n, p = 0;
3) 0 < m < n, m p = 0, n m p = .

1. m = 0,

k
K12XX ( p ) = ,
p n + bn1 p n1 + + b1 p + b0

p = .
K12XX(p)
Z11(p) , . . Z11(p)
p = .

1.

k
K12XX ( p ) = .
(p 2
)(
+ 4 p2 + 9 )
Z12 ( p ) k k
. K12XX ( p ) = = 2 = .
Z11 ( p )( )(
p + 4 p2 + 9 )p 4 + 13 p 2 + 36

Z11(p) , p1,2 = j2
p3,4 = j3 Z11(p)
.

 . -430-
41.
LC-

Z11 ( p) =
(p 2
)(
+ 4 p2 + 9 )= p 4
+ 13 p 2 + 36
,
(
p p2 + 6 ) p3 + 6 p
k
Z12 ( p ) = .
(
p p2 + 6 )

1
Z11 ( p ) = 1 p + .
1 1
p+
7 49 1
p+
6 1
p
42

. 41.12.

49

1 6

1 1

7 42

. 41.12

2. m = n,

kp n kp n
K12XX ( p ) = n = ,
p + bn1 p n1 + + b1 p + b0 B ( p )

p = 0.

2.

kp 4
K12XX ( p ) = .
( )(
p2 + 4 p2 + 9 )
. .

 . -431-
41.
LC-

Z11 ( p) =
(p 2
)(
+ 4 p2 + 9 )= p 4
+ 13 p 2 + 36
,
(
p p2 + 6 ) p3 + 6 p
kp 4
Z12 ( p ) = .
p ( p 2 + 6)
(. 41.13)
6 1
Z11 ( p ) = + .
p 6 1
+
7 p 49 + 1
p 1
7p
3. 0 < m < n, m p = 0, n m
p = .
kp m kp m
K12XX ( p ) = n = .
p + bn1 p n1 + + b1 p + b0 B ( p )

1 1

6 49

7
7
6

. 41.13

3.

kp 2
K12XX ( p ) = .
(p 2
)(
+ 4 p2 + 9 )
. p = 0
p = . p = .

( p 2
)(
+ 4 p2 + 9 )= p 4
+ 13 p 2 + 36 kp 2
Z11 ( )
p = , Z12 ( )
p = .
(
p p2 + 6 ) p3 + 6 p p p2 + 6( )

 . -432-
41.
LC-

6
p
1 7
Z11 ( p ) = 1 p + , Y ( p ) = 2 .
1 7 p + 36
p + Y ( p )
7
,
. 41.14.
p = 0 -

1
Z ( p ) = .
Y ( p )

Z(p) , . 41.15.

1 Y ( p)

7

. 41.14
1

42

49

6

. 41.15
-
(. 41.16).
1

1 42

1 49

7 6

. 41.16

 . -433-
41.
LC-

.
p = 0

6 1
Z11 ( p ) = + ,
p 6
+ Y ( p )
7p
1 3
p
Y ( p) = 2
7 .
7 p + p4

1
Z ( p ) = , p = ,
Y ( p )
1
Z ( p ) = 7 p + .
p
49
, -
(. 41.17).
1

6 7

7 1

6 49

. 41.17

Z12 ( p ) Y ( p)
, K12XX ( p ) = = 12 .
Z11 ( p ) Y22 ( p )

, -
Y22(p), . . ,
.

 . -434-
41.

4.

k
K12 XX ( p ) = .
( )(
p2 + 4 p2 + 9 )
Y12 ( p ) k k
. K12XX ( p ) = = 2 = .
Y22 ( p ) ( 2
p +4 p +9)( p 4
+ 13 p)2
+ 36

Y22(p) , p1,2 = j2
p3,4 = j3 Y12(p)
.

Y22 ( )
p =
( p 2
)(
+ 4 p2 + 9 ) , Y ( p) =
k
.
(
p p2 + 6 ) 12
(
p p2 + 6 )

1 1

42 7

U1 6 U2
1
7

Y22()

. 41.18

 . -435-
41.

(. 41.18)

1
Y22 ( p ) = 1 p + .
1 1
p+
7 49 1
p+
6 1
p
42

1. , -
K12XX(p)
?
2. -
RC-?
3. -
RC-?
4. LC-?

 . -436-
42.

R2. -
, . -
.

: -

-
.
, -
-
.
(. 42.1).

I1 I1 I2
I2
1 2 1 2
R1
U1 U2 R2 U1 U2

1 1 2
2


I1 I2
1 2
R1
U1 U2 R2

1 2

. 42.1

(LC-), -
( ) ,
. -
, pi

 . -437-
42.

k k
ki = 11 12 .
k21 k22
Z12(Y12) Z11 Z22, (Y11, Y22) Z12(Y12)
.
U
1. (. 42.1, ) (Z = R1 = 0) 2 = K ( p ) =
U1
Z12 Z H
= ( ).
Z11Z H + Z
Z Z
Z- Y-, Y22 = 11 , Y12 = 12 ,
Z Z
|Z| = Z11Z22 Z12Z21, Z12 = Z21,

Z12 Y12
K ( p) = = .
Z 1 1
Z 11 + + Y22
R2
Z ZH

2. (. 42.1, ) (Z = R1, R2 = )

Z12
K ( p) = .
R1 + Z11

3. (. 42.1, )

Z12 R2
K ( p) = .
R1R2 + Z11R2 + Z 22 R1 + Z

R2 (. 42.2).

I1 I2
1 2

U1 R2 = 1

1 2

. 42.2

 . -438-
42.
R2

U2 Y12 ( p )
R2 = 1 K ( p ) = = .
U1 1 + Y22 ( p )
Y12(p) Y22(p) ,
,

n12 ( p ) m12 ( p ) n22 ( p ) m22 ( p )


Y12 ( p ) = = Y22 ( p ) = = ,
d 22 ( p ) n12 ( p ) d 22 ( p ) n22 ( p )

m12(p) m22(p) , n22(p) = n12(p) -


, , m12(p) m22(p) , n22(p) = n12(p) -
.

m12 ( p ) A( p )
K ( p) = = .
m22 ( p ) + n22 ( p ) B ( p )

A(p) , .
B(p) = m22(p) + n22(p) .
,

A( p ) m1 ( p )
K ( p) = =
B ( p ) m2 ( p ) + n2 ( p )

A( p ) n1 ( p )
K ( p) = = ,
B ( p ) m2 ( p ) + n2 ( p )

m1(p) m2(p) ; n1(p) n2(p) ;


B(p) = m2(p) + n2(p) .
Y12 ( p )
K ( p ) = ,
1 + Y22 ( p )

m1 ( p ) m ( p)
Y12 ( p ) = , Y22 ( p ) = 2 ;
n2 ( p ) n2 ( p )

n1 ( p ) n ( p)
Y12 ( p ) = , Y22 ( p ) = 2 .
m2 ( p ) m2 ( p )

, K(p)
Y12(p) Y22(p).

 . -439-
42.
R2

1. R2 = 1
k
K ( p) = 3 2
.
p + 6 p + 15 p + 15

A( p )
. K ( p) = . A(p) ,
B( p)
m1 ( p ) m ( p) m ( p)
K ( p) = . Y12 ( p ) = 1 , Y22 ( p ) = 2 ;
m2 ( p ) + n2 ( p ) n2 ( p ) n2 ( p )

B ( p ) = p 3 + 6 p 2 + 15 p + 15,

( ) (
m2 ( p ) + n2 ( p ) = 6 p 2 + 15 + p 3 + 15 p , )
k 6 p 2 + 15
Y12 ( p ) = 3 , Y22 ( p ) = 3 .
p + 15 p p + 15 p

5 1

6 6

U1 12
1 U2
25

. 42.3

1
Y22(p) p = 0, Z 22 ( p ) =
Y22 ( p )

p 1
Z 22 ( p ) = +
6 12 p + 1
25 5
p
6

 . -440-
42.
R2

p = 0
(. 42.3).

,
(. 42.4).
I1 I2
1 2
R1
U1 U2

1 2

. 42.4

Z12
R1 = 1 K ( p ) = .
1 + Z11
A( p ) m1 ( p )
, K ( p ) = =
B ( p ) m2 ( p ) + n2 ( p )

A( p ) n1 ( p )
K ( p) = = ,
B ( p ) m2 ( p ) + n2 ( p )

m1(p) m2(p) ; n1(p) n2(p) ;


B(p) = m2(p) + n2(p) .
Z
K ( p ) = 12 ,
1 + Z11

m1 ( p ) m ( p)
Z12 ( p ) = , Z11 ( p ) = 2 ;
n2 ( p ) n2 ( p )

n1 ( p ) n ( p)
Z12 ( p ) = , Z11 ( p ) = 2 .
m2 ( p ) m2 ( p )

, K(p)
Z12(p) Z11(p).
2.

 . -441-
42.
,

k
K ( p) = .
p + 4 p + 10 p 2 + 16 p + 9
4 3

, ,
k
3
4 p + 16 p
K ( p) = ,
p 4 + 10 p 2 + 9
1+
4 p 3 + 16 p
k
. . Z12 ( p ) = 3 ,
4 p + 16 p
p 4 + 10 p 2 + 9
Z11 ( p ) = .
4 p 3 + 16 p
p = ,
(. 42.5).
p 1
Z11 ( p ) = + .
4 2 p+ 1
3 3 1
p+
5 10
p
9

1 3
1
4 5

2 10
U1 U2
3 9

Z11()
. 42.5

 . -442-
42.


(. 42.6).
I1 I2
1 2

U1 LC U2 R2

1 2
Z
. 42.6

Z12 R2
K ( p) = ,
R1R2 + Z11R2 + Z 22 R1 + Z

. . Z- Y--
.
-
.
(j) -
(j) ( ).

U 2 ( j ) U1 ( j ) U1 ( j )
2 2 2
P
( j )
2
= , P = , = , m = ,
m R2 R1 + R2 4 R1
R1 = R2

P , R2; P ,
( ); Pm
, R1 = R2.

4 R U 2 ( j )
2
P 4R
( j ) = 1 K ( j ) .
2 2
= = 1
m R2 U1 ( j) 2
R2

K(j) . P < Pm,


|(j)|2 1.
-
|(j)|2 + |(j)|2 = 1.

 . -443-
42.

, -
, , .

U 2 ( j )
2

= Re Z BX ( j) I1 ( j) =
2
,
R2

R2 Re Z BX ( j) I1 ( j) = U 2 ( j) .
2 2

U1
= R1 + Z BX ( j) .
I1
R2 Re Z BX ( j)
2 2 2
U U I
K ( j )
2
= 2 = 2 1 = .
R1 + Z BX ( j)
2
U1 I1 U1

4 R1 R2 Re Z BX ( j)
( j ) = 1 ( j ) = 1
2 2
=
R2 R1 + Z BX ( j) 2

4 R1R ( )
=1 , ( Z BX ( j) = R ( ) + jX ( ) ).
R1 + R ( ) + jX ( )
2

4 R1R
( j ) ( j ) = 1 =
( R1 + R )
2 2
+X

R12 + 2 R1R2 + R22 + X 2 4 R1R


= =
( R1 + R )
2 2
+X

Z BX ( j) R1
2
( R1 R ) + X 2
2
= = .
( R1 + R )2 + X 2 Z BX ( j) + R1
2

Z BX ( p ) R1 1 ( p)
, ( p ) = Z BX ( p ) = , . . -
Z BX ( p ) + R1 1 ( p)
ZX(p), LC- -
R2.

 . -444-
42.

kp m
K ( p ) =
B( p)
R1 = 1 .

1. (p)

4 R1
( p )( p ) = 1 K ( p) K ( p) .
R2

-
( -
), K(p) .

, (p),
. -
(p) (, -
). (p) - , ZX(p) -
L C ( ).
1 + ( p)
2. (p) Z BX ( p ) =
1 ( p)
1 ( p)
Z BX ( p ) = , . . .
1 + ( p)
, -
1
R2, .
R2
R2, m n.
m = 0,
R2 = ZBX(0); m = n
R2 = ZBX().
m n (0 < m < n)
( ), R2
.
3. ZBX(p). K(p) ZBX(p), -
,
.
kp 0
1. K ( p ) = , m = 0.
B( p)

 . -445-
42.

k
3. K ( p ) = R1 = 1 R1 = 1 .
2
p + 2 p +1
p = ,
, . . (. 42.7).

U1 1 U2

Z()
. 42.7
R2 1
(p). k = K ( 0 ) = = ,
R1 + R2 2

4 R1
( p )( p) = 1 K ( p) K ( p) =
R2

1 1
4 1
=1 2 2 2 2 =
1 p + 2 p +1 p 2 p +1

=
p4 2 p2 + 1 1
=
( )
p p + 2 ( p) p + 2 ( ).
(p 2
)(
+ 2 p + 1 p2 2 p + 1 ) (p 2
)( )
+ 2 p + 1 p2 2 p + 1

(p) :

 . -446-
42.

( p) =
(
p p+ 2 ); ( p) =
p p+ 2 ( );
( p 2 + 2 p + 1) ( p 2 2 p + 1)

( p) =
(
p p + 2 ); ( p) =
(
p p + 2 );
(p 2
+ 2 p +1 ) (p 2
2 p +1 )

( p) =
p p + 2 ( ); ( p) =
p p + 2 ( );
(p 2
+ 2 p +1 ) (p 2
2 p +1 )

( p) =
(
p p + 2 ); ( p ) =
p p + 2 ( ).
(p 2
+ 2 p +1 ) (p 2
2 p +1 )
-
- ( ).

( p) =
(
p p+ 2 ) .
( p2 + 2 p + 1 )
1 + ( p) 1 ( p )
Z BX1 ( p ) = , Z BX2 ( p ) = .
1 ( p ) 1 + ( p)

p2 + 2 p + 1 + p2 + 2 p
Z BX1 ( p ) = 2 =
p + 2 p + 1 p2 2 p

=
(
2 p2 + 2 + 2 p + 1 ) =
2 p 2 + 3, 41 p + 1
.
(2 2 ) p +1 0,59 p + 1

(. 42.8)

 . -447-
42.

2p 2 + 3,41 p + 1 0,59 p + 1

(
2p 2 + 3,41 p ) 3,41 p

0,59 p + 1 1
0,59 p 0,59 p
1 1
1 1
0

1 3,41

U1 0,59 U2
1

Z()

. 42.8

k
4. K ( p ) = R1 = 1 R2 = 4 .
2
p + 3p +1
p = ,
.

 . -448-
42.

R2 4
k = K (0) = = .
R1 + R2 5

4 4

4 1
( p)( p) = 1 2 5 2 5 =
4 p + 3p +1 p 3p +1

2 41 3 2 41 3
p + p + p p +
5 5 5 5
= .
(2 2
p + 3p +1 p 3p +1)( )
41 3
p2 + p+
( p ) = 5 5.
2
p + 3p +1

p 2 + 3 p + 1 + p 2 + 2,86 p + 0,6 2 p 2 + 5,86 p + 1,6


Z BX ( p ) = = .
p 2 + 2 p + 1 p 2 2,86 p 0,96 0,14 p + 0,4

2p 2 + 5, 86 p + 1,6 0,14 p + 0,4

(
2p 2 + 5,86 p ) 14,2 p

0,14 p + 0, 4 1,6
.
0,14 p 0,087 p
1,6 0,4
1,6 4
0

, (. 42.8) L = 14,2 , = 0,087 , R2 = 4 .


kp 3
5. K ( p ) = 3 R1 = 1
p + 2 p2 + 2 p + 1
R2 = 0,25 .
p = 0,
(. 42.9).

 . -449-
42.

1
1 1
4

U1 U2
1 0,25

1, 25
Z()

. 42.9

R2 1
k= = .
R1 + R2 5

4 1
1 3
5
p
1
p3 ( )
( p)( p) = 1 3 3 5 2 =
1 p + 2 p + 2 p +1 p + 2 p 2 p +1
2

15 6
p6 + 1 +
p
= 3 25 =
( )(
p + 2 p 2 + 2 p + 1 p3 + 2 p 2 2 p + 1 )
3 3 3 3
1 + p 1 p
= 3 5 5 .
( )(
p + 2 p + 2 p + 1 p3 + 2 p 2 2 p + 1
2
)
3 3
1+p
( p) = 3 5 .
p + 2 p2 + 2 p + 1

3 3
p3 + 2 p 2 + 2 p + 1 + 1 +
p
Z BX ( p ) = 3 5 =
( )(
p + 2 p 2 + 2 p + 1 p3 + 2 p 2 2 p + 1 )
1,6 p 3 + 2 p 2 + 2 p + 2
= .
0,4 p 3 + 2 p 2 + 2 p

 . -450-


, , , .

,
, --
, .
,
,
,
, ,
.
, -
, , -

.
.

, -
, , -
.

 . -451-

1. / . . , . . , . . , . . -
. .: , 1963.
2. , . . / . . . .: ,
2006.
3. , . . /
. . , . . , . . . .: ,1989.
4. , . / . . .:
, 1961.
5. , . . /
. . . .: . 1969.
6. , . . / . . -
. .: . , 1968.
7. , . . / . . -
. .: . ., 1973.
8. , . . / . . ,
. . , . . . .: , 2002.
9. , . . / . . . .:
, 1970.
10. , . .
/ . . . .: . ., 1986.
11. , . . / . . -
. .: , 1989.
12. , . . / . . , . .
. .: , 1972.
13. , . . / . . -
, . . . ., 1972.
14. , . . / . . .: , 1973.
15. , . . / . . . .:
. ., 1971.
16. , . . / . . .
.: . ., 1987.
17. , . / . . .: , 1982.
18. , . . .
/ . . . .: . ., 1972.
19. , . . / . . . .: . ., 2003.
20. , . . / . . -
. .: , 2000.
21. : . -
/ . . , . . , . . -
. .: . ., 1973.

 . -452-