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2010
811.111.(038)
81.2 -9
20

20 . New E n g lish fo r B usiness :


/ . . , . . , . . -
, . . , . . , .. - ,
. . .: , 2010. 672 .

IS B N 9 7 8 -5 - 9 5 3 3 -4 4 7 7 -7

* (New English for Business)


, 1200
,

, .

,
. ,

.
811.111(038)
81.2 -9

ISBN 978-5-9533-4477-7 .. , .. . .. ,
.. , .. . .. -,
.. , 2010
, 2010


,
.
,
,
.
7 38

(elementary)
(upper intermediate)
.
3500 .
.
- ,

.
-
(, , , , , ..)
(
, , , ,
, , ,
..).

.
,
.

,
, .
.
4

LESSON 1

: [i], [i:], [], [], [ai], [ei] [t], [d]. [].


[1], [], [], [b], [s], [z], []

: [pi]

: A, a [ei] L. 1 [el]
B, b [bi:] . m [em]
C, c [si:] N. n [en]
D, d [di:] P. p [pi:]
E, e [i:] S.s [s]
I, i [ai] T. t [ti:]
K, k [kei] X. x [eks]

: 1. .
2. .
.
3. 3- . to be
.
4. .
5. .
.

I.
:
.
,
, .

.

II. .
,
.
. :
the.
5


[]. ,
, [].
[ ']
an apple [ 'aepl]
( )
, .
, .

.
, -.

(
).
Take . .
Take pens. .
It is tea. .
,
,
. ,
. ,
.
Take a pencil, please. (-) , .

III. 3- . to be
3- . to be
is [iz]. ,
.
It is a text. .

IV.

.

: .

.
(
). .
-
, ,
.
It is a desk. .
It , ,
is a desk , is -, a desk
, .
6

V. .
,
.

, .
Take . () .
.
.
Take Vpencil. () .


[t, d, n, [P,b, [k, s, z, i] [ai] [ei] N
1,] m, i:]
[ten] [pi:t] [kid iz] [taim] [dei] [']
[ded] [mid] [bid it] [saiz] [teik] [?'desk]
[tel] [bi:n] [sit it iz] [maik] [neim] [ 'tekst]
[let] [ti:m] [zip its] [laik] [leit] [ pensl]
[ 'lesn]

[it iz '] [its '] Iplirt]


[it iz a'desk] [its a'desk] [p liz]

[it iz 'tekst] [its 'tekst] [plai]


[it iz 'pensl] [its 'pensl] Ipleit]
[it iz a'iesn] [its a'iesn]


, b [:] [].
D, d [di:] \ [d].
, k [kei] [],
L, 1 [el] [1].
, m [em] [].
N, [] [].
, [pi:] [].
, t [ti:] [].


,
.
: ,
,
, ,
, ,
, .
.
7

, [i:] .

be [bi:]
Pete [pi:t]
pen [] ,
Ben [Ben]
S, s [es] [s] ,
, [z]
,
.
send [send]
desk [desk]
desks [desks]
pens [penz] ,
please [pli:z]

ss [s]:
Tess [tes] ( )
I, i [ai] .

Mike [maik]
it [it] 1. , , ( ,
);
2.
is [iz] (3- . . . . to be)
A, a [ei]
[ei], [].
take [teik] ,
[']; a desk ['desk]
[i:].
please [pli:z]
, [si:] [s] , i,
,
[].
nice [nais] ,
8

a pencil [' pensl]


dean [kli:n]
X, [eks]
[ks].
a text [ 'tekst]

T ext
It is Vdesk. Its Vdesk. It is a Vpen. Its a Vpen.
It is a Vpencil. Its a Vpencil.
VBen, 'take a Vpen, please.
VMike, ' take a Vpencil, please.

WORDS
it 1. ; 2. , ,

is (3- . . to be)
a
a desk
a pen ,
a pencil
take
please
a text
Ben
Mike
be
Pete

1. 1.
2. 1.
3. :
let, sit, mean, site, late, name, team, like, net. dent. deal. side. time, pen,
cite, peak, kite, me, steam, kid, please, desk. take, plate, text, six. beast,
tea.
4. , :
seam, pencil, take, send, tame, seal, mix, lame. peal. limp. beam, cent,
leap, bed, please, lake, line, cede, beat, peace.
5. [, i, i:, ai,
ei].
6. :
1. Its Vtext. 2. Its VBen. 3. Take a Vpen, please.
Its a I text. Its 1 Ben. Take I a pen. I please,
pen. Mike. a pencil.
9

desk. Pete. a text,


pencil. Kate.
Tess.

7. :
1. It is ... text. 2. It is ... desk. 3. It is ... pen. 4. Mike, take ... pen, please.
5. It is ... pencil. 6. Ben, take ... pencil, please.
8. :
1. . 2. . 3. . 4. ,
, . 5. . 6. , ,
.

LESSON 2

: [], [], [:], [], [], [f], [v], [j], ], [g], [w]

: [ju:]

: F, f [ef| V, v [vi:)
G, g 1:] W,w [ 'dab) ju:]
, [ou] Y, [wai]
U, u Uu:]

: 1. ().
2. to be.
.
3. .
4.
.

GRAMMAR NOTES
I. ()

to [tu:], . [ta]
[tu] . to
, .
to give [ta Vgiv]
to open [tu Voupn]
to be [ta lbi:[

II. to be.
, .
to be
.
10

.
' Is it pencil? ?
, , .
yes .
, , to be
. yes ,
.
.
'Is it a /book? VYes.it Vis.
'Yes, it Vis.

III.

.
: ,
.
.
.

.
,
.
.
Give me a pen, please. , ,


,
.
.
It is a good book. .
good
It is my book. .
my
: ,
, (, ) .
It is a good desk. .
Give Pete a good book. .

IV.


.
page 5
11


[] [, [V] [i].[i:] [g] [u] [u:] U]
[] [faind] [fill - [fi:l] [gtv] [kuk] [tu:] [jes]
[baed] [vern] [fit] - [fi:t] [get] [luk] [su:n| Del]
[maen] [veil] [stif] [sti:v] [baeg] [buk] [spurn] [jet]
[laemp] [faiv] [liv] - |li:f] [big] [gud] [fu:d] Uen]

[A] [ou] [w] [d3] [ju:]


[] [nou] [wai] [d3ein] [nju:]
[bAS] [gou] [wel] [d3sem] [Qu:|
[fAS] [klouz] ]wi:k] [peid3] [ pju:pl]
[nAt] [ 'oupn] [wumsn] [d3ist] ['stju:dant]

F, f [ef] [fj.
V, v [vi:] [v].
A, a [ei] .

a man [maen] ,
Ann []
bad [baed]
U, u |ju:] .

student [a'stjindsnt]
[']
, []
[], []
.
to close [ta'klouz]
a lesson [a'lesn]
1, m,
[:],
[].
too [tu:]
a spoon | 'spu:n]
a book [ ]
12

Y, [wai]
[ai] [j] ,
my [mai]
yes [jes]
G, g [d3i:] [63] . U
[g] , ,
a page [ peid3]
a gym [ 'd3im| .
good [gud]
: to give [giv] .
[s],
a cycle [ 'saikl]
W, w [dAblju:]
[w].
we [wi:]
a woman [a'wuman]
I, i [ai]
nd, Id [ai].
find [faind]
mild [maild] ,

T ext
'Mike is a Vman. 'Ann is a Vwoman. 'Mike is a - student. Ann is a 'student
Vtoo.
It is a Vbook. Its a Vgood book.
VMike, 'take my/'book and Vopen it, please. Find page . the. - Ann. Vclose
my book, please.

'Is it a T cup?
Wes, it Vis.
'Is it a T nice cup?
VYes, it Vis.
Is it a / spoon?
VYes, it Vis.
Is it Vmy spoon?
VYes, it Vis.
VGive me my spoon, please.

WORDS
a lesson
a man ,
Ann
a woman
a student ,
too ,
a book
good
13

my
to open
to find
a page
five
to close
a cup
yes
nice ,
a spoon
to give
me ,
bad


1. 2.
2. 2.
3. :
lap, like, lake, met, mat, mill, mile, meat, cede, gap, pig, big, game, bag,
wide, wife, wet, wit, win, bud, bad, bug, tune, cute, cut, boot, look, bus,
fuse, fuss, mess, veal, sad, fat, nose, vice, van, vote, gest, gene, gen, gibe,
gyp, gym, smoke, moon, kind, yelp, yoke, mice.
4. , :
leave, gage, 'student, spoon, 'decent, 'silent, give, less, 'woman, lesson,
stale, mad, style, note, west, east, file, yeast, mind.
5.
[ai, as, u, ju, u:, i:, ei, i, , , e, ou].
6. :
1. Give me Vpen, please. 2. Give me my Vspoon, please.
Give me a pencil, please. Give me my pen, please.
, my pencil,
a spoon, my cup,
a book, my book,
my lesson,
my text,

3. Close my Vbook, please. 4. 'Is it a T pen?


Close my book, please. Is it a pencil?
Find a desk?
Take a text?
Open a man?
a woman?
a student?
a book?
a cup?
a spoon?
14

7. :
1. It is ... lesson. It is ... lesson five. 2. It i s ... pencil. It i s ... bad pencil. 3. Is it
... book? Yes, it is. It is ... good book. 4. Give A nn... good book, please. 5. Is Mike
... good student? 6. Is Ann ... student? 7. It is Ben. Ben is ... man. 8. It is ... cup. It
is ... nice cup. 9. Kate, give me ... spoon, please.
8. :
Is it a man? Is it a woman? Is it a student? Is it a good student? Is it a desk? Is
it a pen? Is it a pencil? Is it a book? Is it a nice book? Is it page five? Is it a cup? Is
it a spoon?
9. ,
:
to close, to open, to find, to take, to give, to send.
10. ,
:
a cup, a pencil, a spoon, a desk, a nice woman, a good book, a pen.
11. :
1. . 5. . .
. . . .
. 2. 5? . ? .
? . ? . ? . 3.
, . , . ,
, . , .
, . , , .

LESSON 3

: [:], [], [0], [9], [], [tj]

: , h [eitj] R. [:]

: 1. this, that.
2. .
3. to be.
4. .

GRAMMAR NOTES
I. this, that

.

, :
this [9is] , ,
that [9aet] , ,
15

, ,
.
this desk
that student
this page
that spoon
this
, .
that
, .
this, that
:
1.
This is a cup. .
That is a spoon. To .
2.
This book is good. .
That woman is nice. ().

II.
the [3i:], ,
.
, ,
,
.

, , , ,
, , .

[] ,
, [3i] ,
:
the pencil [ 'pensl]
the apple [3i 'aepl]

.
:
It is a book. .
The book is good. .
. ,
, ,
,
.
It is a pencil. .
It is a good pencil. .
16

:
1.
Mike is a student. .
2. ,

Close my book, please. , .
Give me that spoon, please. , .
3. ,

Find page five. .

III. to be
to be
not,
.
Mike is not a student. .
This room is not large. .
,
not , to be .
The 'book is 'not on the Vtable. .

, .
isnt [iznt].
.
'Ann 'isnt Vstudent. .

IV.

[], : ,
, to be
not. ,
.
.
'Is 'this a / room? VNo, it is Vnot.
'No, it is Vnot.
isnt [iznt],
.
'Is the 'table in the T room? ?
VNo, it Visnt. .


[a:] [0 ] m [o] [] [tj]
[a:m] [0-9-9] [-9-] [not] [ri:d] [tjes]
[fa:m] [ik] [3i:] [pot] [red] [maetj]
[park] [in] [3ei] [ ofis] [rum] [witf]
[la:d3] [ti:9] [9is] [wot] [rait] [W m ]
[ba:0 ] [9aet]
17

[9'desk] [an 9a'teibl] [vais iz]


[9 '] [in 9a'rum] [Vdaet is]
[9a'buk] [in 9 a' kit]m] ['izV9is]
[da'flaet] ['izVdast]
[9 'ti:pot] [Vjes it Viz]
[9 'kitjlnj [Vnou it Viznt]


R,r [:]
[].
red [red]
a room [ 'rum]
+
, III
.
,
.
+ [:],
[ ':]
large [1:]
, [] .


to go [] , ,
on [on] ( )
not [not]
a tea-pot ['ti:pot]
, h [eitj]
.
ch tch [tfl.
chess [tfes]
a kitchen [' kitjl |
th [9]
[0 ] ,
the [9i:, 9i, 9]
this [9is] , , ( . .)
that [9aet] , , ( . .)
thin [0 in]
a bath-room [ 'ba: 0 rum]
18

[1]
,
an apple [ aepl]
a table [a 'teibl]

[].
black []
Nick [nik]

T ext
'This is Vflat. The 'flat is Vgood. It is a 'two- 'room Vflat. This is a Vroom.
'This 'room is Vlarge. 'That is a 'room Itoo. 'That 'room is- not large.
'This is a Vkitchen. T h at is a Vbathroom.
VPete, 'go to the Hdtchen and 'take the Vtea-pot. please. The tea-pot is on
the Vtable.

'Is 'this a T room?


VYes, it Vis.
'Is 'this a /table?
VYes, it Vis.
'Is the 'table in the T room?
VNo, it Visnt. Its in the Vkitchen.
'Is 'that a T sofa?
VYes, it Vis.
'Is 'that 'sofa T red?
VNo, it Visnt. Its Vblue.

WORDS
this , ,
that , ,
aflat
the
a room
a two-room flat
large
not
no
kitchen
a bath-room
to go ,
to , ( )
a tea-pot
tea
on ( )
a table
in ( )
a sofa
19

red
blue ,
black
a car
a park
Nick


1. 3.
2. 3.
3. :
thin, sketch, mark, spot, note, theft, damp, chop, meddle, face, win, cook,
stone, meat, catch, yam, glide, sky, sun, gloom, title, fact, little, soft, globe,
cycle, yard, chat, time, rise, throne, cut, lot, charge, cattle, thrice, make,
plum, ripple, stamp, sea, able, plot, then, nut, use, mix, role, park, cable,
mule, them, middle, car, rook, vice, theme, with.
4. , :
dream, sable, fetch, thrust, mine, riddle, roof, rat, march, far, twist, vie,
slope, mug, vote, stuff, fox, cheap, star, these, stable, cry.
5.
[u:, , i, a:, ei].
6. :
1. H ie' flat is Vgood. 2. Hie pen 'isnt Vblack. 3. This is a large Vflat.
The room is good. The pencil isnt red. This is a large desk.
The flat blue. car.
The kitchen black. kitchen.
The bathroom room.
table.
park.

4. That 'isnt a 'nice Vtext. 5. 'Is 'this ('that) a T table?


That isnt a bad room. Is this a sofa?
car. that a table?
bathroom. a tea-pot?
book. a kitchen?
sofa. a bathroom?
park. a book?

7. ,
:
1. . .
. 2. ? . 3. ,
. 4. .
. 5. -
. 6. , .
20

7. . 8. ? . 9. ,
, . 10. ,
, .
8. :
1. This is ... tea-pot.... tea-pot is not in this room. It is in ... kitchen. 2.... Ann,
go to ... kitchen, and take ... cup. please. 3. Give me my spoon, please.... spoon is
on ... table. 4. Is th is ... bathroom? Yes, it is. Is ... bathroom large? No, it isnt.
5. Pete, take ... book, please, and open page six. 6. This i s ... park. Is ... park large?
No, it isnt. 7. This is ... black car.
9. :
1. Is this a table? 2. Is this my table? 3. Is this a large room? 4. Is this a book?
5. Is this a good book? 6. Is this page five? 7. Is that a cup? 8. Is that a blue cup?
9. Is this a pencil? 10. Is this a red pencil? 11. Is the pencil on the table? 12. Is the
table in this room? 13. Is that a tea-pot? 14. Is that tea-pot on this table? 15. Is
this a car? 16. Is this a black car? 17. Is the car in the park'1 18. Is that a park?
19. Is the park large?
10. :
1. This is a flat. 2. The sofa is blue. 3. My kitchen is good. 4. The spoon is in
the cup. 5. Pete is in the room. 6. This flat is good. 7. Mike is a student. 8. The
pencil is red. 9. Ann is a student. 10. My flat is large. 11. It is a two-room flat.
12. The tea-pot is in the kitchen.
11. , :
() :
1. a flat, a kitchen, a bathroom, this, that, good.
2. large, a sofa, red, blue, a table, a tea-pot. a car.
() :
to take, to give, to go, to find, to open, to close.
12. :
1. . . 2. . 3.
. . 4. ? . ?
. ? . 5. , . , .
. 6. ? . 7. ,
. 8. . 9. ? .
. 10. ? . 11,
? . 12. ? . .
13. , .
. 14. ? . 15. , . ,
. 16. . 17. ?
.

LESSON 4

: [is], [:], [], []. [h]. . []

: [fr], [br], [gr], [tr], [dr]. [9r]


21

: 1. .
2. .
3. to be
.
4. to be.
5. these, those.
6. on, in, under, at.

GRAMMAR NOTES
I.
,
. ,

she , he .
, ,
, ,
it.
it
. :
Give me the pencil, please. , , .
It is on the desk. .
Take my pen. .
It is on my desk. .
,
.
1.
-s .
-s :
) [z]
a room rooms [ru:mz]
a sofa sofas [ soufaz]
) [s]
a book books [buks]
2. , -s, -ss, -ch, -,
. -es, [iz].
a telex telexes [ 'teliksiz]
a match matches ['maetjiz]
3. -
, . i
-es.
a factory , factories ['fsektariz] ,
-
, -s.
a day days [deiz]
4. -f, -fe, f
v, -es.
22

a shelf shelves [felvz]


a wife wives [waivz]
5. ,
.
a man men
a woman women ['wimin]
a child children [ 'tjildran]

II.

. .
1- I [ai] we [wi:]
2- you [ju:] , you [ju:]
3- he [hi:] they [dei]
she [:]
it [it]

I .
I ,
-.
Ann, Mike and I are students.
you .
.
3- . .
he, she , ,
. it (. . ).
they . be. she it.
.
:
1)
They are good students. .
2)
Its she. .

III. to be

. .
1- 1 am we
2- you are you > are
3- he they J
she > is
it J
23

. .

1- am I? r we?
2- are you? are you?
3- t he? 1 they?
is \ she?
v it?

. .

1-e I am not we
2-e you are not you > are not
3-e he they J
she > is not
it J

IV. to be
, -
, .
to be
, to be
.

What is this?
Where are the books?
What student is Mike?
What colour are the cups?

, ,
what .
What is this? ?
It is a book. .

, , , ,
,
what.
what , .
What is he? ( , )?
is a student. .

, , , ,
who
.
24

Who is that woman? ?


She is Ann. .
what, ,
( , ).
What flat is this? ?
This is a two-room flat. .
What colour is that sofa? ?
It is red. .
, ,
where , .
Where is the tea-pot? ?
It is in the kitchen. .

.
'What is Vthis? ?
-,
,
.
'Who Vis she? ?

V.
this that
these [3i:z] those [douz]. These
, those
.
.
:
1)
These are my rooms. .
Those are large rooms. To .
,
.
This is a table. .
These are tables. .
That is a desk. .
Those are desks. .
2)
These pens are good. .
Those kitchens are large. .V I.

VI. on, in, under, at


on [on] -
.
The book is on the table. .
in [in] -
.
Mike is in the room. .
25

under [ Anda]
.
The pen is under the book. .
at [ret, at]
, .
The chairs are at the desks. .
. at
- , ,
.
We are at the lesson. ().
The engineers are at the office. ().

[:] [au] [ia] [ea] [h] m to]


[to:k] [aut] [nia] [pea] [hi:] m [lap]
[fo] [nau] [dial [tfea] [hret] LHp] [04]
[tfoik] [daun] [klia] [wea] [hat] [fe [rasp]
[sma:l] [taun] [,end3i'nia] [] [his] Ua:t] ['ma:nip]

[fr, br, gr, tr, dr, 9r] [a a: ou] [a: - ]


[frend] [nat na:t nout] [da:k dxk]
[braun] [kat ka:t kout] [ka:t kAt]
[grim] [spat [spa:t spouk] [la:k L\k]
|traem| [kak ka:k kouk] [ha:t hxt]
[dres]
[Qri:]

[at 5i 'afis]
[at 'desks]
[an 'teibl]


sh ].
she 1:]
or + [:].
short [fa:t]
[ia].
an engineer [an ,end3i 'nia]
air [],
a chair [a'tfea]
ow []
.
now [] ,
brown [braun]
26

, h [eitj]
.
he [hi:]
his [hiz]
ng [].
long [brj]
er, or
[].
a letter [ 'lets]
a doctor [ dakta]
under [ ']

T ext
I am an eYconomist. Mr. Kotov is my Vfriend. He is an .engineer. We are at
the Yoffice now.
'These are Vdesks. 'This is Ymy desk.
'That is Yhis desk. 'Those are Ychairs.
The 'chairs are at the Ydesks.
'These are Yletters. 'These 'letters are Ylong. 'Those are Ytelexes. 'Those
'telexes are Ynot long. They are Yshort.

'Whats Ythis?
'This is a Uetter.
'What Yletter is this?
'This is a Ylong letter.
YWhere is the letter?
Its on the Ytable.
'What Ycolour is the table?
Its Ybrown.
'What are Ythose?
'Those are Ytelexes.
YWhat telexes are those?
'Those are Yshort telexes.

'What Yare you?


Im an .engiYneer.
'Whats your Yname?
My 'name is SeYmenov.
'Who is this Ywoman?
She is my Ywife.

WORDS
I
am (1- . . to be)
an economist [i'konamist]
mister ,
a friend [frend]
27

he OH
we
an engineer [ .]
are (. . to be)
at , , (,
)
an office ['ofis] ,
now ,
these ,
those ,
a chair
his ( )
a letter
long
a telex ['teliks]
they [dei]
short
what [wot]
what [wot]
where [weo] ,
colour [ '1]
What colour is it? ?
brown
you ,
What are you? ( )?
your Ljo:] ,
name ,
Whats your name? ()?
who [hu:]
Who are you? (
)?
she Lfi:]
a wife [waif]
one [wAn]
two [tu:]
three [9ri:]
four [fo:]
six
seven [sevn]
eight [eit]
nine
ten
at [aet, ot] , ( )
under [ 'Ando] ( )
white [wait]
green [gri:n]
28


1. 4.
2. :
force, green, crowd, fair, shoot, ring, horse, hate, tree, deer, chair, brown,
shame, row, shell, him, sport, sister, air, bow, stairs, ladder, wave, maple,
bitter, marble, dress, try, shop, wax, leer, hair, sand, king, white, beer.
3. , :
storm, those, shuffle, stammer, grab, grace, pair, down, heat, town, steer,
kettle, smog, start, speak, seller, goods, order.
4.
[:, au, is, , ].
5.
:
pen, desk, text, pencil, page, lesson, book, cup. spoon, student, man,
woman, flat, room, kitchen, sofa, table.
6. , :
1. These are Vpencils. 2. Those are Ynot letters.
These are telexes, Those are not students.
tea-pots, engineers.
spoons, economists.
cups.
7. :
1. These are ... brown desks.... desks are in ... room. 2. Those are ... engineers.
... engineers are a t ... office. 3. ... office is large. 4. This i s ... book. It is my book.
... book is on ... table. 5. She is ... student. She is ... good student. 6. Mike is ...
man. He is ... nice man. 7. Where are ... telexes? They are on ... table. 8. Ann is his
wife. She is ... economist. 9. Where i s ... letter? Its in my book. 10. What colour is
... cup? ... cup is white. 11. This is lesson nine. ... lesson is long. 12. ... flat is not
large. 13. This is ... tea. This is ... good tea.
8. to be:
1. T hey... engineers. 2. She ... a good student. 3. These ... my books. T hey...
on the chair. 4. This ... an office. 5. Where ... your students? 6. These men ... not
bad engineers. 7. What colour ... his pen? It ... blue. 8. What page ... this? It ...
page eight. 9. I ... not an economist. I ... an engineer. 10. Who ... at the office?
11. Who ... they? They... my friends. 12. What colour... the desks at your office?
13. W hat... your friends? They ... engineers. 14. W hat... his name? His name ...
Sokolov. 14. Where ... the telexes? They ... under my book.
9. :
1. My wife is ... the kitchen now. 2. G o ... the office and take the telexes. They
a re ... my table. 3. Your students are n o t... this room. They are ... room three. 4. Is
Mr. Orlov ... the lesson now? Yes, he is. 5. Mr. Petrov is ... the office now. 6. The
chair is ... the table. 7. The letter is n o t... your table, it i s ... it. 8. My friends are ...
the park now.
29

10. ,
:
nine pencils, six women, seven spoons, one table, two students, ten texts,
eight telexes, five cars, three men, four chairs, two parks.
11.
:
1. Who is your friend? 1. Are these cars?
2. What is he? 2. What cars are these?
3. Where is he now? 3. What colour are these cars?
4. Is he a good engineer?
5. What is his wife? 1. What are you?
2. Whats your name?
1. What are those? 3. Who is your friend?
2. What telexes are those? 4. Where is your friend now?
3. Are the telexes on the chair? 5. What is he?
4. Where are they?
1. Are these letters?
1. Are these books? 2. What letters are these?
2. What books are these? 3. Are they long letters?
3. Where are they? 4. Are they on the table?
4. Are they your books? 5. Where are they now?

12. :
1. . . 2. ?
. 3. ? . 4 ?
. 5. ? . 6. .
. 7. ? 8.
? . 9. ? .
? . 10. ? . 11.
? . 12. . . 13.
, . 14. ? .
15. ? .
13. :
1. Mr. Losev is my friend. He is an economist. He is a good economist. This
is his office and that is his desk. He is not in the room now.
2. Ann is a student. She is a good student. She is in room 10 now. The room is
large and good.
3. This woman is my wife. She is an engineer. She is at the office now.

LESSON 5

: [:], [oi], [ais]

: [tw]

: J, j [d3ei]
30

: 1. to be.
2. .
.
3. .
4. .

GRAMMAR NOTES
I. to be
,
( )
.
Is this a pen or a pencil? ?
,
.

[].

,
.
'Is 'this 'pencil /'red or Yblue?

.

II. .

do
to.
Do not close the books. He .

dont [dount].
Dont take this pen. He () \.

.
'D ont 'open yourVbooks.I.

III.
, ,
, .

.
whose
. -
s,
.
Anns book
31

-s s .

.

.
these engineers desks [ '9'i:z ,end3i 'niaz 'desks]

men, women, children ,
, -s ,
these mens names
these womens friends
these childrens books
-,
.
Mr. Kotovs flat -

IV.
to -
, , .
Go to that table, please. , .
Come to the lesson at 9 o clock. 9 .
Come to our office at 12 oclock. 12
.
Come up to table, please. ,
.
into
.
Come into the room, please. .
off from
.
Take the letters off (from) the table. .
from
. from
, , .
Take that letter from Peter, please. ,
.
Go from Kiev to Odessa. .
out of
.
Take your books out of the bag. .


:1 [oi] [aia]
[fa:] [bai] [faia]
[ha:] [sail] [baia]
[:1] [paint] [taiad]
[fa:st] [tfais] [ .paiania]
32

[tw] [f-v ]
[twais] [naif] [daiv]
[twi:d] [waif] [faiv]
[twelv] [shelf] [twelv]
[ 'twenti] [la.f] [ka:v]


1 , ,
[:1].
small [smo:l]
already |:1' redi)
: 1
[:].
chalk [tjb:k]
, i, , + [:]
III .
her [ha:]
a girl [ ':1]
Thursday [ '0s:zdi]
J, i [d3ei] [63].
Jane [d3ein]
Y, [wai]
[i].
very [ 'veri]
oi [oi].
a boy [ 'boi]
a point [ 'point]
+
, IV
. .
ir + +
[aia].
fire [faio]
a tyre [a'taia]
ay, ai [ei].
a day [' dei |
rain [rein]

T ext
It is 'Sunday to Yday. 'Sunday is 'Mikes 'day Yoff. It is 'ten oclock in the
Ymorning. /Mike, his 7wife and his /'children are at Yhome.
'Mikes 'childrenare 'not 'very Ysmall. His 'daughter is al' ready /eleven and
his 'son is Ysix.
'Mikes 'daughter is a Ypupil. Her 'name is YJane. She is pretty. His 'boys
'name is YNick. He is Ynot a pupil.
YNick, 'dont 'take 'Janes 'books out of her Ybag. Your 'books are on the
Yshelf. 'Come 'up to the /shelf and Ytake your books.
33

'Whats your 'day Yoff?


Its VSunday.
'What Yday is it today?
Its ^Thursday.
'Look at your Vwatch.
'What Ytime is it now?
Its 'seven oclock in the Yevening.

'Are you at 'home at /six oclock or at Vseven oclock on weekdays?


Im at 'home at Ysix oclock on week-days.
'When are you at 'home on VFridays?
On /Fridays Im at 'home at Yfour.

'Whose 'children are Ythese?
They are my Yfriends children.
'Tell me their Ynames, please.
Their 'names are 'Peter and YAnn.
'Are they /pupils or Ystudents?
They are Ypupils.
How Yold are they?
'Peter is /twelve and 'Ann is seven Yteen.

WORDS
Sunday ['sxndi]
Monday ['m\ndi]
Tuesday [4ju:zdi]
Wednesday ['wenzdi]
Thursday ['9a:zdi]
Friday [ 'fraidi]
Saturday [ 'saetadi]
today
a day off [a 'dei 'of|
a clock [klok] ()
a t... oclock ...
a morning [a'momir)]
in the morning
an aftenoon [ ,a:fts'nu:n] 12 6
in the afternoon
an evening [ i:vnir)]
in the evening
a child [a 'tjaild] (. . )
(pi. children ['tjildren])
already [o:l 'redij
at home
very [ 'veri]
small [smo:l]
a daughter [a'do:ta]
34

a son [']
a pupil [ ,pju:pl] ,
Jane
a boy
do [du:]
out of [ 'aut svj ( )
her ( )
off ( )
from , ( )
into [into] ( )
a bag [ 'baeg] ,
a shelf [ 'Jelf] (. . )
(pi. shelves [Jelvz])
to come [ts '] ,
to come up
to come home
to go home
a day
to look at [luk] ...
a watch [ 'wotj]
time 1. ; 2.
when [wen]
on ( )
at ( )
a weekday [ 'wi:kdei[
or
whose [hu:z]
about [a'baut]
their [] ( )
How old is this boy? ?
He is 10. .
to tell , ,

to tell ,
, .

Tell your name, please. , .


Dont tell Pete about it. He .

eleven [i'levn]
twelve [twelv]
thirteen [ 's:ti:n[
fourteen ['fo:ti;n]
fifteen [Tiftiin]
sixteen ['siks'ti:n[
seventeen ['sevn'tin]
eighteen ['ei'ti:n[
nineteen ['nain'ti:n[
twenty [ 'twenti]
35


1. 5.
2. :
all, smile, must, badly, wall, bird, urge, joy, art, teacher, film, berry, coin,
run, top, park, jam, thirst, merge, baby, cord, loin, ban, bun, cling, back,
shirt, boot, port, luck, boiler.
3. , :
price, sale, dress, ship, fur, fame, lack, weak, loom, burn, joint, ball, walk,
doctor, penny, turn, mercy, firm, joke, call, voice, deed, street, tractor.
4.
[:, ai, ei, :, ].
5. , :
1. Its VMonday today. 2. How 'old is your 'friends Ison?
Its Friday today. How old is Mr. Kotovs daughter?
Tuesday Janes friend?
Saturday Petes wife?
Thursday that engineers son?
Wednesday Nicks child?

3. Mikes daughter is Itwelve.


My friends wife is thirty-two.
The engineers son thirteen.
Mr. Orlovs friend eighteen.
Kates daughter twenty.

4. Dont take Petes books off the Vtable.


Dont take Mikes books off the table.
my childrens
Janes
my friends

5. Whose ^children are these?


Whose boys are these?
girls is this?
friend
desk
car
letters

6. .
: books are on the table.
Are my books on the table or on the desk?
1. Nick is an engineer. 2. It is twelve oclock. 3. Jane is at the table. 4. These
books are on the desk. 5. This boy is a pupil. 6. Those are brown bags. 7. This is a
short text. 8. My watch is on the table.
36

7. :
1. Take the cups off the table. 2. Take these chairs to the kitchen. 3. Go into
that room, please. 4. Open your books, please. 5. Come up to my desk, please.
6. Take the books out of your bag, please. 7. Take my pen from Peter, please.
B. Go to the kitchen now. 9. Go home, now. 10. Tell me about your children.
8.
.
1. This is (Jane, Janes) letter. 2. Take (Nick, Nicks) pen from Kate, please.
3. (These engineers, these engineers) are not at the office now. 4. Give (the boy,
the boys) good books. 5. Donttake (Mike, Mikes) pencil. 6. (My wife, my wifes)
day off is Monday. 7. (The engineers, the engineers) letters are not on this table.
8. (Myfriend, myfriends) children are small. 9. (My friend, my friend's) is twenty.
10. Dont take (Pete, Petes) telexes off the table. 11. Give (Mike, Mikes) those
letters. 12. Tell (Jane, Janes) about your day off. 13. Don't take (my brother, my
brothers) watch.
9.
:
: These are their children. These are my friendschildren.
1. This is his watch. 2. This is her bag. 3. These are their desks. 4. This is his
car. 5. Take their letters out of the desk. 6. Nick is his friend. 7. Mike is her son.
8. Those are their books. 9. Her flat is good. 10. What is her day off? 11. His wife
is a nice woman. 12. Her children are at home.
10.
:
1. Take Mikes books off the table. 2. Give me Kates pen. 3. What is this girls
name? 4. How old is Mr. Kotovs son? 5. Where are your friends children now?
6. This is my friends daughter. 7. These are Mr. Petrov's telexes. 8. Take Kates
book from Peter. 9. These engineers desks are in that room. 10. Come up to this
engineers desk, please.
11. :
1. Where is ... watch? It is on ... table. 2. "What is Mikes friend? He
is ... economist. 3. Mikes daughter is ... good girl. She is ... pupil. 4. Nick is n o t...
pupil. He i s ... small boy. 5. What book is this? This i s ... nice book. Where is ...
book? It is on ... shelf. Take it o ff... shelf, please. 6. What colour is ... bag? ... bag is
red. 7. Pete and Ann are ... children. They are ... pupils. 8. Whose spoon is it? It is
Nicks spoon. Take ... spoon off... table and give it to Nick, please. 9. Is your son
... pupil o r ... student? He is ... student. 10. Janes pen is in ... desk. Take it out of...
desk, please.
12. :
1. Take my book ... Nick, please. 2. It is 8 o'clock. Go ... your office now.
3. C om e.....the shelf and take your book. 4. Dont take the telexes... the table.
5. Take your pens and your books.....your bags, please. 6. Come ... the room,
please. 7. Go ... room 18, please. 8. Come home ... six oclock today. 9. The letter
is ... the book. 10. The cups are n o t... the table. They are ... the kitchen. 11. Where
are the telexes? They are in the desk. Take the telexes...... the desk. 12. Where is
Nick? He is ... room 5. 13. Nick, take the letter ... the desk. 14. Take the book,
37

Pete, and give i t ... me, please. 15. Children, take your books...... your bags. Now,
open your books. 16. This is a letter... Peter. 17. My friend and his wife are n o t...
home now. They are ... their office. 18. Children, com e.......me. 19. Jane, dont
take these cups ... the table. 20. Kate, dont go ... that room. 21. Tell me ... your
flat. 22. Look ... your watch and tell me the time.
13. :
1. This sofa is blue. 2. Mike is a good engineer. 3. The children are in their room
now. 4. Their names are Ann and Pete. 5. This is a flat. It is a small flat. 6. These are
black pencils. 7. Those chairs are brown. 8. This is my watch. 9. It is twelve oclock
now. 10. This is my sons bag.
14. :
1. . . . 2.
. . ,
. . 3. ? .
4. , , . 5.
. . 6. ?
. 7. ?
. . 8. , .
. 9. . 9 , . 10.
? , .
. 11, ? . ,
. 12. ? .
15. ,
:
Jane is an economist. Her husband is an engineer. His name is Nick. Their
son is ten. His name is Mike. He is a pupil. He is a good pupil. Their flat is nice,
a husband [luzband]
It is Monday today. It is two oclock in the afternoon. Jane is at her office. She
is at her desk now. Her letters and telexes are on the table. Her husband is at his
office too. Their day off is Sunday.
Nick is a student. His friend is a student too. His friends name is Mike. Nick
is nineteen. Mike is twenty. Nick and Mike are good students.

LESSON 6

: []

: [r)k]

: Z, z [zed]

: 1. (Simple Present).
2. .
3.
of.
4. .
38

GRAMMAR NOTES
I. (The Simple Present Tense)
,
,
, .

to , 3- .
.
I go to my office in the morning. .
1. 3- . -s.
works at an office. .
-s 3- .
:
) [z] :
opens [oupnz]
) [s] :
sits [sits]
2. , -, 3- .
-es.
goes [gouz]
does [dxz]
3. , -s,- se, -ss, -ch. -sh, -x,
-es, [iz].
closes ['klouziz]
4. , -
, -es, - i.
to study [ 'stxdi]
studies [ stxdiz]
,
-s.
to play [plei]
plays [ 'pleiz]

. .

I work we x
you work you > work
he x they J
she > works
it )


do [du, da, d],
, not, ,
to.
I do not go to the office on Sunday.
.
39

He does not go to the office on -


Sunday. .

.
dont [ 'dount] = do not
doesnt ['dxznt] = does not
.

do
.
Do you go to the office on Saturday? ?
Does he go to the office on Saturday? ?
yes ,
, ,
do
.
Do you go to the office on Monday?
?
Yes, I do.
No, I dont. .
Does he go to the office on Sunday?
?
Yes, be does. .
No, he doesnt. .

.
Where do you work? ?
When does your wife begin her ?
work?
:
1. .
friend lives in Kiev. .
2. ( ).
I come to the office at 9 oclock. 9 .

:
every day )
every afternoon J
every morning
every evening
Every day I go to my office. .
goes to his office every day. .
Do .you go to the office every day? ?
I dont go to the office every day. .
40

II.

whose .

.



. 1 my
you your ()
he his
she her
it its .
. we our
you your
they their


.
, ,
.
This is my flat.
These are their desks. .
,
.
Give me your brown bag. .

III.
of
,
,
of [sv]
of ,
,
the rooms of the flat
the book of my good friend IV
.

IV.
20 100 ,
.
.
'twenty-'seven
'sixty-'five
'ninety-'nine
100
and, hundred thousand
.
41

132 one hundred and thirty-two


403 four hundred and three
567 five hundred and sixty-seven
25,843 twenty-five thousand eight hundred and forty-three
.
: 1,525; 150,000.


[] [ ] [t-d ]
[] [maen men] [eit eid]
[] [laemp lend] [sit si:d]
[] [baed bed] [tfaet tjaild]
[taua] [flaet fled] [9ret frend]

fa n] m [s-z ] [wo:]
[faep fan] [sink] [sets sendz] [wo:k]
[wip win] [0ir)k] [sits ri:dz] [wo:d]
[9ip 9in] [dripk] [gets gouz] [wa:s]
[bp b:n] ['0aepkju] [wonts b:nz] [wa:ld]


our
[].
[]
Z, z [zed] [z],
a size [a 'saiz]
,
a knife [ 'naif]
nk [].
to drink [dripk]

T ex t
'name is VPeter. I 'work at a YMinistry. My 'wife does Ynot work at our
Ministry. She ' works at a Yfactory. ' Every /day we 'get 'up at 'seven oclock in the
Ymorning. I 'go to the Ybathroom. I /shave, /wash and Ydress.
My 'wife 'goes to the/kitchen and 'cooks Ybreakfast. Our 'children 'get 'up
'early Ytoo. 'Jane 'puts /plates, /cups, /knives and Yforks on the table. We 'sit
'down at the Ytable.
At 'breakfast we 'eat /ham, /cheese, /eggs, 'bread and /butter and 'drink
/tea,/coffee or Ymilk. After/breakfast my 'wife 'goes to her Yfactory. 'Jane 'goes
to Yschool.
I 'take 'Nick to the Ynursery school. But on /Monday my 'wife does Ynot
work. YShe takes him there.
42

'D o you 'work at the 'Ministry of 'Foreign Economic Relations?


Wes, I Ydo.
'D o you be 'gin your 'work at ?8 or at V9 oclock?
I be 'gin my 'work at \9.
'Where does your 'wife Work?
She 'works at a Yfactory.

WORDS
to work [wa:k]
work
a ministry [ 'ministri]
foreign [ 'forin]
trade [treid]
of [ov, av)
our
a factory [ 'fasktari]
every [ 'evri]
to get up
to shave
to wash [woj] , ,
to dress
to cook ,
breakfast [ 'brekfastj
at breakfast
early | 'a:li] ,
to put [put]
a plate
a knife [naif] (pi. knives) (. . )
a fork
to sit down
to eat
ham
cheese
an egg
bread [bred]
butter [ 'bAts]
to drink [drirjk]
coffee [ 'kofi]
milk
after [ 'a:fta] ()
to go to school [ gou ts sku:l]
a nursery school [ 'nsisari sku:l]
to take (-)
there [] ,
but [bAt] ()
him ,
43

to begin [bi 'gin] ,


thirty ['0:]
forty [ 'fo:ti]
fifty [' flfti]
sixty ['siksti]
seventy ['sevnti]
eighty [ 'eiti]
ninety ['nainti]
economic
the Ministry of Foreign Economic
Relations


1. 3- .
:
to take, to give, to close, to open, to come, to find, to begin, to work, to go,
to get up, to tell, to look.
2. :
1 .1 go to the office every day. 2.1 get up at 7 oclock every morning. 3 .1 work
at an office. 4 . 1 come home at 6 oclock in the evening.
3. :
1 .1 come to the office at nine oclock in the morning every day. 2. On Fridays
he comes home at four oclock. 3. We dont work on Sundays. 4. They go home at
five oclock in the afternoon. 5. He doesnt get up at seven oclock on Sundays.
1. Do you come to your lesson at eight oclock? 2. Does your lesson begin at
eight o clock or at nine oclock? 3. When does your lesson begin? 4. When do you
get up on weekdays? 5. Where does your wife work?
4. , :
I come home at 6 oclock.
Mr. Pavlov comes
They
My friends wife
He
She

Mikes friend dont get up at seven oclock on Sundays.


She doesnt
They
Janes children
His wife

Do your friends work at your office?


Does Mr. Petrov
she
this woman
these engineers
44

4. Does your wife go to the office at 8 oclock or at 9 oclock?


come home
get up

5. Where do they work?


When does he
his wife
your son
her daughter
your friends

5. :
talk, shirt, bay, tall, term, heat, peck, dark, jail, mail, sky, rain, look, zip,
play, knot, gulf, com, zest, knock, track, zone, trait, mind, zoo, fall, land,
actor, sour, moist, hire, pay, mock, flour.
6.
:
1. These engineers work at the Ministry. 2. Our lesson begins at 8 oclock.
3. Mike gets up at 7 oclock. 4. Our friends take their child to the nursery school.
5. Jane goes to school every day. 6. She cooks breakfast in the morning. 7. We eat
eggs and ham at breakfast. 8. Jane drinks milk every morning. 9. He comes home
early on Saturday.
7. , :
1. children go to school.
His eat eggs, ham, bread and butter every morning,
Her drink coffee at breakfast.
Our
Their

2. She takes the children to the nursery school every day.


He
Mike
My wife
My friends wife

3. Their children dont drink coffee at breakfast.


Her son doesnt
They
My daughter
My wife and I

4. Does your children go to school every day?


Do Nick
our friends son
that engineers daughter
your friends daughters
your sons friends
45

8. :
32, 45, 56, 67, 82, 105, 738, 544, 293, 894, 375, 1452, 2561, 5799, 13 740.
9. ,
, :
1. We work at a factory (a ministry). 2. She puts knives on the table (forks).
3. They get up at 9 oclock in the morning (at 7 oclock). 4. We sit down at the table
(at the desk). 5. He shaves in the bathroom (in the room). 6. We drink tea at breakfast
(milk).
10.
:
1. We are students. These are ... books. 2. Ann goes to ... office every morning.
3. These are my sons... names are Nick and Ben. 4. Mike, open ... book, please.
5. My wife is a student.... lessons begin at 9 oclock every day. 6. Pete takes... son
to the nursery school. 7. Children, sit down, take ... pens and pencils. 8. Jane,
dont p u t... bag on the table. 9. These men are engineers. These are... desks. 10. At
9 o clock I sit down a t ... desk and p u t... books on it.... lesson begins. 11. Where is
... watch, Nick? Look at it, please.
11. ,
:
1. . 2.
. . 3. ?
- . 4. .
. 5. ? .
6. ? . 7.
? . 8.
? 10 . 9. .
10. . 11. . 12.
.
12. ,
of:
, ,
, , ,
, , , ,
.
13. :
1. The engineers... this office work every day. 2. We begin our work... 9 oclock
... the morning. 3. Our children sit down and put their books... the table. 4. Nick,
dont take your books ... the shelf. 5. My son goes ... school... 8 oclock. 6. Does
Mike work... room 40? 7 .1 g o ... the Ministry... 8 o clock. 8. Take my watch... the
table and look... it. Tell me the time. 9. My wife and my children get u p ... 9 oclock
... Sunday. 10.... breakfast my wife takes our so n ... the nursery school and goes...
the factory. 11. Take the letter...... my bag and put i t ... the desk. 12. Dont go...
that room. 13. Jane, take the book... the shelf and come u p ... me. 14. Where is my
spoon? Its ... your cup. 15.... breakfast we eat cheese, bread and butter and drink
tea. 16. Tell me ... the engineers... your office.
46

14. ,
:
1. Our friends are ... engineers. They are ... good engineers. They work a t ...
office. ... office is in room 17. It is ... very large room. 2. Jane, where is ... red
pencil? It is in ... bag. 3. After breakfast we take ... children to ... nursery school.
4. Whose daughter is Jane? She is Mikes daughter. Is she ... good girl? Yes, she is.
She is ... pupil. 5. Do you work a t ... factory or a t ... office? I work a t ... factory,...
factory is very large. 6. I n ... morning my wife p u ts... plates.... knives and ... forks
on ... table. 7. Nick goes to ... nursery school. He i s ... small boy. 8. It is ... car. It
is ... large green car. 9. At breakfast I eat ... cheese, ... ham and ... bread and ...
butter. I dont drink... coffee, I drink... tea. 10. It is ... two-room flat. These are ...
rooms. That i s ... kitchen.... kitchen is sm all.... rooms are large. 11. What is it? It
is... watch. It is ... good watch.
15. :
1. ? . 2.
? 8 . 3.
? 6 . 4. ?
7 . 5. ?
, , , . 6. ?
. 7. ?
6 . 8. ( )?
. . ?
. . . 9. ?
10 . . .
. . 10. ?
. , .
.
16. :
to sit down, every day, after, to go to school, early, to cook breakfast, to get
up, to begin, to find, to come up, at breakfast, under the table, to dress, to come
home.
17. :
My friends name is Peter. He is an engineer. He works at a large factory. His
wife is an engineer too. But she works at a Ministry.
Every morning Peter gets up at 7 o clock. He dresses, shaves and washes. Then
he goes to his sons room. His son is a small boy. His name is Nick. He does not go
to school. But he gets up early too.
Peters wife cooks breakfast. Peter, his wife and their son eat cheese, ham,
bread and butter and drink coffee or tea at breakfast.
After breakfast Nicks parents take their son to the nursery school.
Peter goes to his factory. His wife goes to her Ministry,
then [Sen] , ; parents [ 'pcarants]
47

LESSON 7

: [ ] , []

: [jus], [kw]

: Q, Q [kju:]

: 1. .
2.
.
3.
.

GRAMMAR NOTES
I.

who , what , , which , whose ,
.

.

He works at a factory.
Who works at a factory?
Who doesnt work at a factory?

, ,
what , who , which , -
3- . .
Who begins his work at 9 oclock? 9 ?
What begins at 9 o clock? 9 ?
Which of you works at a factory? ?
. Which ,
- .
which, ,
of .
Which of you gets up at 8 oclock? 8 ?
Which of your friends takes his
child to the nursery school? ?
,
, -
3- . . :
Whose child goes to school?
Whose children go to school?
48

,
to be, .
His friend is a student.
Who is a student?
His sons are students.
Who are students?
,

, .
( ),
.
'Who 'goes to the lessons at V8? VI do.
'Who 'doesnt 'shave in the Vevening? VI dont.
'Whose 'son 'goes to 'school in the Vmoming? VHis son does.

II.
usually [ :] ", often [o:fn]
, seldom ( 'seldom] , sometimes ( 's,\mtaimzj , always
[ 'odwaz] .
I often cook breakfast on Sundays.
.
He doesnt always shave in the .
morning.
When does she usually go to the
Ministry? ?
Who doesnt usually get up at 7 7
on Sunday? ?
, to be,
.
I am usually at home at 6 oclock. 6 .
sometimes .
Sometimes I come to my office at -
8 oclock. 8 .

III.
well badly
how [hau] .
.
speaks English well. -.

[] ] [3] [kw]
[] [kju3] [ ] [kwik]
[ ] [pjus] [ 'plezs] [kwait]
] [fjU3l] [ ] [ 'kwo:t3]
] ['djusrir)] [ :] [ 'kwestfn]
49

fo - Ok] [n -p ]
[sip sink] [sin - sip]
[rip ripk] [tvn - up]
[rap raepk] [Gin - Gip]
[wip wipk] [win wip]

[w -v ] [: d:[ [wo: wo:]


[wet vet] [fa: - fo:] [wo:d wo:d]
[wain vain] [so: so:] [wa.k wo:k]
[wi:t vi:l] [born bo:n] [wa:m wo:m]
[wa:s vo:s] [tarn tom] [wa:l wo:l]


+ [juo] IV
,
[],
during [ 'djuoripl
Q, q [kju:] qu,
[kw] ,
quite [kwait] ,
a question [ 'kwestjh]

D ia l og ue
'Good Vmorning. Peter. I'm 'happy to Vsee you.
Peter 'Good Vmorning, Mike. 'How Vare you?
Mike Im 'quite Vwell, / thank you. And 'how are Vyou?
Peter 'Very 'well Vtoo, / thank you. 'Where do you Vwork now?
Mike I 'work at the 'Ministry of 'Foreign Economic Relations.
Peter 'What do you Vdo there?
Mike Im an ,engiVneer. I 'also 'learn VEnglish.
Peter VWhere do you learn English?
Mike I 'learn 'English at the VMinistry.
Peter VWho teaches you English?
Mike SeVmenova does.
Peter 'What do you 'do at your 'English /lessons?
Mike 'During the /lessons we 'read/texts, 'learn /words, .translate from
'Russian into/English, 'ask and 'answer ^questions. Our 'students
'speak 'English Vwell.
Peter: 'Do you 'write /exercises at the lessons?
Mike: VNo, we Vdont. We 'usually 'do them at Vhome.
Peter: ' Does your 'wife learn ' English /too?
Mike: VNo, she Vdoesnt. She 'knows 'English Vwell.
'Now she 'learns VFrench.
Peter: ' How Vis she?
Mike: /Thank you, she is 'quite Vwell.
50

Peter: My 'best reYgards to her.


Good- /bye.
Mike: Good- /bye.

good morning [ 'gud 'mo:nir)] ()


happy [ 'haepi]
to see [ta 'si:]
to come to see, to go to see
how [hau]
How are you? [ 'hau Va:ju] ?
quite [kwait] ,
to thank [ta 'Gaerjk]
to be well [ta 'bi: 'wel]
you , (
)
to know [ta 'nou]
to do [ta 'du:]
What do you do? [ 'wot dju Vdu:] ? ?
also ['a:lsou]
to learn [ta 'lain]
English ['irjgliJ]
to teach [ta 'ti:tj] ,
a teacher [a 'tiitfa] ,
during [ 'djuarir)]
to read [ta 'ri:d]
to read English -
a word [a 'wa:d]
to translate [ta .trains'leit]
to translate from ... into [from ... i ... ...
Russian [ /]
to ask [tu 'a:sk]
to answer [tu 'a:nsa]
a question [a 'kwestj(a)n]
to speak [ta 'spi:k]

to speak :
1. ( to speak, ,
):
speaks very well. .
2. , ( to speak
, to, about):
Speak to him about your work, please. ,
.
3.
Our engineers speak English. -
.
51

usually [ 'ju: ]
often [o:fn]
seldom [ 'seldom]
sometimes ['sAmtaimz]
always [ 'o.lwiz]
only ['ounli]
to write [ta ' rait]
to write English -
an exercise [an 'eksasaiz]
them , (
)
well
badly [ 'baedli]
French
my best regards ,

her , (
)
good-bye [gud 'bai]
which Iwitfj
which of you
which of them


1. , :
gets up at 7 oclock every day? I
shaves Mike
cooks breakfast My wife
goes to school My children
begins his work at Our friends
9 oclock
works

2. Which of them does not work? Ann doesnt.


My daughter
His wife

3. Whose children go to school? My children do.


get up at 8 oclock? His children
go to the nursery school? Our children

4. Who is an engineer? I am.


Which of you He is.
Which of them Pete
Whose wife Mikes wife
52

2. :
1 .1 take my children to the nursery school every day. 2. We do not get up at
seven oclock every morning. 3. My friends children go to school. 4. Mr. Orlov
works at our Ministry. 5. His wife is not an architect, she is an economist. 6. Our
books are on the shelf. 7. They are not in room 10. 8 .1 do not drink coffee every
morning. 9. Her children drink milk every day. 10. His books are on the table.
3. :
1. ? . 2
9 ? . 3. ?
. 4. ? . 5.
? . 6. ? .
7. 7 ? . 8.
? . 9. 6 ?
. 10. ? .
4. :
bring, like, look, make, think, send, say, tell, time, leave, stop, smoke, mister,
clean, French, German, hard, easy, soon, much, again, them, 'elder, 'leader,
'worker, lamp, 'middle, wall, 'actor, film, rest, match, pay, toy, 'shopping, skirt,
size, spring, 'summer, 'winter, dot, fun, noise, port, pain, theme, use, such, chose,
duck.
5. , :
1. Who reads French well? We
Which of them speaks English well? Mike's son.
Which of your writes German well? My friend
engineers knows His wife
They

2. Whose daughter learns German? Her daughter


son My friend's wife
wife My children
friend His son
child His friend

3. Which of you doesnt know German? Mr.N dont.


Who French? My friends doesnt.
Which of our English?
students
Which of your
engineers

6. often,
usually, seldom, sometimes, always:
1. She translates texts from Russian into English at home. 2. We are at home
at 6 oclock in the evening. 3. They go to see their friends on Sunday. 4. My daughter
gets up at 7 o clock in the morning. 5 .1 drink coffee in the morning. 6. My friend
comes to see me on Saturday.
53

7. :
1. Our students answer the teachers questions during the lesson (2). 2. Smirnov
learns English words at home(2). 3.We usually translate long texts from English
into Russian at our lessons (3). 4. My daughter usually reads books in the evening
(2). 5. My friends wife knows French well (3). 6. She often tells me about her work
(2). 7. After breakfast my wife and I go to the ministry (2). 8. He often speaks to
me about his English lessons (2). 9. Mikes son reads French badly (2).
8. , :
1. This is a very (good, well) watch. 2. Which of your friends speaks English
(good, well)? 3. My son knows German (bad, badly). 4. Petrov is a (good, well)
engineer. 5. This park is very (good, well). 1 often go there on Sunday. 6. Do you
answer your teachers questions (good, well)? 7. My friend translates from English
into Russian (good, well), but he translates from Russian into English (bad, badly).
8. I read English (good, well), but I write English (bad, badly). 9. This book is
(bad, badly). Dont read it. 10. How is your daughter? She is quite (good, well),
thank you.
9. :
1. ... Sunday my wife and I do not go ... our offices. Sunday is our day o ff...
the morning we g e t...... 8 oclock.... breakfast we often go to see our friends. We
are usually ... home ... the evening. Tell me ... your day off, please.
2. Ann, look... the watch. It is already 8 o clock. G e t..., wash, dress and eat.
Your bag is ... the shelf. Take i t ... the shelf and go ... school. ^
3. My friend and I work ... this Ministry. We are engineers. engineers ...
our office learn English. We go ... our lessons ... Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday.
Our lessons begin... 8 oclock.... the lessons we answer the teachers questions and
read Enghsh. We do not speak Russian ... our teacher... the lessons.... home we
translate exercises ... Russian... English and learn words.
4. Do not take that book ... Pete. Take my book. Its ... my bag.
5. Children, come ... the room, please, and s it...... the tables.
10. ,
:
1. This is ... exercise. It is ... long exercise. It is ... very good exercise. It is ...
exercise 5.2. Whose watch is this? It is Peters watch. Is i t ... good watch? Yes, it is.
3. Whose bag is this? It is Anns bag. Take ... bag off... table, please, and put it on
... chair. 4. Peters letter is not o n ... table. Where is... letter? It is in my bag. 5. These
are... chairs. ...chairs are in the room. Take ...chair and sit down. 6. Dont translate
these texts from English into Russian. Answer those questions and learn ... words
of lesson 20. 7. Mike, come up t o ... table, please, and read... text. On Tuesday I go
to my lesson in ... morning. ... lesson begins at 8 o clock. At ... lesson I read ...
texts, ask and answer... questions. At home I write ... exercises and learn... words.
9. Ann, put ...plates,... knives,... forks a n d ... spoons on ... table. Ann and Pete, sit
down a t ... table. 10. Mikes wife works a t ... Ministry. She is ... economist. In ...
evening she also learns English there.
11. :
1. . .
. .
. .
54

2. , ? . . .
? .
. .
3. ? .
? .
.
4. ,
.
12. :
friends and I are students now. On Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday we go
to our English lessons. At 8 oclock in the morning we are already in our class
room and the lesson begins. The teacher usually asks us questions. We usually
know the words of our lessons and answer the teachers questions well. At our
English lessons we speak only English. After the lesson we go to our office. We
begin our work at 10 oclock. At the office we read and write letters, telexes and
telegrams. After 5 we go home or to the club to see a film. When the day is nice, we
go to the park.
a class-room [ 'klatsrum]
a telegram [ teligraem]
a club [ 'kkb]
a film [ 'film]
My wifes name is Helen. She is an economist. She works at our Ministry.
Every morning we go to the Ministry together. We usually come to our office at 9
oclock and begin to work.
My wife knows German well. She often gets letters from Germany. She reads
them and answers them. Now my wife learns French. She goes to her French
lessons on Monday, Wednesday and Friday after work.
I also know French. We often speak French at home. My wife tells me about
her lessons and her teacher and I tell her about my friends and work.
Sometimes we read French books and magazines together,
together [ts ']
to get
a magazine [ .']
13. :
1. work. 2. Our English lesson. 3. My family. 4. My friend.


I II III IV
A [ei] [ei] take [ae] man [a:] car [] Mary
E[i:] [i:] he [e] pen [:] her [is] here
I [ai] [ai] nice [i] sit [:] first [aia] hire
Y [wai] myth Byrd tyre
0 [ou] [ou] close [o] pot [:] sport [:] more
U[ju:] [ju:] student [] cup [:] Thursday [jus] during
55

, Aa ei N, n N n en

, Bb bi , Oo ou

, Cc si: P, P PP pi:

D, d Dd di: Q, q Qq kju:

, i: R ,r Rr a:

F, f Ff ef S, s Ss es

G ,g Gg d3i: T, t Tt ti:

H ,h H h eitf U, u U u ju:

I, i i ai V, v Vv vi:

JJ Jj d3ei W, w W w 'dAblju:

, Kk kei X, x Xx eks

L,1 LI el Y,y Yy wai

M, m M m em Z, z Zz zed
56

LESSON ONE

THE FIRST LESSON

Grammar: 1. to be
.
2. to have
.

Revision: 1. .
2. .

GRAMMAR NOTES
I. to be
1. to be was [woz]
1- 3- . were [wa:] 2- .
. was were
[waz, wa].

to be

. .
1- I was we 'j
2- you were you > were
3- he v they J
she > was
it )

. .

1-e was I? r we?


2-e were you? were < you?
3-e f he? 1 they?
was < she?
V it?
57

II. to have

. .

1- I have we ^
2- you have you > have
3- he they
she V has
it J

to have
not.
I have not . .
has not a son. .
has not a good pencil. .

:
havent [ 'h a e v n t ] , hasnt [ 'h a e z n t ]
I havent children. .
She hasnt a daughter. .
We havent questions. .
. to have
,
.
.
I have . .
to have
.
Have you a red pencil? ?
What books has your son? ?
Have you a son or a daughter? ?
Have you a book? ?
Yes, I have. .
No, I havent. .

have got .
I have got a small family. .
She has got two friends at school. .
Ive got
shes got.
have/has
.
Have they got Endlish books? ?
Has she got a new bag? ?
have/has
not.
58

I havent got (have not got) a red pencil. .


She hasnt got (has not got) a new bag. .
to have a lesson, to have breakfast ,
to have ,
do.
We do not have lessons every day. .
Ann doesnt have breakfast at the .
Ministry.
Do you have a lesson on Saturday? .
No, I dont. .
Does Nick have breakfast early in the ?
morning?
Yes, he does. .

I
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
to be
I. :
I. I was at the lesson yesterday. 2. I was not at the office at 10 oclock. 3. I
wasnt well yesterday. 4. Where were you last Saturday? 5. Were you a student in
19...?
II.
:
1. son was a pupil last year. 2 .1 was in Omsk two weeks ago. 3. His friends
were at our factory yesterday. 4. My daughter was at the nursery-school last
Tuesday. 5. Wednesday was his day off last week. 6. Our engineers were in
Volgograd last week. 7. We were happy to see them yesterday.
III. to be
:
1. Our engineers (was, were) at the factory yesterday. 2. When (was, were)
you a student? 3. Our children (was, were) not at school yesterday. It (was, were)
Sunday. 4. Who (was, were) your English teacher at school? Mr. Sedov (was,
were). 5. My friends (was, were) in Omsk three years ago. 6. Where (was, were)
Mr. Petrov at 9 oclock yesterday? 7. My friend (was, were) not at his office last
week. He (was, were) not well. 8. Who (was, were) at the lesson yesterday? They
(was, were).
IV. :
1. ? .
? . . 2.
. . 3.
. . 4.
? , . 5. ?
. . 6.
? . 7.
. . 8.
? .
59

V. :
1 .1 have a two-room flat. 2. has a daughter and a son. 3. They havent this
English book. 4. Have I these texts? 5. I havent got questions. 6. I have a large
room in Moscow. 7. My friend has got a new car.
VI.
:
1. has a daughter. 2. They have a son. 3. His friends have children. 4. This
student has a red pencil. 5. These students have English books. 6. Kotov has a
good Russian book. 7. We have got a new country house.
VII. to have
:
1. (to have) two questions to ask you. 2. What flat (to have) you friend?
He (to have) a nice two-room flat. 3. Their daughter (to have) not children. 4. Mike
(to have) not a son. He (to have) a daughter. 5. (to have) you questions? No, we
(to have) not. 6. Who (to have) a pen? I (to have). Give me your pen, please. 7. We
(to have) a bathroom in our flat. 8. (to have) Janes daughter a room or a flat in
Omsk? She (to have got) a one-room flat. 9. Ninas son (to have) not a red pencil.
Give him your pencil, please. 10.1 (to have) not French books at home. I dont
know French.
VIII. :
1. . . 2. ?
. 3. ?
. 4. . 5. ?
. 6. ? . . 7.
. . 8.
? , .
IX.
:
1. She has an English lesson on Thursday. 2. We have a lesson on Friday.
3. They have breakfast at seven o clock in the morning. 4. He usually has breakfast
at home.
X. :
1. . 2.
? . 3.
? .
. 4. ?
8 . 5. . 6. :
. . 7. ? .
. 8. .
.

Text
MY FAMILY
name is Bunin. I am an engineer. I was born in Moscow in 19 ... I am
married. My wife is young. Her name is Nina. She is a doctor. My wife and I are
very happy.
60

We have two children: a son and a daughter. Our elder child Nick is already
eight years old. He is a pupil. He does well at school. Our daughter Kate is a little
girl. She is only four.
Miyparents are old people. They have a small house in the country. My mother
and father were workers. Now they are retired.
I have a sister and a brother. My sister is a teacher. She is married, but she
hasnt children. My sisters husband was a student last year. Now he is a manager
in a big export company.
My brother is still single. He studies at an institute.
My father-in-law lives in Omsk. We sometimes go to see him.

D ia lo gue
Camp: Hallo. Is that Machinoexport?
Secretary: Yes, it is.
Camp: This is Camp of Roberts and Company speaking2. Id like to
speak to Mr. Bunin, please3.
Secretary: Im sorry, he is out now. Will you telephone him at 3 oclock,
please4?
Camp: Thank you. Good-bye.
Secretary: Good-bye.

COMMENTARY
1. , ,
, . ,
year .
1935 ['nainti:n '0: 'faiv] 1935-
1805 ['eiti:n 'ou 'faiv] 1805-
1900 [ nainti:n ' hxndrid] 1900-
2. This is Camp of Roberts and Company speaking. ,
.
.
3. Id like to speak to Mr. Bunin. -
.
Id like I would like,
.
, .
Id like to see Mr. Brown. - .
Would yon like to speak to him? ?
4. Will you telephone him at 3 oclock, please? ,
, 3 .
manager [' ] ,

VOCABULARY NOTES
first
The first lesson is short. .
family [ 'faemili] n
to be born
61

My son was born in 19 ... 19... .


When was your daughter bom? ?
Moscow ['moskou]
to be married [ta bi 'maerid] ,
My friend is not married. ,
young )] adj
My friend is a young woman. .
doctor n
have [haev] v
elder adj (

)
elder son
elder dauchter
My elder son is twelve, 12 .
to do well ()
My son does well at school. .
parents [ 'pearants] n
old [ould] adj
people [pi:pl] n
These people are old. ,
house [haus] n {pi. houses ['hauziz]) (. . )
the country
My parents have a small house in
the country. .
We go to the country every Sunday.
,
mother [' ] n
father [ 'fa:9a] n
worker [ 'wa:ka] n
to be retired fta bi ri 'taiad]
My father is retired, ,
sister n
brother [ ] n
husband [ 'hAzband] n
last [la:st] adj
I was in the country last Sunday,
,
at last
At last we were at home, ,
year [jia] n
I was in Kiev last year, ,
still adv ,
My children are still in the country, ,
to be single ,
My brother is still single, ,
to study [' stAdi] v ,
He studies English. .
62

institute ['institju:t] n
Nick studies at an institute, ,
father-in-law [ 'fcrdsrin :] n ,
mother-in-law [ ' 'b:] n ,
to live [liv] v
We live in Moscow, .
hallo fho'lou) 1. ( )
2. (

)
Hallo, Is that Nick? , ?
Hallo, Nick, how are you? , ,
?
Machinoexport n
secretary [ 'sekretri] n
company [ ' ] n ,
Roberts and Company
( ,
, )
to be sorry , (

)
Im sorry I dont speak English, (),
-.
to be out ,

Mr. Kotov is out now. - .
to telephone [ 'telifoun] v
to phone v to
telephone
Phone him on Sunday, please. ,
,
yesterday [ jestadi] adv
I wasnt at home yesterday, ,
ago [a'gou] adv
He was a student two years ago.I
.

II

GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY EXERCISES


I. :
1. sisters hasband was bom in 19... (3). 2. His brother has a large flat in
Moscow (4). 3. His elder son was married last year (2). 4. They do well at school
(1). 5. Their friends study at an institute (3). 6. Her parents do not live in Moscow
(1). 7. We have breakfast at 9 oclock on Sunday (1). 8. He doesnt have an English
lesson on Saturday (2). She has got a new flat (2).
63

II. , , :
I (to be) an engineer. I (to work) at the Ministry. Last year I (to be) a student.
I (to be) 25 years old now. I (to have) a family. It (to be) not very large. 1 (to
have) a wife and a daughter. My wife not (to work) now. My daughter (to be) bom
last year. She (to be) one year old.
My parents not (to live) in Moscow. They (to live) in Omsk. They not (to
work) now. They (to be) retired. We often (to go) to see them.
III. , :
Mr. Tenins family is not large. He h a s ... wife and two daughters. His elder
daughters name is Kate. Her sisters name is Ann. Kate is 18 years old. She i s ...
student already. She does well a t ... institute. Ann is twelve years old. She is still...
pupil. She also studies well. ... sisters leam English. They have ... good English
books. They read them, leam... words, write ... exercises and sometimes speak
English. Their mother i s ... teacher of English and she speaks English to ... girls.
Last May Mr. Tenin and his family were in Orel. His mother-in-law lives
there. She was... school-teacher, but now she is retired.... children were happy to
see her.
IV. :
1. friend was bom ... Novgorod ... 19. ... Now he lives ... Moscow and
works ... an export company. His parents do not live ... Moscow, they live ... the
country. They have a small house there. My friends brother lives ... the country
too. He studies... an institute... Moscow. He usually comes... Moscow... 8 oclock
... the morning. My friends brother does well ...the institute.... Sundays my friend
and his family often go to see his parents and his brother.
2. Id like to speak... Mr. Green. Im sorry. He i s ... now.
3. Do you often go ... Omsk? Were you ... Omsk last year?
4. Is your daughter... home now? No, she isnt. She i s ... school. She goes...
school... the morning.
5. Take your bags ... the table, please. Our lesson begins.
6. Will you come up ... Mr. Petrov and take the letters ... him, please.
V. , , ,
:
1. Whose watch is it? (my brother). 2. Whose children are these? (my friend).
3. Whose books are those? (my children). 4. Whose bag is that? (this woman).
5. Whose husband is he? (my sister). 6. Whose teacher was she? (my son). 7. Whose
son was bom in Omsk? (my friend). 8. Whose parents have a house in the country?
(Mr. Sokolov). 9. Whose children do well at school? (my brother). 10. Whose
daughter studies at an institute? (my friend). 11. Whose son is 12 years old? (this
man). 12. Whose wife speaks English? (Mr. Senin).
VI.
:
1. Her husband works at a factory (my sister). 2 .1 know his name (this man).
3. How old are his children? (your brother). 4. His parents are retired (my friend).
5. Their books are on the shelf (the children). 6. Her brother speaks English (her
husband). 7. Her sister does not live in Moscow (Jane). 8. His daughter goes to
the nursery-school (Peter).
64

VII. :
) 1 ,2,3,4, 5 ,6 ,7 ,8 ,9 ,1 0 ,1 1 ,1 2 . ) 13,20,23,31,46,54,67,72, 89. ) 103,
211,361,452,524,678,739,801,996,1000. d) 1,002; 2,117; 3.401; 4,203; 50,497;
7,241; 824.
VIII. , :
1. friends son is 3 (19, 21, 6,12) years old. 2. Our father was bom in 1948
(19..., 19..., 19...). 3. Our office is in room 29 (213,704, 123) now.
IX. .
:
(a student, well, to be out, mother, speaking, telephone, regards, learn, to
do)
Nick: Hallo... Hallo... Is that Mike?
Mikes mother: No, M ike.......now. And whos that...?
Nick: Thats Nick.
Mikes mother: Oh, hallo, Nick. Thats Mikes ... speaking.
Nick: Good evening. How are you?
Mikes mother: Im quite ..., thank you. What do you do now, Nick?
Nick: Im a ... now. I ... English.
Mikes mother: Thats very good.
Nick: Im sorry Mike is out. Give him my b e st... and ask him to
phone me on Sunday.
Mikes mother: Very good.
Nick: Thank you. Good-bye.
X. :
1. ? 19... .
2. . . 5 .
( ). 3.
. . 4. ?
. . 5. ,
. 2 . 6. -
. , . , , 3
. 7. . .
. . 8. ?
20 . . 9. 7
. . . 10.
. . . 11.
? .
? , .
III
SPEECH EXERCISES
XI. .
XII.
:
1. When were you bom? 2. Where were you bom? 3. Where do you live now?
4. Where do you work? 5. Do you also study? 6. What do you learn? 7. When do
you have your lessons?
65

1. Who has a son? 2. Where was he bom? 3. Does your son go to school or to
the nursery-school? 4. How old is your son? 5. Do you sometimes speak to your
sons teacher? 6. Does your son do well at school?
1. Who has an elder brother? 2. Where does he live now? 3. Is he married or
single? 4. What is he now? 5. Where does your brother work? 6. Do you often see
him?
1. Whose parents are retired now? 2. How old are your parents? 3. What were
they? 4. Where do they live now? 5. What flat have they? 6. Do you often or seldom
write them letters? 7. When do you go to see them?
XIII. :
sister is 25 years old. She was bom in Moscow. Her name is Mary. Mary is
a young doctor. She is married. Her family is not large. She has a husband and a
child. Her husband is a manager in an export company.
Mary and her husband are very happy. He speaks English well. My sister also
knows English. They often speak English at home. They teach their little daughter
English too.
My sisters mother-in-law lives together with them. She is 58 years old. She is
retired. She looks after her little granddaughter.
together with c
to look after
a granddaughter
XTV. :
1. my friend; to live; to have; a two-room flat; to be married; a small family; a
daughter; to work; to take to a nursery-school.
2. his parents; old people; to be retired; to have two daughters; to live in the
country; their elder daughter; to work at an institute; to go to see them on Sundays.
3. my son; to go to school; to be born; to do well; to learn English; to speak
English; to ask questions; to answer.
4. my day off; Sunday; to get up; to have breakfast; to go to the country; my
parents; to be retired; to live; to be happy to see.
XV. :
1. "; ,
, , - . 2.
- . , ,
12 . 3. - , ,
, , .
, .

LESSON TWO

THE SECOND LESSON

Grammar: 1. there is/


.
2. many, much,
few, little.
66

3. much, little.
4. .

Revision: 1. .
2. .

GRAMMAR NOTES
I. there is/are
there is/are
.
there is ['],
[63'riz], [];
there are [':] [].

.
There is a ibook on the desk.
There are Vbooks on the desk.
there is/are
, , , .
.

. :
There is a pen on the table. () .
The pen is on the table. .
, . ,
, . .
. there is/are
, to be .
There is an English book and two Russian books on the table.
There are letters and a telex on the table.
to be
there. : is there [ 'iz ], are there [ ': ].
'Is there a /letter on the table?
'Are there /letters on the table?

, to be there.
What is there in the room? ?
Who is there in the room? ?
What pencils are there on the table? ?

where there is/are .
to be.
Where are the books? ?
The books are on the shelf. .
67

there is/are
:
) ,
+
.
There is no book on the table. .
There are no English books on the .
table.
) not, to be,
many,
much, few, little.
There are not five pencils on the .
table.
There is not much milk in the cup. .
is are was
were.
[Seawaz], [dcawa:].
There was a Ibook on the table. .
There were Vbooks on the table. .
there is/are
.
there is/are
yes , there is, are
was, were .
Is there a book on the desk? ?
Yes, there is. .
No, there isnt. .
Was there a book on the desk? ?
Yes, there was. .
No, there wasnt. .
II. many, much, few, little
many, much , few
little .
.
many, few

many pupils
few students
much, little
,
,

much work
little tea
much many,
, a lot of
very.
68

I have a lot of books. .


I have a lot of time today. .
I have very many English books.
.
I have very much time today.
.
much many
very:
I havent many friends in Kiev. .
Have you many friends in Kiev? ?
. many much
,
.
Many people know English now.
I was in Odessa many years ago.
III. much, little
much little
-.
much little
very. much
a lot.
I usually read English a lot. -
.
I usually read English very much. -
.
reads English very little. -
.
much little
very.
Do you read much? ?
I dont read much now. .
IV.
-
who , , .


I me [mi:, mi] ,
You you |]u:, ju] ,
him [him] ,
She her [ha:, ha] ,
It it [it] (), ()
We us [as, as] ,
You you Du:, ju] ,
They them [5em, 6m] ,
Who whom [hu:m] ,
69


, ,
.
Do you know him? ?
Give me this book. .
Do you speak English to them? -?

I
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
there is /a re
I. ,
:
I. There is a brown desk in this room. 2. There is a fork and a knife on the
table. 3. There is a blue sofa in his room. 4. There was a telex on Mr. Zotovs
desk. 5. There is a good exercise in this lesson. 6. There was an English book on
the shelf. 7. There is a large kitchen in our flat. 8. There is a man and a woman in
the room. 9. There is a new computer on the table. 10. There was a car in the
parking lot.
II.
:
1. There is a little girl in the room. 2. There was a telex on the table. 3. There
are students there. 4. There were forks on the table. 5. There are telexes on the
desk. 6. There were women in the room. 7. There are fifty children at the nursery-
school.
III. to be :
1. There ... only a Russian book on the table but there ... no English book on
it. 2. There ... 15 lessons in our English book. 3. There ... six hundred workers at
this factory last year. Now there ... seven hundred workers there. 4. ... there a
nursery-school in your house? Yes, there. ... I take my son there. 5. There ...
forks, spoons and knives on the table but there ... no cups on it. 6.... there cheese
and ham on the table now? Yes, th ere.... 7. There ... a letter on this table. Where
is it now? 8.... there a bath-room in Anns flat? Yes, there.... 9. T here... no shelf
in my room. Now I have a good shelf. 10. There ... a tea-pot and three cups on
the table.
. :
1. There are students in this room (1). 2. There were English books on the shelf
(2). 3. There is a woman in the kitchen (1). 4. There was a computer on the table.
(1). 5. There are good texts in this book (2).
V. :
1. . . 2.
? . 3. .
. 4. ,
. 5. ?
. . 6.
. . 7. ?
70

. 8. . 9. .
. , . 10. .
. .
.
many, much, little, few
VI. :
1. There are a lot of institutes in Moscow. 2. There is a lot of coffee in the
coffee-pot. 3. Many engineers of our office study English now. 4. We havent many
English letters today but we have a lot of telexes. 5. We haven't much ham but we
have a lot of cheese. 6. There were very many telexes on this table in the morning.
Where are they now? 7. I have very much work to do today. 8. Few students have
lessons in the evening at our Ministry.
VII. many, much, a lot, few, little, a lot of:
1. There were... large houses in old Moscow. 2. My mother-in-law is a teacher.
She h a s... pupils. 3.... people live in the country. My parents live there too. 4. We
have ... time. But there is still... work to do. 5. There was ... milk in his tea. 6. Our
students write ... exercises at the lesson, but they write ... exercises at home. 7. My
friend reads ... English books. 8. ... children go to nursery-schools now. My son
also goes to the nursery-school. 9. There are ... boys, b u t... girls at our Institute.
10. Does you brother work...? No, he doesnt. He works ... now.
VIII. :
1. . 2.
1945 . 3. . 4. .
5. . 6. . 7.
? 8.
. 9. -. 10.
. 11. ,
. 12. . 13.
.


IX.
:
1. Translate this letter into Russian. 2. Answer these questions, please. 3. Give
Mr. Petrov this book, please. 4. He reads books in the evening. 5. He does not
know Nina. 6. Give me and my friends these books. 7. Take the books off the shelf.
8. Do you see Pete every day? 9. Does she know Ann and Mike? 10. Look at your
watch, please.
X. :
1. . . 2.
? . 3.
, . 4.
. - . 5.
? . . 6. .
. 7.
. 8. ? .
71

. 9. . 10.
. .

T ext
MR. B U N IN S FLAT
There are a lot of modern buildings in new districts of Moscow now. But many
years ago there were only small villages there.
Mr. Bunin lives in a new block of flats. There is a nice garden behind it and a
small parking lot for private cars.
Mr. Bunins flat is in the fifth floor. He has a three-room flat.
His living-room is large and comfortable. There is a big window in it. To the
right of the window there is a sofa and a standard lamp. To the left of the window
you see a piano. Mr. Bunin likes music very much. He plays the piano well. The
book-case is near the door. Mr. Bunin has a lot of Russian and English books. The
television-set is in the right-hand corner of the room. Near it there are two easy-
chairs and a little table with newspapers and magazines on it.
Mr. Bunins bed-room is not very large. There are few things in it: two beds, a
dressing-table and a wardrobe.
His childrens room is very light. There is a lot of sunshine in it. There is not
much furniture there. You see two small beds, a desk with a computer on it and two
chairs. His children often play computer games or read magazines and books.
The childrens books are on the shelves.

D ialogu e
Camp: Hallo. Is that Machinoexport?
Secretary: Yes, it is.
Camp: This is Camp speaking. Id like to speak to Mr. Bunin. Is he
in now?
Secretary: Yes. Just a moment,1please.
Bunin: How do you do,2 Mr. Camp.
Camp: How do you do, Mr. Bunin. Id like to meet you and discuss
our enquiry for boilers.
Bunin: Very good. Come and see us3tomorrow morning,4 please.

COMMENTARY
1. Just a moment , .
2. How do you do .
.
3. Come and see us , .
4. tomorrow morning .

in the morning, in the evening, in the afternoon.
:
tomorrow morning ; tomorrow afternoon ;
yesterday morning ; yesterday afternoon .
72

VOCABULARY NOTES
second ['sekand] m m ( )
the second lesson
the second text
a lot n ,
He has a lot of time. .
He has a lot of books, ,
a lot adv
He studies a lot. .
modern [ 'modan] adj
building [ 'bildir)] n
This is a good building, ,
new fnju:] adj
Is it a new book? ?
district ['distrikt] ()
We live in a new district of Moscow.
.
many ['meni] pron , (
)
Do you know many engineers at the
ministry? ?
village [ 'vilid3] n
My friends parents live in a village.
.
block of flats [ 'blak av 'flaets]
Do you live in a block of flats?

garden ['ga:dn]
behind prep
parking lot
private ['praivit]
floor [flo:] n ,
living-room [ 'livirj rum] n
Our living-room is very large, ,
comfortable ( 'kxmfatabll adj ,
Your room is very comfortable, ,
big adj
window [ 'windou] n
There are two windows in our room. .
right [rait] adj
to the right of ... ...
I see a desk to the right /th e window, .
left adj
to the left of ...
There are two chairs to the left .
/th e desk.
standard lamp [ 'staendad temp] n
piano [ 'pjasnouj n
73

to like v ,
Children like milk. .
I like my friends children very much.
.
to like -
.
to -ing,
. , -
.
likes reading. .
music ['mju:zik] n (
)
I like music. .
much adv
We speak English very much. -
.
much [nutj] adj (

)
I have very much work today. -
.
to play [plei] v
to play
, -
.
son plays the piano. .
book-case [ 'bukkeis] n
near prep , ,
I live near my office.
.
door [do:] n
television-set [ ,teli 'vipn-set] n
hand n
corner [ '.] n
in the comer
in the right-hand (left-hand) comer ()
There was a book-case in the -
left-hand corner of the room. .
easy-chair [ 'i:zi 'tjeo] n
easy adj ( )
This text is easy. .
little [litl] adj , ,
(
)
Do you see a little table near the sofa? -
?
little adv ,
74

He plays the piano very little now. ,


with
I live with my parents, .
newspaper ]'nju:speipo] n
magazine [,maego'zi:n] n
bed-room [ 'bedrum] n
few adj (
)
thing n
bed n
dressing-table [ 'dresir) teibl] n
wardrobe [ 'wo:droub] n
light adj
sunshine ['sAnfain] n (
)
Is there much sunshine in that room? ?
furniture [ 'fomitjo] n (
)
We havent much furniture. .
This is modem furniture, ,
computer [kom 'pju:to| n
game n
to be in v ,
Is Mr. N. in? . ?
to meet v ,
to meet -
.
We meet him every day.
.
meeting n
to speak at the meeting
He often speaks at our meetings.
.
to discuss Idis'kAs]
We discuss a-fot of questions
at the lessons. .
enquiry [in'kwaiori] n
We have your enquiry for the coffee. .
boiler [' boils]
tomorrow adv
whom pron ,

II
G RAM M AR AND VOCABULARY E X E R C IS E S
I. :
1. the right of the window there is a book-case. 2. To the left of the window
you see a wardrobe. 3. He likes reading very much. 4. There are a lot of things on
75

the table. 5. There is not much sunshine there. 6. We like your new flat very much.
7. There are few old houses in our district.
II. :
1. sister plays the piano well (2). 2. We live in a new block of flats (3). 3. He
was born in a village (2). 4. My parents have a flat in a new district (2). 5. He
sometimes gives me English books (3). 6. There is a television-set in the right-
hand comer (1). 7. There were old small houses in the district six years ago (2).
8. Ninasbrotherhasapiano(3). 9. The dressing-table is near the window (2). 10. Id
like to discuss the enquiry tomorrow (2).
III. , ,
:
I often (to go) to see my friends family. My friends name (to be) Peter Smirnov.
He (to be) a manager. He (to work) in a big company. He (to have) a large family:
a wife and three children. His parents (to live) with them too. Now they (to have)
a comfortable flat in a new block of flats. Peters old flat (to be) not very good.
There (to be) only two rooms in it. It (to be) in a small house in the country. There
(to be) three rooms in Peters new flat. The rooms (to be) very light. There (to be)
a lot of sunshine in this flat. It (to be) in a new district of Moscow. Many years ago
there (to be) only a small village there.
IV. , ,
:
MY FRIENDS FLAT
I have ... friend. His name is Oleg Mitin. He is married. He h as... w ife,... son
and ... daughter. Oleg and his family live in ... new block of flats now. Their old
flat was small. Now they have ... three-room flat in ... modem house. They like
their flat very much. There is ... living-room,... bed-room and ... childrens room
in Olegs new flat. ... living-room is large but there is not much furniture in this
room .... furniture is good and modem. I like their furniture very much. To ... left
of... door you see ... sofa and ... television-set. Near ... window there is ... piano
and four easy-chairs. Olegs children play... piano i n ... living-room but they d o ...
lessons in their room .... childrens room is not large but it h as... large window and
there is ... lot o f ... sunshine in it.
V. :
1. sister Ann lives... Tula. There are a lo t... modern buildings... Tula now.
Ann has a nice two-room flat... a new district... Tula. She lives there... her husband
and son.
There is a living-room and a bed-room ... my sisters flat. Her living-room is
light and comfortable... two windows... it. There is a lo t... furniture ... her living-
room. There is a sofa, a standard lamp, a piano, two easy chairs and four chairs...
it. There is also a book-case ... the right... the door and a television-set... the left-
hand comer ... the room. My sister likes sitting ... the sofa ... the evening and
reading a book.
My sisters bed-room is not large. There are few things... it: a bed, a wardrobe,
a desk and an easy chair.
2. Theyd like to discuss their enquiry ... boilers... us.
3. We usually speak English ... our teacher ... the English lessons.
4. Do you translate a lo t... Russian ... English ... home?
76

VI.
:
1. This is Mr. Sedovs house. 2. Anns parents live in a new block of flats.
3. There is a window near Mikes bed. 4. The childrens room is light and
comfortable. 5. These womens children are at the nursery-school. 6. Theres not
much furniture in my sisters living-room. 7. This is Anns watch.
VII. :
1. (I, me, my) parents are old people. (They, them, their) are retired. (They,
them, their) have a house in the country. (They, them, their) house is small. (I,
me, my) usually go to see (they, them, their) on Sunday. 2. (I, me, my) brother
and (he, him, his) family live in Kiev. Sometimes (I, me, my) go to Kiev and see
(they, them, their). 3. (We, us, our) students study a lot. (They, them, their) have
four lessons every week. (They, them, their) lessons begin at 8 o clock in the
morning. At the lessons (they, them, their) teacher asks (they them, their) a lot
of questions and the students answer (they, them, their). 4. (I, me, my) elder
sister has a new flat now. (She, her) flat is very good. (She. her) likes (it, its) very
much.
VIII.
:
1. Take these newspapers and magazines off the desk. 2. Discuss this question
today, please. 3. Give me that enquiry for boilers. 4. Telephone me at two oclock,
please. 5. Do these exercises at home. 6. Put the newspaper into the book-case.
7. Close the piano, please.
IX. to speak, to tell
:
1. Many engineers of our office ... English well. 2. ... us about your family.
3. He often... us about his work. 4. Dont... Russian at your English lessons. 5. He...
a lot but does very little. 6 .1 dont like ... at the meetings. 7. My wife often... to her
friends about music. 8. Id like ... to my secretary about it.
X. :
1. ?
, . 2. ?
. ? .
. 3. ? .
. 4. ? .
. 5.
. . . 6.
. 7. .
? . 8.
? - . .
, . , ,
. 9. - ,
. 10.
. , .
.
77

III
SPEECH EXERCISES
XI. .
1. Is there a bed-room in your flat? 2. Is there a lot of sunshine in your bed
room? 3. Have you a dressing-table? 4. Where is the dressing-table? 5. Is there a
wardrobe in your bed-room?
XII. :
I am an engineer. I am 25 years old. I work at a Ministry.
I am married, but I have no children. My wife is a teacher. She has a lot of
pupils at school.
I live near the Ministry in a new block of flats. I have a one-room flat on the
fifth floor. It is very comfortable. There is a small kitchen and a bathroom in my
flat. It is a modem flat. Our room is large and light. There are two big windows in
it. The walls of our room are blue. The ceiling is white. The floor is brown.
There is a small table and a standard lamp near the sofa. To the left of the sofa
there is a comfortable easy-chair. I often sit in it and read newspapers in the evenings.
In the right-hand comer there is a book-case. A large side-board is near it.
We have a piano. My wife plays it very well. I also like music, but I dont play
the piano.
a wall [wo:] ; a celling [ 'si:lir)] ;
a side-board [ 'said bo:d]
XIII.
:
1. new districts, a lot, modem buildings, flats, many people, to live;
2. many years ago, small old houses, no television-set, no telephones, in those
days;
3. a living-room; comfortable, light, to the right (left) of, in the right-hand
comer, an easy chair, a television-set;
4. a bed-room, furniture, a bed, a wardrobe, a dressing-table, to the right
(left) of, to like ... very much;
5. to live, new district, block of flats, furniture, to like, modem;
6. a childrens room, light, sunshine, abed, a little table, in the left-hand comer,
a wardrobe, a book-case, to study.
XIV. :
1. ,
. , .
2. ,
.
3. ,
,
.
4. ,
, . ,
.
78

LESSON THREE

THE THIRD LESSON

Grammar: 1. can, may, must.


2. , .
3. .
4. ,
.

Revision: 1. (Simple Present).


2. .

GRAMMAR NOTES
I. can, may, must
,
, , . .
, , . .
.
:
1. .

.
2.
to.
3. , . . .
4.
.

can [, , ], may [mei], must [nust, mast, mst].
can , , .
, .
can speak English. () -
.
To-day is our day off. We can go .
to the country. .
Can I take that book? ?
may , (). :
May I read this letter? ?
must , , . -
.
You must come to the office
at 9 oclock. 9 .

.
79

Can you answer my question? ?


Must he translate these letters? ( )
?
May I do this exercise at home? ( )
?

not, .
must not do it now. .
You may not take the knife. .
My son cannot play the piano. .
:
1. not can cannot.
2.
can, must, cant [ka:nt], mustnt [mAsnt].
Can you answer his question? ?
Yes, I . , .
No, I cant. , .
(
, ), need
neednt.
mustnt
.
Must we learn these words? ?
Yes, you must. , .
No, you neednt. , .
May I take that cup? ?
Yes, you may. , .
No, you mustnt. , .
, ,
.
I can cook well, [ai kn 'kuk Vwel]

, cant, mustnt
:
May we begin? [ 'mei we be /gin]
He cant come, [he 'ka:nt Vkxm]
Yes, she must. [Vjes Ji Inust]
II. ,
: ,
??, , ?,
, .
.
I see a book on the table. ,
a book
Give me your book, please. , ,

80

book
I live with my parents. ,
with (my) parents

.
.
to. :
Every day the secretary brings
our director the mail.
Every day the secretary brings
the mail to our director. .
,
, .
. ,
.
Give Nina the book.
Give the book to Nina.
Give it to Nina.
Give it to her.
III.
, (first, second,
third , , ),
-th.
four (the) fourth
six (the) sixth
five twelve ve f.
five (the) fifth
twelve (the) twelfth
eight h.
eight (the) eighth
nine .
nine (the) ninth
, ,
ie.
twenty (the) twentiethf 'twentiO]
thirty (the) thirtieth [ 's:ti0]
forty (the) fourtieth [ 'fo:ti0]
-th
.
twenty-six (the) twenty-sixth
two hundred and twenty-seven
(the) two hundred and
twenty-seventh
, ,
, , ,
the tenth lesson
81

IV. ,


, .
The engineers come to the office
at a quarter to nine to get ready , -
for work. .

not.
We can discuss this question today
not to discuss it tomorrow. ,
.
I
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
can, may, must
I. :
I. They must study English. 2. He can play the piano very well. 3. You may
read this book. 4. Must we discuss these questions today? No, you neednt. 5. Can
I speak to Mr. White? Yes. Speaking. 6. Can your son speak English? Yes, he can.
7. Must your daughter go to school today? Yes, she must. 8. May I sit down? Yes,
please. (Yes, you may.) 9. May I open the window? No, you mustnt.
II. , :
1. I can read French,
cant speak English,
friends son play the piano,
We answer your questions.

2. Can you meet me tomorrow morning?


us
them
those workers

3. Must I answer this question? No, you neednt.


we do these exercises? Yes, you must.
meet these engineers?
begin our lesson?
read those letters?

4. May that student open the window? Yes, she may.


Mr. Petrovs take those telexes? No, she mustnt.
secretary phone the factory?
translate this letter?I.
III. must, can, may, neednt
1. Anns brother... read, but he ... speak German. 2.... I speak to Mr. Sonin?
Im sorry he is out now.... you telephone him at 12? 3.... I ask you a question? Yes,
you ... . 4. ... we learn thirty-five words? No, you ... . You ... know only the first
82

twenty words. 5. My daughter is fourteen, but she... already cook very well. 6. Pete
... go to school today. He is not well. 7.... we write these exercises now? No, you...
. Just read them. 8.... 1 open the window? No, you.... I am not well. 9. Bob, you...
take Kates spoon. Take your spoon. It is on the table. 10.... I come to the meeting
today? Yes, y o u ....
IV. :
1. 7 . 2.
. 3. ? . 4.
? . . 5.
-. 6.
. 7. , . 8.
? , . 9.
? , . . 10.
? .

,
V. :
1. . .
. 2.
? , . 3.
? . .
. 4. ? .
, . 5.
? .
. 6. ?
, . 7.
. 8. . .
. -
.

Text
AT TH E OFFICE
Mr. Bunin is an engineer at Machinoexport. Machinoexport does business
with different countries of the world. They sell mining equipment, power equipment,
electronic equipment and other goods.
Mr. Bunins office is on the second floor. There are six desks in it. You can see
a lot of telexes, letters and cables on them. There is a telephone and a computer on
every desk.
All the engineers and economists at his office can speak one or two foreign
languages. The engineers of our Ministry must know foreign languages to do
business with foreign firms.
Mr. Bunins working hours begin at 9 oclock, but he usually comes to the
office at a quarter to nine to get ready for work. He comes by car which he parks
behind the Ministry. At 9 oclock the secretary brings him the mail. He goes through
the letters, cables and telexes and sends answers to foreign firms or communicates
with them by fax. He sometimes receives foreign businessmen from Great Britain,
83

France, Germany and other countries. They usually discuss prices, terms of payment
and delivery.
At half past one Mr. Bunin has dinner. After dinner he sometimes meets
directors or engineers of our factories. He finishes work at 5 clock in the afternoon.

D ialogu e
Camp: Good morning, Mr. Bunin.
Bunin: Good morning, Mr. Camp. Wont you sit down?2
Camp: Thank you.
Bunin: Have a cigarette?3
Camp: No, thank you. I dont smoke.
Bunin: How are you, Mr. Camp?
Camp: Very well, thank you. And how are you?
Bunin: Im well too. What can I do for you, Mr. Camp?
Camp: Well, you see,4 Mr. Bunin, Im here to make a contract with you for
boilers.
Bunin: Very good. How many boilers would you like to buy?
Camp: Four or five boilers. May I have your catalogues and price-lists?
Bunin: Yes, certainly. Here you are5.

COMMENTARY
1. They sell mining equipment, power equipment and other goods...
other , , , .
other
. . .
another.
sister has two children. . One child is a boy,
the other child is a girl. , .
Give me another pen, please. , . This
pen is bad. . There are many English, Russian and other
books on the table. , .
. other
-: one . ones . ,
.
I dont like this magazine. .
Give me another one, please. , .
2. Wont you sit down? [ 'wount ju 'sit /daun] , .
3. Have a cigarette? He ()?
4. You see ... ...
5. you are. .
-
- :
Can you give me your book?
Here you are.
84

VOCABULARY NOTES
third [0g:d] num ( )
the third lesson
bisiness [ 'biznis] n ,
to do business v ,
Machinoexport does a lot of business
every year. .
different 'diforant| adj ,
different books
districts
magazines
country [ 'kAntri] n
What countries do we do business ?
with?
world [ 'wa:ld] n ( )
world, ,
.
The engineers of our Ministry often
go to different countries of the world. .
to sell v
What does Machinoexport sell? ?
equipment [i'kwipmant] n
equipment
.
This is new equipment. .
mining equipment ['mainir) i'kwipmant] n -
power equipment [' i'kwipmant] n
other [ -9] pron
goods [gudz] pi. n ,
goods
.
The goods are already in Odessa. .
floor [:] 1.
flat is on the third floor. .
2. ( )
The floor in my room is brown, ,
can v ( )
My brother can translate this text,
.
cable n
telephone [ 'telifoun] = phone n
Have you a telephone at home? ?
to speak on the phone
I often speak on the phone to my
friend. .
85

telephone number [ telifoun ] n


Whats your tetephome number? ?
442096 [ 'ckbl 'fb: 'tu: 'ou- 'n a in -'siks] 442096
all [o:l] pron ,
All the engineers of our office speak
English. -.
All of us speak English, -.
i all of as
all of them
all of you
language ['lsengwid3] n
What foreign language does your
wife know? ?
must v , , (
)
I must telephone Mr. Green today, -
.
firm n
We do business with different foreign
firms. ,
hour [] n ( )
We work seven hours every day. 7 ,
working hours n
When do your working hours begin?
?
quarter [ 'kwo:to] n
to prep (, )
I get up at a quarter to seven, ,
to park a car
ready [ 'redi] adj
to be ready
to get ready ,
Get readyfor your English lesson,
please. , .
Are you ready for the meeting? ?
to bring v ,
Bring me my watch, please, , ,
.
mail n ,
Who usually brings you the mail? ?
to go throngh [ 'gou'Gru:] v
Every morning 1 go through the
newspapers, .
to send v ,
I must send this letter today,
,
answer n
Can you send us your answer this
week? ?
86

to communicate [ks'mjurnikeit] v ,
to communicate by fax
to receive [ri 'si:v] v 1.
1 sometimes receive engineers from
foreign firms. .
2.
Do you often receive letters from
your brother? ?
businessman | 'biznisman] n
Great Britain [ 'greit 'britn] n
France [fra:ns] n
Germany [ '!:] n
price n
Wed like to know the price o f (for)
this new equipment. .
terms of payment [t3:mz sv 'peimant j n
Id like to discuss the terms of
payment with you. .
terms of delivery [di 'livsri] n
What are your terms of delivery? ?
half [ha:f] n
half an hour
I was there half an hour ago. ,
past [pa:st] prep
Its half past ten now. 10.30.
dinner n
to have dinner
When do you usually have dinner? ?
director fdi 'rekts] n
,
, , ,
.
Mr. Petrov is director of a large factory. -
__________________________________ ._________________
to finish [ 'finifl v ,
to finish ,
.
On Friday she finishis work at 3.
3 .
I can finish reading the book on
Sunday. .
cigarette [sign'ret| n ,
to smoke v
Dont smoke very much. ,
well int , ()
here [his] adv ,
87

Come here at 5 oclock. 5 ,


contract [ 'kontraekt] n
to make v , ,
to make things
Our factory makes furniture. ,
to make a contract
Wed like to make a contract with
your firm for furniture. ,
how many [ 'hau 'meni] pron (
)
how much [ 'hau 'niAtJ] pron (
)
How many children has your friend? ?
How much milk is there in the cup? ?
to buy [bai] v
Many foreign firms buy mining
equipment from our country. -
,
may v ( )
May I close the window? ?
catalogue [ 'kaetabg] n
price-list n
Please, go through our catalogues , ,
and price-lists, ,
certainly ['so:tnli] adv
Can I telephone you at 10 oclock ()
in the evening? 10 ?
Certainly, ,
one, p i ones pron -
minute ['minit] n
Its five minutes past six now.I 5 .

II

GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY EXERCISES


I. :
1. Our office sells a lot of different goods to foreign firms (3). 2. Our director
usually receives businessmen at half past ten (3). 3. Our engineers must send three
enquiries to foreign firms today (5). 4. The secretary usually brings the mail to our
director at 9 oclock (4). 5. Our country buys a lot of different equipment from Great
Britain (3).
. , :
1 .1 cannot give you his telephone-number. 2. This is Mikes watch. Give it to
him. 3. Take that book off the table and give it to me, please. 4. Id like to read this
telex to you. 5. When can you send us your answer? 6. We write letters to foreign
companies every day. 7. The secretary brings telexes to the director every day.
8. We can send our goods to the firm this week.
88

III. -:
1,2, 5,13,18, 22, 30, 47, 54, 43, 50, 68, 79, 11, 12, 87, 83, 92, 35, 38, 43, 99,
57.
. :
1218, 1475, 1509, 1600, 1812, 1941, 1900, 1917, 1965, 1970, 1953.
V.
:
: the tenth lesson, lesson ten.
, , ,
, , , ,

VI. , :
elder sisters name (to be) Nelly. She (to work) at school. She (to be) a
teacher. Nelly (can) speak two foreign languages. She (to know) them well. Nelly
(to like) her work very much. All her pupils (to do) well. Nelly usually (to go) to
work in the morning. Her lessons (to begin) at half past eight. At 3 o clock Nelly
(to finish) her work at school, but she always (to have) a lot of work to do at home.
My sister (to have) two children. One of them is a boy and the other one is a
girl. Her son (to be) 11 years old and her daughter (to be bom) five years ago. Her
children also (to learn) English. They (can) already speak English to their mother.
Nellys husband (to be) director of a large factory. The factory (to make)
different equipment for export. In the morning his secretary (to bring) him the
mail. He (to receive) a lot of mail every morning. He (to go) through it and (to
answer) it. He often (to receive) engineers and workers from his factory and from
other factories. He often (to communicate) with different companies by fax.
VII.
, . :
Orlov: Hallo. Can I speak to Mr. Lamson?
Lamson: Speaking.
Orlov: Good morning, Mr. Lamson, This is Orlov of Machinoexport.
Lamson: Good morning, Mr. Orlov. I am happy you are in London.
Orlov: Well. We have ... enquiry fo r... mining equipment and Im here to
discuss it.
Lamson: Very good. We have ... catalogues, but we havent ... price-lists.
... firm would like to buy ... mining equipment.
Orlov: Yes,... mining equipment is quite good. We do business with ... lot
of... foreign firms. They buy ... mining equipment, ... power
equipment and ... other goods from us.
Lamson: Well, Mr. Orlov, Id like to meet you to discuss... prices,... terms of
payment and ... terms of delivery with you.
Orlov: I can come to ... office today. When do you finish ... work?
Lamson: Today is Friday and we close at 1 o clock on Fridays.
Orlov: Can we meet a t ... quarter to twelve?
Lamson: Yes, certainly.... office is on ... third floor in ... room 212.
Orlov: Thank you.
1. A ll... engineers of our Ministry must know... foreign languages. 2. She has
two brothers. One of them is ... student,... other one is ... engineer. 3. There are 12
89

people in ... office. Six of them know ... English language, ... other people know
French or German. 4 . 1 dont like this book. Please, give me ... other one to read.
5. Is ... director in now? Im sorry, he is out. 6 .1 dont know ... telephone number.
Give it to me, please. 7. Where are... engineers of our office? They are a t ... meeting.
VIII. :
1. My friends name is Borisov. He is an economist. He works ... an office ...
the fifth floor ... our Ministry. His office does business... a l o t ... firms. They sell
very many goods ... foreign countries. They also buy goods... them. 2. Mr. Lidin
knows English well. He often meets foreign businessmen and speaks English ...
them. Every day he receives a lot ... mail ... foreign firms and sends answers ...
them ... fax. 3. Mr. Petrov gets up ... 8 oclock. He has breakfast... h a lf... 8. ...
breakfast he goes... his office. He lives... the Ministry. He comes ... his office ... a
quarter... 9 to get ready... work. He parks his c a r... the parking lo t... the Ministry.
4.... ten minutes ... 9 Mr. Petrov com es... his office, goes... the letters and cables
... foreign firms and answers them. 5. Take all the letters and cables...... that bag
and put them ... my desk. Id like to go... all... them now. 6. Must I speak ... our
work ... the meeting? Yes, you must. 7. You can speak ... him ... i t ... the phone.
IX. , there
is/are to be:
1. ?
. .
. 2.
. .
? , . . 3.
, . 4.
? . ?
. 5. ?
. . 6.
. ?
. . .
X. :
3.30, 4.25. 5.55, 12.35, 7.30, 11.15, 6.40, 8.10, 10.45, 9.15, 2.50, 3.15, 1.58,
12.20, 11.20, 10.10, 1.45, 2.42, 5.12, 3.45, 12.05, 2.18, 11.25, 6.15, 9.40.
XI. another, the other, other.
1. I have two brothers. My elder brother is an engineer, ... one is a student.
2. This newspaper is old. Give me ... one. 3. We must meet Mr. Camp, Mr. Flint
and two ... businessmen today. 4. We usually discuss terms of payment, delivery
and ... terms with foreign businessmen. 5. Three of our engineers are in. ... ones
are out. 6. Flink and Company cannot sell us power equipment. We must send an
enquiry for power equipment to ... firm. 7. Here are two cables. One of them is
from Watson a n d ... one is from Kent and Co. 8. Our office sells power equipment,
mining equipment, and ... goods. 9. Here are five catalogues of power equipment.
I can go through these two catalogues, and you must read ... ones. 10. Our office
does business with Great Britain, France, Germany and many ... countries.
XII. ,
other.
1. , -
. 2. ,
90

. 3. ,
. 4.
. , .
5. ,
. 6. .
, - . 7.
, , , .
XIII. , ,
:
1. The director of our office must go to Great Britain .... 2 . 1 must meet Mr.
G rey.... 3. We must work a lo t.... 4. Come to the office at half past eight.... 5. We
can go to the country on Sunday ... . 6. Please, phone Ivanov ... . 7. We learn
foreign languages....
XIV. :
1. . 10
. , .
. 2.
. .
. 3. .
. 4.
. ,
. 5. ?
.
6. , .
.
. 7. ?
. , , .
. 8. , ,
- . . 9.
. 10.
? .I

III
SPEECH EXERCISES
XV. .
XVI. :
1. Who is director of your office? 2. When does he discuss business with you
and other engineers? 3. Whom does your director receive at his office? 4. What
does he discuss with them? 5. What language does he speak with foreign
businessmen?
1. Whats your secretarys name? 2. What does she bring to the director in the
morning? 3. What does she bring you and other engineers? 4. Does she usually
telephone other offices? 5. Who asks her to telephone other offices?
1. What are you? 2. What office do you work at? 3. Does your office buy or sell
goods? 4. Must you receive foreign businessmen at your office? 5. What do you
discuss with them? 6. What language can you speak with foreign businessmen?
91

XVII. :
an engineer of Avtoexport. Avtoexport does business with a lot of countries.
We sell cars, trucks and other machines to different countries of the world.
Our office is on the fifth floor. It is a large room with three windows in it.
There is always a lot of sunshine in our room. There are seven desks in our office
with a telephone on every desk. You can also see four book-cases in our room.
There are a lot of letters, cables, catalogues and journals in them.
Many foreign businessmen come to our office every day. But we do not receive
them in this room. There is another room for it.
Our engineers discuss prices, terms of payment and delivery and a lot of other
questions with them. All our engineers know one or two foreign languages and
they can have talks with foreign businessmen in different languages,
a truck ; a machine [ 'Ji:n] ;
a journal [:1] (, , );
to have talks
XVIII. :
Nick and Nina are school-mates. Now Nick is an engineer and works at the
Ministry. In the morning he leams English. He must know English. He does well
in English. He sometimes receives foreign businessmen and has talks with them.
He makes contracts for different equipment for our factories. Nina is a teacher of
English now. She teaches English at an institute. She likes teaching very much.
Nick meets Nina and he is happy to see her.
school-mates
to have talks with ...
XIX. :
1. the Ministry, a manager, to do business, different countries, a lot of
businessmen, to discuss contracts, to sell (to buy) other goods;
2. to have a lot of work to do, to go through, to send, catalogues, to receive,
prices of different goods, the terms of payment and delivery;
3. our office, floor, there is/are, a telephone, to receive, mail, to go through
the mail, an answer, to have a lot of work to do;
4. sometimes, to receive engineers, a factory, to discuss business, to go to a
factory, to see the new equipment, to telephone, other offices, to discuss the terms
of a contract.
XX. :
1. 1. ,
- , ,
.
2. - (Hart), , ,
.
.
3. . .
.
4. ,
, .
XXI. :
1. work. 2. At my office. 3. My friends office.
92

LESSON FOUR

THE FOURTH LESSON

Grammar: 1. (Simple Past).


2. some, any.
3. .
4. .

Revision: 1. there is/are.


2. to be.
3. Many, much, few, little.

GRAMMAR NOTES
I. (The Simple Past Tense)

,
: ,
,
II.

.



-ed.
-ed :
1. , [d],
[d]:
to open opened foupnd]
to answer answered [ 'a:nsad|
2. , [t], [t]:
to work worked [wa:kt|
to wash washed [wojt]
3. [t, d] [id]:
to want wanted [ 'wontid]
to decide decided [di 'saidid]
-ed
:
1) ,
-d:
to live lived
to shave shaved
2)
, i -ed:
93

to study studied
. , ,
to play played
3)
,
-ed:
to stop
stopped

,
.
to sit sat to take took
to go went to put put
,
, ,
:
yesterday
the day before yesterday
the other day ( )
last
last Monday
last week
last month
last year
last night
two hours (days, months, years) ago (, , )

on my last day off

, , last, ,
, .
I last met him two days ago.
.
studied English five years ago.
.

did,
not to.
I did not work last Monday.
.
did not come to see us last night.
.
didnt [ 'didnt].
I didnt see him yesterday. .

did,
to.
94

Did you work yesterday? ?


Did he come to see you last night? ?

.
Whom did you see yesterday? ?

.
Who studied English at school? ?
Which of them did not work ?
yesterday?

.
Did you do well at school? ?
Yes, I did. .
Did he find the letters yesterday? ?
No, he didnt. .
Who lived in Kiev two years ago?
?
Mr. Petrov did. - .
Whose son didnt go to school last
Monday? ?
My son didnt. .

,
.

, ,
.
We made this contract last year.
.
got up, shaved and washed. , .

, .
. to have ,
did
.
Did you have many friends at school? ?
I did not (didnt) have friends at school. .
II. some any
some any
.
Some
: [sxm] [sam, sm].
Some :
1) , .
, :
95

Some people get up very early.


.
It was some years ago. .
2)
; some
:
Give me some milk, please. , .
Any
[ 'eni].
Any :
1) , .
-, -
.
Have you any English books? -
?
We havent any English books. .
2) -
, -
.
any :
Is there any cheese on the plate? ?
there is/are have
any,
some, any.
Are there any telexes on the desk? ?
Yes, there are some. .
No, there arent any. .
Have you any English magazines? -
?
Yes, 1 have some. .
No, I havent any. .
. some, ,
[].
there is/are any
not.
There arent any people in the room. .
some, any
,
, some, any of.
some of you
any of you -
some of us
any of us -
some of them
any of them -
96

some of our engineers


any of our engineers -
Do any of your engineers speak
English well? - ?
:
1. Some
. :
I dont know any words in this lesson. .
I dont know some words in this lesson.
.
2. Some ,
,
.
Would you like some tea? ?
Can you bring me some letters? (
) ?
May I have some cheese? ?
3. Any
.
Any man knows it. .

III.
, ,
-
it, .
- ,
, . -
to be, to get . to be ,
to get .
It is 5 oclock now. 5 .
It is winter now. .
It was late. .
It gets light at 6 oclock now. 6 .

.
Is it winter now? ?
It was not dark at 5 oclock last week. 5
.
When does it get light in winter? ?IV.

IV.
,
,
.
and, but.
The performance was very good and ,
we all liked it very much. .
The air was frosty, but it was not very ,
cold. .I.

I
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
Simple Past
I. :
to take took [tuk] taken [teikn]
to find found [faund] found
to give gave given
to go went gone [gon]
to do did done [dxn]
to see saw [so:] seen
to know knew [nju:] known [noun]
to read read [red] read [red]
to speak spoke spoken
to write wrote written
to begin began [bi 'gaen] begun [']
to get up got up got up
to put put put
to sit down sat down sat down
to sell sold [sould] sold
to buy bought [bo:t] bought
to bring brought [bro:t] brought
to come came come
to meet met met
to make made made
to be was, were been
to have had had
to send sent sent
to tell told [tould] told
to drink drank drunk
to eat ate [et] eaten
can could [kud]
may might [mait]
II.
:
1. They discussed the terms of delivery with them last week. 2. They received
this flat five years ago. 3. She bought this computer last Sunday. 4. His son went to
the nursery school last year. 5. The director of the factory was at our office yesterday.
6. He spoke at the meeting about it. 7. They came home at a quarter to eleven. 8 .1
sent her a letter the other day.
III. :
1. , . ?
. 2.
98

? . .
. 3.
. -
. 4.
.
. 5. .
. 6.
.
10 . 7. ?
. 8. .
? .
some, any, some of, any of
IV.
:
1. has some new English books. 2. There were some newspapers and
magazines on that little table. 3. They can speak some foreign languages. 4. He
knows some engineers of our office. 5. We sent some letters to foreign firms
yesterday. 6. There is some milk in the cup. 7. You can see some cables and telexes
on that desk. 8. Our director received some businessmen the day before yesterday.
V. some, any.
1. There are ... new words in this lesson. 2. There are not ... letters on your
desk. 3.1 have ... other questions to ask you. 4. Have you ... questions? 5.... of us
learned English at school. 6. I havent ... pencils and she has ... . 7. Are there...
price-lists on your desk? Yes, there are ... . 8. Can you give me ... magazines to
read? 9 .1 didnt see ... of them yesterday. 10. The other day we sent... enquiries for
furniture.
VI. :
1. Do you know any engineers at Machinoexport? 2. Does your office sell any
goods to Great Britain? 3. Do you buy any equipment from foreign firms? 4. Do
any engineers of your office learn French? 5. Did you have any English lessons
last week? 6. Are there any magazines on the shelf? 7. Have you any books about
Novgorod? 8. Have you any English books at home? 9. Can you give me any
magazines to read? 10. Would you like some tea or milk? 11. Are there any things
on the table? 12. Was there any mail from Great Britain yesterday?
VII. :
1.
. 2. . 3.
. 4. -
? , . 5.
. 6.
.

VIII. :
1. It is winter. Its very cold in Moscow in winter. 2. What time is it now? Its
eleven. Oh, its already late. I must go home. 3. It was frosty outside yesterday. 4.
When does it usually get dark in Moscow in spring? It usually gets dark at half
past 8 or at 9 oclock in spring. 5. It is very light in this room. There is always a lot
99

of sunshine here. 6. In winter it is usually still dark at half past eight. 7. When does
h usually get warm in Moscow? 8. What time did it get light yesterday? 9. Was it
cold yesterday? No, it was warm outside.
IX. :
1. . . 2.
, . 3.
, . 4.
? . 4 . 5. .
. 6. . .
7. .
. 8. ? , .
.

T ext
A DAY OFF
It was Sunday yesterday. It was our day off. We got up at half past eight but it
was still dark. In winter it gets light very late. At 10 oclock we had breakfast. We
had some coffee, ham, cheese and eggs for breakfast.
Then we went for a walk. It was so wonderful outside. There was a lot of snow
in the streets. The air was frosty but it was not very cold. We had a good walk that
morning.
On our way back my wife went to buy some bread and sugar. I went to the
theatre box-office and bought two tickets for The Three Sisters. It was on at the
Art Theatre that night1.
We came back just in time for dinner2. After dinner my wife and children
watched .. and I went through some magazines and newspapers.
At half past five my wife and I went to the theatre. The performance was
wonderful and we liked it very much. It was over at a quarter past ten. We took a
taxi, and in half an hour we were at home. It was already late. We had supper,
listened to the news on the radio and went to bed.

AT THE THEATRE
At the theatre Mr. Camp meets Mr. Bunin during the interval.
Camp: Good evening, Mr. Bunin.
Bunin: Oh, Mr. Camp, this is a surprise3. Glad to see you4. How do you
like the performance?
Camp: Its wonderful.
Bunin: Did you see any performance of the Moscow Art Theatre in
London?
Camp: No, I didnt. I wanted to see it very much but I couldnt get any
tickets. I heard a lot about this theatre. So I decided to go to this
theatre in Moscow.

COMMENTARY
1. It was on at the Art Theatre that night. ()
.
100

, ,
this that,
.
that night
that day
this Saturday
2. We came back just in time for dinner. .
3. This is a surprise! ! !
4. Glad to see you. = Im glad to see you ( )
.


1. -ful, -
.
wonder + fill = wonderful
frost + = frosty
2. -1
.
wonderful + 1 = wonderfully

VOCABULARY NOTES
dark adj
It is dark in the room, .
season [si:zn] n ,
There are four seasons in the year, .
winter n
in winter
The days are short in winter. ,
But: this winter
last winter
spring n
It is spring now. ,
in spring
summer n
in summer
The summer of 19... was very good. 19... .
autumn [ '] n
in autumn
to get v (-)
to get light
It gets light at 5 now. 5 .
to get dark
to get old
late adv
ant. early
some [sxm, ssm, sm] pron , ,

any [ 'eni] pron -, -,
101

for [fo:, fa] prep ,


Buy a newspaper for me. .
then adv , ,
to go for a walk [wo:k] (went, gone) ,
After breafast they went for a walk, .
to walk v ,
I usually walk to the office, .
so adv ,
So
.
Its so dark here. .
He speaks English so well. --
.
wonderful [ 'wAndaful] adj ,
She has a wonderful flat, ,
wonderfully adv ,
She speaks English wonderfully. -
.
outside [ 'autsaid] adv ,
He went outside. ( ).
Are there any people outside? ?
snow [snou] n
Is there much snow outside? ?
street n
in the street
What street do you live in? ?
air n
There is a lot of air in this room. .
frosty adj
Its frosty to-day. .
cold [kould] adj
warm [wo:m] adj
to have a walk (had, bad) ,
We had a good walk, ,
on ones way [wei]
on my way home
on our way here
on his way there
on your way to the office
sugar [ 'Jugs] n
I dont like much sugar in my tea. .
theatre [ 'Giata] n
the Bolshoi Theatre
She often goes to the theatre. .
We were at the theatre yesterday, ,
box-office n ( )
ticket [ 'tikit] n
102

Yesterday I bought a ticket for .


the theatre.
to be on (was, were, been) ( , )
What is on at the Bolshoi Theatre
today? ?
the Art Theatre
night [nait] n ,
That night I was not at home. ,
back adv
to come back
to go back
to be back
to give back (-)
on our way back
When can you give back my book?
?
I can give it back to you today, ,
in time adv
All of them came in time, ,
to watch T.V. [ 'wotf 'ti: 'vi:] =
to watch television
In the evening she sometimes
watches T.V. ,
performance [: ] n
a ticket for a performance
I bought a ticket for this performance
yesterday. .
to be over [ta'bi: 'ouva]
The performance was over at 9.15. 9.15.
to take a taxi [ taeksi] (took, taken)
We must take a taxi. .
in prep ( )
in half an hour
in two and a half hours
in two days
in a quarter of an hour
late adj
It is late. We must go home. . ,
to have supper
When do you have supper? ?
to listen [lisn] v
to listen to -., -.
Listen to me, please. , .
Listen to the text, please, , ,
news [nju:z] n ,
news . .
This is good news. .
This news is good. .
103

radio [ 'reidiou] n
I listened to good music on the radio
last Sunday, ,
to go to bed
I usually go to bed at 11. 11 ,
interval [ 'intavol | n
They met during the interval.
.
surprise [sa'praiz] n ,
to be glad ,
Im always glad to meet you. ,
to want v
I wanted to go to the theatre ,
yesterday, but I couldnt buy a ticket, .
to get (got, got) v ,
When did you get my letter? ?
I must get this book. .
to hear (heard, heard) [, ha:d, hs:d] v
Do you hear me well? ?
I heard this news on the radio. .
----------------------------------- : ------------------------------------
to hear
to listen
We listened to him but we did , -
not hear him._____________________ (- ).____
so adv ,
I didnt see him yesterday so I ,
couldnt tell him about it. ,
to decide [di'said] v
I decided not to go there to-day. ,
before [bi'fa:] prep
I came home before 6 oclock, 6 ,
the day before yesterday
the other day (
)
last adv
last night
tonightI

II
GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY EXERCISES
I. :
1. At 11 oclock we went for a walk (2). 2. We decided to go to the country on
Sunday (3). 3. There is a theatre box-office in that new building ( 1). 4 .1 had supper
at home with my family yesterday (4). 5. Sergei bought three tickets for us (2).
6. My sisters daughter usually goes to bed at 9 oclock (4). 7. In summer it gets dark
104

at 10 oclock in the evening (2). 8 .1 spoke to the director of the factory on the phone
yesterday (3).
. , ,
:
1. It (to be) winter now. In winter the days (to be) short and the nights (to be)
long. It (to get) light late and it (to get) dark early. There (to be) a lot of snow in the
streets of Moscow in winter. It (to be) sometimes frosty in Moscow, but there (to
be) not many cold days here.
2. It (to be) spring now. Yesterday (to be) my day off. I (to get up) at half past
eight. There (to be) a lot of sunshine in the room. It usually (to get) light at 5
oclock in spring. I (to come) up to the window and (to open) it. It (to be) warm
outside. Then I (to go) to the bathroom to shave and to wash. At a quarter past nine
I (to have) breakfast and at 10 oclock my friend (to telephone) me. We (to decide)
to go to see my friends parents. They (to live) in the country. On our way there we
(to speak) about our friends and our English lessons. In an hour and a half we (to
be) there. His parents (to be) happy to see us. We (to have) dinner. Then we (to go)
for a walk. It (to be) wonderful outside. We (to come) back in two hours and (to
watch) T.V.
III. , :
friend and I often go to ... theatre to see ... new performances. We like
going to ... theatre on Saturday nights.
Last Saturday I finished ... work at 3 oclock and went home. I had ... dinner
and sat down i n ... easy-chairto read ... newspaper. In half... hour I decided to go
for a walk. It was ... wonderful day ... air was cold. There w as... lot of snow in ...
streets. I had ... nice walk and a t ... quarter to six I came back. I phoned my friend,
and we decided to go t o ... theatre. We wanted to see ... new performance a t ... Art
Theatre.
IY. :
Last Saturday Little Dorrit w as...... the Art Theatre.... his way home Peter
Belov w ent... the theatre box-office and bought two tickets... the performance. It
was already four oclock... the afternoon.... half an hour he came home. Peter had
dinner... his family an d ... six clock he and his wife were ready to g o ... the theatre.
They came there ju s t... time ... the performance.
The performance was wonderful. They liked it very m uch.... the theatre Peter
and his wife met some ... their friends and spoke ... them ... the performance.
...half... ten the performance was over. It was not cold outside. So Peter and
his wife decided not to take a taxi. They walked home.... eleven oclock they came
home, it was late, but they decided to listen... the news... the radio and then went
... bed.
V. to hear, to listen to:
1. Can you ... me well from there? 2. You must always ... your teacher at the
lessons. 3. I usually ... the news on the radio in the morning before work. 4. Did
you... the 6 oclock news? 5. Im very sorry but I cant ... you now. 6. Yesterday I ...
a lot about this new performance. Id like to see it very much. 7. Can you ... us
now? Wed like to ask you some questions about London. 8. Im sorry I didnt ...
the last word. 9. This is a surprise ... it from you. 10. The other day I ... some good
music on the radio.
105

VI. there is/are :


1.. .. sixty minutes in an hour. 2.... twelve months in a year. 3.... a lot of snow
in Moscow in winter. 4.... not any cheese for breakfast today. 5.... a lot of people
at the theatre last night. 6. ... any bread for dinner? Yes, ... some. 7. ... some
magazines on the table. You may take one of them. 8.... not many tickets for this
performance at the box-office. 9.... a lot of cars in the parking lot in the morning.
VII. there is/are it is
:
1.. .. a lot of people at the theatre last night. 2.... a frosty day. I am cold. 3.... a
on the table this morning. Where is it now? 4.... a wonderful performance. I
liked it very much. 5.... some magazines on the table. Give me one, please. 6.... a
lot of snow in the streets last winter. 7.... cold yesterday, and our children couldnt
go for a walk. 8.... a lot of people near the booking-office a quarter of an hour ago.
VIII. much, many, little, few:
1. Was there ... snow in Petersburg last winter? Yes, there was. And it was very
cold. 2. Do ... people watch T/V in the evening? 3.... children watch T/V after 9
o clock in the evening. 4 .1 dont like ... sugar in my tea. 5. Im sorry we have very
... ham for breakfast, but we have a lot of cheese. 6. We must go to the theatre in
half an hour. We have very ... time for dinner. 7. There were not ... nice days in
Moscow last autumn. 8. Mr. Larin doesnt know German well, but he studies very
... now.
IX. some, any:
1. Last month we saw ... new performances at the Art Theatre. 2. Are there ...
tickets for this performance at the box-office? Yes, there are .... 3. Nick, bring me
... sugar, please. I dont see ... sugar on the table. 4. Id like to have ... brown bread
for dinner. 5. Did you hear... news yesterday? Yes, I did. What was it about? 6. There
was still... snow in the streets of Moscow last month. 7. Must I buy... eggs to-day?
No, you neednt. 1bought... yesterday. 8 .1 cant do this exercise. There are ... new
words in it. 9. There are a lot of magazines on that desk. You may take ... of them.
10. Did your office make ... contracts with British firms last year?
X. to speak, to tell
:
1. He ... some foreign languages. 2. Many of our engineers ... at the meeting
yesterday. 3. H e ... us about the new performance at the Art Theatre. 4. W ho... you
not to buy tickets for this performance? 5. Can you... us about winter in Tomsk? 6.
... the children not to go for a walk today. It is very outside. 7. Yesterday my friend
came to see me. We ... very much about her new flat. 8. Did you ... to them on the
phone the other day? Yes, I ....
XI.
:
to go for a walk, wonderful, on his way, to decide, to be on, to buy, to telephone,
a performance, to like, to be over, to take a taxi, to listen to, on the radio, good
Last Saturday Mr. Titov... in the afternoon. It was spring and it was... outside.
...he saw a theatre box-office and ... to buy tickets for the Maly Theatre. A Man
From Stratford ... on Saturday and on Sunday. But there were no tickets for the
Sunday performance, there were tickets only for the Saturday performance at the
106

box-office. Mr. Titov ... two tickets for the Saturday performance. It was already
late and he decided not to go home. He ... his wife and she came to the theatre just
in time fo r....
The performance was.... They... it very much. I t ... at a quarter past ten. Mr.
Titov and his wife ... and came home at a quarter to eleven. It was not very late
and they had time ... the news ....
XII. :
1. ,
. 2. . 3.
. 4.
. . , .
. . .
. 5. .
7 . .
. . .
. 6. ? ,
2 . .
. . 7.30.
. .

III
SPEECH EXERCISES
XIII. .
XTV.
:
1. Was it a fine day yesterday? 2. Was it warm or cold? 3. Did you go for a
walk? 4. With whom did you go for a walk? 5. What did you do after that.
1. Do you often go to the theatre? 2. When did you last go to the theatre?
3. Where did you buy tickets for the performance? 4. What performance did you
see? 5. Was the performance wonderful? 6. When did it begin? 7. When was it
over?
XV. :
On our last day off the weather was very nice. It was not very cold. There was
a lot of snow outside. After breakfast we went for a walk to the park. It was a
wonderful winter morning. There were a lot of people in the park. All of us liked
our walk very much.
On our way home we met my wifes brother and invited him to have dinner
with us. We took a taxi and came home in half an hour. We were just in time for
dinner.
weather [ 'weda] ; to invite
My wife and I often go to the theatre on our days off. Last Sunday we went to
the Bolshoi Theatre to hear an opera. Ivan Susanin was on that night. We liked
the music very much. The opera was wonderful. It was over at a quarter past ten.
We came home early. We had supper, listened to the news on the radio and went
to bed at half past eleven.
an opera [ ']
107

XVI. :
1. Ann met Peter in the street the other day. Peter last met Ann a year ago and
was happy to see her now.
Peter is an engineer. He works at our Ministry. He works a lot. He likes his
work very much. He also learns English and can already read books and speak
English.
Ann is still a student. She learns French. Ann often goes to the theatre. She
likes the theatre very much. She last saw a wonderful performance at the Art Theatre.
2. Mr. Zernov met his friend Mitin at the theatre during the interval. The
Three Sisters was on that night. It was a surprise to Mr. Zernov to see his friend at
the theatre. They began to speak about the performance. They liked the performance
very much.
Mr. Zernov likes the Art Theatre and the Maly Theatre very much.
Mr. Mitin seldom goes to the theatre. He studies in the evening.
Sometimes he goes to the theatre on Sunday.
XVII. :
It was my day off yesterday. I got up at 8 oclock in the morning, dressed,
shaved, washed and had breakfast. Then ...
On our last day off we decided to go to the theatre. A new performance was on.
We came to the booking-office ...
It was wonderful outside yesterday morning. The air was frosty but it was not
cold...
XVIII. :
1.
. , .
2. ,
. . ,
.
3.
. .

LESSON FIVE

THE FIFTH LESSON

Grammar: 1. .
2. .
3. (The Present
Continuous Tense).
4. (The Past
Continuous Tense).

Revision: 1. to have.
2. .
108

GRAMMAR NOTES
I.
?
when , while .
I was 5 years old when my sister 5 ,
was bom. .
II. (Participle I)

, , , .

-ing.

-, -,
-, -.
to read reading
to speak speaking
-ing
:
1) ,
, :
to take taking
to give giving
ho :
to be being
to see seeing
2)
:
to get getting
to begin beginning
to put putting
3) ie :
to lie lying
. -ing
.
to play playing
to study studying
III. (The Present Continuous Tense)
Continuous (, , )
,
, .

to be

. ____ _______________
to be + Participle I
109

I am writing a letter now. .


is speaking on the phone now.
.

not,
.
I am not writing a letter now. .

to be
.
Is he writing a letter? ?

.
What is he doing there? ?

,
.
Which of you is reading this book ?
now?
Who is not working now? ?
yes ,
, ,
to be .
Is he speaking on the phone now?
?
Yes, he is. .
No, he isnt. .

to be
.
Who is reading this book now? ?
sister is. .
Who is not working now? ?
isnt. .
:
1. , .
is translating this letter now. .
2. , ,
.
I am reading Martin Eden by
Jack London. .
, ,
, , ,
. :
to hear to have
to want to see
to be to like

to know to forget
to remember to believe ,
. to have
, :
to have breakfast
to have dinner
to have supper
to have a lesson ,
to have a good time
to have a wonderful holiday
to have coffee
She is having dinner now. .
to go Present Continuous

.
She is going to buy a new
television-set. .
We are going to make a contract
with a French firm for cars.
.
. to be going
to go.
I am going to the theatre on Sunday.
.
IV. (The Past Continuous Tense)

to be
.
1 was writing a letter at 8 oclock 8 .
yesterday.


.
was not speaking on the phone 10
at 10 oclock yesterday. .
Was he working at this time ?
yesterday?
Yes, he was. .
No, he wasnt. .
Who was working at this time ?
yesterday?
She was. .
:
1. ,
. :
Ill

) :
We were discussing this question
at 5 oclock yesterday. .
What were you doing at this ?
time yesterday?
) , ,
:
wife was cooking dinner when ,
I came home. .
. ,
, .
When I came home yesterday my , ,
wife was reading a book, my elder ,
son was playing the piano and my ,
daughter was writing exercises. .
2. ,
.
She was reading while he was , -
listening to the radio. .

.
. to be going
.
I was going to read a book when ,
my friend came to see me. .

I
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
The Present Continuous Tense
I. - I
:
to take, to be, to give, to smoke, to get, to put, to see, to buy, to have, to sit, to
write, to close, to cook, to study, to play, to receive, to come, to make.
II. , :
daughter is watching T.V. now.
I are
His friends am
friends wife

He isnt playing the piano now.


The children arent
My sister
We
My sisters son
112

3. Are you discussing our enquiry


Is our director the firms letter
they those cables
the prices
the terms of payment
the terms of delivery

III.
:
1. Nick is watching T.V. now. 2. They are having dinner now. 3. The students
are answering their teachers questions. 4. My daughter is playing the piano now.
5. They are discussing the terms of delivery. 6. Its getting dark now. 7. Its getting
cold now. 8. They are having an English lesson now. 9. Our children are playing
computer games now.
IV. :
1.
. . 2. ?
. 3.
? . . 4.
? . 5. .
, . 6. ?
.
7. . . 8. .
? 9. ()?

The Past Continuous Tense


V. :
1 .1 was working at my office at 3 oclock yesterday. 2. It was 7 oclock in the
evening when Mr. Frolov came home. His wife was cooking supper and his
daughter was playing the piano. 3. My sister was reading a book when I came in.
4. Who was listening to the radio news when you came in? 5. We were not discussing
any questions when you telephoned us. We were going through some catalogues.
6. When I saw Peter he was speaking to his friend and smoking. 7. Two of our
engineers were translating letters while the other engineers were discussing a new
contract. 8. It was getting cold. The days were short already. There was not much
sunshine outside. Autumn was coming.
VI. , :
1. At two oclock yesterday I was writing a letter,
we were having dinner.
Mr. Sedov was speaking to foreign
businessmen.
my wife was cooking dinner.
they were watching T.V.
our engineers were having an English lesson.
113

2. When I came into the office the director was phoning a British firm,
the secretary was going through the mail,
some engineers were discussing
a contract.
Mr. Petrov was reading cables.

3. While 1 was reading a book my wife was listening to the news on the
radio.
my son was doing his lessons,
my daughter was playing the piano,
my mother-in-law was watching T.V.
VII.
:
1. Mr. Maslov was answering an enquiry at 10 oclock in the morning. 2 .1 was
having breakfast at this time on Sunday. 3. He was going through the catalogues
when I came into the room. 4. Nina was going to the institute when I met her.
5. My friend was writing his English exercises while his wife and son were watching
T.V. 6. We were discussing the prices when you telephoned us. 7 .1 was translating
from Russian into English while Oleg was answering our teachers questions. 8. They
were having their English lesson at 9 oclock yesterday morning.
VIII. :
1. , . 2.
11 ?
. .
3. 10 ?
. 4. 9 .
, . 5. ,
? . 6. 6 .
? . 7. , . 8.
,
. 9. .
. 10. , ?
IX. , to be going;.
1.
. 2. ? 3.
, . 4.
? . 5.
? 6.
? 7. ?
. 8. ?
.

T ext
A HOLIDAY
Many people take seaside holidays in summer now. It is wonderful to spend a
month in warm countries like Spain, Greece or Turkey. Some people prefer modem
resorts in the Crimea, the Caucasus or at the Baltic seaside.
114

Last year Bunin had a holiday in winter. He spent a month at a holiday-home


on the Moskva River. He had a good time there. It was not very frosty and he skied
and skated a lot.
This summer Bunin had a holiday in June. He decided to take his family to
Sochi, a beautiful town on the Black Sea.

ON THE BEACH
It was 9 oclock in the morning when Bunin and his family went down to the
beach1. The sun was shining, but it was not very hot. There were a lot of holiday
makers on the beach. Some of them were swimming in the sea and other holiday
makers were sunbathing.
Suddenly Bunin saw one of his friends among the holiday-makers.

Bunin: Hallo, Mike. Its very nice to meet you.


Semenov: Hallo, Nick. Its a surprise to see you here too.
Bunin: When did you come?
Semenov: I came here a fortnight ago, on the 15th of June.
Bunin: You look it2. You are very sunburnt. Is your family also here?
Semenov: Im here with my wife only. She is swimming now. And what about
you?3
Bunin: We are all here.4 My wife is over there.5 She is sitting under a
sunshade with our children. Are you having a nice holiday?
Semenov: Oh, yes, we are. We like it here.6 The place is wonderful.
Bunin: By the way, what are you going to do tonight?
Semenov: We are going to the cinema. An interesting film is on. Lets go
together.
Bunin: Have you got tickets?7
Semenov: No, we havent, but we can buy them on our way back.

COMMENTARY
1. ...when Bunin and his family went down to the beach ... ...
...
2. You look it. .
3. And what about you? ?
4. We are all here. .
all
, .
They all learn English. .
We all know French. .
,
to be, all to be.
They are all here. .
5. over there () .
He is over there. () .
6. We like (there. .
7. Have yon got tickets? = Have you tickets? ? (
)
115

Hes got a brother [hi:z ' got] = He has a brother. I havent got that magazine.
= I havent that magazine. .


-er, -or
:
to read a reader
to write a writer
to translate a translator
, , ,
, .

VOCABULARY NOTES
holiday ['haladi] n 1. ,
to have a holiday ,
Last year I had my holiday in winter.
.
2.
May Day is a holiday, .
to spend (spent, spent) v 1. ()
He usually spends his days off in
the country. .
2.
How much time do you usually
spend on your English? ?
month [ 'nun0] n
There are twelve months in a year. 12 .
Spain [spein]
Greece [gri:s]
Turkey | 4a:ki]
to prefer [pri'fo] v
resort [ri 'za:t] n
the Crimea [krai'mis]
Im going to spend my holiday in
the Crimea this year, .
the Caucasus [ koikasas]
Last year we were in the Caucasus.
,
sea n
.
the Black Sea
the Baltic Sea [ 'bodtik]
the White Sea
seaside [ 'si:said] n ,
My sister spent her holiday at the
seaside last summer. ,
holliday-home
116

Id like to spend this month at


a holiday-home near Moscow,
river ['riva] n
.
the Moskva River -
the Volga
the Don
to have a good time
Did you have a good time last
Sunday? ?
to ski [ski:] (skied, skied) v
to go skiing
Do you like skiing? ?
skis n
Have you skis? ?
to skate v
to go skating
Can your son skate?
?
skates n
Yesterday I bought skates for
my daughter. .
January [ 'd.^aenjusri] n
February ['februari] n
March [ma:tf| n
April [ eipral] n
May [mei] n
June [d3u:n] n
July [dju'lai] n
August [ -o:gast] n
September [sep 'temba] n
October [ok'touba] n
November [nou'vemba] n
December [di'semba] n
.
, ,
in.
in June
in November, 1967 1967
:
on the 15th of January
My son was bom on the 5th of April. 5 .
beautiful [ 'bjuUsful] adj ,
Ann is a beautiful girl, ,
town [taun] n ()
Lipetsk is a town, (),
city [ 'siti] n ()
117

Petersburg is a city. ().


the town of Lipetsk
the city of Petersburg
the village o/Vasilevo
beach n ,
There are always a lot of people on
the beach in summer, ,
the sun n
to shine (shone, shone) [Jon] v ,
Was the sun still shining when you ,
came back? ?
hot adj ,
It is usually hot in Moscow in August.
.
Id like to have a cup of hot tea.
.
holiday-maker [ 'hobdi meika] n
Every year there are a lot of
holiday-makers on the Black Sea. ,
to swim (swam, swum) v
My wife swims very well, ,
to sunbathe [ 'sxnbeiQ] v ,

It is good to sunbathe early in .
the morning.
suddenly ['sxdanli] adv ,
among [')] prep , ()
You are among your friends here.
.
between [bi'twim] prep ( ,
)
Come here between one and
two oclock. .
There is a desk between the sofa and
the window, ,
fortnight ['fo:tnait] n
My friend came back from London
a fortnight ago. .
sunburnt ['sAnbamt] adj
Your son is very sunburnt, ,
sunshade ['sxnjeid] n ,
It is very hot to-day. Sit under .
the sunshade, .
place n
Alupka is a beautiful place on the
Black Sea. ,
by the way
118

By the way, what performance did ,


you see last night? ?
to be going ,
Im going to phone my friend tonight.
,
cinema ( 'sinima] n
to go to the cinema
to be at the cinema
There is a new cinema near our
block of flats. .
We usually go to the cinema on
Saturdays. ,
interesting ['intristir)] adj
Boris often brings me interesting
books to read, .
film n
We saw an interesting film yesterday.
.
to let (let, let) v ,
Lets go there. .
Let me do it. .
Let him translate the text. .
Dont let them do it. ,
together [ta 'geda] adv
He lives together with his parents, ,
to have got
Ive got some interesting English
books, .
when conj
while conjI

II
GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY EXERCISES
I. :
I. At 9 oclock in the morning the children were already swimming in the sea.
2. At 7 oclock yesterday evening my sisters son was skating. 3 .1 met Ann in the
Crimea when I was having my holiday there. 4. We were all sitting under the
sunshade when Nina came to the beach. 5. While Ann and Peter were swimming
in the sea Nina was sunbathing. 6. An interesting film is on at our cinema today.
II. :
1. Let (I) sit under the sunshade. It is very hot today. 2. Dont let (he) swim.
Its still cold. 3. Let (they) spend their holiday in the Crimea. 4. Let (she) come
here in a fortnight. 5. Let (we) go to the Baltic Sea this summer. 6. Dont let (he)
sunbathe today. Its very hot. 7. Let (I) buy tickets to the cinema to-night. 8. Let
(they) go to the holiday-home in June. 9. Dont let (we) ski today. 10. Let (she) go
to the cinema to-night. 11. Dont let (she) see this film. 12. Let (I) goto the beach
together with you.
119

III.
:
1. Let your brother go to the Crimea in July. 2. Let the children go to the river
to swim. 3. Let your daughter go to the Caucasus this summer. 4. Let your friend
buy tickets for the cinema. 5. Dont let your son go for a walk today. Its very cold.
6. Dont let Nick go outside. He isnt well to-day 7. Dont let your friends do this
work to-day They can do it to-morrow. 8. Dont let the foreign businessmen have
these catalogues to-day
IV. :
1. When I came to the beach ... 2. While Peter was skating ... 3. The sun was
shining w hen... 4 . 1 was swimming while ... 5, When we were in Spain ... 6. When
summer cam e... 7. My sister had a good time when ... 8. Let the children sit under
the sunshade while ... 9. Dont let the children skate a lot when ...
V. , Simple Present Present Continuous'.
1. My son (to swim) very well. My son (to swim) in the sea now. 2. Every year
my friend (to spend) his holiday on the Black Sea. My friend (to spend) his holiday
in the Caucasus now. 3. How often (to ski) you in winter? I (to ski) every Sunday.
Where is Nick? He (to ski) in the park. 4. When I am on the beach I not (to sit)
usually under a sunshade. I not (to see) our children. Where are they? They (to
sit) under a sunshade over there. 5. Whom (to look at) you now? I (to look at)
Ann. She (to swim) in the river. She (to swim) every morning here.
VI. , Simple Past Past Continuous:
1. When I (to be) on the Black Sea last summer I (to swim) in the sea every
day. When we (to come) to the beach our friends already (to swim) in the sea.
2. Yesterday when I (to listen) to the radio my brother (to phone) me. Yesterday 1
(to listen) to the 10 oclock news on the radio and (to go) to bed. 3 .1 (to go) to the
office yesterday morning when I (to meet) Mr. S. Yesterday I (to come) to the
office at a quarter to 9. The secretary (to bring) me the mail and I (to go through)
it. 4. At a quarter to 9 yesterday my son (to have breakfast).
VII. , ,
:
ON MONDAY
Sasha: Hallo, Pete. What you (to do)?
Pete: Hallo, I (to get ready) for work.
Sasha: Thats fine. How you (to spend) your day off yesterday? You (to
have) good time?
Pete: Very good. By the way, Sasha, I (to see) you yesterday at 4 o clock.
Where you (to go)?
Sasha: I (to go) to see my friend. He (to receive) a flat in one of the new
districts of Moscow a fortnight ago. Many of his friends (to come)
to see him yesterday, and we (to have) a good time there. And what
about you, Pete?
Pete: I (to go) to Ismailov Park with my family. We (to come) there at 10
oclock, but there (to be) already a lot of people there. Some of them
(to ski) and other people (to skate). We also (to ski) a lot yesterday.
120

We (to spend) 5 or 6 hours in the park. It (to get) dark when we (to
come back).
VIII. , to have,
have got.
1. ?
. 2. ? ?
. 3. ? , .
4. . 5.
? . . 6.
. 7. .
. . , . 8.
? .
IX. , ,
:
1.1 came to ... holiday-home o n ... 5th of July. It was... half past ten. It was...
wonderful morning.... sun was shining and it was very warm. Some holiday-makers
were having ... breakfast, and ... other holiday-makers were already on ... beach.
Some people were sunbathing, other people were sitting under ... sunshade.
All of them were having... good time. I decided not to spend very much time o n ...
beach o n ... first day. I swam in ... sea fo r... quarter of... hour and then went fo r...
walk. 2. My friend was bom in ... small town on ... Volga. 3. Yesterday we received
five letters from ... foreign firms. But I see only two of them now. Where are ...
other letters? 4. Have you g o t... ticket for this film? Yes, I have. 5. L et... secretary
telephone... director o f... factory tomorrow morning. 6. My wife spent... fortnight
i n ... Crimea. She h a d ... very good time there. 7. We dont like this standard lamp.
Can you give m e... other standard lamp? 8. Whats ... news?... news is good. 9. Lets
listen to ... seven oclock news on ... radio. 10. Dont le t... children go to ... river.
Its cold to-day.
X. .
Last year I had a holiday... winter. I spent a m onth... the country,... a holiday-
home ... Moscow. I came there ... the 20th ... February. There were a lot of people
... the holiday-home. ... them 1 met my friend Peter Kotov, an engineer ... our
Ministry.
One d ay... breakfast we decided to have a walk... the park. We liked our walk
very much. We were back ju s t... time ... dinner.... dinner Peter went to buy tickets
... the cinema. An interesting film was on.
We w ent... the cinem a... half... seven. The film was good, and we liked it. We
cam e......the holiday-home ... 10 oclock. While I was listening... the news... the
radio, Peter was going ... some magazines and newspapers.... an hour we w ent...
bed.
XI. :
1. , . 2.
? . ? , .
3. . . 4
? . 5.
. 6. . ,
121

, , . 7. 10
, .
9 . 8. ,
. 9. ? .
. . 10.
? . .

III
SPEECH EXERCISES
XII.
:
1. Do many people have holidays in summer? 2. When did you last have a
holiday? 3. Where did you spend your holiday? 4. How much time were you there?
5. Did you have a good time there? 6. When did you come back?
1. Do your children like the sea? 2. When did you take your family to the Black
Sea? 3. What did your children do on the beach? 4. Did they get sunburnt? What
about your wife? 5. What were you doing while the children were sunbathing? 6. Can
your children swim well?
1. When did you spend your holiday at a holiday-home? 2. Were there many
holiday-makers there? 3. Did you meet any friends among the holiday-makers?
4. How did you spend your time there? 5. What did you do in the evenings at the
holiday-home? 6. How often did you go to the cinema there?
1. Where did you spend your holiday last winter? 2. Was there a lot of snow
that winter? 3. How much did you ski and skate there? 4. What did you do when it
was very frosty outside? 5. Did you like your winter holiday there? Why?
XIII. :
There are a lot of boarding houses in beautiful places near Moscow. You can
get a room there for a day, for a week, for a fortnight or for a month.
Last Saturday my friend and I decided to go to the Klazma boarding house. It
was already 4 o'clock when we came there. It was getting dark. But many people
were still skating and skiing. The buildings of the boarding house are modem. When
we came in it was warm and cosy inside. Some people were playing chess or reading
newspapers and magazines. We took our suit-cases to our room and went for a
walk. The air was frosty outside. We had a nice walk in the forest and came back
just in time for supper. An interesting film was on there that night and after supper
we went to see it. The film was over at eleven oclock. When we came into our
room we listened to music on the radio. At half past eleven we went to bed.
a boarding house [ 'bo:dir) haus]
cosy ['kouzi] ; inside ['insaid]
to play chess [tjes] ; forest [ 'forist]
a suit-case [ 'sju:t keis]
XIV. :
1. Last summer I spent my holiday in Turkey. I went to the beach every day.
Sometimes I went there not only in the morning but also in the evening...
2. When I came to the beach, it was 9 oclock. There were already many holiday
makers there. Some of them ...
122

3. It was a nice winter day. It was not very frosty. We decided to go to the
country. We telephoned our friends and ...
4. We are at the lesson now. We are sitting at our desks...
XV.
:
1. the Baltic seaside, hot. the sun, to shine, holiday-makers, to swim in the
sea, to sunbathe, sunburnt, to have a good time;
2. to decide, the cinema, an interesting film, the box-office, a lot of people,
among, to buy tickets for;
3. to have a holiday, in winter, to decide, a holiday-home, among, snow, to
ski, to skate, to spend a fortnight.
XVI. :
1. ,
; , .
2. ,
, , , ,
.
3. .
, .
4. ,
. , ,
. .
5. - ,
. ,
.
XVII. :
1. holiday. 2. friends holiday. 3. A day at the seaside. 4. On the beach.
XVIII. ,
:
MY SUMMER HOLIDAY
to spend to shine
in summer to sunbathe
a holiday-home a sunshade
beautiful to have a good time
wonderful a film
the sea interesting

MY WINTER HOLIDAY
to decide to skate
a holiday-home to watch TV
cold to ski
month wonderful
frosty outside
snow to have a walk
123

LESSON SIX

THE SIXTH LESSON

Grammar: 1.
(Participle II).
2. (The Present
Perfect Tense).
3. .

Revision: 1. Simple Present, Simple Past, Present


Continuous, Past Continuous.
2. some, any.

GRAMMAR NOTES
I. (Participle II)

, , , .

,
to close closed closed
to finish finished finished
to study studied studied

.
to find found found
to write wrote written


-, -, -, -, -.
to discuss discussed , ,
,
to begin begun , , I.

II. (The Present Perfect Tense)


Perfect ,

.

to have
,
.
to have + Participle II
I have written a letter to my friend. .
has done all the exercises. .
124


not,
to have.
I have not seen this performance. .

to have
.
Have you bought a new magazine? ?
Has Mr. Petrov spoken to you? - ?

.
Whom have you met? ?


.
Which of you has taken my book? ?
Who has translated this text? ?
yes ,
, ,
to have .
Has he come? ?
Yes, he has. .
No, he has not (hasnt). .

to have
.
Who has brought these books? ?
sister has. .
Which of you has not seen the new ?
film?
I havent. .


, ,
, :
1. ,
, .
I have bought two books. .
Have you seen this performance? ?
I have not read this book. .
.
, ,
, :
just
ever -
never
yet ( )
125

not... yet ...


lately
I have just spoken to him. .
Have you ever studied French? -
?
No, I have never studied this language. , .
Have they discussed the new contract yet?Omr ?
No, they have not yet discussed it. , .
(No, they have not discussed it yet.)
I have not met him lately. .
just, ever, never .
yet
.
yet .
lately .
2.
, .
Ive seen him this morning. . (
.)
We have read two English books
this month. .
3. ,
,
Continuous (to be, to know, to see ).

. :
) for since .
We have been friends for many years. .
has been a student since last year. .
How long have you known Mr. Sedov?I -
?
I have known him for a long time, .
) , since
( since
).
We have not met since I saw him ,
at the theatre. .
:
1. to be
, , . to
be to.
I have never been to England. .
2.
, , ,
, ,
, .
You are sunburnt. Have you been to . ?
the South?
126

Yes, I have been to the Crimea. . .


Did you have a good time there? ?
Yes, I did. .
Did you go there with your family? ?
Yes, we all were there. . .
(Present
Perfect) (Simple Past)
,
.

, .
Present Perfect Simple Past
I have heard . I heard the -
the news. news last
week. .
Has he begun to We began to
read this book? ? read this -
book last week, .
We have not We did not -
received any . receive any
enquiry. enquiry .
yesterday.
She has lived in - She lived in -
Moscow for two . ( Moscow last .
years. year. (
.) .)

. , when,
.
When did you go to the Crimea? ?I.

III.

.
,
, that.
who, what, whom, whose, which
.
,
.
I know that Peter is a student. Peter , .
says that he studies English. , .
Do you know who can translate ,
this letter? ?
We do not know where Peter is now. , .
Tell me, please, whose children study , ,
English. .
127

:
1. that, ,
.
I know she is at home now. , .
Peter says he often goes to the cinema. ,
.
2. who, whom, whose, where . ,
.

I
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
The Present Perfect Tense
I. :
I. Ive seen this film. 2. Hes never been to London. 3. Have you read this
book? 4. Has she ever lived there?
II.
:
1. We have done business with this firm. 2. She has been to the theatre this
week. 3. They have come back today. 4. She has phoned you this morning. 5. They
have had a good time.
1. The film has been on since last week. 2 . 1 have known him for ten years.
3. They have lived in Moscow for a long time. 4. We have received two letters
from him since he went to London.
III. :
1. Hesbeento London, (never) 2. Have you boughtthis book? (yet) 3. Theyve
gone for a walk, (just) 4. She has done well, (lately) 5. Have you swum in the sea?
(ever) 6. The childien have not got up. (yet) 7. Has it got light? (yet) 8. Whos
telephoned you? (just)
IV. :
1 .1 have ju s t... 2. He has never... 3. Have you ever...? 4. They havent y e t...
5. She has never ... 6. Our engineers have ... lately. 7. Has Petrov ... yet? 8. We
havent ... lately.
1. Peter hasnt telephoned me since... 2. Our office has sold a lot of equipment
.
since... 3. They havent been to the country since... 4 Our engineers have discussed
a lot of questions since ... 5. ... since I last met him at the theatre. 6. ... since the
firm began to do business with us.
V. :
Mr. N. op en y o ur b o ok, please. 1. What is Mr. N. doing? 2. What has
Mr. N. done? 3. Who has opened the book? 4. What did Mr. N. do a minute ago?
Mr. N., w rite th e w ord fo re ig n , please. 1. What is Mr. N. doing?
2. What has he done? 3. What word has he written? 4. What did he do a minute
ago?
Mr. N., open th e window, please. 1. What are you doing? 2. What have
you done? 3. Who has opened the window? 4. What did you do a minute ago?
Mr. N., give me y our book, p lease. 1. What are you doing? 2. What
have you done? 3. Who has given me the book? 4. What did you do a minute ago?
128

VI. :
1. ? 2.
. 3.
. 4. ? .
? . 5. -
- ? .
. 6. ? , .
7. ? . 8. -
? 9. .
10. .
1. 5 . 2. ,
. 3. 1965 . 4.
? 5 . 5. , . 6.
. 7.
1995 .

VII. :
1. says that he has never been to London. 2. They say that they did business
with the firm last year. 3. I dont know how long he has lived in Moscow. 4. He
doesnt know what film is on at our cinema. 5. Im afraid I cant tell you about it
now. 6 .1 believe you have had a good time there. 7. Please, let us know at what price
you can sell us the equipment. 8. Please, tell me whose telephone number it is.
VIII. :
1. I must say th a t... (to phone, at half past ten). 2. My friend knows th a t...
(to sell equipment, last week). 3. Some of our engineers say th a t... (to do business,
this month). 4. Wed like to tell you th a t... (to buy goods). 5 .1know th a t... (to like
the film). 6. He says th a t... (to receive letters). 7 .1 hope ... (to spend a holiday, in
the Crimea, last summer). 8. I believe ... (to discuss the contract, yesterday
morning).
IX. :
1. , . 2. ,
. 3. , .
4. , . 5.
, . 6.
, . 7. ,
-? 8. ,
.

T ext
A BUSINESS TRIP
Roberts and Company, a British firm, sent an enquiry for boilers to
Machinoexport. The buyers were interested in boilers of different models.
Machinoexport received the enquiry from the firm and the President of our
office asked Mr. Bunin to be ready for the talks.
On the 3rd of April Mr. Camp, a representative of Roberts and Co. came to
Moscow. The next day1 he had a talk with Mr. Bunin and got the necessary
129

materials from him. Mr. Camp and Mr. Bunin made an appointment for the 6th of
April.

D ia lo g u e
Camp: Good afternoon, Mr. Bunin.
Bunin: Good afternoon, Mr. Camp. I hope you are having a good time.
Camp: Oh, yes. I like it here very much.
Bunin: Have you gone sightseeing yet?
Camp: Well, Ive only been here since Tuesday and I havent seen much
yet. I was at the the Tretyakov Gallery yesterday and Ive just been to
the Kremlin. Its wonderful.
Bunin: Glad to hear it. Now, what can I do for you?
Camp: Ive gone through your catalogues and price-lists. I believe we can
buy from you two boilers. Model PK-67 and three boilers Model
BK-220. But your prices are too high, Pm afraid.
Bunin: I dont think so2. We usually sell our boilers at these prices. They are
in great demand, and we have sold a lot of them at these prices lately.
Im afraid we cant reduce them.
Camp: I see.3And what about the terms of delivery?
Bunin: We can offer you the goods c.i.f.4 London.
Camp: Good, then we accept the terms.
Bunin: When do you require the boilers?
Camp: Wed like to have them in May.
Bunin: Thats all right.5We can ship them in May.
Camp: Fine.6Id like to contact my people7and let them know your answer.
Can I see you on Friday?
Bunin: Certainly. What time is convenient to you?
Camp: Any time you say.8
Bunin: 11.30 then.
Camp: Very good. Good-bye.
Bunin: Good-bye.

COMMENTARY
1. next day .
,
next week
next month
next year

, , , :
On the 3rd of April Mr. Camp came to Moscow. The next day he had a talk
with Mr. Bunin.
2 .1 dont think so. He . , .
I think so. . , .
3 .1 see. . .
4. c.i.f. cost, insurance, freight [ 'kost, in 'Juarons,
freit] (, , ). ,
130


. , ,
, .
We can sell our goods c.i.f. Liverpool.
.
f.o.b. free on board [ 'fri: an 'bo:d] (
). ,
.
The firm has sold the goods f.o.b. Petersburg.
.
f.a.s. free alongside ship ['fri: 'bpsaid 'Jip]
( ). ,
.
The prices for the goods are f.a.s. Odessa.
.

on c.i.f. 3
on f.o.b. f terms
on f.a.s. '
We can offer you the goods on c.i.f. terms.
.
5. Thats all right. .
6. Fine. .
7. Id like to contact my people.
.
8. Any time you say. .

to say, to tell, to speak


to say (said, said) , ".
:
1.
said\ Lets have a walk. : .
. to say
to.
said to us: Ive got some interesting news to tell you.
: .
2.
says that he knows English well. ,
.
3.
didnt say a word. ,
to tell (told, told) :
1. , ( ,
, ,
)
told us the news. .
Tell about your holiday. .
131

. to tell
to tell the truth [tru:0] , to tell a lie [lai] ,
to tell a story [ 'sto:ri] .
2. (
)
Tell him that you know it. , .
3.
told us to come here tomorrow. ,
to speak :
1. ( to speak ,
, )
speaks very well. .
2. , , ( to speak
to, with about)
We spoke about it for 15 minutes. 15
.
Speak to him about it, please. , .
3.
speaks English and German. - -
.
4.
spoke at the meeting yesterday. .


1. -able
.
to accept + able = acceptable
to read + able = readable
2. -ment
.
to appoint + ment = appointment
to ship + ment = shipment

VOCABULARY NOTES
buyer [ 'bata] n
The buyers would like to have the
goods in May. .
seller [ 'seta] n
to be interested in ...,

to be interested in
.
We are interested in your goods.
.
Some firms are interested in buying -
our goods. .
132

model [modi] n
Wed like to buy a TV set of a new
model. .
president ['presidont] n
to ask [a:sk] v ,
He asked me to give him a book to
read. .
He asked me not to tell her about it.
.
talk [to:k] n
to have a talk
to have talks
We had talks with one of the French
firms last week.
.
representative [, repri 'zentotiv] n
The firm sent their representative to
Moscow, ,
next adj ,
Im going to spend my holiday in the
Crimea next year, ,
necessary [ 'nesisori] adj
You can get the necessary catalogues
tomorrow morning. .
This book is necessary to me. ,
material [ 'tiarial] n
materials ,
All the materials were ready for the
talks. ,
to make an appointment [a 'pointmant]
We have made an appointment with
the French businessmen for Friday.
,
to hope [houp] v
I hope you know the news, , ,
to go sightseeing [ saitsi:ip]

Id tike to go sightseeing tomorrow.
.
the TVetyakov Gallery [ gaelari] n
the Kremlin [ 'kremlin] n
to believe [bi'li:v] v
I believe 1 can phone you after dinner. ,
.
too [tu:] adv
This text is too short, ,
high [hai] adj
The prices of the goods were very high.
.
low adj
to be aftaid

.
afraid I cant do it now. , .
afraid its already late. , .
to think [0iqk] (thought, thought
[0o:t, 0o:t]) v
I think the secretary is in now. , ,
af the price of...
a pound
.
.
We can offer you this equipment at
the price of ... ... ,
great [greit] adj ,
Tolstoy is a great Russian writer.
.
to be in demand [di ma:nd]
The goods of V/O Machinoexport
are in great demand, ,
to reduce [ri 'dju:s] v ,
The Sellers couldnt reduce the prices
of their goods, ,
to offer [ 'ofa ] v
He offered me that book, ,
offer [ 'ofsj n
Weve received an offer o f power
equipment from a French firm lately.
,
on c.i.f. (f.o.b., f.a.s.) terms (, )
We can offer you our goods on
c.i.f. terms, .
to accept a'kseptjv
to accept an offer
a price
terms of delivery
terms of payment
goods
The Buyers havent accepted the
Sellers goods. .
acceptable [a'kseptabl] adj
Your terms are acceptable to us. .
to require [ri'kwaia] v ()
The firm requires the goods in July. .
to ship v ,
The firm shipped the goods in time. .
134

ship n ,
shipment n
terms of shipment
time of shipment
Your terms of shipment are not
acceptable to us. .
fine adj ,
It is fine outside today, ,
to contact [kan'taekt] v -. ()
to contact .
Contact Mr. Smith tomorrow -
morning, please. , .
convenient [ 'vimiant] adj
The time of the appointment is
convenient to me. ( ).
to say (said, said) [sei, sed, sed] v ,
yet adv
Have you seen him yet? ?
yet adv
I havent spoken to him yet. .
since prep
since conj
ever adv -
never adv
.
, never, -
.
We have never done business with that
firm. .
just adv
lately adv
how long
How long have you known him? ?
for a long time ,
I havent seen him for a long time. .

II
GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY EXERCISES
I. :
1. We are interested in selling our mining equipment. 2. Our office is going to
sell our new model of cars. 3. The secretary has made an appointment with Mr.
Brown for 12 oclock. 4. We were having talks when the secretary brought us the
mail.
1. She was at the Tretyakov Gallery last week. 2. They have reduced their
prices. 3. Im going to contact my people tomorrow. 4. The firm has accepted our
offer of boilers.
135

II.
:
) 1. . 2.
. 3. 3 . 4.
- . 5. .
6. 6 .
) 1. , . 2.
. 3. ? 4.
. 5. . 6. ? 7. .
8. , . 9. . 10.
. 11. . 12. ? 13.
. 14. . 15.
. 16. .
III. ,
:
1. I (to send) them the offer (this week, yesterday, just, a fortnight ago, this
morning, last week). 2. We (to go sightseeing) today (three days ago, last week,
just, the other day, this week). 3. They (to be) in (to) Omsk never (last year, lately,
2 years ago, this month).
IV. , :
1. . 2.
. 3.
. 4. . 5.
, . 6.
.
1. . 2.
. 3.
. 4.
. 5.
.
V. , ,
:
Basov: Hallo, (to be) that Lake and Co.? Id like to speak to Mr. Lake.
Lake: Yes, Lake (to speak).
Basov: Good afternoon, Mr. Lake. This (to speak) Basov of Avtoexport.
We (to see) your new model of cars lately and we (to be interested)
in buying some of your new cars. Can you send us your offer?
Lake: I (to believe) we (to send) you our offer, Mr. Basov. You (to receive)
it?
Basov: Not yet. When you (to send) it?
Lake: We (to send) it a week ago, I (to believe).
Basov: Then we must receive it today or tomorrow.
Lake: I (to think) so. How many cars would you like to buy?
Basov: 5 or 6.
Lake: Good. And when you (to require) them?
Basov: In April or in May.
Lake: I (to believe) we can ship you the cars in April.
136

Basov: Thank you, Mr. Lake. Good-bye.


Lake: Good-bye.
VI.
, :
1. We thank you for... enquiry fo r... power equipment of... 10th of December.
2 .. .. prices are too high. I'm afraid we cannot accept... offer. 3 .1 hope youve had
... good time a t ... holiday-home. 4. We came to Petersburg on Saturday. ... next
day we went sightseeing. 5. What time have you made ... appointment with ...
representative of Parker & Co. for? 6. During ... talks we discussed a ll... terms of
... contract. 7. We had ... talks with them ... other day. 8. ... air is necessary to ...
people. 9. We must have ... first shipment o f ... goods in September. 10. We are
interested in ... different goods. 11. Ive never been to ... Tate Gallery in London.
12.. .. books are in great demand in our country.
VII.
:
I work... Machinoexport. A lo t... foreign firms are interested... doing business
... us. We have made some contracts ... boilers... a new model lately. Our boilers
are ... great demand now, and we sell them ... high prices.
The other day Mr. Gray ... Roberts & Co. came ... Moscow to have talks...
us. As soon as he came ... Moscow he phoned our secretary and made an
appointm ent... us ... the next day.
He came to see us ... h a lf... nine. We discussed a lot ... different questions.
Our term s... payment and delivery were acceptable ... him. When the talks were
over we asked Mr. Gray to have dinner... u s ... Saturday.
VIII. ,
last, lately.
1. . 2.
?
. 3.
. 4. .
5. .
6. -
. 7.
. 8.
.
IX. some, any:
1. Please, give me ... coffee. Im sorry but there isnt .... 2. We had ... tea, but
there wasnt ... sugar to put in it. 3. Im afraid I cant speak to you now. Come and
see m e... other time. 4 .1can make an appointment with him fo r... time. 5. Id like
to listen to ... good music on the radio. 6. He hasnt got ... books to read and he
asked me to bring him ... .7 .... of our goods are in great demand now. 8. He says
that this time is not convenient to ... of our engineers.
X. , :
1. How many enquiries from foreign firms you (to receive) this month? We (to
receive) two enquiries from a German firm last week. 2. You (to have) a holiday
this year? Yes, I (to have) it two months ago. 3. Where (to be) the materials for the
talks? I think Mr. Petrov (to take) them. He (to come) to the office five minutes
137

ago. 4. What film you (to see) lately? I (to see) Hamlet. I (to like) it very much.
When it (to be on)? It (to be on) last week. 5. Where you (to be) today? I (to
phone) you in the morning, but you (to be) not in. You see, in the morning I (to
be) at the factory and (to come back) only 10 minutes ago. 6. You ever (to do
business) with Roberts & Co.? Yes, we (to sell) them ten boilers of a new model
lately.
XI. ,
:
1 .1 believe you ... (to go sightseeing). 2. ... (to ski)... while we were having a
walk. 3. We havent done business with Hadson & Co. since we ... (to make a
contract)... 4. When foreign representatives came to our office w e... (to have talks)
... 5. When I came in, they (to discuss) ... 6. Im afraid your term s... not (to be
acceptable)... 7. Before we buy goods we ... (to send). 8. We dont know when you
... (to require). 9. Mr. Fedin was going through some letters while we ... (to get
ready) ... 10. The director asks for what day the secretary (to make an
appointment)...
XII. :
to have talks, buyers, to contact, representatives, offers, to be interested,
to make appointments, acceptable, to be in great demand
Russia does business with different countries of the world. Every day our
Ministry receives... and enquiries from different firms. Our goods... and we have a
lot of... in different countries now. T hey... in buying our equipment and raw [ro:]
materials. They send their enquiries to our country or their businessmen come
here ... with o u r....
When they come to our country they usually... different offices of our Ministry
and ... with our businessmen.
During the talks they discuss different questions with them. When our prices,
terms of payment and delivery are ... to them we make contracts.
XIII. to say, to speak, to tell
:
1. The representative of the firm ... that our terms of payment are acceptable to
them. 2. Im afraid I cannot ... you about it now. I can let you know our answer
tomorrow morning. 3. The President... to the representatives of the firm about their
offer when I came into the room. 4. What did you ...? I didnt hear you. 5. He ... to
us, We require the goods this month. 6. You see, I dont know English well. I
cannot... it in English. 7. The President... the secretary not to contact Brown & Co.
that day. 8. The President is out now. Please,... Mr. Ward to telephone us in half an
hour. 9. Mr. Brown ... that 12 o clock is quite convenient to them. 10. ... the
representative of the firm that we are interested in buying their goods. 11. Mr. Harris
... their goods are in great demand now and they cannot reduce their price. 12. Ive...
to Mr. Brown on the phone. He ... he is going to come to Moscow.
XIV. ,
What about. ..1
: 1 believe you like it here. What about your friends?
1. I believe you like the new performance. 2. I know you are going to the
Caucasus. 3 .1 usually watch TV every evening. 4. Our boilers Model BD-67 are in
great demand. 5. Hardy & Co. are interested in our mining equipment. 6 .1 see our
138

terms of payment are acceptable to you. 7. This time of shipment is convenient to


us. 8 .1 see the price for boilers Model PK-67 is acceptable to you.
XV.
, 1 don Vthink 50, I think so.
: Hardy & Co. do not require boilers now.
I don't think so. Ive just received an enquiry from them.
They are going to reduce the prices.
I think so. They are very interested in our goods.
1.1 believe you wanted to see that film. 2. It is hot in Riga in summer. 3. Peter
doesnt like skiing. 4. I'm afraid the terms of the contract are not acceptable to us.
5. Im afraid we cant ship the goods this month. 6 .1believe you can ship the goods
this month. 7 .1 believe the president has gone through the e-mail. 8.1 think they
are going to contact Brown & Co.
XVI. :
1. - ,
, , .
2. . 3.
? 112- .
. 4. ?
. 5. .
6. , . 7.
. , . 8.
, . 9.
. 10. ,
. 11. ,
, . 12. ,
.I

III
SPEECH EXERCISES
XVII. .
XVIII. :
1. Ask Mr. X. what goods they are interested in. 2. Ask Mr. X. for what time
he has made an appointment with a representative of a foreign firm. 3. Ask the
representative of a foreign firm when hed like to go sightseeing. 4. Ask the
representative of a foreign firm what you can do for him. 5. Ask the representative
of a foreign firm at what price his company sells power equipment. 6. Ask the
representative of a foreign firm what models of boilers are in great demand. 7. Ask
the representative of a foreign firm what goods they can offer you. 8. Ask the
representative of a foreign firm what terms of shipment are acceptable to them.
9. Ask the representative of a foreign firm what goods they require. 10. Ask Mr. X.
since when they have done business with Brown & Co.
XIX. :
Secretary: Mr. Smirnov, this is Mr. Gray to see you.
Gray: How do you do, Sir?
Smirnov: How do you do, Mr. Gray. Will you sit down, please?
139

Gray: Thank you.


Smirnov: What can I do for you, Mr. Gray?
Gray: You see, Mr. Smirnov, my firm is interested in your boilers.
Smirnov: Glad to hear it. We can offer you different models of boilers.
Have you seen our catalogues yet?
Gray: Yes, I have. We require boilers, Model BL-220.
Smirnov: I see. And how many boilers do you require?
Gray: I believe, we can buy 2 boilers of the model. I must say, we
would like to have the machines in July or August.
Smirnov: Very good. We can promise you July shipm ent, c.i.f.
Manchester. Are these terms acceptable to you?
Gray: Yes, quite. But what about the price?
Smirnov: I think weve written in our offer that our price is ...
Gray: Can you reduce the price?
Smirnov: Im afraid we cant, Mr. Gray.
Gray: All right.
a machine [ma'Jim] ; to promise [ 'promis]
XX. :
Mr. Sanin meets Mr. Black in his office. There are cigarettes on the table,
and they smoke. Mr. Black has brought catalogues and price-lists. He offers our
representative their power equipment. They discuss the time of shipment and the
price. Mr. Sanin asks Mr. Black to reduce the price. Mr. Black cannot give his
answer. He is going to contact his people.
Mr. Minin of Machinoimport has come to the London office of Wilson &
Co. Mr. Wilson asks Mr. Minin how he likes London.
Mr. Minin lets Mr. Wilson know that Machinoimport is interested in the
goods of the company. He asks Mr. Wilson about the terms of delivery and the
time of shipment.
The Sellers can offer the goods c.i.f. Petersburg.
XXI. .
.
We have received your offer of power equipment of the 3rd of November. We
have studied your catalogues and price-lists. We are afraid that your prices are too
high and they are not acceptable to us. We know that your equipment is in great
demand now and that you have done well lately. But we have some offers of power
equipment from other firms too, and their prices are not very high.
However we are interested in your equipment and we would like to discuss
the matter with you.
Please, let us know your answer by fax.
however ; a matter ,
XXII. :
1. A French firm is interested in buying our goods. A representative of the
firm comes to Moscow and ... 2. On Wednesday the President of Machinoexport
received two foreign businessmen. They ... 3. Last week my brother-in-law came
to Moscow from Vladivostok. Yesterday was Sunday, and we decided to go
sightseeing. We ... 4. Our cars are in great demand in some African ['aefrikan]
countries. The other day Avtoexport...
140

XXIII.
:
1. to be interested, to send an enquiry, to let the firm know, to send catalogues
and price-lists, to go through, to be acceptable;
2. to have talks, to discuss, prices, to ask, to reduce, to accept, an offer;
3. to offer, to be in great demand, c.i.f.Petersburg, to be acceptable, to require,
to ship;
4. to come to Moscow, representative, to have talks, to go sightseeing, to go
to the Art Theatre, the Tretyakov Gallery, the Kremlin.
XXIV. :
1.
. ,
. 2. - ,
. ,
.
3. . ,
, .
. 4. - , .
, .
.
XXV. :
1. An enquiry. 2. An offer. 3. An appointment. 4. A business talk.

LESSON SEVEN

THE SEVENTH LESSON

Grammar: 1. (Simple Future).


2.
.

Revision: 1. .
2. .

GRAMMAR NOTES
I. (The Simple Future Tense)

shall [fael, Jsl, J1] will [wil]
to.
Shall 1- . . will
.
I shall work next Sunday.
.
will come to see me tomorrow. .
shall will
,
that, \ :
141

11 [ail] shell 11] youll [jul]


youll [jul] itll [itl] theyll [deil]
hell [hil] well [wil] thatll [Qaetl]
Well discuss the contract tomorrow. .
Hell bring you the book in the ,
evening.

not, shall will.
1 shall not go to the cinema today. .
She will not phone me tomorrow. .
:
shant [ 'Ja:nt], wont [ 'wount],
I shant go to the factory on Tuesday. .
The children wont go to school in
summer. .

shall will,
to.
Will you go to the office tomorrow? ?

.
What film will you see tonight?
?
When will you be in? ?

, . . (who, what, whose,
which of)
.
Who will have a holiday in June? ?
Which of you will go to the Crimea? ?
yes ,
, ,
shall will .
Will he go to the theatre with you
tonight? ?
Yes, he will. .
Will they go to the country on ?
Sunday?
No, they wont. .

shall will
.
Who will go to the theatre tonight?
?
I shall. .
Whose son will go to school next year?
?
son will. .
142

, shall 1-
. , .
: Do, please
No, you neednt .
Shall I buy tickets for you? ?
Do, please. , .
Shall we translate all the letters? ?
No, yon neednt. , .
there is/are
, ,
. . will.
There will be a new school in our
district next year. .
There will be no new school in our
district next year.
There wont be a new school in our
district next year. .
Will there be a new school in our
district next year? ?
Yes, there will. .
No, there wont. .

, .

.
.
will
, .
I will go to the theatre next Sunday.
.

:
tomorrow
the day after tomorrow
next day
next week
next month
next year
in a day (a week, a fortnight, (, ,
a month, a year) , )
one of these days ( )
some day (time) - ( )
soon [su:n] ,
II.


, ,
143

.
, to go, to come, to leave .
He is coming this week. .
Are you going with ? ?
We are leaving for the Crimea on .
Sunday.
I
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
Simple Future
I.
:
I. The contract will be ready the day after tomorrow. 2 . 1 shall phone you in
half an hour. 3. My friend will have a holiday next July. 4. They will make an
appointment for Tuesday. 5. The prices will be acceptable to us. 6. There will be a
lot of people at the seaside. 7. They will communicate with us by fax soon.
II. no :
Shall I give you an English book to read? Do, please. No, you neednt.'1'
III. :
1. . 2. ,
: . 3.
. . 4.
. 5. . 6.
. 7. . 8.
. . 9. ?
. 10. ?
. 11. ? , . .
12. ? , .
.



IV. :
1. Where are you going on Saturday? 2. Whom are you going there with?
3. Are yon going there early? 4. What time are you going there? 5. When are you
coming back? 6. Is your director leaving for London soon? 7. When is he leaving
for London? 8. When is he coming back?

T ext
RUSSIAS FOREIGN TRADE
Foreign trade is an important part of Russias economy. We have trade relations
with a lot of countries. We are developing a free market economy now in Russia.
We export and import different kinds of goods, such as machines, raw materials,
manufactured goods, high technology equipment, consumer goods and foodstuffs.
Russia concludes trade agreements with foreign countries, and our trade
companies sign contracts for the sale and purchase of goods. Our trade contracts
with foreign countries are growing from year to year.
144

D ia lo g u e
Camp: Hallo, is that Machinoexport?
Secretory: Yes. Who is that speaking, please2?
Camp: This is Camp of Roberts and Co. Id like to speak to Mr.
Bunin.
Secretary: Just a moment. Ill put you through.
Camp: Thank you.
Bunin: Bunin speaking3.
Camp: Good afternoon, Mr. Bunin. Ive received the final reply from
our firm through Internet. We accept your offer but Id like
to clear up some points in advance. When shall we meet?
Bunin: Ill be glad to see you any time tomorrow.
Camp: Will the contract be ready by that time?
Bunin: Yes, certainly it will.
Camp: Very good. You see, Im leaving for London on the 15th of
April.
Bunin: I believe thatll be next Sunday.
Camp: Yes, quite so4.
Bunin: I think weve done good business, Mr. Camp. Will you join
me for dinner on Saturday5?
Camp: Yes, with pleasure6.
Bunin: Ill call for you at the hotel at about six then.
Camp: Thank you. Good-bye, Mr. Bunin.
Bunin: Good-bye.

COMMENTARY
1. Russias foreign trade .
(
.)
2. Who is that speaking, please? ? (
.)
3. Bunin speaking. . (
.)
4. Quite so , . (
. I believe you are interested in
Model 53. , 53. Quite so.
.)
5. Will yon join me for dinner on Saturday?
?
6. With pleasure. .


-
.
a talk to talk
a plan to plan
help to help
a place to place ,
145

VOCABULARY NOTES
Russia
relation [ri 'leifn] n
trade relations
business relations
important |im'po:tant]
part n
economy [i 'konomi] n
to develop [di 'velsp j v ,
We develop trade contacts
with different countries. ,
from year to year
Our trade contacts with different
countries are developing from year
to year. .
free adj
market [ 'ma:kat]
to export [iks 'po:t] v
Russia exports different goods to
many countries of the world. .
exporter [iks'po:ta] n
to import [im'po:t] v
What goods does your office import
from England? ?
importer [im '] n
kind [kaind] n , ,
kind of
.
What kind of book is this? ? (
?)
Its an interesting book. .
What kind of films do you like? ?
such as ()
We do business with many countries
of the world such as England, France , ,
and other countries. .
machine [ma'jKn] n
raw materials [': ma'tiarialz] pi
Our office exports a lot of raw
materials. ,
manufactured goods
fmaenju 'faektjbdl pi
high [hai] adj
technology [tek'nobd3i] n
consumer goods [ \sju:mo| pi
foodstuffs pi
food n
146

to conclude v (, )
We have concluded a lot of contracts
lately. ,
agreement [a'grrm entj n ,
to sign [sain] v
sale n
a contract for the sale
purchase ['paitjbs] n ,
contact [ 'kontaskt] n ,
trade contacts
to grow (grew, grown)
from year to year
to put through
Can you put me through to Mr. -
Lomax? ?
final [ 'fainol] adj
reply [ri'plai] n
When can you give us your final
reply? ?
Internet n
a reply through Internet
in advance [ad -va:ns]
to clear up [ 'kliar '] v ,
point n ,
What points would you like to clear
up? ?
by prep ( )
I can be ready by 3 oclock. 3 ,
to leave (left, left) v ,
to leave Moscow for Kiev
Peter has left Moscow for Petersburg. .
When are you leaving for London? ?
to join v
to join , , .
Im going to the cinema now. Would .
you like to join me? ?
to call for v -., -.
I can call for you in the evening, ' ,
hotel [hou'tel] n
Will you be still at the hotel at 10
oclock in the morning? 10 ?
about adv ,
Ill phone you at about 10 oclock, 10 ,
the day after tomorrow
in prep ( )
She is coming back in a week, ,
one of these days (
)
147

some day (time) - ( )


Ill tell you about it some time. -
.
soon adv ,

II
GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY EXERCISES
I. :
I. Russia is developing ... from year to year. 2. Russia will conclude a lot of
agreements.... 3. Wed like to clear up .... 4. Our office will sign a new contract
.... 5.... is leaving Moscow tomorrow. 6. Our office will sell foodstuffs t o .... 7. We
are going to export... to Great Britain. 8. They will buy manufactured goods from
.... 9. We shall bu y ... goods from France. 10. Our buyers require ... next June.
II. , :
Bond: Good morning, Mr. Bunin.
Bunin: Oh, good morning, Mr. Bond. It (to be) a surprise to see you here.
When you (to come) to Moscow?
Bond: On Friday. I (to be) in Moscow for three days. I (to come) here to
do some business with you, Mr. Bunin. We (to be going) to buy a
lot of foodstuffs from you.
Bunin: Very glad to hear it. Lets make an appointment for Tuesday then.
Can yon come at 11 oclock?
Bond: Certainly. I (to be) at your office just in time.
1. When you (to leave) for Petersburg? Next Wednesday, (to buy) you a ticket
yet? Not yet. I (to be going) to do it tomorrow. 2. Russia (to conclude) a lot of
trade agreements this year. 3. Tomorrow we (to be going) to sign a contract for
raw materials with a German firm. We not (to do) any business with the firm
since 1960. 4. When the goods (to be ready) for shipment? I (to believe) they (to
be ready) for shipment next month.
III. , :
1.... Russia exports... machines,... raw materials,... equipment t o ... different
countries o f ... world. 2. France and England import ... raw materials from ...
Russia. 3. Mister Serov is ... President of Machinoexport. 4. ... President of
Machinoimport is out now, he11be in in half... hour. 5. Are all... necessary materials
fo r... talks ready? Yes, they are. Ill call for them i n ... quarter of... hour. 6 .1 think
he has cleared up a ll... points and we can sign ... contract tomorrow. 7. Can you
join me for ... dinner on Sunday? Yes, with ... pleasure. 8. Every year ... Russia
concludes trade agreements w ith... different countries. 9. When are you going to
give them ... reply? I believe I can let them know ... reply ... Internet... day after
tomorrow. 10. Im afraid ... price of... foodstuffs is not acceptable to us. 11. We
shall sign ... contract fo r... sale of gas... next week.
IV. , :
1. We are interested ... having business relations ... all the countries ... the
world. 2. Russia exports different kinds ... goods ... very many countries ... the
basis... trade agreements... them. 3. Last year we bought some machines... foreign
firms ... acceptable prices. 4. Please, phone Mr. Gray and tell him that Im going
to call... h im ... his hotel... a quarter... an hour. 5. Id like to speak... the director
148

... the office. Can you put me...? Yes, please. 6. Do you know that Mister Pavlov is
leaving... London one ... these days? Hell have talks... one ... the firms and sign a
contract ... purchase ... electronic equipment. 7. The secretary has just told me
that the British businessmen are going to contact us. Theyd like to clear... some
points ... the contract. What time shall we make an appointment ... them ...? I
think ... ten o clock. Please, tell the secretary to let them know ... it to-day ...
Internet. 8. It is very' convenient to buy tickets... the theatre ...advance.
V. :
1. We havent signed contracts with Barton &. Co. since ... (to do business
with them last year). 2. (not to contact)... since their representative left Moscow.
3. We usually contact our Buyers when... (to receive their enquiries). 4. Our director
says... (to clear u p ... tomorrow). 5 .1hops... (not to leave fo r... next week). 6. Im
afraid ... (not to give our final answer tomorrow). 7. Do the Buyers know when ...
(to ship the goods)? 8. Let us know what goods... (to require). 9. We are afraid ...
(not to join you in half an hour). 10. When I phoned my director, h e ... (to discuss).
VI. , :
1. . 2.
. 3. . 4.
. 5. . 6.
. 7. , .
1. . 2.

. 3. .
4. , . 5.
. 6.
. 7.
. 8.
.
VII.
, Yes, quite so, Id o n t think so:
1. Ive heard your office has done good business lately. 2. Im afraid your prices
are very high. 3. Mr. Petrov says you have cleared up all the points of the contract.
4. Weve heard that Wilson & Co. export manufactured goods. 5 .1 hope your office
has made a lot of contracts lately. 6. Im afraid we shall not sell our goods at these
prices. 7. Im afraid they wont join us for dinner. 8. I hope our terms of delivery
are acceptable to you.
VIII. :
1. , ,
. 2.
"' . 3. ,
. 4.
? , . 5.
" ?
6. , ? 9.
? 10.
.
149

III
SPEECH EXERCISES
IX. .
X.
:
1. Does Russia have trade relations with a lot of countries of the world? 2. With
how many countries does our country have trade relations? 3. What goods does
our country export to these countries? 4. What goods does Russia import from
these countries? 5. Has Russia concluded any trade agreements lately?
1. With what countries has your office signed contracts lately? 2 What kind of
goods are you going to sell them? 3. On what terms are you going to sell them
these goods? 4. Do you usually sell your goods on c.i.f. terms? 5. On what terms do
you usually buy goods?
1. Who is going to receive foreign businessmen this week? 2. Have you made
an appointment with them? 3. What day have you made the appointment for?
4. Are you going to clear up some points with them? 5. What points are you going
to clear up with them?
1. What Russian goods are in great demand? 2. Do we receive a lot of enquiries
for these goods? 3. From what countries have we lately received enquiries for our
goods? 4. How many goods do they require? 5. On what terms are you going to
offer your goods? 6. Are your terms of payment and delivery acceptable to them?
XI. :
GERM ANYS EXPORTS AND IMPORTS
Germany is an industrial country. It is a big exporter and importer of different
goods. Germany does business with a lot of countries of the world. Her trade
contacts are developing from year to year. The goods of Germany are in great
demand. Every year her firms receive a lot of enquiries for their goods from different
countries of the world. They export manufactured goods, machines, cars, high
technology equipment, shoes and other goods and import raw materials, fruit and
foodstuffs. Now Germany has trade contacts with a lot of countries and foreign
trade helps her to have good profits.
industrial [in' dxstrial ] ; shoes [su:z] , ;
fruit [fru:t] ; profit [ 'profit] ,
XII.
:
1. to develop, different kinds of goods, to export, to import, trade relations, to
conclude agreements;
2. to discuss an offer, acceptable, a final reply, to clear up, to do business, to
leave;
3. to phone, to make an appointment, to meet foreign businessmen, to discuss,
terms, acceptable, to sign a contract.
XIII. :
1. - . ,

.
150

2. ,
. ,
.
3. ,
. ,
. .
4. , ,
,
-. ,
.
XIV. :
1. Russias foreign trade. 2. Making an appointment. 3. Making a contract.

LESSON EIGHT

THE EIGHTH LESSON

Grammar: 1. (Past Perfect).


2. (Sequence of Tenses).
3. (Future in the
Past).
4. .

Revision: 1. .
2. to say, to speak, to tell.

GRAMMAR NOTES
I. (The Past Perfect Tense)
,
.

to have II
.
had + Participle II
We had received the catalogues by 5
5 oclock yesterday. .


(Present Perfect).
We had not received the catalogues
by 5 oclock yesterday. 5 .
Had you received the catalogues by 5
5 oclock yesterday? ?
Yes, we had. .
151

No, we hadnt. .
Who had received the catalogues by 5
5 oclock yesterday? ?
:
1. ,
. :
)
The director had finished the talks ,
when I came up to him (by the time (
I came up to him). , ).
) (, , ..)
by
The firm had shipped the goods
by the 1st of October. 1 .
2.
, , .
I was walking along the street when a young man came up to me. He was one
of my school friends. I hadnt seen him for a long time. We were glad to see each
other. , - .
. .
.
:
, ,
(Simple Past).
When 1 came in, I put my bag on the ,
desk and sat down. .I.

II.

,
.
,
,
.
I know that my friend usually comes ,
home early on Friday. .
I know that my friend came home ,
very late last night. .
I know that he will come home at 6 ,
oclock tomorrow. 6 .
, :
) ,
, (
).
I didnt know that his friend spoke ,
English well. -.
152

. must
,
.
I knew that we must go through the ,
new price-list. .
may .
didnt know that I could skate well. ,
( ) .
I didnt know you might smoke here. , (
) .
) ,
, (Past Perfect).
I heard that my friend had gone on ,
business. .
,
, ,
(Future in the Past).
III.
(Future in the Past)
should [fud] 1- . . would
[wud]
to.
should infinitive
would to

,
.
I knew that my friend would go to a holiday home soon. ,
.
I knew that I should have a lesson the next day. ,
.
that he worked at
our factory, ,
that he had worked ,
I knew ,
at our factory, ,
that he would work
at our factory. .

. Id like to...
.
Id like to know when he will come. ,
.
IV.
,
.
153

though [], although [:1 ']


.
Though I had tickets I couldnt go to ,
the theatre. .

I
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
The Past Perfect Tense
I. :
I. We had discussed all the questions when you telephoned us. 2. The director
of our office hadnt yet gone through all the cables and telexes when the secretary
brought him some letters from foreign firms. 3. Mr. Kotov had left Omsk before I
came there. 4. After they had had dinner they went for a short walk. 5. The firm
had shipped the goods by the 20th of December. 6 . 1 was in the Crimea last year.
I had never been there before. 7. Yesterday I met Mr. Petrov. I hadnt seen him
since we left school.
II. :
1. They went for a walk after ... 2. Before I went through the m a il... 3. The
.
firm signed a contract with us after ... 4 Before we let the firm know our answer
we ... 5. When I came back from the lesson the director of the office ... 6. Before
we made an appointment with the businessmen we ... 7. The sellers accepted our
terms after... 8. Before we contacted the firm we ... 9. We shipped the goods after
... 10. Before we discussed the price for the goods we ...
III. :
1. , ?
2. , . 3.
10 . 4. ,
. 5. ,
. 6. , . 7.
, . 8.
.
. . 9.
. .
.


IV. :
1. The secretary said that the British businessmen had come to meet the
president. 2. She said that the President was going through the mail. 3. The director
of the office let us know that we must be ready for the talks with British
businessmen. 4 .1 didnt hear that you had made an appointment with the firm for
10 oclock. 5. I thought that they would clear up some points in the firms offer
during the talks. 6. In a letter to my friend I wrote that I was very sorry he couldnt
come to Moscow for a holiday. 7. My sister let me know that she was going to
leave for Petersburg soon.
154

V. :
1. We knew th a t... 2. They were afraid th a t... 3. Mr. Orlov asked the secretary
when ... 4. She didn't tell us where ... 5. The representative of the firm said th a t...
6. They wrote when ... 7 .1 thought th at... 8. He believed th at... 9. We were glad that
... 10. The other day I read th a t... 11. We hoped th at... 12.1 didnt know w ho...
VI. :
1. , . 2. ,
. 3. ,
. 4. ,
. 5. ,
. 6. ,
. 7. ,
. 8. ,
. 9. ,
. 10. ,
. 11. ,
. 12. ,
.

T ext
G O IN G ABROAD
Techmachimport got instructions to buy chemical equipment abroad. With
this in view1Mr. Kozlov, President of Techmachimport went on business to Great
Britain to place an order with a British firm.
He phoned the Intourist booking-office to book a seat for a plane to London.
He found out that there were flights daily and that it would take him three and a
half hours to get to London.
Mr. Kozlov booked a seat for the T U -104 jet-liner. The next morning he
had arrived at Sheremetievo airport by seven o clock, an hour before the plane
took off.
After the clerk had registered bis ticket and passport Kozlov filled in a declaration
and went to the waiting-room. There were a few passengers there.
They were all waiting for the announcement to get on the plane. In ten minutes
they heard the announcement, Attention, please. Will passengers for London
join Flight 31?2
When Mr. Kozlov got on the plane, the stewardess showed him his seat.
At eight o clock the plane took off. Although it flew at a high speed3, the
passengers felt well. At 11.30 a.m.4 the plane landed at London airport.

AT TH E CUSTOMS OFFICE
Mr. Kozlov is going through the Customs at London airport.
Customs Official: Is this your suit-case, sir?
Kozlov: Yes, thats right.
Customs Official: Will you, please, open it?
Kozlov: Certainly.
Customs Official: Have you any things to declare?
155

Kozlov: No, I dont think so, though 1 have some cigarettes


for my own use.
Customs Official: How many packets of cigarettes have you got?
Kozlov: Oh. Ive got only three packets. I believe theyll be
duty free.
Customs Official: Yes, of course5. Have you got any presents or any
things liable to duty?
Kozlov: No, I havent.
Customs Official: Well, thank you, sir.
Kozlov: Thank you.

COMMENTARY
1. with this in view
2. Attention, please. Will passengers for London join flight 31? .
, 31.
3. at a high speed
4. at 11.30 .. 11.30
.. = ante meridium 12 12
p.m. = post meridium 12 12
5. Yes, of course [ko:s], , .


-(t)ion [fn]
:
to instruct instruction
to translate translation
to declare declaration

VOCABULARY NOTES
instruction [in'strAkJn] n ,
to give instructions
to get instructions
The director gave us all the necessary
instructions, .
chemical ['kemikl] adj
abroad [ 'bro:d] adv ,
to be abroad
to go abroad
to come from abroad -
I have never been abroad. .
My friends havent come from -
abroad yet. .
to go on business
Some of our engineers are going on
business to France soon, ,
to place an order
156

Techmachimport is placing an order


for chemical equipment with a British
firm. ,
booking-office n ( ,
..)
to book v ()
We usually book tickets for the
theatre in advance, (),
seat [si:t] n ( , ..)
to book a seat ()
I couldnt book seats for a Sunday
performance, ,
plane n
to find out v ,
I must find out where he lives, , .
flight [flait] n 1.
Tell us about your first flight to
London. .
2.
Have you got any tickets for flight 657? 657?
daily adv, adj ,
We receive two newspapers daily.
.
What daily newspapers do you like?
?
it takes... , ( )
It took us two days to do the work, ,
' ,
to get to v ,
It takes me half an hour to get to my ,
office. ,
jet-liner [ 'd3et lains] n ,

to arrive [ 'raiv] v
to arrive in a country ,
to arrive in a city
But: Ho:
to arrive at a village ,
to arrive at a town
The businessmen will arrive in
Moscow tomorrow morning. .
We arrived at the village at 8 oclock. 8 .
The mail hasnt arrived yet. ,
airport ['eapo:t] n
There are some airports in Moscow. .
.
London airport, Vnukovo airport, Sheremetievo airport
157

before conj ,
We had come home before it got dark, ,
.
to take off v 1. ( ),

The plane is taking off in five minutes. 5 .
2. (, ..)
after conj
clerk [kla:k] n ,
to register [ 'red3ista| v
The clerk registered my ticket for ()
the plane. ,
passport [ pa:spo:t] n
to fill in [ 'fil 'in] v (, . .)
to declare [di 'kies] v ,

I have no things to declare. ,
,
declaration [dekla'reijan] n
Ive signed the declaration. .
It is necessary to fill in a declaration
when you go abroad, , ,
to wait [weit] v
Will you wait for me here? ?
waiting-room [ 'weitip rum]
There were a lot of people in the
waiting-room, .
a few [ 'flu:] adj , (

)
I have few friends in Kiev. .
I have a few friends in Moscow.
.
Ill tell you a few words about my
holiday. .
a little adj (
)
There is little bread on the plate. .
There is a little bread on the plate. .
You may take some. .
a little adv
My sister speaks French a little.
-.
passenger [ 'paesindjsl n
announcement [s'naunsmant] n (,
)
to make an announcement
158

The director made an announcement ,


that the talks would begin at 10. 10
.
to get on v ( , ..)
The passengers got on the plane 15 15
minutes before the plane took off. .
to get off v ( , . .)
Are you getting off now? ?
stewardess [ 'stjusdis] n
to show lJou| (showed, shown) v
Will you show me the way to the
airport? ?
although, though [:, dou] conj ,
Although it was cold we went skating . ,
,
to fly (flew [flu:], flown [floun] v
Id like to fly to Petersburg for
holiday. ,
to feel (felt, felt) v
to feel well
to feel bad
to feel fine
I felt well after I had had a walk,
,
to land v
The plane landed at London airport
at 10 oclock. 10 ,
Customs Office = Customs House n
to go through the Customs
All the passengers must go through
the Customs when they go abroad. ,
,
Customs Official [o'fijial]
suit-case [ 'sju:t keis] n
for my own use [ 'oun 'ju:s]
These are things for my own use.
,
packet [ 'paekit] n
a packet of cigarettes
to be duty-free [ 'dju:ti 'fri]

Some goods are not duty-free.
,
present [ 'prezsnt] n
My friends have made me a good
present. .
to be liable to duty [ laiabl]
159

What things are liable to duty?


?
bus [bAS] n
by prep ( )
to go by bus ()
to go by taxi
to come by bus
to go by plane
to get t o ... ftybus ...
Can I get there by bus? ?

II
GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY EXERCISES
I. , :
I. When I (to call for) Pete his mother told me that he not (to come back)
from abroad yet. 2. We were afraid that the goods (not to arrive) yet. 3. When we
(to arrive) at the airport the plane (to take off). 4. When I (to see) that man last
night I (to think) that I (to meet) him before. 5. He told me that they (to wait for)
us outside the Ministry at 5 o clock. 6. Mr. S. said that they (to be going) to place
an order with a French firm. 7. The firm let us know last week that they not (to
ship) the equipment yet. 8. The firm did not accept our offer. They already (to
buy) the goods from another firm. 9. The stewardess said that the plane (to take
off) in 10 minutes. 10. Yesterday our director (to fly) to London on business. He
never (to be) there before.
II. , ,
:
We all know ... name of Chkalov. He was one o f ... best () Russian
flyers. In 1937 Chkalov, Baidukov and Beliakov made ... first nonstop (
) flight: Moscow the North Pole ( ) America. It
took them 63 hours to get to Portland. They flew by AN-25. That w as... very good
plane. Though ... flight was difficult () the flyers felt well. ... people in
America were happy to see ... Russian flyers on their land. They went home by
ship. It w as... large ship. It was going to France. There were ... foreign engineers,
doctors, teachers and businessmen on ... ship. One day... American businessman
came up to Chkalov and asked, Are you rich (), Mr. Chkalov? Yes, I
am, answered Chkalov. Ive got 170 million. Have you got 170 million roubles
or dollars? Ive got 170 million people. A ll... people work for me and I work for
them .
1. When they made ... announcement about ... Flight 52, all ... passengers
went to ... plane. 2.What airport are we going to land at? I believe well land a t ...
Domodedovo airport. 3 . 1 was afraid that they had not received ... fax and would
not come to ... airport to meet me. 4. He said that Mr. P. had gone on business to
... Caucasus. 5. Have you booked ... tickets fo r... theatre? Im sorry, I havent. But
Im going to ... booking-office tonight. 6. Whats ... time? Its 7.45. 7.... time flies
and ... children will soon go to ... school.
160

III. :
A few days ago Mr. Semenov came ... abroad. He had gone ... business ...
Great Britain. He had instructions to place an order ... chemical equipment.
Mr. Semenov came ... Moscow... TU-154. It took him three and a half hours
to get home. He had got ...the plane... London airport... 8 o clock ...the morning.
The plane landed ... Vnukovo airport... half... eleven.
His friends had come to meet him and Mr. Semenov was glad to see them.
It didnt take him long to go ... the Customs. He had no things liable ... duty.
He filled ... a declaration and gave i t ... a Customs Official. The Customs official
ca m e.......Mr. Semenov and asked him to open his suit-case. ... 15 minutes all
the formalities () were...
Mr. Semenov took his suit-case and joined his friends. The car was already
waiting ... them. They got into the car and went home.
Where were you yesterday... 5 and 6 oclock? I phoned you.
Im sorry, I was not ... . I w en t... the Bolshoi Theatre booking-office to
book tickets ... tomorrow.
And what will be ...?
Romeo and Juliette. Ive booked two seats. Will you join me?
Ill be happy to. When and where shall we meet?
Lets m eet... a quarter... six. Ill be waiting ... you outside the theatre.
IV. ,
:
1. When I came into the waiting-room of the airport (all the passengers ... to
w ait...). 2. Before Mr. Sobolev got on the plane (to fill in a declaration). 3. Since
the representative of a British firm arrived in Moscow. (... to place a few orders).
4. We heard (... to feel bad). 5. The secretary told us (... to go on business). 6. We
found out (... to arrive). 7. The passenger asked the Customs Official (... to be
liable to duty). 8. The Customs Official answered (... to be duty free). 9 .1 did not
know (... to go abroad). 10. The engineers said (... to show us the new machines).
V. :
Customs-Office, announcement, to land, airport, to go through the customs,
to arrive, waiting-room, to declare, to fly, from abroad, flight, to feel well, plane.
The other day I went to Sheremetievo ... to meet my friend. He and his wife
were coming back .... When our bus ... at the airport... had not yet landed. It was
frosty outside and I went into the airport ... . There were a lot of people there.
Some of them were waiting for the ... to get on the plane, others had come there to
meet or to see off () their friends.
In 15 minutes the plane .... My friends went to the ... . They had no things to
... and it didnt take them long to .... My friends said they had enjoyed the ... and
although the jet-liner... at a high speed they....
My friend and his wife were very happy to be back.
VI. to say, to speak, to tell
:
1. What did the Customs Official... you to do at the Customs-office? 2. Mr.
N. ... that it had taken him an hour to go through the Customs. 3. My friend ...
two foreign languages. 4. How long did he ...? He ... for half an hour. 5. If you
dont know what things are liable to duty ask the Customs Official about it. He
161

w ill... you. 6. going ... to the President about it. 7. She ... that we must come
to the airport at 7.30. 8. Did you ... to Mr. Camp yesterday? What did he ... about
ourorder?9. Dont ...to him about it now. He feels bad. 10. Do you know w ho...
that?
VII. a little, a few, little, few.
1. Let me think ... before I answer your question. 2. The plane had taken off
and there were ... passengers in the waiting-room. 3. It didnt take me long to go
through the Customs. There were very ... people at the Customs-office at that
time. 4 .1 had very... time last night and watched TV for only... minutes. 5. Weve
seen ... good English films lately. Weve enjoyed them very much. 6. Would you
like much o r... sugar in your tea? 7. Our flat is not very large and there is... furniture
in it. 8. It was cold outside on Sunday evening and we skated very.... 9. The new
jet-liner has made only ... flights abroad. 10. The director of the office had given
u s ... instructions before we began the talks.
VIII. :
1. ,
. 2. ?
. . 3.
,
. 4.
, . 5. ,
. 6.
, ,
. 7.
, .
8. 2
, . 9.
?
. (big) .
10. ,
? , .I

III
SPEECH EXERCISES
IX. .
X. :
1. Mr. Petrov has gone on business. 2. All the passengers enjoyed their flight.
3. My friend went through the Customs at London airport. 4. Our plane landed at
Sheremetievo airport at 11 p.m. 5. He had got instructions before he went abroad.
6. Last night I was at the theatre.
XI. :
Once a sergeant was giving instructions to his soldiers how to jump out of a
plane with a parachute.
A Soldier: What must I do if I find that the parachute doesnt open when I
jump out?
162

Sergeant: Oh, that's all right. You just bring it back and well give you another
one.
a sergeant [ 'sa:d33nt] ; a soldier [ 'sould.p] ;
to jump ; a parachute ['paersjint]
A train arrived at a border station. The passengers opened their suitcases and
waited for the inspection of their things. One of the passengers had a lot of packets
of cigarettes in his suit-case. He knew they were not duty-free and he decided to
put all of them into his pockets. When his pockets were already full of cigarettes
he asked a man at the window, Will you please take some of these packets and
put them into your pockets? Why dont you leave them in your suit-case? asked
the passenger. They must be liable to duty and I wouldn't like to pay duty on
them, answered the man. All right, Ill take the cigarettes but I shall not give
them back to yon. Why? I am a Customs official.
a train ; a boder station ; an inspection ;
a pocket ; full ; why ; to pay
XII. :
1. Mr. Brown arrived in Moscow on business. He flew to Moscow by T U -154.
Mr. Brown felt well during the flight. The plane landed at Sheremetievo airport at
6 p.m. Mr. Petrov came to the airport to meet Mr. Brown. When they were going
from the airport Mt. Petrov asked him about the flight.
2. Mr. Smirnov is going to Paris on business. He telephones the Intourist
booking-office and asks when they have flights to Paris. The clerk says that there
are flights to Paris every other day.
Then Mr. Smirnov books a seat for a plane for Friday and finds out that the
plane takes off at 10 a.m. on Fridays. The clerk asks Mr. Smirnov to be at the
airport at 10 oclock.
every other day
3. When Mr. Krylov came to the Customs House he saw a lot of passengers
there. They were all going through the Customs. The Customs official asked Mr.
Krylov what things liable to duty he had. Mr. Krylov answered that his things
were all duty free. He also said that all the things were for his own use.
XIII. :
Last year I was in Great Britain on business. I made two contracts with the
British firms and in a few days was leaving London. 1 decided to fly to Moscow.
When I arrived at the airport there were a lot of passengers there. They were
flying to different countries of the world.
After I had done some formalities I went to the Customs House ...
to do formalities
Mr. Smith, a British businessman, phoned me yesterday to say that he wanted
to see me. He also said that he had some business points to discuss with me. I
made an appointment with him and in an hour he was in my office. After the
greetings he said ...
a greeting
XIV. ,
:
1. Russia, different countries, to have business relations, representatives, to
go abroad, to place an order, raw materials, manufactured goods;
163

2. to go abroad, by plane, to arrive, an airport, to go through the Customs, to


register, to fill in, a declaration, to declare;
3. to arrive, an airport, in time, to take off, a passenger, to get on, a jet-liner,
to join, a flight;
4. e-mail, to receive, to meet, a friend, to find out, the number of the flight, to
get to, an airport.
XV. :
1. Mr. Brown has arrived in Moscow on business. You have an appointment
with Mr. Brown at the Ministry. Receive Mr. Brown at your office and speak to
him about his flight from London to Moscow.
2. You are going to New Delhi on business. Telephone the Intourist booking-
office and book a seat for a plane.
3. You are in London. Youve got instructions to buy chemical equipment.
Contact Mr. Scott and tell him what points youd like to discuss with him. Make
an appointment with him.
4. Your office is interested in buying computers. Meet a representative of Tailor
and Co. and discuss the prices and the terms of delivery with him.
XVI. :
1. Going abroad. 2. At the Customs House. 3. At the booking-office.

LESSON NINE

THE NINTH LESSON

Grammar: 1. ,
that
what.
2. ,
if whether.
3. .
4. .

Revision: 1. .
2. to say, to speak, to tell.

GRAMMAR NOTES
. , that
what

, what
that,
.
I dont know what he did yesterday. , .
1 know that he did this work ,
yesterday. .
164

1 know he did this work yesterday. ,


.
II. , i f
whether
, that,
, if
whether.
, ,
.
I dont know if he has booked a seat for
the plane.
I dont know whether he has booked ,
a seat for the plane. .
He asked whether Mr. Sokolov would , - -
go on business in August. .
.
, if, whether,
or.
Will you, please, ask the secretary if Mr. Nosov is still in or whether he has gone
to the factory.
, , , -
.
III.
:
.
, ,
, ( -

said, The plane has just taken :
off. ".

(. , 8)

.
said, We are going back to our : "
country. .
said that they were going back to ,
their country. .
He says, I shall come. : .
He says that he will come. , () .
,
:
: :
this/these , , , that/those . , ,
now then
today that dav
165

yesterday the day before


ago before ,
tomorrow the next day
the following day,
['folouirj]
next week the following week

last week the previous week [ 'pri:vjss]

here there
The secretary said, He is flying to The secretary said he was flying to
London tomorrow. London the next day (the following
day).
She said, I felt well last week. She said she had felt well the previous
week.
.
, ,
, here there.
Ten minutes ago he said, I feel bad today. She said, Its warm here. (She is in
the room.)
Ten minutes ago he said he felt bad today. She said it was warm here. (She is still
in the room.)
say,
, ask
.
says, How long will it take you He asks how long it will take me to get
to get to London? to London.
Who has done it? she said. She asked who had done it.

if whether.
says, Have you filled in the He asked if I had filled in the
declaration? declaration.
say ,
,
.
said to me, I have no time. 1. He said to me that he had no time.
2. He told me that he had no time.
,
say
tell, ask, ,
,
.
She said, Give me your pen, Tom. She asked Tom to give her his pen
He said, Open your books. He told as to open our books.
His mother said: Dont open the His mother told us not to open the
window. window.
166

.

.
because [bi'ko:z] as [aez] ,
why [wai] .
I came home late yesterday because ,
we had an English lesson.
.
. because
. as
.
As we had an English lesson yesterday -
I came home late. , .

I
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
, that
what
I. that what.
1. The secretary said ... the President had signed the contract. 2. She asked
me ... film I wanted to see. 3. I told him ... I should wait for him in the waiting-
room. 4 .1told h im ... he must get ready for the talks. 5. The clerk said... the plane
would take off in a quarter of an hour. 6. The Customs official told us ... goods
were duty free. 7 .1 dont know... he had said. 8 .1 heard... he had gone on business.
9. Im sorry I havent heard ... you said just now.
. :
1. , , . 2. ,
. 3.
, . 4. ,
. 5. ,
. 6. , ,
.

, i f
whether
III. ,
.
I. When I met my old friend, I asked him i f ... (to be married). 2. She asked
me whether... (to do well). 3. We did not know if... (to be retired). 4. The passenger
asked the clerk w hether... (to land). 5. The Customs official asked the passenger
whether ... (to declare). 6. They did not know whether ... (to arrive). 7. The
president asked the secretary whether... (to book a seat for a plane). 8 .1 asked the
clerk if... (daily flights). 9. We did not know w hether... (to go on business).
IV. :
1. , . 2. ,
- . 3.
167

, . 4.
,
. 5. ,
. 6. ,
. 7. ,
. 8. ,
.


V. :
:
Teacher: Can you reduce the price for your goods?
Smirnov: No, we cant.
Teacher: What did I ask Mr. Smirnov?
Orlov: You asked Mr. Smirnov if they could reduce their price for the goods.
Teacher: What did Mr. Smirnov answer?
Orlov: He answered that they couldnt.
1. Have you an elder sister? 2. Is your elder brother single? 3. Where do your
parents live now? 4. What instructions has the president given you? 5. What firm
have you placed an order with? 6. Are you going to sign a new contract? 7. When
can you give your final answer to the Buyers? 8. Will you join your friends for
dinner on Sunday? 9. What points must you clear up with the foreign
representative? 10. Does your office sell manufactured goods?
VI. :
1. Ann asked her friend, Please help me to translate the text. 2. The teacher
said to her students, Dont speak Russian at your English lessons. 3. Pete said to
me, Come and see me on Sunday. 4. The mother said to the children, Dont
sunbathe in the afternoon. 5. They asked Nick, Please book tickets for all of
us. 6. The director said to Mr. Sokolov, Dont telephone the factory to-day.
7. Mr. Denisov asked the secretary, Please put me through to Mr. Barton.
8. They said to us, Please, ship the goods before the 1st of December. 9. The
President said, Clear up all these points with Mr. Gray. 10. Mr. Malov said,
Dont make an appointment for Wednesday.
VII. :
,
,

,



.


.

,
.
168

,
.
.
.


VIII. :
1. It took me an hour to get to Vnukovo airport because I went there by bus.
2. The firm didnt reduce their prices because their goods were in demand. 3. I
couldnt speak to the president because he had gone on business. 4. We are going
to send an enquiry to a French firm because we are interested in buying their
goods. 5. As my daughter likes music, she plays the piano every day. 6 . 1 decided
not to go to the theatre yesterday, as the performance wasnt very interesting. 7. Why
did you decide not to go to Petersburg? As I couldnt book a seat for a plane I
decided not to go to Petersburg.
IX. :
1. She decided to spend her holiday at the Baltic seaside because ... 2. Last
night all my family watched TV because ... 3 .1 dont know what new things there
are in his living-room a s ... 4. Id like to go sightseeing to-day because ... 5. He
couldnt telephone you at 2 oclock because... 6. Our bed-room is very light because
... 7. As ..., we decided to walk home. 8. Lets discuss these points now because ...
9. A s..., we shall not buy their equipment. 10. Petrov said it wouldn t take him long
to go through the Customs because ... 11. They havent signed the Contract yet as

X. :
1. Why do we buy high technology equipment? 2. Why do our engineers go on
business abroad? 3. Why must passengers go through the Customs when they go
abroad or come from abroad? 4. Why do we like going to the seaside to spend our
holiday? 5. Why did you decide to learn English? 6. Why do our engineers learn
foreign languages? 7. Why do you sometimes feel bad? 8. Why must we read English
a lot?

Text
AT THE HOTEL
RESERVING A ROOM
The secretary of the Russian Trade Delegation in London telephones the
Tavistock Hotel1to reserve a room for Mr. Kozlov.
Receptionist: Reception-desk. Tavistock Hotel. Good morning.
Secretary: Good morning. This is the Russian Trade Delegation. Wed
like to reserve a room for Mr. Kozlov for three nights2 from
the 20th of October.
Receptionist: Mr. Kozlov. Could you tell me- what accommodation Mr.
Kozlov would like to have?
Secretary: Yes, certainly. A single room with a private bath.
Receptionist: Just a minute. Ill see whether we have the accommodation
available.
Secretary: Thank you.
169

Receptionist: Yes, I can reserve a single room with a bath from the 20th of
October, for three nights.
Secretary: Thank you. Whats the charge?
Receptionist: Eight pounds tenpence4 a night5.
Secretary: Thank you. Good-bye.
Receptionist: Good-bye.

AT THE HOTEL
At about I oclock in the afternoon Mister Kozlov arrived at the Tavistock
Hotel. A hotel-porter took Kozlovs suit-case and showed him to the reception-
desk. Kozlov told the receptionist that the Russian Trade Delegation had reserved
a room in his name6a few days before. The receptionist checked that and said that
they could let him have a nice room on the third floor.7After that the receptionist
gave Mister Kozlov a form and asked him to fill it in.
Mister Kozlov wrote his name, address, nationality and occupation on the
form and gave it back. Then the porter took the key to Kozlovs room and they
went to the lift. In a minute they were on the third floor. The porter unlocked the
door, brought in the suit-case8and asked if that was all. Kozlov thanked him, gave
him a tip and the porter went out. Kozlov unpacked his suit-case and rang the bell
for a chambermaid9because he wanted to have his suit pressed.
Chambermaid: Good afternoon, sir. What can I do for you?
Kozlov: Good afternoon. Could I have my jacket and trousers
pressed?
Chambermaid: Very good, sir. I think I can do it right away.
Kozlov: Thank you. By the way, could I have an extra blanket? Im
afraid Ill be cold at night as the weather is damp to-day.
Chambermaid: Ill attend to it, sir.
Kozlov: Thank you. I wonder if the restaurant is open now.
Chambermaid: Yes, sir. The restaurant serves breakfast from eight to ten,
lunch from twelve to two thirty and dinner from six to eight.
Kozlov: Thank you very much.

COMMENTARY
1. the Tavistock Hotel [' tcevistok| .
.
2 .... for three nights ...
3. Could you tell me ... He ... Could

.
4. eight pounds4 tenpence a night5
a pound ( ).
. 100 ; d.
penny [peni] . , ; pennies . .,
.
[pens] . .,
twopence elevenpence,
twopence [], threepence [ Grepsns]; evro [] ,
.
170

5. eight pounds tenpence a night 8 10 .


,
, ..
works eight tours a day. 8 .
She reads 50 pages a week. 50 .
6 .... in bis name ...
7. ... they could let him have a nice room on the third floor ...
.
8. The porter ... brought in the suit-case. .
9. Kozlov ... rang the bell for a chambermaid. (
), .


un [|
, ,
necessary , unnecessary ,
usually unusually
to pack to unpack
to lock to unlock

VOCABULARY NOTES
to stay v 1. ( ),
They stayed at the Minsk Hotel.
.
2.
I stayed at home on Sunday. .
How long did you stay in Petersburg?
?
to reserve [ri'zaiv] v (, ..)
Its necessary to reserve a room for
Mr. Smith. - .
Tfade Delegation [ ,deli 'geifn]
The TVade Delegation of Russia in
London is in Highgate. .
receptionist [ri'sepjanist] n ,
,
reception-desk [ri'sepjbndesk] n ,

Will you put me through to the , ,
reception-desk? .
accommodation [akoms'deijn] n ; ,

Yesterday we couldnt get any
accommodation at this hotel, .
single room
whether [ 'weds] conj ,

171

Ask him whether he can come to-day. ,


.
available | ' veilabl j adj ,
(
, )
to be available
Mr. S. will be available in an hour. . .
This book is not available. ( ),
charge [tjcrdj] n , ,
Your charge for this room is too
high. .
hotel-porter n ( )
The hotel-porter brought in my .
suit-case.
to show (showed, shown) v , ,
to show ... to a reception-desk ...

to show ... into a room
The secretary showed Mr. Bill into -
the room, .
before adv , ; (
)
He said he had stayed at that hotel ,
a year before, ,
to check v (
-.)
When is the plane to London
taking off? ?
Just a minute. Ill check that .
for you. .
form n
He filled in the form in English, -,
address [o'dres] n
Could you tell me his address, please?
?
nationality [.nsejb'naeliti] n
Whats your nationality? ?
Im Russian (British, German...), (, ),
occupation [.okju'peifn] n ,
Whats your occupation? ?
Im a doctor, ,
key [ki:] n
I cant find the key to my room,
,
lift n
The lift will take you to the seventh
floor. .
172

to lock v ( )
ant. to unlock
to lock a door
a suit-case
a desk
Have you locked the door? ?
if conj
I dont know if they have locked the , ,
door.
tip n
to give a tip
He gave the porter a tip. ,
to pack v
ant. to unpack
to pack I things
I a suit-case
He asked me to unpack my suit-cage.
.
chambermaid [ 'tjeimbsmeid]
because [bi'ko:z] conj
I couldnt come to the office yester ,
day because I felt bad.
.
suit [sju:t] n (, )
to press v ,
to have a thing pressed (
)
I want to have my suit pressed. ,
.
But: :
He pressed his suit. () .
jacket [ 'd^aekit] n
trousers [ 'trauzaz] n
trousers
.
Im afraid the trousers are too long ,
for me. .
right away adv , ,
Ill come right away. ,
extra [ 'ekstrs] adj ,
There is no extra charge for this.
blanket [ 'blaepkit] n
at night adv
Dont close the window. .
Its warm here at night. .
173

as conj
We didnt see the film as there were ,
no tickets at the booking-office when ,
we came there, ,
weather [ 'we6o| n
weather
.
I like walking in good weather. .
The weather was fine in July. .
Whats the weather like to-day? ?
What will the weather be like ?
to-morrow?
damp adj ,
I dont like damp weather, ,
to attend [ 'tend] v -., -
., -.
Ill attend to this work. (
),
to wonder [ 'wAnds] v ,
I wonder who he is. , ?
She wondered whether he was still ,
abroad. .
restaurant ['restarorr)] n
open adj
The restaurant is open till 12 p.m. 12 ,
to serve [saw] v , ( )
lunch n ,
Do you serve lunch now? ?
the following day [ folouip] (
)
the previous week [ prkvias] (
)
why adv
Why didnt you go to the cinema ?
yesterday?I

II
GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY EXERCISES
I. ,
:
1. The secretary wondered i f ... (to arrive by plane). 2. She told us th a t... (to
reserve a room). 3. The receptionist asked me whether... (to reserve a table). 4. He
answered th a t... (to have no accommodation). 5. The porter told me th a t... (to
attend to my suit-case). 6 .1 didnt know w hen... (to serve dinner). 7 .1wonder if...
(to have the key). 8. The chambermaid let me know that ... (to bring an extra
174

blanket). 9. Mr. Teplov told the chambermaid th a t... (to have bis suit pressed). 10.
Im wondering how ... (to fill in a form). 11. Id like to know whether ... (to be
available). 12. We didn't know th a t... (to wait for the plane). 13. The chambermaid
answered me th a t... (to bring my suit).
II. , :
Mr. Zotov of the Russian Trade Delegation (to receive) a fax from Moscow.
It said that Mr. Losev of Machinoimport (to arrive) in London on business the
next day. Mr. Zotov told the secretary that she (must, to reserve) a room for Mr.
Losev at the Imperial Hotel for 5 nights.
Before Mr. Losev (to arrive) in London, the secretary (to reserve) a room his
name at the Imperial Hotel. She also (to phone) the airport and (to find out)
when the jet-liner from Moscow (to arrive).
At 4 p.m. Mr. Zotov (to wait) for Mr. Losev at the airport. Soon he (to hear)
the announcement that the plane (to land). He (to see) Mr. Losev when the
passengers (to get off) the plane. Mr. Zotov (to be) glad to see Mr. Losev in London.
After Mr. Losev (to go) through the Customs, they (to go) to the hotel.
III. , :
... other day Mr. Goodwill, ... representative of Brighton & Co., arrived in
Moscow on business. Mr. Mitin, director of our office, met him at Sheremetievo
Airport and brought him to ... Metropol Hotel.
Mr. Mitin had reserved accommodation for Mr. Goodwill there two days
before. ... hotel-porter met them a t ... door and showed them to reception-desk.
Some people were waiting a t ... desk.
... receptionist gave Mr. Goodwill... form and asked him to write his name,
... address,... nationality and ... ocupation. As Mr. Goodwill knew Russian well it
didnt take him long to fill in ... form. After he had done a l l ... formalities, ...
receptionist gave Mr. Goodwill... key to his room and ... porter showed him into
it. It was ... nice single room on ... second floor. Mr. Goodwill liked ... room very
much and he thanked Mr. Mitin.
They made ... appointment for the next morning and Mr. Mitin le ft... hotel.
IV. , :
1 .1wonder what hotel they are staying.... 2. Mr. A. asked the secretary if she
had reserved accommodation ... him ... the Grand Hotel. 3. Would you like to
have a single room ... a private bath? 4. He said that they would arrive ... London
... Sunday. 5. Will you help me to fill... the form. It is ... French and I dont know
this language. 6. We didnt have the key... our office and couldnt g et.... 7. When
we arrived ... the office Mr. S. had already left. 8. Will you attend ... this inquiry,
please. We received it last week and havent yet sent them our catalogues and price
lists. 9 .1 looked ... my watch. It was half... ten.
V. , to
say, to speak, to tell:
1. , .
2. : . 3. ,
. 4. , . 5. ,
. 6. ,
. 7. , . 8.
, ? 9. .
175

. 10. , . 11.
, .
VI. :
1. Do you always stay at the Metropol Hotel when you come to Moscow?
the secretary asked Mr. Gray. 2. I have a single room with a bath for you, said
the receptionist. 3. I reserved accommodation at the Continental Hotel for you
two days ago, she said to me. 4. Who will attend to my suit-case, please? I
asked. 5. When does the hotel restaurant serve dinner? Mr. N. asked. 6. Will
you get accommodation at that hotel next week? she asked me. 7. Whom must
I phone to have my suit pressed? he asked the porter.
VII. :
1. , ? ,
-.
. 2.
2 . 3. ,
. 4. ,
5-
. 5. , ? 6.
, . 7.
, . 8.
.I

III
SPEECH EXERCISES
VIII. .
IX. :
1. went to another hotel. 2. Mr. Cook was not available at two oclock.
3. My wife couldnt unlock the door. 4. They decided not to pack the things to
day. 5. Mr. Wood is staying at the Metropol Hotel. 6. A hotel-porter took our
suit-cases and showed us to our room. 7. Last year I couldnt get accommodation
in Sochi.
X. :
AT A HOTEL
(Mr. Fields, speaking to a receptionist)
I should like a room for a week.
Single or double?
Single, please.
Have you reserved a room?
I wrote you from New York last week.
Whats your name, please?
Fields.
Yes, we received your letter, Mr. Fields. We have reserved a room for you.
I wonder if there is a private bath in this room.
Yes, this room has a private bath.
Is it an inside room or an outside room?
176

Its an outside room on the eighth floor room 816.


And what is the charge?
Eleven dollars a night.
I believe this room is quiet. I dont sleep too well.
Yes, this room is very quiet as it is on the eighth floor, you dont hear much
street noise. How long are you planning to stay, Mr. Fields?
For a week.
And are you here on business, Mr. Fields?
Its partly business and partly pleasure. Ive never been to Washington before
and Id like to see the city.
I hope youll like it here.
I hope so too.
double room ; inside room ,
; outside room , ; quiet ;
to sleep (slept, slept) ; street noise ; partly
XI. :
Once a businessman arrived in Paris. He stayed at a hotel and as soon as he
had done all the formalities there he went for a walk. He asked the receptionist to
tell him the way to the post-office because he wanted to send a telegram to his
wife. He wrote that he had come to Paris. He also let his wife know the address
and the name of his hotel.
As it was his first visit to Paris he enjoyed looking at its streets and squares,
visited a museum or two and then went to a small restaurant to have lunch. In the
evening he went to the theatre. After the performance was over he called a taxi to
go back to the hotel, but he couldnt remember the name or the address of his
hotel. So h e ...
once [wxns] ; to visit [ 'vizit] ; a post-office [poust]
; a museum [mjui'ziam] ; a square [skwca] ; to remember
[ri'membs]
XII. :
Three young men arrived in New York for a holiday. They had reserved a
room at a big hotel for two nights. When they came to the hotel the receptionist
told them that they could have a nice room on the 45th floor.
He gave them the key to their room after they hid filled in the forms. The
porter showed them to the lift.
In the evening the three men went to the theatre. The theatre was a long way
from the hotel and they came back very late.
Im sorry, Said the hotel clerk, but our lifts dont work to-night. We can
make beds for you in the hall.
No, thank you, answered one of the young men. "Well go up to our room.
Then he turned to his friends and said, On our way to the room Ill tell you
some jokes, then you, Andy, will sing some songs; then you, Peter, will tell us some
sad stories. So the time will fly fast.
So they began to walk up. Tom told them a few jokes. Andy sang some songs.
At last they came to the thirty-fourth floor.
Now, Peter, its your turn to tell us a long sad story
Oh, I have a very sad story to tell you. It isnt long, but its very sad. Weve left
the key to our room in the hall.
177

to turn (to) -.; a joke [] ; to sing (sang, sung)


; a song ; sad ; ; a story [ 'storriJ ,
; fast [fa:st] ; a turn ; a hall [ho:l] ,
XIII. :
1. Comrade Belov got instructions to go to London on business. He went to
the booking-office to book a seat for a plane. He found out that the plane would
take off at 11 a.m. and land in London at 2 p.m.
2. Mr. Belov arrived at the hotel. The receptionist could let him have a room
on the 6th floor. Then he asked Mr. Belov to write down his name, address,
nationality and occupation. After that the receptionist gave Mr. Belov the key to
his room and the porter showed him to his room.
3. Mr. Belov rang the bell for a chambermaid. The chambermaid asked him
what she could do for him. Mr. Belov wanted to have his jacket and trousers pressed.
She told him she could do it right away. Mr. Belov wanted to have an extra pillow
and the chambermaid said she would attend to it.
a pillow [ 'pilou]
XIV. :
1. You are in London. Telephone one of the London hotels and reserve
accommodation for Mr. Somov, an engineer of Avtoexport. Mr. Somov is coming
to London on business and is going to stay there for 10 days.
2. You have an appointment with Mr. Green for tomorrow. But you havent
cleared up all the points with your people yet. Telephone Mr. Green and make an
appointment with him for some other day.
3. Your office has received an enquiry for boilers from a British firm. Meet
Mr. Butler, a representative of the firm, at your office and find out how many
boilers they are going to buy. Discuss the terms and the time of delivery.
XV. :
1. stay at a hotel. 2. Reserving a room at a hotel. 3. Moscow hotels.

LESSON TEN

THE TENTH LESSON

Grammar: 1. : to be able
to, to have to.
2. to rain, to snow.
3. a s ... as, not s o ... as (not a s ... as).

Revision: 1. .
2. there is/are.
3. lets.

GRAMMAR NOTES
I. : to be able to, to have to
1. To be able to can.
178


.
can to be able to.
.
Simple Present:
I can discuss this question now.
.
Simple Past:
I could skate well when I was a boy.
, .
Simple Future:
I shall be able to discuss this question
tomorrow. .
Will you be able to join us?
?
We shall not be able to sign this
contract tomorrow.
2. have to must.
must .

to have to. ,
- ,
, , , ,
.
Simple Past:
I had to send another letter to the ( )
Buyers because they had not answered -
the first one. ,
.
Simple Future:
I shall have to read this text again ( ) -
because it is difficult. ,
.
.
to have to, ,
do.
Did you have to go on business last -
month? ?
I did not have to get up early yesterday.
.
II. to rain to snow
to rain to snow ,
it.

.
It often rains in autumn. .
179

It snowed yesterday. .
Did it rain yesterday? ?
It doesnt often snow in Moscow
in October. .
Is it snowing now? ?
I think it wont rain today. , .
III. a s ... as, not so ... as (not a s ... as)
as ... as
.
This film is as interesting as that one. ,
.
speaks English as well as his friend. -
, .
not so ... as (not as ... as) ,

.
Now it is not so cold as it was yesterday. , .
I do not get up so early now as last year. ,
.
I
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
: to be able to, to have to
I. no ,
:
I. Well be able to book seats for a performance in advance.
to leave for the Caucasus, to join you for dinner, to call for you tonight, to
check the prices right away, to buy goods at these prices.
2 .1 had to stay in London for another day.
to take off my jacket, to go through the mail, to get the materials ready, to
send the price-lists.
3. Did yon have to translate the letters into Russian?
to find out the address, to buy another suit-case, to make another appointment,
to reduce the price.
4. He didnt have to take a taxi to get to the airport.
to wait fo r... long, to fill in any form, to phone the secretary, to get any other
instructions.
II. :
1. will be able to reserve a room at the Ukraina Hotel (3). 2. We had to
learn 40 new English words last week (4). 3. Mr. Moiseev will have to leave for the
town of Nikolaev on the 4th of January (3). 4. Yesterday my friend bad to come to
his office early as he had a lot of work to do (5). 5. You will have to clear up all these
points with the representative of the firm (3).
III. :
1. ,
. 2. , ,
180
. 3. ,
. 4. ,
, . 5.
. , . 6.
, 10 . 7. ,
645, , . 8.
(to take a lift),
12- . .
to rain to snow
IV. :
1. It often rained in Moscow last summer (2). 2. It was raining when we went
out yesterday (1). 3. It never snows in these countries (2). 4. It snowed all day long
yesterday (1). 5. It began raining early in the morning (1). 6. The day before yesterday
it rained heavily (1). 7. When it stopped raining, we went home (1). 8. It stopped
snowing at 3 oclock (1).
V. , :
1. In what months it often (to snow) in Moscow? 2. (to rain) it often in October
in Moscow? 3. When we arrived at the airport it (to rain) heavily, and we couldnt
leave the car for ten minutes. 4. It (to begin) snowing about 3 hours ago, and it
still (to snow). 5. (to rain) it when you left the Ministry yesterday? Yes, very heavily.
And it still (to rain) when I got home. 6. When we went out, it (to stop) raining
and the weather was wonderful. 7. It (to stop) raining, and the sun is already
shining. Lets go for a walk. 8. By 12 oclock it (to stop) raining, and we went to the
beach.
VI. ,
:
1. ? ,
. 2. .
, . 3.
, ? 4.
? 5. . .
, . 6. ,
? .
as ... as, not so ...a s
VII. , as ... as, not so ... as
(not a s... as):
1. Moscow, Orel (large). 2. The living-room, the bedroom (light). 3. The
weather in Moscow, the weather in Sochi (hot). 4. This book, that book
(interesting). 5. Our prices, their prices (high). 6. This machine, that machine
(good). 7. Lesson 9, lesson 10 (short). 8. Exercise 10. exercise 12 (long).
VIII. :
1. , .
, . 2.
, ? . 3.
, ? ,
. 4. , ?
181

, 9 . 5. -
, -? ,
.

Text
A BUSINESS APPOINTM EN T
Techmachimport has done a lot of business with Goodman & Co. for the last
few years.1Before Mr. Kozlov went to London, he and his experts had gone through
the latest catalogues2of the firm. They found that compressors Model AC-30 could
meet the requirements of their customers.
When Mr. Kozlov arrived in London, he phoned the Russian Trade Delegation
and asked Mr. Zotov to make an appointment with Mr. Lipman of Goodman &
Company.

M AKING AN APPOINTM ENT


Zotov: RussianTrade Delegation here. Good morning.
Secretary: Good morning.
Zotov: I wonder if Mr. Lipman is available.
Secretary: Yes, he is. Hold on, please.3 Ill put you through.
Lipman: Lipman is speaking.
Zotov: Good morning, Mr. Lipman. Zotov speaking. Im glad Ive
got you on the phone. 1 hope you are well.
Lipman: Yes, thank you. And how are you getting on?4
Zotov: Quite all right, thank you. The fact is Mr. Kozlov, President
of Techmachimport has come to London5to-day. Hed like
to talk to you.
Lipman: Ill be glad to see Mr. Kozlov. We havent met since my last
visit to Moscow. I wonder if he will be able to come and see
me this afternoon.
Zotov: Im afraid this time wont be quite convenient to him. Could
you give an alternative date, please?
Lipman: Yes, certainly. Tomorrow morning then.
Zotov: Very good. Ill pass it on to Mr. Kozlov. Good-bye.
Lipman: Good-bye.

A BUSINESS TALK
Kozlov: Good morning, Mr. Lipman.
Lipman: Oh, Mr. Kozlov, good morning. Glad to see you in London. I hope
youll enjoy your stay in this country.
Kozlov: I hope so too. What fine weather you are having now!6
Lipman: Yes. Its wonderful to-day. But the weather is very changeable in
London. It rained heavily only yesterday morning. And whats the
weather like in Moscow?
Kozlov: It isnt so fine as it is here. It was snowing when I left Moscow.
Lipman: Oh, was it!7
Kozlov: Well, Mr. Lipman, Id like to have a word with you about our order
for compressors. Weve gone through your latest catalogues.
182

Lipman: I believe youve noticed weve improved our Model AC-30.


Kozlov: Quite so. It is very important to us. Now this model meets the
requirements of our customers.
Lipman: Glad to hear that.
Kozlov: We are going to place an order with you for 50 compressors but the
fact is we usually buy your goods on c.i.f. terms but now wed like to
buy them on f.o.b. terms.
Lipman: Will you take part deliveries in that case?
Kozlov: Thatll suit us all right.
Lipman: By the way. Mr. Kozlov, well be able to let you have our quotation
in two or three days only.
Kozlov: Thats very good because Ill have to leave for Edinburgh8and shant
be back until next Monday.
Lipman: Then well send our quotation to your office.
Kozlov: All right. Good-bye.
Lipman: Good-bye.

COMMENTARY
1. For the last few years ; for the last few weeks
. Ive not seen my friend for the last few days.
.
2. The latest catalogues ().
latest late.
3. Hold on, please. He .
4.... how are you getting on? ... ?
5. Mr. Kozlov, President of Techmachimport, has come to London. -
, , .
president .
:
) , . Mr.
Semenov, director of our office, is not available now.
, , .
) ,
.
Mr. Petrov, an engineer of our office, has gone abroad. - ,
, .
) ,
. Sholokhov, the well-known Russian writer,
has written wonderful books. ,
, .
6. What fine weather you are having now! !
, . .
.
How wonderful the film is! !
How early youve come! !
7. It was snowing when I left Moscow. ,
.
Oh, was it? ?
183


, oh,
, -,
, ,
, . going to Moscow soon.
. Oh, are you??
8. Edinburgh [ edinbare] ( ).

VOCABULARY NOTES
expert | 'ekspo:t| n ,
a chemical expert
The experts of our office discussed a
contract for boilers yesterday, ,
compressor ['press] n
to meet requirements [ri 'kwaiamants] -.

Your goods meet our requirements.
.
customer [ 'kxstama] n , ,
Our customers require power
equipment. ,
to g et... on the phone -.
Im afraid you wont get him on the ,
phone at 10 oclock. 10 .
fact n
The fact is ... , ...
syn. The point is ...
The fact is we require the goods in ,
August. .
to talk [to:k] v ,
Lets talk to him about it tomorrow,
.
to visit v
We are going to visit our friends
to-night. ,
visit n ,
He told us about his visit to a plant,
.
date n ,
What is the date today? ?
It is the 5th of October, 5 ,
alternative [o:l 'tamativ] adj -.
Could you give an alternative date?
?
to pass ... on to ... -. -.
Mr. Zotov cant meet Mr. Sharp -
to-day. Will you pass it on to - .
Mr. Sharp? , .
184

to enjoy [in 'djoi] v ,


to enjoy ,
.
We enjoyed the film yesterday. -
.
1 always enjoy swimming in the sea.
. (
.)
stay n
I visited a few factories during my
stay in Kiev. ,
changeable adj ,
changeable weather
The weather is very changeable in
Great Britain. .
rain v ( )
Does it often rain in Petersburg in
spring? ?
Yes, it does, - .
rain n
We enjoyed sunshine after the rain.
.
heavily ['hevili] adv
Its raining heavily now. ,
snow V ( )
Its not snowing now. .
stop V (), ()
He stopped the car. .
We stopped to speak to our friends. , -
.
But: :
Stop talking, please. ,
.
It has stopped raining. .
It began raining at 5 oclock, 5 ,
to have a word ( -.)
Can I have a word with you about
the contract? ?
order v
We are going to order chemical
equipment from a British firm.
.
notice [ 'noutis] v
I havent noticed their cable. ,
improve [im' pru.v] v ) )
185

We have improved Model DC. .


The weather has improved for the last
few days. .
to take part deliveries
.
Our office got instructions from the
President to take part deliveries.
.
deliver v
We can deliver the machines in
December. .
in this (that) case ()
I believe youll reduce your price. In , .
this case well order 500 machines. 500
.
suit [sju:t] v ,
Im sorry the delivery dates do not ,
suit us. .
quotation [kwou'teifn] n , ,

We have received a quotation of the
goods from a British firm, ,
until prep
Well stay here until Tuesday, ,
to be able
Well be able to ship the goods in
August. .
to have to
must
Well have to stay at home as it is ,
raining heavily, ,
a s ... as ... , ...
He knows English as well as his
brother. , .
This magazine is as interesting as ,
that one. .
not so ... as (not as ... as) ... , ...
Text 10 is not so short as text 1. 10- ,
1-.
Ill stay in Edinburgh not so long as
in London, , ,
to be right
The film Hamlet is very interes
ting. .
Yes, you are right, its wonderful. , ,
.
186

II
GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY EXERCISES
I.
: a) -merit, -tion; b) -er, -or:
a) to require to agree b) to sell
to declare to appoint to buy
to instruct to equip to export
to ship to announce to import
to reserve to quote to teach
to translate
II.
-1:
warm, cold, certain, happy, necessary, wonderful, unusual, unhappy,
beautiful, usual, nice.
III. :
There was an exhibition () of Russian equipment in London last
summer. Before the exhibition (to open) a lot of Russian plants (to send) their
latest models to London and Russian experts (to arrive) to contact British
businessmen. Representatives of different companies (to visit) the exhibition.
Mr. Bent of Stevens & Co. (to be) interested in excavators ().
He said his company (to do) business with Machinoexport before and Russian
equipment always (to meet) their requirements.
The firm Stevens & Co. (to be going) to order excavators. After the Russian
engineers (to get ready) their quotation, Mr. Bent (to visit) the Russian Trade
Delegation. As the firm (to accept) the prices and the terms of payment, Mr. Bent
(to be going) to discuss only the terms of shipment and delivery dates. When the
representatives (to discuss) the order of the firm, Mr. Bent asked if Machinoexport
(to be able) to ship the goods on c.i.f. terms. He also wanted to find out whether
July shipment (to suit) the sellers. The terms (to be) acceptable to the sellers and
the representatives decided to sign the contract the next day.
IV. , , .
Mr. Buck director of Gordon & Co., communicated with us by fax to let us
know that he was flying to Moscow. So on Friday Mr. Belov ... engineer of our
office, went to ... Sheremetievo airport to meet him. That day... weather was very
bad in Moscow. It was raining heavily all day long, and Belov was afraid that ...
plane would not land i n ... bad weather. But it w as... TU-154 and it safely (
) landed. When Mr. Buck had gone through ... Customs they went to ...
National Hotel as Mr. Belov had already reserved ... single room for him there.
...next day Mr. Buck came to ... Ministry and we had ... talk with him.
V. :
The British firm Bent and Co wanted to buy a few excavators. They were
interested ... our excavators ... the latest model. Mr. Tomson ... Bent and Co.
arrived ... Moscow to have talks ... the president of Machinoexport. Mr. Tomson
came here ... plane and stayed ... the National Hotel. He phoned the secretary ...
Machinoexport to make an appointment ... Mr Senin. The secretary told him
that Mr. Senin would be glad to meet him any time convenient... him. Mr. Tomson
187

answered that 10 oclock suited h im .... 10 oclock the next morning the secretary
showed him ... the presidents private-room. Mr. Senin was waiting ... him.
Senin: Good morning, Mr. Tomson. Im happy to see you in Moscow.
1 hope youve had a nice flight.
Tomson: Yes, I have, thank you. I enjoyed it very much. It took me only
3 hours to get ... Moscow ... London ... air. How is business, Mr.
Senin?
Senin: Fine, thank you. We've had quite a lot ... business lately. Our
excavators are ... great demand.
Tomson: You see, Mr. Senin, Id like to have a word ... you ... our order ...
excavators. Weve gone ... the catalogue and decided the excavators
met the requirements ... our customers.
Senin: Im glad they do.
Tomson: So, we are going to place an order... you... excavators model AC-10.
But the fact is our customers would like to have the first delivery ...
2 excavators ... September.
Senin: I think we can do that.
Tomson: Very well, then. When will you be able to send us your quotation?
Senin: ... two or three days. Will you phone us, please?
Tomson: Yes, of course, I shall. I hope Ill see you one ... these days.
Senin: Very good.
VI. ,
:
1. ? ,
. , . 2. - ,
. (again). 3.
? . 4. ,
. 5. - ,
. 6. ,
. 7.
2 ? , . .
8. ,
.
VII. it is there is/are
:
1. ... cold outside yesterday. 2. ... few passengers in the waiting-room when
we came there. 3.... late when we came home. 4.... a lot of sunshine in this room.
5.... the latest model of the machine. 6.... loo much furniture in your room. 7....
a lot of snow in Moscow last winter. 8. ...very hot tomorrow? 9.... a very important
appointment. 10. ... no accommodation available.
VIII. :
1. . 2. -
, (machine-tool)
. 3.
, , . 4.
, . - .
5. , ,
188

. 6. ,
? . 7. , ? . 8.
, . 9.
. 50 (machine-
tools).

I ll
SPEECH EXERCISES
IX. .
X. :
1. How do you make appointments with foreign representatives? 2. What do
you usually do to get ready for talks? 3. What do you do when the Sellers goods
dont meet your requirements? 4. In what case do you take part deliveries? 5. What
materials must you go through before you place an order with a foreign firm?
6. What must you do to place an order with a firm? 7. On what terms do you
usually buy goods from foreign firms?
XI. ,
, :
You are quite right. Im afraid it isnt quite so.
Quite so. Im afraid youre not quite right.
1. They will not be able to ship the goods so soon. 2. Im afraid we shant get
the quotation ready today. 3. The weather in Riga is very changeable. 4. The fact
is they find our terms acceptable. 5. Ive heard they wont join us for dinner today.
6. The terms of payment are not acceptable to us. 7. They didnt have to
communicate with the sellers by fax. 8 .1 believe this order is very important.
XII. .
:
Sedov: Good morning, Mr. Scott.
Scott: Oh, Mr. Sedov, good morning, Im happy to see you in London.
I hope you had a good flight yesterday.
Sedov: Yes, we had a nice flight though I was afraid that there would be a
fog and we shouldnt be able to land. But we got into London on
schedule. Well, Mr. Scott, a good flight is a good way to begin
business. Id like to have a word with you about your offer for
chemical equipment.
Scott: We hope you have studied our quotation.
Sedov: Yes, we have. On the whole your equipment meets our requirements.
Scott: And what about our prices?
Sedov: Your prices are acceptable to us. But there is one point and Id like
to clear it up now. How soon will you be able to begin shipment?
Scott: We are going to begin shipment in April. Does it suit you?
Sedov: Not quite. Will you be able to speed it up and begin, say in February?
Scott: I cant give you a reply right away. I'll have to contact my people in
Manchester and have a word with them about it.
Sedov: Thats good. Thank you.
a fog : on schedule [ Jedju:l] :
on the whole [houl] ; say ; to speed up ;
189

Manchester [ 'maentfosto)
XIII. :
1. The president will be available after ten oclock. 2. Im afraid this time isnt
quite convenient to me. 3. The point is this model doesnt meet our customers
requirements. 4. He wont be back until the day after tomorrow. 5. We have
improved this model lately. 6. He had to give them an alternative date. 7 .1 think
well be able to take part deliveries. 8. These terms will suit us.
XIV. :
Once a French cabman played a good joke on Conan Doyle. When Conan
Doyle arrived in Paris it was raining heavily. He took a cab and asked the cabman
to take him to the Ritz Hotel as he had reserved a room there a few days before.
The cabman brought him to the hotel. When he had received his fare he said,
Thank you, Mr. Conan Doyle. How do you know my name? asked Conan
Doyle.
Well, sir, replied the driver, the other day I saw in the papers that you
were coming from the South of France to Paris. Your appearance told me you
were British, and I also saw you had had your hair cut in the South of France. So
I decided it was you.
You are a wonderful detective, said Conan Doyle. Were there any other
things about me, that could help you to think it was I?
Well, said the cabman, there was also your name on your suit-case, sir.
once ; a cabman ; a cab ; to play a joke on
; fare ; appearance [a'piarans] ; to have ones
hair cut ; a detective [di'tektiv] , I

II
Joseph Turner was a great English painter. He had a dog. He liked his dog
very much.
One day he was playing with his dog. Suddenly the dog broke bis leg. Turner
sent for a well-known doctor.
When the doctor came, Turner said, Doctor, my dog has broken his leg. I
know that you are too good for this work but please do it. It is so important to me.
The doctor was angry but he did not show it.
The next day the doctor asked Turner to come to his place. Turner promised
to come as he thought that the doctor wanted to see him about his dog.
When Turner came to the doctors house, the doctor said, Mr. Turner, Im
so glad to see you. Id like to ask you to paint my door. I know that you are too good
for this work but, please, do it. It is so important to me.
a painter ; a dog ; to break [breik] (broke, broken) ;
angry ; a leg ; to paint
XV. :
1. Russia does business with a lot of different countries of the world. Our
trade relations develop from year to year. Our country exports and imports different
goods. The other day our office received a quotation fo r...
2. Yesterday we had talks with Mr. Brighton of Clay & Co. We discussed the
terms of payment and delivery with him. He said that our terms of payment suited
them b u t...
190

3. As I wanted to have a word with Mr. B. about our order I telephoned his
office but the secretary told me ...
XVI. :
1. Tell Mr. Green that you have received their latest catalogues for power
equipment. But you haven't received their quotations for it. Ask Mr. Green when
he will be able to send you their quotations.
2. Phone Mr. Camp to ask him if they have received your quotations and if
your goods meet their requirements.
3. Meet Mr. Brown. Discuss the delivery dates with him and say that you wont
be able to begin shipment before the 1st of November. Ask him if they can take part
deliveries.
XVII. :
1. Making an appointment with a representative of a firm. 2. Placing an order.

LESSON ELEVEN

THE ELEVENTH LESSON

Grammar: 1. .
2. .
3. - .

Revision: 1. .
2. (Past Perfect).

GRAMMAR NOTES
I.
,
, : ,
.
,
-, -, -ow,
-, [],
-est, [ist].


warm warmer warmest
happy happier happiest
clever [" klevo] " cleverer cleverest
narrow [ 'nasrou] narrower narrowest
This is a shorter text. .
Wno is tne youngest engineer in your
office? ?
-
, -est .
191

1.
-, -, -st: large larger largest.
2.
, , ,
: hot hotter hottest.
3. -,
, - i,
-er, -est: early earlier earliest.

.


good better best
bad worse [wo:s] worst [wo:st|
little less least [li:st]
many 1
much / more [mo:] most [moust]


more
less , most ,
least .
wonderful more wonderful most wonderful
interesting less interesting least interesting
This is a more interesting book. .
That is a less interesting book. To .
.
,
; ,
.
London is the largest city in England.
.
These terms are the most acceptable
to us. .

than [, ] ,
.
I am older than he is. .

one . ones
. .
This book is more interesting than .
that one.
I dont like these books. .
Give me more interesting ones,
please. .
192

. ones
these, those.
These letters are less interesting than those letters.
, .
II.

.
,
, .


late later latest
early earlier earliest
well better best
badly worse worst
little less least
much more most
often more often, oftener most often, oftenest
wonderfully more wonderfully most wonderfully
happily more happily most happily
heavily more heavily most heavily

,
of all.
speaks English best of all. -
.
I like Glinkas music most of all.
.
:
, ,
,
.
speaks English worse than his friend - ,
(does). .
brother can skate better than my
sister (). , .
III. -
- not
, .
,
,
to be, to have.
What letters didnt you translate
yesterday? ?
193

Why did you not telephone me


yesterday? ?
-

, , .
Hasnt he read this book? ?
Havent you seen this film? ?
. -
.
.
Has she phoned you? ?
Is there a pencil on the table? ?

I
GRAMMAR EXERCISES

I.
:
nice, early, small, long, young, few, large, fine, happy, short, much, dark,
new, bad, cold, interesting, late, warm, acceptable, light, heavy, good, necessary,
high, old, m odern, changeable, damp, beautiful, im portant, many, hot,
convenient, little, frosty, wonderful.
early, often, soon, late, well, wonderfully, badly, happily, little, much, heavily.
II. :
1. My sister, my brother (young). 2. To-day, yesterday (cold). 3. The film,
the performance (interesting). 4. Two oclock, ten oclock (convenient). 5. Winter,
spring (warm). 6. My suit-case, your suit-case (heavy). 7. Our new flat, our old
flat (small). 8. We have received letters, they have received letters (few).
1. He speaks French, I speak French (badly). 2. We work, they work (little).
3. My friend arrived at the airport. We arrived at the airport (early). 4. Ill go through
the letters, the secretary will go through the letters (soon). 5. I liked the
performance. My wife liked the performance (much). 6. We go to the theatre. My
friends go to the theatre (often).
III. :
1. , .
. 2. ? 3. ,
, ,
. 4. -
, . 5.
. , , -
. 6.
. 7.
10 , 12? . 10 ,
12. 8. ,
.
194

-
IV. , :
1. Dont you like listening to music?
having long walks?
reading books?
watching TV?
writing letters to your friends?
2. Isnt that an interesting performance?
your suit-case?
your first visit to London?
a less important question?
3. What letter havent you gone through yet?
cable
newspapers
catalogues
contracts
enquiries
V. :
1. ? 2.
? 3. ?
? 5. ? 6.
? 7.
- ? 8.
? 9. ?

Text
TRAVELLING BY RAILWAY
Mr. Kozlov had an invitation from one of the biggest British firms to visit an
exhibition of chemical equipment in Edinburgh.
As Mr. Lipman had promised to send the quotation only in two or three days
Mr. Kozlov decided to take the opportunity of visiting the exhibition.
So on Wednesday morning Kozlov got up earlier than usual as he had to catch
an early morning train to Edinburgh. He packed his suit-case and was about to go
to the restaurant when the telephone rang. The secretary of the Russian Trade
Delegation was phoning Kozlov to tell him that he could get accommodation on
the 9 oclock express to Edinburgh at the booking-office of Liverpool Street Station.1

AT THE BOOKING-OFFICE
Kozlov: Good morning. I want a first-class ticket on the 9 oclock train to
Edinburgh.
Clerk: Would you like a single or a return ticket?
Kozlov: Return, please. I think its more convenient.
Clerk: Certainly, it is.2
Kozlov: Shall I have to change?
Clerk: No. you neednt. Its a through train.
Kozlov: What's the fare?
195

Clerk: 25 pounds, please.


Kozlov: Would you mind telling me when the express is due in Edinburgh?3
Clerk: Just a minute. Ill check that for you. You are due at 5.30 p.m.
Kozlov: Oh, are we? I thought it would take me more time to get there.
Clerk: This train is the most convenient. It goes faster than any other train.
Kozlov: Thank you.

ON THE PLATFORM
Kozlov: Porter, will you see to my luggage, please?4
Porter: Yes, sir. Where are you going to?
Kozlov: Im going by the 9 oclock express to Edinburgh.
Porter: Is this your suit-case?
Kozlov: Yes, it is. It can go to my compartment.
Porter: Very well, sir. Which class?
Kozlov: First.
Poiler: This way, please.5
(Kozlov looks at the train at platform 2.)
Kozlov: Isnt this my train?
Porter: No, sir. Your train is at platform 5. Well have to hurry or youll miss
the train. Its leaving in 5 minutes.
Kozlov: Oh, is it?
Porter: Now, sir. Here is your carriage.6
(They get into the compartment and the porter puts the
suit-case on the luggage-rack.)
Kozlov: Thank you, porter. Here you are. (He gives a tip to the porter.)
Porter: Thank you, sir. A pleasant journey to you.7

COMMENTARY
it Liverpool Street Station [ Tivapud] ,
.
2. I think its more convenient. , .
Certainly, it is. , .

certainly, of course yes
,
-.
I believe Comrade N. knows English. Yes, he does.
3. Would you mind telling me when the express is due in Edinburgh?
, , ?
Would you mind ... .
.
4. Porter, will you see to my luggage, please? ,
, .
5. This way, please. , .
6. Here is your carriage. .
,
,
196

,
.
Here he is. .
7. A pleasant journey to you. .

VOCABULARY NOTES
to travel [ traevl] (travelled) v ,
He has travelled a lot for the last
few years, ,
traveller n
railway ['reilwei] n
He likes travelling by railway, ,
invitation [.invi'teijn] n
Im sorry I cant accept your ,
invitation to the restaurant.
.
to invite [in'vait] v
Whom are you going to invite to
lunch? ?
exhibition [.eksi'bijhn] n
There is a chemical exhibition in
London now. ,
to promise [ promis] v
Mr. Black promised to come to our -
office at 11 a.m. 11 .
I promised her this book last week.
.
opportunity | ,opa'tju:niti] n
to find an opportunity
to have
to take
to give a person an opportunity
opportunity of
.
Im glad to have this opportunity of
speaking (to speak) to you. .
than conj ( )
I know her better than you. , .
train [trein] n
Ill go to London by train. .
Ive booked a ticket on (for) the 10 10-
oclock train to Petersburg, .
to catch (caught, caught) v , ; . -

said that he had caught the 7 , 7-
oclock train, .
to be about to do ... , ()
...
197

We were about to phone him when ( )


he came in. , .
But: :
I m going to speak to him about it.
.
to ring (rang, rung) v
The telephone is ringing. .
Will you answer it, please. , .
express [iks'pres] n
station [' steijbnj n
what station are you getting off? ?
.
Waterloo Station | 'wo:talu:], Sokol Station, Kiev Station
class [kla:s] n ( )
to travel first-class
to travel second-class
a first-class carriage
a second-class carriage
Do you usually travel first-class or
second-class? ?
a single ticket
a return ticket
Id like a return ticket to Orel.
.
to change [tjeind3] v 1. ,
Moscow has changed very much 19...
since 19... .
2.
Where do you change? ?
Youll have to change trains in Omsk.
.
a through train
I wonder if train 22 to Odessa is a ,
through train. 22 .
fare [fea] n ( ,
, ..)
Whats the fare from Moscow to
London? ?
Fares, please! ! ( -
!)
to be due ,
What time is train 15 due in Moscow?
15?
The plane is due at Vnukovo airport -
at 10.15. 10.15.
fast [fa:st] adv
Dont speak very fast. .
198

platform [ 'plaetfa:m] n
Ill be waiting for you on platform 5. 5- .
porter n
luggage ['Ugidj] n
Is this your luggage? ?
compartment [kam'paitmant]
How many passengers are there in
your compartment? ?
to hurry f 'h.\ri| v , ()
Where are you hurrying now? ?
Dont hurry him. .
to miss v
to miss lessons
a train
an opportunity
He missed the 9 o clock train. 9- .
Im sorry youve missed the ,
opportunity of going to Kiev, ,
carriage () [ '] n
luggage-rack n ( )
He put his small suit-case on the
luggage-rack. ,
pleasant ['pleznt] adj ( )
ant. unpleasant
It is pleasant news. ,
journey [ dpini] n

to make a journey ,
Lets make a journey to Sochi this .
summer.
A pleasant journey to you! !
dining-car -
There is a dining-car on our train, -
.
to see off v ( ,
..)
I believe they will be able to see you ,
off. .
attendant [a'tendant] n ( )
lift-attendant
an attendant at the theatre
The attendant showed us to our ,
compartment,
to collect [ lekt] v , ,
to collect I things
I people
199

When can 1 come to collect my


tickets? ( )?
Will you collect all our engineers at 5 , ,
o clock, please? 5 ,
a left-luggage office
You will have to come to the Station
earlier to collect your suit-case at the ,
left-luggage office. .

II
GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY EXERCISES
I. :
translation, reservation, instruction, registration, declaration, discussion,
invitation, reduction, collection, reception.
exporter, importer, skater, skier, buyer, seller, swimmer, teacher, reader,
writer, flier, traveller.
:
coldly, warmly, happily, conveniently, usually, nicely, lately, beautifully,
wonderfully, interestingly, differently, shortly, finally, highly, greatly.
:
unhappy, unpleasant, unusual, uninteresting, unnecessary, unacceptable.
II. ,
:
1. It is not so convenient to travel third class as it is to travel first class. 2. It is
not so warm at the Baltic sea-side as it is at the Black sea-side in August. 3. This
film is not so interesting as that one. 4. It does not rain so heavily in July as it does
in September. 5. Trains do not go so fast as planes do. 6. It does not snow so often
in October as it does in January in Moscow. 7. I do not travel so much as my
friend does. 8 .1 do not speak French so well as my friend does. 9. My brother gets
up not so early as I do.
III. :
1. I like skiing in winter. 2. When did you begin working at the Ministry?
3. They are interested in selling this equipment to us. 4. Dont let him miss the
opportunity of speaking English during the talks. 5. He stopped writing when I
came into the room. 6. Would you mind sending us your latest catalogues? 7. I
always enjoy listening to Chaikovskys music.
IV. , :
1. When we came to the station the train already (to leave) and we (to have to
waif) for the next train for an hour and a half. 2. Hallo, Peter. I (to be) happy to
meet you. I (not to see) you since 19... I must say that you greatly (to change).
3. Im glad that this (to be) a through train and we (not to have to change). 4. He
was sorry that he (to miss) the opportunity of visiting the British exhibition. 5. Im
afraid I (not to be able) to collect the tickets tomorrow. 6. He wondered when train
15 (to be due) in Moscow. 7 .1 (to come) to the station at 5 oclock yesterday. My
friend (to wait) for me there as he (to come) earlier than I. We (to collect) his
luggage at the left-luggage office and (to go) to the platform.
200

V. , :
Mr. Brown was travelling about France. After ... long journey he arrived a t ...
small country place and hurried t o ... hotel.... night before he had missed... through
train to that place and had to change trains. So he was glad to have ... good
opportunity of spending ... few pleasant days in ... quiet place. It did not take him
long to unpack ... suit-case and have ... supper. At about eleven oclock he was
already in bed. Suddenly he heard... knock a t ... door. ... letter for you, sir, said
... bell-boy. W ell,... letter can wait till tomorrow, I believe, said ... traveller. He
could not fall asleep for a long time. Some time later when Mr. Brown was asleep
again he heard another knock at the door. What is it this time? he asked ... bell
boy. Sorry, sir,... letter is not for you, w as... answer.
quiet ; a knock ; a bell-boy ; to fall (fell, fallen)
asleep ; again ,
VI. :
AN A BSENT-M IN DED WRITER
Mr. Smith, a well-known writer, went ... the booking-office and bought a
single ticket... the 7 oclock express... Manchester. The booking-office clerk told
him that the train was due to arrive ... Manchester... 9 o'clock the next morning...
the evening Mr. Smith cam e... the railway station... taxi. As he came ... the station
... ten m inutes... seven and was afraid to miss the train he hurried ... his carriage.
When he got., the train and found his compartment he put bis suit-case ... the
luggage-rack and sat down to read a magazine. The train was going very fast. After
it had passed two or three stops a ticket-collector came to collect the tickets. Mr.
Smith couldnt find his ticket. As some ... the passengers told the ticket-collector
that Mr. Smith was a well-known writer the ticket-collector said ... him: Thats
all right, sir. I know youve got a ticket. But I must find it. I must know where
Im going ..., was the reply.
absent-minded ; to pass a stop
a ticket-collector
VII. :
1. , 30 . 2.
,
. , . -

. 4.
? , ,
. 5. , ,
, ,
(in time). 6. ,
.I

III
SPEECH EXERCISES
VIII. .
IX. :
1. What do you do before you make a journey? 2. What must you do to book a
ticket on a train in advance? 3. What is a through train? 4. Why is it more convenient
201

to have a return ticket when you go to Sochi in summer? 5. What journey will you
enjoy making? 6. Why is it convenient to leave luggage at the left-luggage office? 7.
Why dont people like seeing off their friends? 8. What must you do not to miss the
train?
X. , -
:
: is going to book a single ticket.
Isnt he going to book a return ticket1
No, he isnt.
1. Peter promised to call for us at 5. 2. She has caught only the 9 oclock train.
3. He is going to leave from Kiev Station. 4. We shall travel second class. 5. Our
journey to Odessa was the most pleasant. 6. The buyers are interested in Model-10.
7. Our office required April shipment. 8. We can buy power equipment from a
French firm.
XI. :
1. Yon are quite right. Quite so. Yes, certainly.
2 .1 dont think so. Im afraid its not so.
1. It will take you less time to get to Petersburg by train than by plane. 2. It is
always more convenient to book single tickets than return tickets. 3. It is more
pleasant to travel by air than by railway. 4. It is convenient to go by a through
train. 5. There are always many visitors at Russian exhibitions abroad. 6. There
are dining-cars on all through trains. 7. It is more convenient to travel third class
than to travel first class. 8. You wont have to change trains to get to London.
9. You can reserve accommodation for any train at the Intourist booking-office.
10. Not all the passengers go through the Customs when they arrive from abroad.
XII. , :
BUYING A TICKET

one first to D. single or return
to change a through train
to arrive to be due ...
Whats the fare? ... shillings
a dining-car
TALKING TO A PORTER
A
Porter Yes, sir.
see to my luggage to travel
to Glasgo luggage
to travel first class which class?
two suit-cases to leave
platform to hurry
XIII. :
1. The train arrived in London at 8 p.m. When I got off the train I saw that no
one had come to meet me. So I ...
2. Yesterday we came to the station to see off our friend. When we came up to
this carriage the attendant asked my friend to show him his ticket. But my friend
found that he had no ticket. I said ...
202

3. Last Sunday my friend and I decided to go to the country. He said that at 9


oclock he would be waiting for me at the railway station. But at 8 oclock in the
morning when 1 was about to leave the house the telephone rang and ...
4. My friend was coming back to Moscow from Sochi. At one of the stations
he got off the train to send a cable to his wife. When he came out he saw that his
train had already left ...
XIV. :

SEEING A FRIEN D OFF


Three men were sitting at a bar near a railway-station. They had asked the
railway porter to tell them when the train was due. Some time later the porter
came to say that the train was coming in. Oh, said the men, we have time for
just one more drink. They took another drink and hurried out, but their train had
already left.
They went back to the bar. An hour later the second train arrived, and the
same thing happened. They missed the train again. Two hours later the porter
came and told them that the last train was due in five minutes. Again the men
waited for a few minutes to have one more drink and when they came out the train
had already started. Two of the men caught the train. But the third man missed
the train and walked back to the bar.
By the way, the barman asked him, when he came in, what town are your
friends going to?
I dont know, where they are going to, the man answered. They just came
down to the station to see me off.
a bar ; to have a drink ; the same thing ;
to happen ; again , ; to start ;
a barman
TOO M UCH FOR THEM
Some young men were travelling in a smoking compartment of a railway
carriage. Just as the train was about to start the door suddenly opened, and an old
woman came into their compartment. The young men wanted to have the
compartment for themselves and they said: This is a smoking carriage. But the
woman did not listen to them. She came into their compartment and sat down.
They decided to smoke as much as they could and hoped that she would have to
leave the carriage soon. There was a lot of smoke in the compartment and the
young men began to feel bad.
In a quarter of an hour to their great surprise the woman took out a pipe and
began smoking too.
The young men had to change their compartment very soon.
to start ; for themselves : a pipe
XV. :
1. Meet Mr. Morrison at the airport. Tell him you have booked a room for him
at the Metropol Hotel.
2. Ask Mr. Camp what goods he is interested in and what terms of shipment
suit his company.
3. Tell Mr. Readly what goods you can offer them and let him know your
price and the terms of delivery.
203

4. Tell Mr. Nelson that as you are going to place a big order with them you ask
them to reduce their prices. Say they are higher than the world prices.
5. Tell Mr. Todd you have improved your models lately and you are going to
sell them at a higher price. Ask if the firm can take part deliveries.
XVI. :
1. Travelling by railway. 2. At the booking-office. 3. At the railway-station.

LESSON TWELVE

THE TWELFTH LESSON

Grammar: 1.

.
2. to be to.
3. each, every.

Revision: 1. .
2. (Simple Past Present Perfect).

GRAMMAR NOTES
I.


.
, .
if .
when, while, after, before, as
soon as , till , , until , ... .
If you catch a morning train to Sochi,
you will come there the next day. ,
.
Ill stay at the Astoria Hotel when I
come to Petersburg. ,
.
Ill phone you, as soon as I book a ,
ticket. .
: till until
.
We shall stay here till (until) you come. ,
.
II. to be to
to be to :
1) , , ;
2)
.
204

: , , -
. to be to .
We are to ship the goods in May. ()
.
Am I to fill in the form? ( )
?
He said we were to get the materials ,
ready. .
The director says we are not to sign ,
the contract. .
The representative of the firm is to
come tomorrow. .
to be to
.
, ,
.
1 am to meet the foreign representative ( -
at 12 oclock tomorrow. )
12 .
III. each, every
each "
. each
of.
Each engineer of our office knows a
foreign language. .
We sell these machines at the price
of $... each. ... .
Each of us has been to the Caucasus. .
every ", ,
.
There are schools in every village
of our country. .
I
GRAMMAR EXERCISES


I. , :
If it rains tomorrow we shant go to the country,
they wont go to the beach,
the children will have to stay in.
they wont be able to come to see us.
he wont go sightseeing.

2. Well let them know about it when they come back.


as soon as
after
205

3. We shant sign the contract until we check all the points,


till they give us their final reply
about the delivery of the goods,
we have a word with the director
of the factory.

II. :
I. We shall buy the goods from you i f ... 2. If I reserve a room at a hotel, I ...
3. As soon as it begins raining, we ... 4. We shall see you off when ... 5. You will
have to go through the mail before ... 6. We shant have to change trains i f ... 7. If
you dont hurry to the station you ... 8. The president wont be available u n til...
9. The children will watch TV after... 10. Dont accept the goods if...
III. :
1. , . 2.
, .
3. , ,
, . 4.
,
. 5. , .
6. ,
. 7. , . 8.
, .

to be to
IV. , to be to
:
1. Our president (to be) to sign the contract with the British firm at 10 oclock
today. 2. We (to be) to begin our journey on the 5th of May. 3. Who (to be) to meet
the representatives of the British firm at Sheremetievo Airport last Saturday?
4. Machinoexport (to be) to begin shipment of the goods not later than the 1st of
December. 5. The sellers wrote in their letter that the customers (to be) to accept
the goods in ten days. 6. The secretary said that she (to be) to get the materials
ready for the talks by 11 oclock. 7. Our director told us that he (to be) to come
from abroad in a fortnight.
V. :
1. Who is to go on business soon? 2. When are you to go on business? 3. What
place are you to go to? 4. What points are you to discuss there? 5. When are you to
come back?
1. Have you made a contract lately? 2. What goods are you to sell to the firm?
3. How many machines are you to ship to the firm? 4. When are you to ship the
goods? 5. On what terms are you to ship the goods?
1. What foreign businessman did you meet the other day? 2. Who told you that
you were to meet him? 3. Where were you to meet him? 4. What points were you to
clear up with him?
VI. :
1.
. 2. - ?
206

3. . 4. ,
, . 5.
? 6.
, 5 .

T ext
DISCUSSING A CONTRACT
The export department of Goodman & Co. sent the Russian Trade Delegation
their offer of compressors.
When Mr. Kozlov came back from Edinburgh, he and Mr. Zotov considered
the prices, the terms of payment and delivery and the technical information of the
offer. They found that their compressors were of the latest design1. So Mr. Kozlov
decided to meet Mr. Lipman again to discuss the offer.

Dialogue
Kozlov: Good afternoon, Mr. Lipman.
Lipman: Good afternoon, Mr. Kozlov. Will you take a seat? Have a cigarette,
please.
Kozlov: Thank you.
Lipman: Did you enjoy your trip to Edinburgh?
Kozlov: Yes. It was pleasant, indeed. I also had a good opportunity to contact
businessmen of different British companies.
Lipman: I see. Now, Mr. Kozlov, what do you say to our offer?
Kozlov: On the whole your terms and conditions are acceptable to us. But
Im afraid your prices are not quite competitive. They are somewhat
higher than the prices of other firms. Could you reduce your price
by 7 per cent?
Lipman: I say2, Mr. Kozlov, weve sold our compressors at the price of ...
each. They are the best on the world market at this price. However,
if you increase your order, well give you a discount of 5 per cent.
Kozlov: I believe we can buy 15 more compressors.3
Lipman: Fine. That will settle the price problem.
Kozlov: Quite so. Now, there is another point. Mr. Lipman. Your delivery
dates dont suit us. We require the first parcel of 20 compressors a
month after we sign the contract.
Lipman: So I understand that we are to ship the first parcel in December.
And what about the remaining goods?
Kozlov: We can accept them in March.
Lipman: Very good. Well, Mr. Kozlov, as regards the terms of payment I
hope youll pay against shipping documents by a Letter of Credit.
You are to open it with the London Bank after our fax that the goods
are ready for shipment.
Kozlov: Quite right. Ill be glad to sign the contract when you get it ready.
Lipman: We can sign it tomorrow. Ill be glad. Mr. Kozlov, if you and Mr.
Zotov join our Sales Manager and me for lunch after we sign the
contract.
207

Kozlov: Thank you.


Lipman: So we hope to see you at our office at 12 tomorrow.
Kozlov: Good. See you tomorrow.4
Lipman: Good-bye.

COMMENTARY
1. Their compressors were of the latest design

2 .1 say
,
.
I say, the weather is fine. Lets go for a walk. ,
, .
3 .... we can buy 15 more compressors. ... 15
.
4. See you tomorrow ,
.
VOCABULARY NOTES
a department [di'pa:tment] , ,
export department
an import department
You will have to clear up this point
with the import department, .
to consider [ksn'sids] v 1. (, )
We are going to consider the prices
now.1 .
2. ,
1 consider that we can take part ,
deliveries. ,
technical ['teknikal] adj
a technical department
a technical school
information [infs'meijn] n ,
Our engineers will give you the
necessary technical information. -
.
This information is necessary for us. .
This is very important information. .
information
.
design [di'zain] n
The design of the machine meets our
requirements. .
These machines are of the latest
design. .
again [s'gein] adv ,
208

I hope you will soon be well again, ,


,
to take a seat ;
He asked me to take a seat, ,
trip n
to make a trip
We made a trip to Odessa last month.
,
indeed [in'di:d] adv ,
We have made a very pleasant
journey, indeed. .
Thank you very much, indeed, ,
whole [houl] adj ,
Im afraid Ill not be able to read ,
the whole book this week, ,
on the whole
On the whole your offer is acceptable
to us. .
condition [ 'dijnj n
Your conditions suit us. .
What are the technical conditions of
the order? ?
competitive [kam'petitiv] adj
a competitive price
somewhat adv
somewhat high
Your prices are somewhat high, .
per cent [ 'sent] n ,
by prep (- )
We can reduce the price by 5 per cent. 5%.
We can reduce the price to $ 900. 900
.
each pron
Each of the children received a book. .
Ive gone through each enquiry, ,
market ['ma:kit] n
the world market
Compressors EK are in great demand
on the world market now.
,
however [hau'eva] adv
My friend told me the train would ,
come at 5. However, I decided to 5 .
check that. .
to increase [in'kri:s] v ()
We are going to increase our order
by 50 machines (to 50 machines). 50 ( 50 ).
209

The world prices of mining equip -


ment have increased lately.
,
discount ['diskaunt] n
to give a discount
We can give you a discount of 5 per
cent. We can give you a 5 per cent 5%- .
discount.
Could you give us a discount off (on)
the price of the goods? ?
to settle v , ,
Well settle this point with the sellers.
,
problem ['problam] n ,
Now let us settle the price problem.
( ),
parcel ['pa:sl] n ()
We are going to ship the first parcel
of the machines in June, ,
lot n (, )
Well deliver the goods in two lots
of 500 tons each, 500 ,
to understand [ ,xnda 'staend]
(understood, understood) v
Im sorry I dont understand you. , ,
remaining [ri 'meinir)] adj
We asked the sellers to ship the re
maining goods as soon as they could.
.
as regards , ,

As regards the price we consider it , ,
is competitive. ,
to pay (paid, paid) v
The buyers will pay for this lot of the
goods in advance. ,
to make payment
The buyers are to make payment not
later than the 10th of April, 10 ,
against [a'geinst] prep
On the whole I am not against your ,
plan.
document [ 'dokjumont] n
shipping documents
You are to pay for the goods against
shipping documents. ,
a letter of credit (. L/C)
210

The buyers are to pay for the goods


by a letter of credit, ,
bank n
You are to open a letter of credit
with the London Bank. .
Sales Manager [ 'seilz 'maenidpl
as soon as coni
till conj ,
until [ 'til] conj ,
if conj
to be (to)
We are to ship the goods in a month.
( ).
He says I am to book a return ticket. ,
(
).
II
GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY EXERCISES
I. ,
:
I. , . 2.
, . 3. ,
5%- . 4. 15 ,
5%- . 5. , .
6. ,
. 7. , ,
. 8. , .
, . 9. ,
.
, .
II. ,
:
1. The Sellers can give us a large discount off the price i f ... 2. The buyers are
to open a Letter of Credit after ... 3. The buyers increased their order because ...
4. The conditions of the order were on the whole acceptable though ... 5. The
buyers wondered whether ... 6. The Sales Manager wanted to know i f ... 7. We
shall not be able to accept the delivery dates as ... 8. We had to buy chemical
equipment at high prices because... 9. The director of the office asked the secretary
when ... 10. Our engineers will meet to discuss the offer after ...
III. , (Simple Past,
Present Perfect):
1. The first lot of chemical equipment (to arrive) yet? Yes, we (to receive) a
cable from the port that the goods (to arrive) on the 20th of December. 2. Our
engineers (to consider) the technical information of the order, however, they not
(to give) their final answer yet. 3. When the sellers (to ship) the remaining goods?
They (to ship) the goods last week. 4. We just (to receive) some information that
211

the world prices of compressors (to increase). In this case we shall not be able to
give a discount off the price. 5. Our office (to open) a letter of credit with the London
Bank last week. However, we just (to receive) a fax from the sellers. They write they
not (to get) any information that we (to open) a letter of credit. 6. We (to settle) a
few points as regards the delivery of the goods since the representative of the firm
(to come) to Moscow.
IV. ,
Simple Past Present Perfect:
1. ,
. 2. ,
. 3. ,
. 4.
, ,
. 5.
, . 6.
. 7 .
V. , every each:
1. (Every, each) engineer of our office, speaks a foreign language. 2. My family
and I go to the sea-side to spend our holidays there (every, each) year. 3. We were
to deliver (each, every) lot of the goods by railway. 4. There is a private bath in
(each, every) room at modem hotels. 5. (Every, each) passenger is to go through
the customs if he goes abroad or comes from abroad. 6. (Every, each) of them has
gone on business abroad this year. 7. At Sheremetievo airport passenger planes
from different countries land (every, each) quarter of an hour. 8. I take (every,
each) opportunity of speaking English during the talks with British representatives.
9. (Each, every) of us will consider the technical information of the order.
VI. .
Our office is interested in buying ... compressors. Last month we sent ...
enquiries for ... compressors to some foreign firms. We have already received ...
quotations from four firms. They are offering u s ... compressors of... latest design.
Our people considered... prices,... terms a n d ... technical information of... offers.
On ... whole ... terms and conditions are acceptable to us, but we find that ...
compressors of Jarret & Co. suit us best of all. They are ... best o n ... world market
now. We believe, ... prices o f ... compressors are not higher than ... prices o f ...
other firms. They are quite competitive.... other day... Sales Manager of Jarret &
Co. arrived in Moscow and we are going to have talks with him one of these days
and settle a ll... necessary problems.
VII. :
1. When our machines are ready... shipment, we shall let you know and you
will pay ... shipping docum ents... a Letter ... Credit. You are to open i t ... the
Bank for Foreign Trade... Russia. 2. We require the first lo t... 125 cars... January.
As regards the remaining 75 cars we would like to have them ... the first... June.
3. If you increase your order ... 20 machines ... 30 machines, well give you a
discount... 5 per cent ... the price. 4. Our equipment is ... great demand ... the
world market. 5. We can place an o rd er... you if you reduce your price ... 10 per
cent. 6. We wonder if you can sell us the machines ... the price ... ... each. 7. As
212

your compressors are n o t... the latest design we cant buy th em ... this price. 8. If
you dont take a taxi you wont be able to come to the station ... time. 9. What
can you say... our plan? Is it acceptable ... you? ... the whole it is, but wed like
to change some points. 10. Your price will be competitive if you reduce i t ... 3
percent.
VIII. :
1. . ,
, . ,
, ,
.
2. .
, . ,

. ? .
? , .
3. - , 3%- ,
.
4. ,
.
IX. , :
1. an offer, to consider, to find, somewhat, to ask, to give a 5 per cent discount
off the price, to be not of the latest design, to reduce by ...
2. to buy, to be of the latest design, to take part deliveries, in 3 lots, to ship, the
remaining goods, to accept, on the whole, the terms of delivery, acceptable.
3. to consider, the terms of payment, to open a Letter of Credit, shipping
documents, to be ready, to send a cable.
4. to discuss, points, to clear up, to sign, to get ready, to invite, to accept.
X. :
D ialogu e
Bendy: Good afternoon, Mr. Fedin.
Fedin: Good afternoon, Mr. Bently. Will you take a seat?
Bently: Thank you. Youre having hard frosts in Moscow now.
Fedin: Yes, its been frosty this week, indeed, but it isnt unusual for this
time of the year. All in good time, you know.
Bently: You are quite right.
Fedin: Well, Mr. Bently, yesterday we discussed the price of our turbines
and the volume of your order. What's your final answer?
Bently: Ive thrashed the points out with my people, and we decided to
increase the order to 25 turbines.
Fedin: In this case we can give you a 5 per cent discount off the price.
Bently: Fine. So weve settled the price problem. And what are your terms
of payment?
Fedin: Our buyers usually make payment against shipping documents by
a letter of credit.
Bently: What bank are we to open it with?
213

Fedin: Russias Vnesheconombank.


Bently: That suits us on the whole.
Fedin: Very good. What is your suggestion as regards the delivery dates
Mr. Bently?
Bently: Wed like to have the first parcel in 2 months and the remaining
goods by the 1st of January.
Fedin: Very good. Now, Mr. Bently, Ill give instructions to Mr. Sedov, our
engineer, to arrange your visit to the factory. What time will suit
you?
Bently: Any time you say.
Fedin: Tomorrow afternoon then.
Bently: Fine. Good-bye.
Fedin: Good-bye.
hard frosts ; all in good time ;
to thrash out ; volume ; a suggestion ;
to arrange ,
XI. :
An English writer was travelling in France. Once a few French writers invited
him to their meeting. The English writer did not want to go as he was afraid he
would not understand the speakers. However, he decided not to miss the
opportunity of seeing his new French friends and promised to come to the meeting.
Not to show that he did not understand a word he decided to do what the other
people did. So when everybody laughed or applauded he laughed or applauded
together with the other people. However, it was a surprise to him that the people
looked only at him when he was applauding or laughing. The writer understood
all when after the meeting a young man came up to him and asked, Why did you
applaud the loudest when the people applauded you and laughed when they laughed
at you?
once [WAns] ; everybody ; to laugh [la:f] ;
to applaud [a'plo:d] ; loudly ['laudli]
XII. :
1. Your office has received an offer of electric motors. The motors meet your
requirements but you would like to discuss the terms of payment and the time of
delivery with the firm. Meet a representative of the firm and discuss these points
with him.
2. Meet Mr. Black and discuss your offer of watches. Promise him a discount
of 5 per cent if he places a big order with you.
3. Meet Mr. Gray at you office and discuss the price of their compressors with
him. Ask him to reduce the price by 5 per cent.
XIII. :
1. Discussing prices.
2. Discussing terms of delivery.
3. Discussing terms of payment.
214

LESSON THIRTEEN

THE THIRTEENTH LESSON

Grammar: 1. .
2. it is difficult for... to do....

Revison: 1.
.
2. .

GRAMMAR NOTES
I.
what
, which .

, .

who , whom , , whose
, , which, that ,
when , where , .
who, whom ,

, a which
.
The man who is speaking to Mr. ,
Pavlov is our new economist. ,
.
My brother whom I havent seen for ,
five years is coming to Moscow , .
tomorrow.
Weve considered the quotation ,
which the firm sent us last week.
.
This is the man whose letter I showed ,
you on Friday. .
The room where we have our lessons , ()
is light but small. , ,
.
I last saw him on the day when he
came back from the holiday-home. ,
.
that ,
.
I know the engineer that you are ,
speaking about. .
went through the letters that the ,
secretary brought him. .
215

that .
.
This is the block of flats that Ill live in. , .
But:
This is the block of flats in which Ill live.

, . ,
, ,
.
The book that 1 read last week is very
interesting. , -
The book I read last week is very , ,
interesting.
The film about which I ve told you
was on a fortnight ago. , ,
The film Ive told you about was on 2 .
a fortnight ago.
But:
The man who is sitting at that desk is ,
our director. , .

,
.
Do you know the engineer who is ,
speaking to Mr. Sokolov? - ?
Do you know the engineers, who are ,
speaking to Mr. Sokolov? -
?
:
.
Yesterday I showed you the cable which he is reading now.

II. it is difficult for ... to do ...


it is difficult for ... to do ...
, , .
It is difficult to translate this text. .
There are a lot of new words in it. .
, ,
, for.
It is difficult for him to read the book, :
he knows French badly. .I

I
GRAMMAR EXERCISES

I. :
1.... who helps us to translate letters from English into Russian ... 2.... whom
I am going to see off... 3. ... who are interested in our goods. 4. ... that were
216

competitive. 5. ... that has made an appointment with me ... 6. ... which met our
requirements... 7. ... who is to give you the necessary information ... 8. ... whose
delivery dates suit u s ... 9. ... where I saw a lot of different machines. 10. ... with
whom we have signed a contract... 11.... who is going to clear up a few points ...
12. ... that we shipped yesterday ...
II. :
1. , ? 2.
, ,
. 3. , ,
. 4. ,
, .
. 5. , ,
. ,
, . 6.
, , .
?
it is difficult for ... to do ...
III. :
1. . 2.
. 3. ,
. 4. ,
. 5. ,
, . 6. ,
. 7. ,
. 8.
.
IV. :
1. What is it necessary for you to do to know English well? 2. For whom is it
easy to learn English? 3. When is it difficult for you to get up early? 4. Why is it
difficult for you to get up early in winter? 5. Why is it so difficult to get
accommodation at the Moscow hotels in summer? 6. What equipment is it most
important for us to buy abroad now? 7. Do you think it will be interesting for you
to go to Great Britain? 8. Why will it be interesting for you to go there?

T ext
AT THE RESTAURANT
The next day at 12 oclock Mr. Kozlov and Zotov came to Mr. Lipmans office
where they signed the contract. After that they all went to the Savoy Restaurant1
which was not far from Mr. Lipmans office.
When they came into the restaurant they took off their hats and coats and left
them in the cloakroom. Then they went upstairs.
The head-waiter showed them the table that Mr. Lipman had reserved. A waiter
who was standing near by came up to the table to take their order. He put the menu
on the table in front of each of them.
Im afraid my English is not good enough to order lunch, Kozlov said.
Besides I dont know much about English meals, so its difficult for me to make
my choice2.
217

All right, smiled Mr. Lipman. I think well start with drinks. What would
you like to drink, gentlemen?
Kozlov: Gin and tonic with lemon for me, please.
Zotov: The same for me3.
Lipman: Gin or whisky for you, John?
Cave: Whisky, please.
Lipman: Well, what shall we eat?
Zotov: There is a large choice of dishes on the menu and its difficult for us
to decide. Is there any dish you can recommend?
Lipman: I recommend oxtail soup. They cook it very well here. Then we can
have roast-beef, beef-steak, mixed grill, or fish. And vegetables, of
course. What do you say to that?
Kozlov: Very good. Ill have oxtail soup and roast-beef.
Zotov: No soup for me. Ill have only mixed grill.
Cave: Ill take the same, Henry, and dont forget to order a bottle of red
wine. Itll go nicely with meat.
Lipman: Oh, no. 1 remember it.
Waiter: What will you have for dessert, sir?
Lipman: Bruit salad and ice-cream. And well finish with black coffee and
brandy.
Cave: Yes, of course.
Waiter: Very good, sir. (They have lunch. Then the waiter serves black coffee
and brandy.)
Cave: Id like to drink a toast to good business. And I must say, gentlemen,
Im very pleased with the contract weve signed. We look forward to
doing more business with you in the future.
Kozlov: This is to good business and more contracts4.
(After lunch.)
Kozlov: Weve had an enjoyable time here. Its been a pleasure, gentlemen5.
Thank you.
(Mr. Lipman paid the bill. They put on their hats and coats
downstairs and left the restaurant.)

COMMENTARY
1. The Savoy Restaurant... [sa'voi] .

.
2 .... its difficult for me to make my choice ... .
3. The same for me. .
4. This is to good business ... !..
5. Its been a pleasure, gentlemen. , .

VOCABULARY NOTES
far adv
I live far from the Ministry. .
hat
coat
218

Take off your coat. Its warm here, . ,


cloakroom [ kloukrum] n
You can leave your coat and bag in
the cloakroom, ,
upstairs [ 4pst9z] adv , ,
Lets go upstairs. Paul is already .
waiting for us there, .
downstairs [ 'daunsteaz] adv , ( )
The restaurant is downstairs. (
).
head [hed] n
head-waiter [ 'hedweits] n
waiter n
to stand (stood, stood) v
Do you know the man who is ,
standing over there? ?
near by [ 'nia bai] adv ,
He lives near by. ,
menu ['menju:] n
Will you pass the menu, please. , , .
What have they got on the menu ?
to-day?
in front of [fn\nt] prep
The car stopped in front of our
ministry. ,
enough [i'nAf] adj, adv ,
Enough ,
.
Our office is large enough.
He began to learn English only 4
months ago. He doesnt know it well 4 .
enough. .
We have enough time to finish the ,
work to-day. .
besides [bi'saidz] adv ,
On Monday I must meet a foreign
representative, besides 1 must answer
some letters. , ,
,
meal n ; ;
We usually have 3 meals a day. 3 .
I like Russian meals better than
English ones, , ,
difficult adj
Its difficult for me to read this text, ,
choice n
There is a large choice of books here. .
219

to smile v
She smiled at me. .
What are you smiling af! ?
to start v ,
Its time to start our work. .
When does the train start? ?
to start -
:
When did it start to rain? ?
When did it start raining?
to start with ...
What do you usually start your ?
dinner with!
drink n
to have a drink
You can buy different drinks here.
.
gentleman [ '] pi.
gentlemen n
gin n
tonic | 'tonik] n ,

lemon | 'lemon] n
same pron , ,

They were born in the same year.
.
Its all the same to me. .
whisky [ 'wiski] n
dish n
Is there always a large choice of
dishes at this restaurant? ?
to recommend [ .reka'mend] v ,
I recommend you to see this film.
.
oxtail soup [ 'oksteil 'su:p]
roast-beef ['roust 'bi:f] n
beef-steak [ 'bkf'steik] n
chicken [ 'tfikin] n ()
mixed grill [ 'mikst 'gril] n
fish n
fish . -
fishes . :
Do you eat much fish? ?
You can buy different fishis here.
.
vegetables [ 'ved.^itoblz] pi
220

Not all green vegetables are available He


in winter. ,
to forget [fa get] (forgot, forgotten) v
Ive forgotten his address, ,
bottle n
a bottle of whisky
wine n
red wine
white wine
a bottle of wine
to go with v ...
This black hat goes well with your
new coat, ,
meat n
to remember [ri'memba] v ,
1 dont remember his brothers name. , .
dessert [di'zo:t]
What will you have for dessert? ?
fruit [fru:t] n
fruit .
fruits , .
:
Do you eat much fruifl ?
You can buy different fruits here.
.
salad [ 'saelad] n
fruit salad
vegetable salad
ice-cream ['ais 'kri:m] n
All children like ice-cream, ,
to finish with (-.)
It will be good to finish our dinner
with some ice-cream, .
brandy [ 'braendi] n ,
toast [toust] n
Id like to drink a toast to you. .
to be pleased
The director of our office is very
pleased with the work of his engineers, ,
to look forward v ['fo:wad] ,

to look forward ,
.
We are looking forward to your final
reply. .
They looked forward to meeting him.
.
221

future [ 'fju:tjb] n
I hope we shall make more contracts ,
with them in the future, ,
enjoyable [in 'dsoiabl] adj ,

We had an enjoyable time in Sochi.
.
bill n
to pay a bill
Have you paid the bill yet? ?
glass [gla:s] n ,
a glass of wine
a glass of brandy
hungry [ 'hApgri] adj
Im not hungry. Ive just had dinner. .
.
that pron
to put on V ()

II
GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY EXERCISES
I. , :
I. It wasnt far from the hotel. 2. The vegetables werent good enough. 3. We
had enough time to reserve a table. 4 .1 dont know much about English meals. 5. 1
think well start with salad. 6. It wasnt bad to finish dinner with coffee. 7 .1dliketo
drink a toast to good business. 8. The gentlemen were pleased with the lunch. 9. We
are looking forward to meeting you again. 10. This is to our good relations.
II. ,
:
1. , . 2.
, . 3. ,
. 4. . 5.
. 6.
, . 7. , . 8.
, . 9.
. . 10.
, .
III. , ,
.
A PLEASANT TRIP
An Englishman who never (to be) to France before (to decide) to spend his
holiday there. After he (to visit) some beautiful French towns and (to see) a lot
there he (to want) to go back to England as his holiday (to come) to an end. The
Englishman (to find) that he (to have) only enough money to pay his fare. As he
(to know) that the trip (to take) him only about two days he (to think) that he
(can live) without food those two days. So he (to buy) a ticket and (to get on) the
222

ship. At 2 oclock the Englishman (to go) out of his cabin and (to hear) that the bell
for dinner (to ring) but he not (to go) to the restaurant although he (to be) very
hungry. When it (to get) dark a waiter (to come) to his cabin to invite him to supper
but the Englishman (to say) that he not (to feel) well. The next day when lunch
time (to come) the Englishman (to think): I (to go) to the restaurant and (to eat)
even if they (to throw) me into the sea. When he (to come) into the restaurant a
lot of passengers already (to have) lunch. Some of them (to eat) roast-beef with
vegetables, other passengers (to eat) fish. The Englishman (to hurry) to one of the
tables. He (to eat) all the waiter (to put) in front of him. In the evening when the
ship (to be) not far from London the Englishman (to have supper) and (to ask) the
waiter to bring him the bill for his meals. What bill, sir? You already (to pay) for
your meals. But when? (to ask) the Englishman. You (to pay) for your meals
when you (to buy) the ticket, (to be) the reply.
an end ; without ; a cabin ; even ;
to throw (threw, thrown)
IV. ,
, .
1. The equipment which you are speaking about is in great demand on the
world market. 2. The head-waiter that I wanted to speak to wasnt available at that
time. 3. The names of the dishes on the menu that I was going through were in
French. 4. The girl who is speaking on the phone now is our secretary. 5. The day
for which we wanted to reserve a table at the restaurant wasnt quite convenient to
some of our friends. 6. We didnt like the meals at the restaurant of the hotel at
which we were staying. 7. That day I had no opportunity to see the engineer with
whom I was to go on business. 8. I didnt like the dish that my friend had
recommended me to order.
V. , .
A PICTURE
One day Mr. Bent received ... picture from his friend who was ... painter. Mr.
Bent was very pleased with it as ... painter told him that it w as... most wonderful
picture he had ever painted. However, when Mr. Bent wanted to hang it up he
could not decide which was ... top and which was ... bottom.
So Mr. Bent thought of... plan. He hung ... picture in ... dining-room and
wrote... letter t o ... painter in which he said he looked forward to seeing him in his
house fo r... dinner.... painter promised to come and see him .... next day... painter
came to join Mr. Bent for dinner. There was ... large choice o f ... dishes and ...
wines, and ... painter enjoyed ... dinner very much. They started with ... gin and
tonic. When ... painter was eating ... soup, he looked at ... picture ... few times.
When he was eating roast-beef, he looked a t ... picture with ... surprise. Before he
began drinking... coffee, he walked up t o ... picture.... painter looked a t ... picture
for some time and understood that ... picture was hanging upside down. Why,
my friend, he said, my picture is upside down. "Is it? said Mr. Bent. But
why did it take you so long to find it out? You have painted it.
a picture ; a painter ; to paint ;
to hang (hung, hanged) ; a top , a bottom ;
upside down ( )
223

VI. :
1. The point is that itll be difficult... us to give you our final reply right away as
we havent contacted our people yet. 2.... front... N. there were a lo t... catalogues
which he wanted to go ... . 3. I hope you will buy more goods... us ...the future.
4. Do you like finishing dinner... ice-cream o r ... a cup ... coffee? 5. There is always
a large choice ... different dishes... the m enu... this restaurant. I often have dinner
... this restaurant and Im always pleased ... the meals there. 6. Id like to drink ...
you, Mr. Woodman, and ... our good business... the future. 7. What do you usually
start your lesson ...? 8. Why is she smiling ... you? Does she know you? 9. I
recommend you to buy this hat. It goes very well... the colour of your coat. 10. You
neednt take a taxi. The theatre is not far... here. You can just walk there. 11. Weve
sent the firm our enquiry... boilers, and we are looking forward... their reply. 12. Its
very cold outside. Dont forget to p u t... a warmer coat.
VII. :
1. ? .
. 2. ?
. 3.
, . 4.
- "? .
. . 5.
, . . 6.
, ,
. 7.
. . 8.
? 9.
, .I

III
SPEECH EXERCISES
VIII. .
IX. :
1. What do you do to order dinner at a restaurant? 2. What dishes can you
order at a restaurant? 3. Have you ever gone to a restaurant with foreign
businessmen? What did you order for dinner? 4. What must you do to reserve a
table at a restaurant in advance? 5. What do you drink toasts to after you make
contracts?
X. ,
:
: Peter is pleased with his trip to Odessa.
Quite so. (You are right.) He says it was wonderful,
or:
It isnt (quite) so. I m afraid you are not quite right.
He says it was less pleasant than his previous trip.
1. Lunch at a restaurant is always pleasant. 2. You are to meet the
representative of a British firm at 12.3. We havent enough time to get to the station.
4. Peter doesnt know English well enough to translate English letters. 5. The coat
224

youve bought is fine. 6. Red wine goes nicely with meat. 7. It will be less difficult
for you to read and understand English in the ftiture. 8. m afraid you have forgotten
to bring my book. 9. Ive heard you look forward to having your holiday in winter.
10. There was a large choice of meat dishes on the menu.
XI. :
1. Mr. Gray, a British businessman, with whom we have just made a contract
accepted our invitation to dinner at the National restaurant. The following d ay...
2. One day we came to a restaurant to have dinner. We had reserved a table in
advance. We left our hats and coats in the cloak-room and were about to come
into the h all...
3. One evening my friend invited me to have dinner at a restaurant. It was
Saturday and I gladly accepted his invitation ...
4. My friend and I were having dinner at a hotel in Petersburg where we had
come on business for a few days. We were sitting at a table when ...
XII. :
AN EXPENSIVE D IN N ER
A gentleman sent home to his wife a parrot for a birthday present. On the
same day his wife bought a chicken and said to the cook, A bird is coming for to
nights dinner. Cook it. The parrot arrived first and he cooked it. Then the husband
came for dinner. Whats this? he asked as the cook served the parrot.
His wife had no other choice but to tell him all. Thats too bad, said the
gentleman. The bird could speak five languages!
Then, why didnt it say a word? asked his wife,
expensive [iks'pensiv] ; a parrot [ 'paerst] ;
a birthday present [ 'ba:0 dei 'prezant] ;
a bird [ba:d] ; a cook

TH E BOY A ND THE CAKES


A train arrived at a small station. A passenger looked out of the window and
saw a woman who was selling cakes. The gentleman wanted to buy one, but the
woman was standing very far from the carriage.
As the gentleman didnt want to go out he called a little boy whom he saw near
by and asked him, How much is a cake? Threepence, sir, answered the boy.
Then the gentleman gave him sixpence and said. Bring me a cake and with the
other three pence buy one for yourself.
A few minutes later the boy was back. He was eating a cake. He gave the
gentleman three pence change and said, There was only one cake, sir.
a cake ; to look out of the window ;
to call [:1] ; for yourself ; change

A PIECE O F CHEESE
One day Mr. Wells came to see his friends Mr. and Mrs. Wilson. They were sitting
at the table and having tea. There was milk and sugar, some ham and bread and butter
on the table, but there was no cheese. The mistress of the house said, I am sorry. I
have no cheese in the house to-day and gave Mr. Wells another cup of tea.
225

, Oh. its all right, answered Mr. Wells, though he liked cheese most of all.
Mrs. Wilsons little boy was also at the table. He didnt say a word, but got up
from his chair and hurried out of the room.
A few minutes later he came back and gave the guest a small piece of cheese.
'Mr. Wells was about to put it into his mouth when he said, Thats a good boy! 1
see you have better eyes than your mother. Where have you found this piece of
cheese? The boy answered with a smile, In the mouse-trap,
the mistress of the house ; a guest [gest] ;
a mouth [mauG] ; an eye [ai] ; a mouse-trap
XIII. :
1. Invite Mr. Wood to dinner after you sign a contract with him. Say you will
call for him at his hotel.
2. Make an order to the waiter. Ask Mr. Thomson whom you have invited to
dinner what he would like to have.
3. Ask Mr. Clark to help you to order dishes and wines for dinner (for lunch).
4. Have a talk with Mr. Todd after the waiter served lunch. Tell him which
dishes you like best. Say what Russian food you can recommend him.
XIV. :
1. Moscow restaurants. 2. Going to a restaurant. 3. Ordering lunch.
f
LESSON FOURTEEN

THE FOURTEENTH LESSON

Grammar: 1. some,
any, no, every.
2. to want,
should/would like; to expect.

Revision: 1. some, any.


2.
.
3. .

GRAMMAR NOTES
I. some, any, , every
some, any, no, every
thing , body , one , where ,
.
some any no every
something anything nothing everything
thing - -
-
-
226

somebody anybody nobody everybody


body - -
- -
-
someone anyone no one everyone
one - -
- -
-
somewhere anywhere nowhere everywhere
where - -
- - ?
- -
-


some, any, no.
Id like to tell you something. - .
Does anybody know his address? - ?
you hear anything? -?
I can see nothing here. .
thing ,
, body one , where .
There is something interesting in this -
newspaper. .
Is there anyone in the room? - ?
Nobody could answer his question.
.
Did you go anywhere yesterday? - ?

, ,
,
.
Everybody was at the lesson on .
Monday.
Has anyone seen this film? - ?
: anybody, anyone anything
.
nobody, no one [], nothing.
Nobody met me at the station. .
N o one knows his telephone number. .
body
of.
Somebody has just phoned you. - .
But:
227

I think one of your friends has phoned , -


you. I think some of your friends have .
phoned you.
Nobody knows him well. .
But:
None of them knows (know) him well. .

else [els] , ,
.
Will anybody else come here? - ?
I cant say anything else about it.
.
There is nothing new in this
information. .
Ive got something to tell you. .
II.
:
,
, ,
.
, to
want, to expect should/ would like.
.
I wanted them to reserve a room for ,
me at a hotel. .
When would you like me to phone ,
you? ?
He doesnt want us to help him. ,
.
We expect the delegation to arrive ,
tomorrow. .I

I
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
I.
:
I. There is something interesting to read in this magazine. 2. Peter is waiting
for someone now. 3. The sellers have reduced their prices for some of their goods.
4. Somebody telephoned me half an hour ago. 5. They are going somewhere to
night. 6. Some of our offices have done business with that firm. 7. Somebody else
will attend to the contract.
II.
:
1. Let Mr. Denisov tell u s ... else about his visit to Edinburgh. 2. Lets hurry....
is waiting for us there. 3. D oes... of you know how to get to the Tretyakov Gallery
228

from here? 4. At their office ... can speak English. 5. Its very dark in the room. I
cant see ... . 6. I don't want to go ... in this bad weather. 7. Have you packed ...?
Not yet. Im going to do it to-night. 8.... has changed here since my first visit. 9. Is
there ... else I can do for you? 10.1 remember that I left the magazine in the living-
room yesterday, but now I can find i t .... 11.... of us has heard ... about him since
he left for Omsk. 12.1 recommend you to buy this book. Nowit is available .... 13.
I s ... pleased with the contract weve just signed? 14. Lets go ... tomorrow if the
weather is fine.
III. :
1. . . 2.
, ,
. 3.
. 4. , . 5.
- ? , . 6.
, .
7. ,
. 8. ,
. 9. , -
, . 10. , -
, .
. , :
1. Id like you to clear up all the points to-day.
to make an appointment with Mr. Smith for tomorrow,
to get accommodation for me too.
to join me for dinner.

2. He doesnt want us to arrive at the airport so early,


to wait for him.
to miss the 7 o'clock train,
to pass it on to Mr. Pavlov.

3. When do you expect them to ship the remaining goods?


did to consider the prices?
to let you know their reply?
to open a Letter of Credit?

. :
1. , ?
. 2. , - .
3. , ? 4.
, , . 5.
, . 6. , -
. 7. ,
. 8. , . 9.
? , . 10. ,
, .
229

T ext
A VISIT TO A FACTORY
Mr. Nikitin, an inspector of Techmachimport, arrived in Manchester. He was
to inspect the compressors under their order and take part in the tests in accordance
with the arrangements between Mr. Kozlov and Mr. Lipman.
Mr. Collins, Sales Manager of Goodman and Co., met him at the station.
While they were walking along the platform Mr. Collins told Mr. Nikitin that
everything was ready for inspection and the Chief Engineer of the factory was
expecting him in the afternoon. Mr. Collins brought Mr. Nikitin to the Ambassador
Hotel1where they had reserved a room for him. They arranged to meet in two
hours.

AT THE TESTING DEPARTMENT OF THE FACTORY


Collins: Mr. Nikitin, this is our Chief Engineer, Mr. Jones.
Nikitin: How do you do, Mr. Jones?
Jones: How do you do, Mr. Nikitin. Id like to tell you that weve already
started testing the compressors. The preliminary tests show that the
compressors meet all your technical requirements.
Nikitin: Very good. But Id like you to make a few temperature tests if
possible2.
Jones: This is just what were going to do now3.
(After the tests...)
Nikitin: I think, Mr. Jones, there are some defects in the motor. The quality
of the insulation isnt quite up to standard.
Jones: Isnt it? Then well try and do our best to improve it4.
Nikitin: Id like you to5. 1 hope it wont cause any delay in shipment.
Jones: No, I think well be able to ship the compressors without delay. Now
we are a little ahead of schedule and it wont take us more than 3 or 4
days to eliminate the defects.
Nikitin: Thats fine.
Jones: Is there anything else you want us to change?
Nikitin: No, nothing but the insulation. The rest is all right. Im pleased with
the results of the tests. Thank you.

COMMENTARY
1. the Ambassador Hotel... [aem'baesada]
.
2.... if possible ...
,
if it is possible.
3. This is just what were going to do now. ,
.
what
.
4. ...well try and do our best to improve it. ...
, .
230

try to do try and do.


.
try to do.
:
go and see
go and find out
come and see
Youll have to go and see the doctor right away.
Go and find out all about it.
Come and see me on Saturday.
But:
He went to see the doctor.
They tried to help me.
5. Id like you to. , . ( ,
.)
to to try,
,
. :
was about to tell it to me.
I know he wanted to. = I know he wanted to tell it to me.

VOCABULARY NOTES
inspector [in'spekta] n ,
to inspect [in 'spektj v , ,

Our engineers went to the factory to
inspect the equipment. ,
inspection [in'spekjbn] , ,
under [ Ands] prep . .
Under the contract we are to ship the ,
goods in September. ,
to take part ,
I shant take part in the inspection of
the goods, ,
test n
to make a test
We havent made the test of the
machine yet. .
to test v ,

When is the firm to test the
equipment? ?
in accordance with [o 'kn:dans] ,
In accordance with the contract the
firm is to deliver the goods on c.i.f.
terms. .
arrangement [a'reindsmsnt] n ,
231

1 wonder if our arrangement suits ,


you. ,
to make arrangements ,
We have made arrangements with
the firm about the shipment of the .
goods.
to arrange { 'rein d.3[ v ,
Can you arrange to be there at 3 ,
oclock ? 3 ?
Weve arranged everything for our ,
journey.
along [ 'lop] prep ,
A lot of people were walking along ,
the street,
chief [tfiif] adj
The chief engineer hasnt come yet. ,
to expect [iks'pekt] v , ,

I didnt expect you today. ,
1 expect that Ill be back in a fortnight. ,
.
We expect you to deliver the goods in ,
time. .
:
We expected you yesterday. .
We expected that you would come. (),
.
We waited for you two hours yesterday. 2 (
).
testing department
preliminary [pri Timinari] adj
We had a preliminary talk yesterday.
,
temperature [ 'tempritfo|
Whats the temperature today? ?
a temperature test
possible [ 'posibl] adj
Come as soon as possible. .
It is possible that you will have to ,
change trains, ,
impossible [im 'posibl] adj
Its impossible to wait so long! !
defect fdi 'fekt] n ,
to see defects ,
to find defects ,
We cant see any defects in the
equipment. .
232

motor [ 'mouta] n
quality ['kwoliti] n
The goods were of high quality. .
The quality of the goods met the
buyers requirements, ,
insulation [.insjuTeiJn] n
Weve already changed the insulation
in the motor. .
to be up to standard [ staendad]
( )
The quality of the first lot of the
goods was up to standard. ,
to try [trai] v ,
TYy and do it for me. ,
to do ones best
Ill do my best to help you. ,
.
to cause [ko.z] v , ,

What caused these changes in the
plan? ?
delay [dilei] n , ,
The firm shipped the goods with (a)
delay. .
The change of the motor can cause
(a) delay in delivery, ,
without [wi'Qaut] prep
It is difficult to work without a plan, ,
ahead of schedule [a'hed av 'Jedju:l]
The firm shipped the second lot of
the goods ahead of schedule, .
behind [bi'haind] prep
behind smb., smth.
Where is Pete? ?
He is walking behind us. .
behind schedule ()
We are behind schedule in our work, .
to eliminate [i'Umineit]
It wasnt easy to eliminate the defect
in the machine, .
but prep ,
I remember all the names but one. , ,
rest n ,
the rest ,
.
The rest o f the catalogues are on the -
secretarys desk. .
233
The rest of the equipment is still at
the Customs House. .
There are only two students in the .
room.
Where are the resfl ?
result [ri 'zxlt] n
The results of the talks were good
enough. ,
something, anything, nothing, -, -, , -.
somebody, anybody, nobody, -, , -, -
somewhere, anywhere, nowhere, , , , , ,
everything, everybody, everywhere
none [] pron
else adv
else -
.
What else can you say? ?
Have you seen anybody else there? - ?
:
I was still busy at 6 oclock. 6 .
It is still light here. .
He isnt here yet. .
I havent seen this film yet. .
Let me have two more magazines to -
read. .
The secretary brought a few more -
letters. .

II
GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY EXERCISES
I. , :
I. Wed like you to inspect the goods in July, if possible. 2. Our machines are of
high quality. 3. They arranged to meet on Monday. 4. I d like you to make
arrangements with Mr. N. about our trip to Manchester. 5. This is just what we are
going to do. 6. The quality of the insulation isnt quite up to standard. 7. Well try
and do our best to improve the model. 8. It wont take more than 3 or 4 days to
eliminate the defects. 9. Is there anything else yon want us to change? 10. Im pleased
with the results of the tests.
II. :
1. Has the president given ... instructions to arrange Mr. Tails visit to the
plant? Im sorry Ive heard... about it. 2 .1want you to tell u s... about the results of
the tests as Mr. Petrov had not told u s ... about them. 3. ... of our inspectors have
come back from the factory yet. Ill let you know when ... of them comes back.
4. Weve heard th a t... caused a delay in the shipment of the goods but we dont
know what it is. We expect our engineers to find o u t... tomorrow. 5.... phoned you
when you were out. Im sorry I could not find you.... 6.... came to see me off as the
plane was to take off at night. 7. Where is the Chief Engineer? I cant find h im ....
234

8 .1 dont know ... about the remaining goods as the sellers have not sent us their
answer yet. 9. Has ... made arrangements about our visit to the exhibition? Im
sorry... has told me about it yet. 10. We shall g o ... to-night as the weather is bad, I
think ... will be glad to stay at home and watch TV.
III. :
1. Well make arrangements with them about our trip as soon as they ...
2. Everything will be ready for the test when they... 3. The rest of us will join you
as soon as the film ... 4. If you dont eliminate the defects you ... 5. If there is any
delay in shipment we ... 6. If we find some defects in the machines you ... 7. Well
try and do our best to eliminate the defects if you ... 8. Well start testing the
equipment as soon as i t ... 9. We were testing the machines when they ... 10. We
were speaking to the Chief Engineer while they ...
IV. , :
1. We (to test) the new equipment one of these days. 2. We already (to test)
the equipment under the firms order. 3. When (to test) you the new equipment?
We (to test) it last week. 4. We (to test) the equipment under the firms order when
the inspectors arrived at the factory. 5. The Chief Engineer of the factory said that
they (to test) the new equipment and the results of the test (to be) good enough.
6. The representatives of the Buyers usually (to test) the equipment before they (to
accept) it.
1. Our engineers sometimes (to take part) in the inspection of the goods.
2. When our engineers last (to take part) in the inspection of the goods? 3. Mr. N.
said that some of our engineers (to take part) in the inspection of the goods at the
sellers factory the following month. 4. Our engineers (to take part) in the inspection
of the goods lately. 5. Our engineers not (to take part) in the inspection of the
goods since last September. 6. Our engineers not (to take part) in the inspection of
the goods last month.
V. ,
some of, any of, none of, each of:
1. , -
. 2.
- ,
. 3. -
? 4.
, ,
10, . 5. ,

. 6. - ,
?
VI. else, yet, still, more:
1. I believe they havent inspected the goods ... . 2. Are they ... making
temperature tests in the testing department? Yes. They havent come to the office
... . 3. Is anybody ... waiting for the Chief Engineer? 4. The representative of the
buyers has found tw o... defects in the motor. 5. Are they... behind schedule? 6. Im
afraid they haven't eliminated the defects ... . 7. Will you ... be in Moscow on
Sunday? Where ... would you like to go? I can arrange it for you. 8. They havent ...
improved the quality of the insulation. 9. W hat... could cause delay in shipment?
235

10. The foreign engineers and our inspectors are ... discussing the results of the
tests. 11. Is there anything... you would like me to do for you? 12. Well try to make
some ... tests tomorrow, if possible.
VII. :
1. ... Manager said th a t... tests of... new model of... car were to start in ..
quarter of... hour. He also told us that he was sorry he couldnt show u s ... factory,
because he was expecting ... customer that morning but would join us ... little
later, as soon a s ... appointment was over. 2. They charge ten pounds... night for
... good room a t ... hotel I spoke to you about. Besides, its near... railway station
and it will take you less than ... hour to get to ... office. 3 .1 asked Mr. Sidorov,...
director o f ... factory, to give me ... information about... results of... test. He sent
me ... information 1 wanted w ithout... delay. 4. I wanted my friend to come and
see me, if possible. I knew he was staying at ... Moskva Hotel. 1 was waiting for
him when he phoned and told me that he wouldnt have ... opportunity to come as
he h a d ... lot of things to do a t ... factory. 5. Of the two motors which we had tested
a t ... factory,... first was o f ... better quality.... second motor worked... little worse
because there was... small defect in ... insulation.
VIII. :
1. Last month some ... the engineers ... Machinoimport w ent... Manchester
... business. They were to sign a contract... Field and C o .... the delivery... chemical
equipment. During the preliminary talks ... which the engineers took part the
representatives discussed the prices, the quality ... the goods and the terms ...
payment. As regards the terms ... payment Machinoimport was to open a Letter
... Credit ... the London Bank ... shipping documents. During their stay ...
Manchester the representatives ... the buyers were to inspect the models ... the
equipment. Before they arrived... Manchester the sellers had made arrangements
... their visit... the plant.... the whole the quality... the goods met the requirements
... the buyers and none ... the engineers found any defects ... the designs ... the
models. So the buyers expected the equipment which the firm was to deliver to be
.......standard.
2. Techmachimport expected the sellers to ship the machines... contract No.
5 ... accordance ... the delivery dates. However, none ... the lots which the sellers
were to ship arrived ... tim e .... their letters the sellers wrote that the plant w as...
schedule as the engineers had found defects ... the designs ... the machines. It
caused delay ... the shipment ... the goods. ... reply Techmachimport asked the
sellers to make arrangements ... the shipment of the goods not later than the 15th
... October.
IX. :
1. , , ,
. 2.
, . 3.
,
. 4. , ,
,
. 5. ,
. 6. ,
. 7.
,
236

. 8. ,
.

III
SPEECH EXERCISES
X. .
XI. :
1. What do you usually do if you want to inspect the machines under your
order? 2. What do you do if you notice some defects in the machines which you
have ordered? 3. What questions can you discuss with foreign businessmen during
preliminary talks? 4. What will you do if you receive the goods with delay? 5. What
can cause delay in delivery? 6. What do you do if the tests show that the machines
which youve ordered do not meet all your technical requirements?
XII. :
1. They took part in the test of the equipment. 2. We visited one of the firms
factories. 3. Mr. S. inspected the machines under contract No. 135. 4. The rest of
us will go to the beach. 5 .1 knew that he had not told us everything. 6. They told
me that somebody was waiting for me downstairs. 7. This caused delay in shipment.
XIII. , :
ARRANGEM ENTS ABOUT A VISIT TO A PLANT
A VISIT TO A PLANT
preliminary talks to invite
to inspect to make arrangements
to make arrangements Chief Engineer
Sales Manager to test
possible to find defects
for inspection to eliminate
to expect up to standard

AT A TESTING DEPARTMENT DELAY IN SHIPMENT


Chief Engineer under the contract
to test not to arrive
a motor to find out
not in accordance with to cause
a design delay
on the whole behind schedule
to meet the requirements to improve
quality
to do one's best
as soon as possible
XIV. :
I
The other day we visited one of the factories of Brown and Co. who had offered
us motors of high quality. We had never done any business with this firm before,
so we wanted to take part in the tests. But during the preliminary tests...
237

II
Next week Im going to London to inspect the reactors under our order. One
of these days Ill go to the booking-office and ...
III
Mr. Novikov came to London on Saturday morning. He telephoned Harrison
and Company and they arranged to start testing the machines on Monday. The
next m orning...
XV. :
A CIGAR
Mr. Dickson felt very bad. One of his friends recommended him doctor Hill
who always gave his patients good advice. So Mr. Dickson made arrangements to
see the doctor the next day.
When doctor Hill had examined Mr. Dickson, he told him to go to a village
and stay there not less than a month. He also recommended him to go to bed
early, drink milk, eat a lot of vegetables and meat and to smoke only one cigar a
day. If you take my advice, said the doctor, you will soon feel as well as before.
Mr. Dickson looked a little surprised when he heard the doctors advice, but the
doctor did not notice it and though Mr. Dickson was about to ask him something
he called the next patient.
A month later Mr. Dickson came to doctor Hill again. How are you? the
doctor asked him. You look better now. Did my advice help you?
Thank you, said Mr. Dickson, I did all you had recommended me to do. 1
went to the country, I ate a lot of meat and vegetables but one cigar a day nearly
killed me. You see it is impossible to begin smoking at my age.
a cigar [si':] ; a patient | ' peijsnt| ;
to examine [ig'zaemin] ; advice [s'dvais] ;
to look surprised ; nearly ; to kill ;
at ones age -.
XVI. :
Petrov: May I speak to Mr. Evans, please?
Secretary: Im sorry Mr. Evans isnt available. He has gone on business
and wont be back until next Wednesday. This is his secretary
speaking. Can 1 help you?
Petrov: Yes, please. My name is Petrov.
Secretary: Im sorry, I didnt quite catch your name.
Petrov: Petrov. P-e-t-r-o-v. Im from Moscow.
Secretary: Oh, yes, Mr. Petrov, thats right. Mr. Evans expected you to
phone him, and he asked our Sales Manager, Mr. Phillips,
to have a word with you. Now Im putting you through to
Mr. Phillips.
Phillips: Good afternoon, Mr. Petrov.
Petrov: Good afternoon, Mr. Phillips. I wonder if I can make
arrangements with you about the test of the equipment we
are buying from you.
238

Phillips: Certainly, you can. This is just what Mr. Evans wanted me
to talk to you about. When would you like us to make the
test?
Petrov: Well, as soon as possible. If everything is ready for the test
let's start it on Monday.
Phillips: Very good. Then we are expecting you at the testing
department of our factory on Monday. Good-bye.
Petrov: Good-bye.
to catch a name ()
XVII. :
1. Meet Mr. Green, Sales Manager of Carton and Co., and make arrangements
with him about the test of the equipment you are buying. Ask him about the results
of their preliminary tests.
2. Telephone Mr. Thomson and let him know that you are not pleased with
the results of the test. Tell him that your inspectors have found some defects in the
machines. Ask him when they will be able to eliminate the defects.
3. Meet Mr. White and tell him that the test of the car showed that its design
was not quite up to standard. Say that you would like them to improve the design of
the car.
XVIII. :
1. A visit to a factory. 2. At the testing department of a factory.

LESSON FIFTEEN

THE FIFTEENTH LESSON

Grammar: 1. .
2.
, , , , ,
, , .

Revision: 1. .
2. .
3. .

GRAMMAR NOTES
I.

,
.
I myself [mai self] it itself [it self)
you yourself [jo: 'self] we ourselves [ 'selvz]
he himself [him 'self) you yourselves [jo: 'selvz]
she herself [ha: 'self] they themselves [dam 'selvz]
239


one oneself [wAn 'self].
:
1. .
to find oneself ,
to enjoy oneself
In an hour we found ourselves at the
station. .
I believe you enjoyed yourself in the ,
country yesterday. .
:
,
,
2- .
usually shaves in the morning. .
Children, go and and wash yourselves ,
before dinner. .
2. (, , ).
,
, .
bought himself a new tie. .
She never told us anything about -
herself. .
:
.
feels quite well today.
.


.
(, , ) ,
, .
.
Ill 'find the' newspaper myself. .
She her'self 'heard it. .
II. , , ,
, , , ,

:
the Art Theatre, the Ermolova Theatre, the Bolshoi Theatre, the Pushkin
Museum, the Fine Arts Museum.
, , , , ,
.
Kursk Station; Liverpool Station; Sheremetievo Airport; London Airport;
Vavilov Street; Oxford Street; Sokolniki Park; Hyde Park; Trafalgar Square;
Mayakovsky Underground Station; Highgate Underground Station.
240

I
GRAMMAR EXERCISES

I. - ,
:
1 .1 shall enjoy myself at the theatre. 2. We found ourselves near the Moskva
River. 3. She usually cooks breakfast herself. 4. He booked the tickets himself.
5. Im going to answer the letter myself. 6. They themselves will contact the firm.
II.
:
1.1 believe well be able to eliminate these defects.... 2. If you walk down the
street youll find ... in front of the theatre in ten minutes. 3. 1think if you go skiing
next Sunday you will greatly enjoy.... 4. Ive bought... a green hat which goes very
nicely with my brown coat. 5. Let him read the letter t o .... 6. She... is retired now
but her husband is still working. 7. He doesnt like speaking o f ... . 8. If Mr. N.
comes to our office tomorrow, Ill speak to him ... . 9. Dont forget to shave ... if
you go to the theatre. 10. T hey... want to test the equipment.
III. :
1. , , .
2. .
3. 20 . - ,
. 4. .
. 5.
. 6. , -
. 7.
, . 8.
. 9.
, . 10.
- .

T ext
SH O PPIN G
On Thursday afternoon Mr. Zotov and Kozlov were not busy. So they went
shopping. They walked down Oxford Street1and called at Selfridges2, one of the
biggest department stores in London. You can always find a lovely collection of
suits, dresses, raincoats, shirts, and a lot of other things there.
Mr. Kozlov wanted to buy himself a suit for summer wear, so they went to the
department of ready-made clothes.
Kozlov: Will you, please, show us one of those suits?
Shop-assistant: What colour would you like? We have them in various
colours3.
Kozlov: Grey, please.
Shop-assistant: And what size, sir?
Kozlov: I really dont know as sizes are different in different countries.
Kozlov went to the fitting-room and tried on 2 or 3 suits before he found
his size.
241

Kozlov: How much is it?


Shop-assistant: 170 pounds.
Kozlov: I think, its rather expensive.
Zotov: Yes, but it fits you nicely. I advise you to buy it.
They bought the suit and came up to a lift-attendant to find out where the
shoe department was.
Kozlov: Excuse me4, where is the shoe department?
Lift-attendant: Its on the third floor.
They took the lift and in a minute found themselves in the shoe department.
Shop-assistant: What can I do for you, sir?
Kozlov: I want a pair of black shoes.
Shop-assistant: What size shoe do you wear, sir?
Kozlov: Size ten, I believe.
Shop-assistant: How will this pair of shoes suit you?
Kozlov: Ill try them on now and see. I dont think this is my size.
They are too tight.
Shop-assistant: Here is another pair, a size larger.
Kozlov: Oh, these are quite comfortable. Ill take them. How much
do they cost?
Shop-assistant: 45 pounds.
Mr. Kozlov gave a fifty pound note5 to the shop-assistant. In a few minutes
the shop-assistant came back and gave the parcel and the change to Mr. Kozlov.
When they were about to leave the shop they noticed several stalls with souvenirs
of London. Kozlov chose five souvenirs, one for himself and the others for his
friends. He paid for them and they left the shop. Then they went to Oxford Circus
Underground Station6to get to the British Museum.

COMMENTARY
1. They walked down Oxford Street... - (
).
2 .. .. at Selfridges [ 'selfrid3iz] = at Selfridges shop.
3. We have them in various [ 'vearias] colours.
.
4. Excuse me ... [iks'kjuiz] , .
- .
Im sorry... . .
.
Excuse me, can you tell me the way to Pushkin Street? ,
, ?
Im sorry I cant see you at 11 oclock tomorrow. ,
11 .
5. ...a fifty pound note. ... 50 .
note,
fifty pound
.
6 .. .. Oxford Circus [ aksfad 'sa:kas] Underground Station Cep-

242

VOCABULARY NOTES
shop n
Ill have to go to the shop to buy
some bread, .
to go shopping
We usually go shopping on Saturdays.
.
to be busy [ 'bizi]
Ill be busy tomorrow, .
to call v ,
Lets call a porter, .
to call at (-.)
On our way home we called at the
box-office to buy tickets, ,
to call on ( -.)
I expect you to call on us on Sunday, (),
,
a department store
There is a big department store in our
street. ,
lovely [ Lvvli] adj , ,
a lovely house (-)
a lovely woman
lovely weather
collection [ko'lekjbn] n ,
There is a lovely collection of suits in
this shop. ,
dress n
an evening dress
raincoat ['reinkout] n .
shirt n ()
What colour shirts do you like?
?
wear [weo] n , ()
for summer wear
for winter wear
Id like to buy myself a new dress
for summer wear, .
ready-made adj
a ready-made dress
a ready-made coat
a ready-made suit
clothes [kloudz] n pi
clothes
.
His clothes were new. .
shop-assistant ['Jop o'sistont] ,
grey adj
243

size n
What size shirt do you wear? ?
really [ 'rioli] adv , ,

What do you really think about it?
?
We are going to the Caucasus this .
summer.
Oh, really? , ?
real adj ,
fitting-room [ 'fitir) rum] n
The fitting-room is to the left of the
door. .
to try on V
Will you try on this grey suit? , ,
.
But Ive already tried it on. .
How much is it? ?
rather [ 'raids] adv
The book is rather difficult for me.
.
expensive [iks'pensiv] adj ,
This raincoat is not expensive but ,
very lovely, ,
cheap adj
to fit v , ,
This dress fits you well, .
to advise [sd 'vaiz] v
to advise .
I advise you to see this film.
.
advice [sd'vais] n ,
to give advice
to take advice
advice
.
It isood advice. You can take it. .
.
shoe [fu:] n ,
to find oneself
In half an hour we found ourselves
in a small village near a river, ,
pair n
a pair of skates
a pair of trousers
to wear (wore, worn) [wes, wo:, worn] v , ...
She was wearing a lovely black dress
yesterday. .
244

tigh t [tait] adj


Dont take these shoes if they are tight. He ( ) ,
.
to c o st (c o s t, c o st) V
How much does this shirt cost? ?
n ote n ,
a five pound n ote 5
a on e pound n ote 1
p arcel [ 'pa:sl] n ,
Here is your parcel, ,
chan ge [tjeind3] n
Dont forget to take the change, ,
several [ 'sevrol] pron
syn. a few
som e
My daughter plays the piano several
hours a day. ,
stall [sto:l] n ,
a b o o k stall
a new spaper stall
souvenir [ 'survsnia] n
Ive brought some souvenirs from
London. .
to c h o o se (c h o s e , ch osen )
[tju:z, tjouz, tjouzn] v
He has ch o sen roast-beef for dinner. ,
oth er [] adj
other
, .
.
I see only four studens in the room.
And where are the others'? . ()?
Som e o f our students study English,
others study German or French. ,
.
H e has two sisters. One sister lives in .
M oscow , the other lives in Orel. , .
underground [ 'xndsgraund] n
to go by underground .
I go to my office by undergroond. .
m useum [mjm'zism] n
We are going to the Pushkin M u seu m
on Sunday. .
to enjoy o n e se lf
syn. to have a good tim e
Did you enjoy you rself there? ?
square [skwes] n
My brother lives in Triumphalny
Square. .
245

money ['nuni] n
money ,
.
Where is the money? It is on the desk. ?
.
myself (himself, herself, yourself, itself, ,
ourselves, yourselves, themselves) pron
II
GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY EXERCISES
I. :
I. Would yon mind showing us one of those suits? 2. We have suits in different
colours. 3. He tried on one or two suits. 4. It is rather an expensive dress. 5. They
found themselves in the shoe department. 6 .1 paid ... pounds for this pair of shoes.
Oh, really? 7. Here is another pair of shoes, a size larger. 8. He chose a few souvenirs
for himself. 9. What colour shirts do you like? 10. He is wearing a nice suit today.
11. Excuse me, can you tell me where the department of ready-made clothes is.
II. can, may, must, neednt, to
be able to, to have to, to be to :
1. Yesterday I went to the nearest shoe shop to buy a pair of shoes for country
wear. Though there was a lovely collection of shoes there I ... choose any that suited
me. So I ... to go to another shop. 2. The Fine Arts Museum is not far from here.
You... take the underground. You... just walk there. 3.... I try on this blue raincoat?
Certainly. Here is the fitting-room. 4. You ... not smoke inside the Moscow
Underground. 5.1... to buy a shirt if I buy this suit. Its rather expensive. 6. When we
went out of the Museum it was already a quarter to seven and our train... to start in
half an hour. So w e... to take a taxi not to miss the train. 7. My friend advised us to go
to the State Department Store. He said we ... to buy everything there. 8. If I ... buy
myself a raincoat today I ... to go shopping tomorrow as the day after tomorrow Im
leaving for the Caucasus. 9.... we take the lift to the shoe department? No, you ....
Its on the first floor. 10. W hen... you to go to the holiday-home? I ... to be there this
Thursday. Oh, really? And have you already packed everything? Not, yet. My suit
case is very bad. I ... to buy a new one to-day.
III. , :
1. , . 2.
, . 3.
? , . 4.
, , . 5.
? 6. ,
, . 7. ,
. 8.
. . 9.
. 10. .
IV. ,
, :
1. ,
. 2. .
246

. . 3.
. , ,
. 5. , , ,
48. ? . , . 6.
, . . 7.
. 8. , , ,
.
V. other, another, the other, others, the others:
1. I dont like the colour of this raincoat. Will you show m e... one? 2. Yesterday
I bought two shirts: one fo r... pounds and ... fo r... pounds. 3. My friend has
come to Moscow for a holiday. He is going to visit the Gorky Museum, the Pushkin
Museum and ... . 4. I see only two students in the room. Where are ...? 5. The
shop-assistant showed me two dresses. One was green, and ... was blue. 6. Ill take
this pair of shoes. ... that Ive tried on are not comfortable enough. 7. My elder
daughter is going to a holiday-home next week. She has bought two dresses for
summer wear, a pair of shoes, a swimming suit and ... things. 8. 1 can go to the
theatre on Wednesday or on Saturday as on ... weekdays Ill be very busy.
VI. :
1. I went shopping yesterday. I wanted to buy ... raincoat for myself.... shop-
assistant showed me ... blue raincoat. It was my size and I liked... colour. But when
I tried on ... raincoat I saw it was too short.
2 .1 have ... sister. She lives in ... Krimskaya Square. There i s ... fine park near
... block of flats she lives in. When I come to see her we sometimes go t o ... park for
a walk.
3.... shop-assistant told me that in their department there was... fitting-room
where I could try on ... suit. He also said th a t... fitting-room was to ... left o f ...
shop-window.
4. When I came up to ... man to ask him ... way t o ... Pushkin Museum he told
me that it was far from ... Petersburg railway station and advised me to go there by
... underground. I thanked ... man and went to ... underground station.
VII. :
1. Lets call... the Moskva Department Store. I'd like to buy a pair... shoes...
summer wear. I wonder if they have anything ... red." I believe youll choose
something to w ear... your red dress. Here is a nice pair, try i t ... .D o the shoes fit
you? They are nice and just my size. Ill buy them.
2. Yesterday when I was ... to leave my office, my wife phoned me and asked
me to go shopping ... her. She told me not to call... her as she was going to join ...
me near the Central Department Store. When she came there, I was waiting ...
her. We went upstairs... the departm ent... ready-made clothes as my wife wanted
to buy a raincoat. The shop-assistant showed us a few raincoats... various colours.
My wife tried ... a blue one. The raincoat was her size and she liked it. After we
had bought the raincoat, we called ... another shop where I chose a h a t... myself.
VIII. ,
:
The shop-assistant said that they (to have)... 2. The stall where they (to sell)
...... was downstairs. 3. Youll get there in 20 minutes if you (to g o )... 4. He said
he would buy a pair of shoes when he (to com e)... 5. I didn't buy that suit as it
not (to fit)... 6. Though the dress fitted me well 1 didn't buy it because i t ... (to be
247

expensive) 7. After I tried on the jacket I ... (to be tight). 8. Ill call on you as soon
as I (to com e)... 9. This is the shop where y ou... (to buy). 10. If it rains tomorrow
I ... (to wear).
IX. :
summer wear, expensive, a collection, a size, money, to try on, to fit, really, to cost
AT THE DEPARTM ENT OF READY-MADE CLOTHES
What can I do for you, sir?
I want a coat fo r....
We have a large ... of coats in various colours.
Have you got anything in grey?
Certainly. W h at... do you wear?
-5 0 .
Will you, please, go to the fitting-room and ... these two coats.
I think Ill take this dark grey one. I t ... me well. How much does i t ...?
... pounds.
O h ,.... Its not very.... Here is the .... Thank you.
X. , :
1. . ,
. 2.
,
. 3. . .
. 4. . . 5.
, , . ? 50.
. , . ?
, . . 6. ? ...
. 7. , ,
. 8.
, : . 9.
. 10.
.
III
SPEECH EXERCISES
XI. , .
XII.
:
1. You neednt try on a coat if you know your size. 2. In autumn people wear
raincoats every day. 3. People never go shopping on week-days, they usually go
shopping on Sundays. 4. If you want to get to Sokol from our Ministry, take bus
64. 5. You can get from our Ministry to the Bolshoi Theatre only by underground.
6. If you go abroad, you usually buy souvenirs for your friends. 7. Holiday-makers
enjoy themselves a lot at holiday homes. 8. If there is a fitting-room in a shop, you
can try on dresses, suits and coats there. 9. People dont like buying expensive
things.
XIII. :
1. What can you say about the largest department stores in Moscow? 2. Where
did you go shopping the other day and what did you buy? 3. What do you buy
248

before you go on a trip? 4. What will you tell the shop-assistant if you want to buy
a ready-made suit? 5. Why do people try on things before they buy them? 6. Why
do people like buying souvenirs? 7. How can we get to the Central Department
Store from Arbat Street?
XIV. , :
AT THE DEPARTM ENT OF BUYING A DRESS
READY-MADE CLOTHES
a suit for summer wear
a collection a fitting-room
for summer wear to try on
a size to fit
to fit to choose
expensive
BUYING SHOES
a pair AT A SOUVENIR SHOP
for winter wear to call at
to try on a lovely collection
a size a shop-assistant
to fit to recommend
tight to choose
expensive to pay
change
XV. :
1. Yesterday I bought myself a lovely pair of shoes. I paid for them and the
shop-assistant gave the parcel to me. But when I got home I found that I had no
parcel...
2. Last Saturday I decided to call at one of the department stores as I wanted
to buy myself a suit for summer wear. They had a lovely collection of suits. So ...
3. One day I promised my friend to call for him after work. We wanted to go
shopping together ...
XVI. :
I
A girl called at a department store. She wanted to buy a new pair of shoes for
summer wear. But before she went to the shoe department she came to the dress
department where her friend was working as a shop-assistant Hallo, she said.
How are things going with you? How is business? "Oh, very bad, was the
reply. I sold only one dress yesterday. And today it's even worse.
How could it be worse? asked her friend.
Today the customer has given back the dress she bought yesterday, answered
the shop-assistant.
as . ; even
II
A man with a lot of tackle in his hand came into the fishmongers.
Gadsby, Id like you to give me some fish to take home with me, he said to
the shop-assistant.
249

How many, sir?


Oh, three or four mackerel will be enough.
Yes, sir. But wont you take salmon too?
But why? asked the man in surprise.
You see, Mr. Smith, your wife came here early this morning and said if you
came in with your fishing tackle I was to advise you to take salmon, if possible, as
she liked that fish better than any other.
tackle ; salmon [ 'sasman] , ;
mackerel [ 'maekarel] ; the fishmongers [ ']

III
DIZZY SPELLS
Mr. Dripp was rather a rich man, but he was not happy as he often had dizzy
spells. The doctor could do nothing for him. So he advised a change of climate.
He sent Mr. Dripp to California and Arizona but it did not help him. At last the
doctor said to Mr. Dripp, You must make a trip around the world and find out
which climate is the best for you. Before Mr. Dripp went on a trip he decided to
buy himself a few things at a department store. He bought two pairs of shoes, a
suit for summer wear and at last decided to buy several shirts. He asked the shop-
assistant to show him size 14 shirts. The shop-assistant said to Mr. Dripp that he
must take size 16. N o, answered Mr. Dripp. I always wear size 14. But, said
the shop-assistant again, you must wear shirts of a larger size. Mr. Dripp did not
agree, I want you to wrap up size 14 shirts for me, he said.
Very well, agreed the shop-assistant, if you want to have dizzy spells, buy
size 14.
It was a surprise to Mr. Dripp but he understood why he had always had dizzy
spells.
dizzy spells ; rich ;
a climate [ 'klaimit] ; at last [at Ta:st] ;
around [a'raund] ; to agree [a'gri:] ;
to wrap up []
XVII. :
1. Drop in at the shoe department of a store. Tell the shop-assistant what
kind of shoes youd like to buy. Say whether the shoes fit you. Pay for the pair
youve chosen and receive the change.
2. Ask the shop-assistant to show you a brown coat. Ask him if the coat is
expensive. Try it on. If you dont like the coat, ask the shop-assistant to show you
another one.
3. Meet Mr. Brown at your office. Discuss the offer of the goods he has made
you. Ask Mr. Brown to give you a discount and discuss the terms of payment.
4. Discuss with Mr. Tomson, the representative of the buyers, the prices of
the machines you are going to sell and the delivery dates. Ask the buyers to increase
their order.
XVIII. :
1. Shopping. 2. Moscow department stores. 3. Buying a coat (suit, shoes).
250

LESSON 16

Grammar: Passive Voice (Simple Tenses)


Passive Infinitive
Tail-questions
Conjunction both... and
Nouns used only in the singular

GRAMMAR NOTES
I. The Passive Voice (The Present, Past and Future Simple Tenses)
( )

to be (Simple tenses)
(Past Participle) .

be + Past Participle

This book is written in English.


They were not taught English last year.
The children will not be taken to the cinema on Sunday.
Will the contract be signed next Wednesday?
:
1. , , ,
; ,
.
A lot of equipment will be exported next year.
Is English spoken in many countries?
Were they not given any homework yesterday?.
That book was written a few years ago.
2. , ,
, ;
, , by.
Tickets for the theatre are usually booked by my father.
The dinner was cooked by her mother.
The letter will be translated by Petrov.
:
, . , , -
251

,
. :
A book was given to him.
I gave him a book. He was given a book.
( A beautiful picture was shown to me.
They showed me a beautiful picture.
I / was shown a beautiful picture.

.
:
1. + .
The goods will be delivered in June. .
Were his books translated into Russian?
?
2. , -.
Business letters are usually written by engineers.
.
3. - (
, ,
).
They were taught French last year.
.
I was told they had settled the matter. ,
.

II. Passive Infinitive ( )


(Active Infinitive)
(Passive Infinitive).
to be
(Past Participle) .

to be + Past Participle

to be invited, to be done, to be made


,
.
.
The contract can be signed tomorrow.
.
The test must be made in a week.
.
A table is to be reserved for Saturday. (
) .I.

III. Conjunction both ... and


both ... and ... ; ...

.
252

It was both cold and wet. , .


We have made great progress both in
industry and agriculture. ,
.
,
,
.
Both the brother and the sister like music.
Both my friend and 1 are engineers.
IV. Tail-Questions ( )
,
,
( ) .
,
.

?, ?
.
1. The 'coat is 'rather expensive,1. ,
isnt it? Yes, it is. ? .
2. You 'dont 'like the colour, do 2. ,
you? No, I dont. ? .
3. They can 'increase their order, 3. ?
cant they? Yes, they can. - .
4. He has 'never 'been to London, 4. ,
has he? No, he hasnt. ? .
,
:
( ),
, ( )
,
. ,
, ( )
, .
: to be
, arent.
Im a teacher, arent 1 ? Yes, you are.
. ,
,
.
Its 'rather exYpensive, isnt it?
You 'dont 'like the Ycolour, /do you?
V. Nouns Used Only in the Singular ( ,
)
advice , ,
information , , , news ,
253

, progress , , money
.
.
,
this, that, much, little
it.
What is the news?
Where is the money? It is on the table.
Much good advice was given to him.
:
a piece of.
She has given me a piece of good ()
advice. .

GRAMMAR EXERCISES
I. Read and translate these sentences; pay attention to the words and word
combinations given in bold type:
1.1. Their letter was received yesterday. 2. The offer will be discussed tomorrow.
3. Where will the children be taken on Sunday? 4. Was the book translated into
Russian last year?
2.1. The passengers were taken to the plane by a stewardess. 2. The price
problem was settled by them yesterday. 3. By whom is the letter signed?
3.1. Their address must be found right away. 2. Are the goods to be shipped
next week? 3. Can the goods be delivered next week? 4. The cable is to be sent to
day.
II. Give the Passive Infinitive of these verbs according to the model and translate
them into Russian:
to ask to be asked
to collect, to declare, to inspect, to open, to pack, to receive, to do, to find, to
meet, to show, to see, to take, to book, to call, to catch, to give
III. Make up affirmative, interrogative and negative sentences using the given
tables and translate them into Russian:
a) The mail is (not) brought in the morning,
Many foreign are (not) studied at the Ministry.
languages
These points was (not) discussed during the talks,
The luggage were (not) unpacked by Ann.
will (not) be

b) Is the museum visited by a lot of schoolchildren?


Are we invited to dinner?
Was the cable received yesterday?
Were the remaining shipped last week?
goods
254

c) Can the first lot be delivered right away?


Must accommodation be reserved in advance?
the defects be eliminated in a few days?
the contract be signed in a week?

IV. Change these sentences according to the given model. Change the adverbs
accordingly.
Model: A lot of business letters are translated every day.
A lot of business letters were translated last week.
A lot of business letters will be translated the day after tomorrow.
1. He is often sent on business abroad. 2. These books are sold everywhere.
3. Professor Brown is usually asked a lot of questions after his lectures. 4. What
questions are discussed during business talks? 5. Passengers are taken to the plane
a few minutes before it takes off. 6. Payment is made against shipping documents.
7. Are tickets for planes booked in advance?
V. Answer these questions:
1. Were any letters received from England yesterday? 2. When is the mail
usually brought to your office? 3. How many times a day is the mail to be brought?
4. Is the mail brought on Sundays? 5. What countries is your equipment exported
to? 6. Were a lot of goods exported by your company last year? 7. In what case is a
discount given? 8. Can any ready-made clothes be bought in this shop?
VI. Put questions to the words given in bold type:
1. The appointm ent was made for Friday (1). 2. Many hotels can be
recommended for stay in our city (1). 3. This book can be bought in any book-shop
(2). 4. Delivery dates will be discussed during the preliminary talks. (3). 5. The
remaining goods are to be shipped in May (2). 6. The offer was not accepted because
the prices were too high (1).
VII. Turn these sentences into the Passive Voice:
1. Can we reserve a single room with a private bath in your hotel? 2. The
receptionist asked him to fill in a form in English. 3. The secretary showed Mr.
Black into the- Presidents private room. 4. We must settle the problem in the
shortest possible time. 5. They told me they would improve their model. 6. 1 could
not find the book anywhere. 7. They serve breakfast from eight to eleven at this
hotel.
VIII. Answer these questions and sum up the answers:
1. Are any defects found during tests ? By whom are they to be eliminated ? Is
another test to be made after the defects are eliminated? 2. Is the Tretjakov Gallery
visited by a lot of people? Whose pictures are shown there? Can pictures from
other countries be found there? What museum can they be found in? 3. Are foreign
businessmen usually met at the airport? Where are they taken from the airport? Is
accommodation booked for them in advance? Why is accommodation to be
booked in advance?
IX. Open the brackets using the verb in the correct voice and tense-form:
Mr. Nikitin came to Manchester to inspect the goods which his company
were buying from a British firm. All the necessary arrangements for Comrade
Nikitins visit to the factory (to make) on Monday. As soon as Mr. Nikitin (to
255

come) to the factory he (to take) to the shop where machines usually (to test).
Only a few temperature tests (to make) that day. During the tests some defects in
the motors (to find). The chief engineer (to promise) Mr. Nikitin that the insulation
(to improve) and all the other defects (to eliminate) in two or three days. He also
(to say) that the goods (to ship) in time. When all the necessary documents (to
sign) Mr. Nikitin (to leave) Manchester for London.
X. Translate these sentences into English:
1. ? 2. ,
. 3. ,
, , . 4.
,
. 5. . 6.
. 7. ,
. 8. ,
. 9. ? 10. ,

(Longman & .). 11. ,
(Crowley and .). 12.
.
XI. Read and translate these sentences:
1. No news is good news. 2. We got this information yesterday. 3. Lets listen
to the latest news. I expect it to be interesting. 4 .1 have little money and cant buy
the book now. 5. Im sorry to say he has made little progress in German. 6. We got
little information on this m achine-tool. We would like to get some more
information. 7 .1 hope hell give you a piece of good advice.
XII. Translate into English:
1. . 2. ? 3.
? .
. 4.
. 5. , , . 6.
. 7.
. . 8.
. 9.
? , (). 10.
?

Text
TRADE FAIRS AND EXHIBITIONS
International fairs and exhibitions play a very important part in the development
of good friendly relations between all the countries. They help to establish business
contacts and promote trade and trade, as we know1, promotes peace. Trade fairs
and exhibitions are very popular with businessmen and ordinary people as well.
Therefore our country which stands for peace and friendly relations with all
countries takes part in fairs and exhibitions arranged both abroad and here in
Russia. All the exhibitions in Moscow are organized up to the highest international
standarts. A large number2of all kinds of goodsAon display in exhibit halls ( pavilions)
- -
256

as a rule give the visitors an idea of the development of the national economies of
the countries-participants and their peoples way of life in general.
Recently the 8th Moscow international exhibition Powertek-Energoprogress
2003 was held (on March 2528 2003) in the sport complex Olympiysky.
Powertek-Energoprogress 2003 was an im portant international event in
energetic branch in Russia, the CIS3and other countries of the world. The
participants showed their main achievements and the progress the industry and
science had made for the last few years.
The efficient staff of stand-attendants, guides and interpreters did their best to
make the exhibition a success. Colourfid leaflets helped to advertise the equipment.
The exhibition was crowded with visitors from opening to closing time. The entries
in the visitors book show that the visitors were greatly impressed by the exhibition.
The participants of the exhibition were interested in introducing their goods to
new markets and as a result a lot of contracts were signed at the exhibition. For
many leading companies participation in exhibitions arranged in Moscow became
a good tradition.

At a Chemical Exhibition
Mr. Menon, an Indian businessman called at the Russian pavilion. His firm
was interested in radiators. After he had seen the latest models on display he met
Mr. Sokolov, a Russian engineer.
Menon: Good morning.
Sokolov: Good morning. Glad to see you in Moscow again. How do you like
the exhibition?
Menon: Its wonderful. Its the biggest chemical exhibition, isnt it?
Sokolov: Oh, yes, over a thousand firms are taking part in it.
Menon: Ive just seen your pavilion. I must say youve made great progress,
your exhibits show it.
Sokolov: Yes, we are doing good business in chemical goods now.
Menon: I saw your Radiator Model B-73 in operation. Youve just started
producing it, havent you?
Sokolov: Yes, six months ago.
Menon: Itll go for export, wont it?
Sokolov: Certainly. All the exhibits that are on display in our pavilion are for
sale.
Menon: Wed like to place an order for Model B-73. It meets our
requirements.
Sokolov: m pleased to hear it.
Menon: When could we discuss the matter in detail?
Sokolov: What about Monday, say eleven in the morning.
Menon: That suits me all right, but I m afraid I must be leaving* now, I have
an appointment at twelve. Thank you very much. Good bye.
Sokolov: Good bye. See you on Monday.

COMMENTARY
1. as we know
* I must be leaving
257

2. a large number
3. the CIS (the Commonwealth of Independent States) (
)

VOCABULARY NOTES
fair n
international f .into' naejbnl] adj
Russia often takes part in international
fairs and exhibitions,
development [di 'vebpmant] n ,
Our country is interested in the
development of foreign trade,
establish [is'taeblij] v
Russia does a lot to establish contacts
with different countries,
promote [pra'mout] v ,

peace n
The Russian people have always stood
for peace all over the world,
to be popular [ 'popjuls] ,

be popular with smb. ,
-.
1 hear, the young poet is very popular
with the students,
as well adv , (
)
We asked the firm to send us
catalogues and price-lists as well.
syn. too, also
therefore [fl'esfo:] adv ,
The price of the goods was very high
therefore our office did not accept the
firms offer.
stand for v , ,

Russia has always stood for trade with
all countries,
be on display ()
There are a few of Picassos pictures
on display in the Pushkin Museum,
exhibit [ig'zibit] n
exhibit [ig'zibit] v ,
Rembrandts pictures are exhibited in
the worlds biggest galleries,
pavilion [pa'viljon] n
258

(the) national economy


['nasjanal i'kanami]
participant [pa: 'tisipant] n
participation [pa: ,tisi'peif(a)n] n
life n
the way of life
Foreign visitors are interested in our
way of life.
in general ,
In general he is a fine man, I hope
youll like him.
hold (held, held) v , (
Passive Voice)
hold a meeting
an exhibition
a fair
a conference
talks
Very important business talks will be
held at our office next week,
event [i'vent]
When did the event take place?
branch [bramtj] n
What branch of industry does he work in'
main adj ,
achievement [a'tji:vmant] n
achieve [a'tji:v] ,
They have achieved good results in this
branch o f industry.
progress [ 'prougras| n ,
The progress of science in our days is
wonderful.
make (good, much, little) progress (...)
He has made good progress in his
studies for the last two months,
industry [ 'indAStri] n
industrial [in'dAStrial] adj
science [ 'saians] n
efficient [i'fijant] adjI ,
,
I must say, she is an efficient secretary.
staff [sta:f] n ,
stand-attendant ['staenda'tendant] n
guide [gaid] n ,
interpreter [in'ta:prita] n ()
We need efficient stand-attendants,
guides and interpreters for the
exhibition that will be held in a few
months.
259

success [ s s k 's e s ] n ,
be a success
His last book was a great succsess.
colourful ['kxtaful] adj ,
advertise [ 'sedvataizj v
Our firm is advertising new models of
machine-tools.
advertisement [sd'vsfiismsnt] n
You have read the advertisement about
the new model of compressor, havent
you?
crowd [kraud] v ,
be crowded with
It was a fine summer day and the park
was crowded with school children.
We could not get on the bus as it was
crowded.
over [ 'ouvs] ,
entry [ 'entri] n
visitors book
impress [im'pres] v ,

The film Nine Days o f a Year
impressed everybody very much.
impression [im'prejbn] n
What is your impression of the exhibits
youve just seen?
make an impression on smb. -
-.
What impression did their new testing
department make on you?
introduce [intra'djuis] v , .
introduce to, into
All firms are interested in introducing
their goods to new markets,
as a result [ri 'zxlt]
in operation [ , 'reijbn]
When could we see the machine-tool
in operation?
produce [ 'dju.sl v ,
What models of com pressors are
Brown and Co. producing?
syn. make
for sale
be for sale ,
Are these dresses for sale?
matter n ,
The secretary will attend to the
matter right away, Mr. Brown said.
260

Whats the matter? ?


Whats the matter with Peter?
He hasnt come yet.
It doesnt matter ;
: , .
Im afraid I can't finish the letter
today.
It doesnt matter. It is to be sent
tomorrow.
in detail , ,
Now lets discuss the delivery terms in
detail.
message ['mesid3]

leave a message

take a message
Shall I take a message? - ?

VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR EXERCISES


I. Say from what verbs these nouns are:
developm ent, achievem t, advertisem ent, establishm ent, exhibition,
instruction, collection, impression, visitor, inspector, interpreter, exporter.
II. Insert one of these word combinations to be a success or to make progress in
the correct tense-form:
1. The boy ... in English for the last six months. Now he can read English
books. 2. 1 have seen a new film lately. I dont think it ... . Its not interesting.
3. Ulanova ... in all the performances. 4. Our science ... for the last few years.
5. If you work much at your English you will easily..., said the teacher. 6. When
the Bolshoi Theatre was abroad i t ... .
III. Use the conjunction both... and in these sentences:
M odel: 1. Peter and John like skating. Both Peter and John like skating.
2. He was interested in English and French. He was interested both in
English and French.
1. International fairs and exhibitions are held in our country and abroad. 2. The
stand-attendants and guides did a lot to advertise the new achievements of our
science and industry. 3. Visitors to the exhibition were interested in the exhibits
and the life of our people in general. 4. Peter and Ann were very much impressed
by the new performance. 5. The firm sent letters to the exporters and to the bank.
IV. Answer these questions:
1. There are flights to London daily, aren't there? 2. You are not going
shopping, are you? 3. These shoes are for summer wear, aren't they? 4. There isnt
always accommodation available at hotels, is there? 5. He has tried on the shoes,
hasnt he? 6. You will be sent on business one of these days, wont you? 7. New
York is one of the main industrial cities in the U.S.A.. isn't it?
261

V. Add tail-questions to the sentences and answer them:


1. The students have made good progress in their English for the last three
months. 2. He does not know the matter in detail. 3. The train will not be crowded
now. 4. That was the main problem. 5. We shall have no interpreter. 6. Bobrov is
an efficient worker. 7. They are advertising the new model. 8. You have seen the
advertisement. 9. He has seen the machine-tool in operation.
VI. Fill in prepositions or adverbs:
1. Are you going to take part ... the talks which are to be held the day after
tomorrow? 2. We shall discuss all these points after they see the equipment ...
operation. 3. We stand ... cooperation () ... all countries. 4. In
1957 the Russian word sputnik was introduced ... many languages. 5. The
museum was crowded ... visitors, therefore it was rather difficult to come up ...
some of the exhibits that were ... display. 6. Marshaks books are very popular ...
children, arent they? 7. The professor said, Petrovs work made a very good
impression ... me, Id like you to read it too. 8. Have you read ... our latest
achievements... the field ... biology? 9 .1 wonder if the shoes which are exhibited
... the shop window are ... sale. 10. When are you going to discuss the new plan ...
detail? 11. Lets go for a walk ... the fields. 12. The Leipzig Fair which is held ...
Leipzig twice a year, ... autumn and ... spring is very popular ... businessmen ...
different countries. They come ... the fair as they are interested ... introducing
their goods... new markets.
Russia always takes p art... the fair. Our country is interested ... doing business
... as many countries as possible.
VI. Paraphrase these sentences using the active vocabulary:
1. What do you think of the pictures that are shown in the Manezh Exhibition
Hall now? 2. These cars are made at our plant. 3. Our trade representatives in
Great Britain did their best to develop trade between the two countries. 4. Best of
all we liked his last picture. 5. The exhibition will be arranged in Sokolniki park.
6. Can any of the goods which are on display be bought? 7. We expect to get a
discount of more than 3 per cent. 8. Smoktunovsky was a great success with many
theatre-goers. 9. Foreign students asked Boris Stepanov, a Russian student, a lot
of questions, as they wanted to know how Russian people lived. 10. In summer
there are a lot of people in the trains as a lot of Moscovites live in the country.
11. Im sorry, Ive forgotten to bring the book. Oh, its nothing.
VIII. Translate these sentences into English paying attention to the words and
word combinations given in bold type:
1. .

. 2.
.
,
. 3. ,
, (conference). 4.

. (
) . (parties)
,
262

. .
, , (profitable)
. 5.
, ? 6.
? , ? 7.
,
.

SPEECH EXERCISES
IX. Retell the text.
X. Reproduce the dialogue: a) as it is, b) in indirect speech.
XI. Give extensive answers to these questions:
1. What is Russia doing to establish contacts with other countries? 2. Are
foreign firms interested in exhibitions which are held in Russia? Why? 3. Why are
our exhibitions so popular? 4. Why do a lot of firms take part in international fairs
and exhibitions? 5. Are all firms interested in introducing their goods to new
markets? Why? 6. Why is it necessary to advertise goods? 7. What information
can you get from advertisements? 8. What do our trade organizations do to advertise
their goods? 9. Why is it necessary to have an efficient staff of stand-attendants,
guides and interpreters at exhibitions? 10. In what way does foreign trade help a
country develop economy?
XII. Read and reproduce the following dialogue: a) as it is, b) in indirect speech.

M AKING AN APPOINTM ENT


Secretary: 2491305
Stepanov: May I speak to Mr. Brown, please?
Secretary: Im afraid Mr. Brown is away at present. This is his secretary
speaking. Can I help you?
Stepanov: Yes, please. My name is Stepanov. I should like to make an
appointment to see Mr. Brown.
Secretary: Oh, yes, Mr. Stepanov. We have received e-mail message from
Mr. Jones about you. Mr. Brown wants to meet you very much.
When would you like to come?
Stepanov: Well, as soon as possible. When is Mr. Brown coming back? Im
going to Leeds at the beginning of next month, and I should like
to see him before I go.
Secretary: Oh, hes away only for a few days. He is coming back on Monday.
Ill just get his diary. Can you come next Tuesday, September
22nd?
Stepanov: In the morning or in the afternoon?
Secretary: The afternoon, about half past three.
Stepanov: Yes, half past three suits me very well. Thank you very much.
Good-bye.

e-mail (electronic mail) : he is away


; diary [ 'daiari] n -: at the beginning of next
month [bi'ginip]
263

XIII. Make up dialogues based on these assignments:


1. At the exhibition of British agricultural machinery you got interested in a
new model of tractor which was on display in the British pavilion. You saw the
machine in operation and decided that it would meet the requirements of your
clients. Contact the firm and ask them to make you an offer. Discuss the problem
of a discount.
2. Not long ago your friend worked at an exhibition which was held in a foreign
country. Ask him about his work there and about the business contacts which
were established there.
3. One of your friends has been on business to London and has just come
back. He signed a contract there. Ask him questions about his stay in London and
the business talks he had there.
XIV. Speak on the topics:
1. A visit to a foreign exhibition in Moscow. 2. A Russian exhibition abroad.
3. An international trade fair.
XV. Read the letter and do the assignments
Dear Editor,
Wherever 1 look these days, there are changes. The other day I visited, my
hometown and I hardly knew where 1 was. Only a year ago there was a lovely old
house in Main Street I was born there. My father sold the house several years ago
when he retired, but where is it now? When did they build those new stores? There
was a nice little market next door. Its gone. And where is the lovely green square?
Its gone too. What are they going to do next? These are just a few examples of
changes that are being made in our town every day.
Things have never changed so often or as fast as they have in the past ten
years. I dont know what young people think, but many older people (like me) are
beginning to feel uncomfortable. We are feeling the stress of constant change. Do
people who make these changes understand what problems they cause? When
will the pace of change slow down? When everything that is dear to us has
disappeared?
I am sure the increasing pace of change is the cause of some social problems
and mental illnesses.
They say that a change is as good as a rest. But lets make changes a little
more slowly and with a little more thought for their effect on people. Otherwise
we will have no rest at all.
Mrs. Delia Hope (Lakeland, Ohio)
editor [ 'edits] ; wherever , ; to build [bild]
(built, built) ; pace ; to cause [kn:z] a problem
; disappear [diss'pis] ; mental illnesses

A. Answer the questions:


1. Where does Mrs. Hope see changes? 2. Where was she bom? 3. Have things
always changed so fast? 4. Mrs. Hope was shocked, wasnt she? Why? 5. Why
does she feel uncomfortable? 6. What question does she ask the editor? 7. What
does she think about the people who make these changes?
B. Take a stand:
1. Do you agree or disagree with Mrs. Hope? Why? 2. How old do you think
she is? What kind of person do you think she is? 3. Do you think the town was
264

better a year ago or is it better to-day? 4. Do you agree that a change is as good as
a rest?
C. Discuss the following points:
1. How has your town or city changed for the last few years?
2. Discuss some changes in modem life which you like.
3. Speak about some other changes which you dont like.
4. Talk of the good points of the country life and about some of the problems
you may have if you went to live in the country.

LESSON 17

Grammar: Passive Voice (Present and Past Perfect)


Possessive Case of Some Nouns

GRAMMAR NOTES
I. The Passive Voice (The Present and Past Perfect Tenses)
The Present and Past Perfect Tenses
to be
(Past Participle) .

have (has) been + Past Participle


had been

Tickets have been booked. ( ).


Has he been informed of the test
results? ?
When I phoned them the matter ,
had not been settled yet. .
Present Past Perfect Passive ,
.
:
, (, to
attend to, to send for .).
,
.
They will attend to the matter. The matter will be attended to.
He has sent for the doctor. The doctor has been sent for.I.

II. The Use of the Possessive Case (


)

:
1. , :
had a very good time during his months leave.
They had a five minutes talk and then he left.
265

2. , ,
world, country, city ship.
London is Great Britains biggest industrial centre.
Our countrys trade is increasing from year to year.
Do you know how many countries will take part in the worlds fair this year?

GRAMMAR EXERCISES
I. Read and translate these sentences:
I. The machine has just been tested. 2. Good results have been achieved by
our industry for the last few years. 3. Havent the delivery dates been discussed
yet? 4. The secretary said that all the necessary information had been sent to the
firm. 5. Had the room been reserved before you came to London? 6. The contract
had been signed by the 15th of October. 7 .1 would like the matter to be attended
to right away.
II. Make up affirmative, interrogative and negative sentences using the given
tables:
a) The contract has just been signed.
The chemical equipment have (not) yet been delivered.
The goods been shipped.
An enquiry been sent to the firm.
The catalogues
They been told of the results
of the talks.

b) Have the machines been improved lately?


Has the company been informed for the last few years?
of the results
of the test
a lot of foodstuffs been exported yet?
any manufactured been imported
goods

c) The exhibits had not been sent to the three weeks


A lot of leaflets exhibition before the opening
The letter been translated of the exhibition,
The equipment been tested by two oclock,
been received before you arrived
been delivered at the factory,
before he left the city,
by the first of January.

d) Had any business been done before 1941?


the necessary been given to him before he left for the
instructions airport?
all the ordered been delivered by the end of the year?
raw materials
their price-list been studied before you started talks?
266

III. Tiim these sentences into the Passive Voice according to the given models:
M o d e l 1: We have reserved accommodation for comrade Ivanov.
Accommodation for comrade Ivanov has been reserved.
1. I have not yet paid the bill. 2. Have they booked tickets to the theatre?
3. We had established business relations with the firm by 1966. 4. Has their
chemical equipment impressed you favourably? 5. We had seen the machine in
operation before we discussed the price.
M odel 2: I have brought in the luggage.
The luggage has been brought in.
1. He has not filled in the declaration yet. 2. They said they had sent for the
doctor. 3. The porter has not yet attended to the luggage. 4. The director told
them he had gone through the contract.
IV. Tiirn these sentences into the Present and Past Perfect Tenses. Make all
the necessary changes.
1. He was given a lot of interesting information. 2. The accommodation was
reserved by cable. 3. The luggage was brought in by the hotel porter. 4. Were all
the points cleared up yesterday? 5. The price list was not looked through. 6. The
latest model was well advertised.
V. Open the brackets using the verb in the correct tense and voice form:
a) 1. Exhibitions and fairs (to hold) every year in many countries of the world.
2. A British exhibition just (to hold) in Moscow. 3. A large Russian exhibition (to
hold) in London in the summer of 20... 4. A large Russian exhibition (to hold) in
the USA before the USA exhibition (to open) in the Russia.
b) 1. Foreign representatives usually (to give) the necessary information on
the goods they are interested in. 2. Mr. Johnson (to give) all the necessary
information on the Model during his visit to our office? 3. Mr. Johnson (not to
give) all the necessary documents yet. 4. Mr. Johnson (to give) all the necesssary
information before we started talks.
VI. Translate these sentences into English:
a) 1.
. 2. ,
. 3. , , ,
? 4. , . 5.
,
.
b) 1. , ? 2.
. 3. ,
. 4. ,
.

T ext
MOSCOW
Moscow, the capital of Russia, is both the most important political centre of
the country and one of the worlds greatest centres of science, culture and art.
No wonder a lot of tourists and businessmen come to Moscow to get acquainted
with its famous buildings, monuments, theatres, rich museums and art galleries.
267

Moscow was founded eight and a half centuries ago by Yuri Dolgoruky. Peter
the Great made St. Petersburg the capital of Russia in 1712 but Moscow remained
the heart of Russia. In 1918 Moscow became the capital of the countiy again.
Moscow is one of the most beautiful cities in the world. The heart of Moscow
was and has remained the Kremlin and Red Square. The Kremlin is a wonderful
example of Russian architecture. Its cathedrals and palaces are remarkable
museums which help foreign tourists to get to know the history of the Russian
people. The Main Kremlin tower,' the Spasskaya Tower, has become the symbol
of the country.
Recently the Christ the Saviour cathedral** has been built on the bank of the
Moskva river.
There are more than 80 museums in Moscow. The largest ones are the Pushkin
Museum of Fine Arts and the Tretyakov Gallery, a wonderful collection of Russian
art.
Moscow is also famous for its theatres: the Bolshoi Opera House, the Maly
Theatre, the Sovremennik and others.
But historical places are not the only attraction for tourists. Almost all of them
enjoy visiting new areas which appeared in the last century. Their streets are broad
and straight. The building of Moscow University which is situated on the Vorobyev
Hills was completed in the 1950s. It attracts a lot of visitors. In fine weather they
can enjoy a beautiful view of the city which opens from the Vorobyev Hills.
Moscow is growing very quickly and the traffic problem is becoming one of
the main problems of the city Traffic jams have become usual phenomena.*** Traffic
and industrial enterprises**** cause air pollution. Certainly the city authorities****
are doing their best to make air clean but it is not easy.

SIG H TSEEIN G
Tourist: Is it possible to see anything of Moscow in one or two days?
Moscovite: Well, yes, but of course, not much.
Tourist: What would you advise me to see first?
Moscovite: Id start with Red Square and the Kremlin. And do you like
art galleries?
Tourist: Im fond of them.
Moscovite: Then, I believe youll enjoy visiting the Tretyakov Picture
Gallery. Theres a big rich collection of paintings by old
Russian artists there. A few new paintings have been
exhibited there lately.
Tourist: Do you think I ll be able to see the Kremlin and the
Tretyakov Gallery in one day?
Moscovite: Im afraid youll be too tired. You could spend a whole day
in the Tretyakov Gallery......
tower [taua] n .
the Christ the Saviour cathedral [ 'kraist seivja] .
phenomena [fa'namana] npt .
industrial enterprise [ 'entapraiz] .
authorities [a: 'Garitiz] n .
You could spend a whole day in the Tretyakov Gallery.
.
268

Tourist: How can I get to Red Square?


Moscovite: By underground. The nearest underground station is a few
minutes walk from here. Go straight ahead then cross the
street at the traffic lights and there it is.
Get off at Teatralnaya Square.
Tourist: Thank you very much.
Moscovite: Not at all. Have a good time!3 Good-bye.
Tourist: Good-bye.

ASKING THE WAY


Visitor: Excuse me, could you tell me the shortest way to Trafalgar
Square?
1st passer-by: Im afraid not. Im a stranger here.
2nd passer-by: Bus 86 will take you there.4
Visitor: Wheres the nearest bus-stop?
2nd passer-by: Its just round the corner. Go straight ahead as far as the
traffic lights, then turn to the right and there it is.
Visitor: Thank you very much.
2nd passer-by: Not at all.

COMMENTARY
1. They enjoy visiting new areas as well.
.
to enjoy, ,
Gerund (-ing).
son enjoys reading books about travellers.
2. The new building of Moscow University |ju:ni' voisiti ].
:
London University, Oxford University, St. Petersburg University.
3. Have a good time! .
: have a good journey, have a good time .

....
4. Bus No. 86 will take you there.
.
to take, , ,
, ".
This bus will take you as far as Moscow University.

VOCABULARY NOTES
capital [ 'ksepitl] n
Whats the capital of Russia called?
political [' litiksl] adj
You are very much interested in
Political Economy, arent you?
centre [ 'senta] n
culture [' () n
art n
no wonder f 'wxnda]
No wonder he knows French so well.
He lived in France about six years.
tourist [ 'tusristj n
famous [ 'feimasj adj ,
Cronin is one of the most famous
English writers of to-day.
be famous for smth. -.
London is famous for its changeable
weather.
rich adj
The Hermitage Museum is one of the
biggest and richest art museums in the
world.
rich museum
collection
country
man, etc.
heart [ha:t] n
remain [ri'mein] v
example [ig'za:mpl] n
architecture [ 'a:ki 'tektjbj n
My father can tell you a lot of
interesting things about the
architecture of old Russian towns,
architect [ 'a.kitekt] n
What a fine building! I wonder who the
architect is.
cathedral |ka'Oi:drel| n
palace [ 'pahis| n
remarkable [ri'maikabl] adj
get to know smth., smb. -., -.
He got to know the English language
well in a short time,
history [ 'histari] n
There are a lot of interesting books on
history in this book shop.
He has got a lot of books on the history
of Russia.
historical |his 'torikalj adj
historical place
play
film, etc.
Historical places such as Borodino are
visited by a lot of tourists,
appear [a'pia] v
A lot of new blocks of flats appeared
near Sokolniki Park.
270

ant. disappear
complete [ 'pli:t] v ,
The firm cabled that shipment would
be completed in a few days.
monument [ 'monjum.mt] n
monument to smb. -.
Moscow is famous for its historical
monuments to great Russian people,
the only
I ts the only book by J. London I
havent read yet.
attraction [a'traekjbn] n
build [bild] (built, built) v
The first Moscow Underground line
was built in 1935.
recently ['rksontli] adv (
)
My sisters family came to live in
Moscow recently.
But: I have not seen Peter lately.
(),
broad |bro:d] adj
broad street
square
river, etc.
The squares in new districts of
Moscow are usually broad and
beautiful,
straight [streit] adj
straight street
way
answer, etc.
almost [ 'odmoust] adv
Her brother is a great traveller. He has
visited almost all big cities of our
country.
be situated [ 'sitjueitid] ,
The village I was bom in is situated on
the Volga river,
attract [a'traekt] v ,
The last industrial exhibition attracted
a lot of visitors.
attract smb.s attention [s'tenjbn] -.
Im afraid his new book wont attract
the readers attention,
view [vju:] n
first adv ,
271

Where would you like to go first?


be fond o f smth., smb., doing smth. , -.,
-.
son is fond of music.
He is fond of his sister.
She is fond of swimming, isnt she?
syn. like smth., smb., doing smth.
:
I am fond of S. Maughams stories. ( )
I didnt like his last story. (
, )
painting n ,
paint v ,
;
Repin started painting when he was
four.
What colour are you going to paint
your car?
artist n
tired ['taiod] adj ,
be tired
Nick must have a holiday, he is very
tired.
go straight ahead [ hed]
Go straight ahead. Itll take you only
five minutes to get to the nearest
underground station,
cross V ;
Look to the left before you start
crossing the street,
crossing n
at the crossing
You are to turn to the right at the first
crossing.
traffic n
little traffic
much
heavy
There is m uch (heavy) traffic in
Petrovka.
(The) traffic is getting heavier in big
cities from year to year,
traffic lights
not at all ,

Thank you very much for your help.
272

Not at all.
passer-by n
stranger n ,
A stranger helped me find your house.
I am afraid, 1 can't show you the way.
I am a stranger here,
bus (tram) stop ()
round the corner
The department store is just round the
corner.
as far as ( )
Go straight ahead as far as that high
yellow building on the left,
turn V
turn to the right (to the left)
Go straight ahead as far as the traffic
lights; then turn to the left,
found [faund] v ,
St. Petersburg was founded in 1703.
to get acquainted with [ weintid]
They got acquainted last year.
To acquaint oneself with smth. -.
They acquainted themselves with this
museum.
century [ 'sentjhri ] n
traffic jam ['traefik '] ,
pollution [ps'lurjn] ( )

SUPPLEMENTARY LIST
places of interest
I know that you are from Kiev. What
places of interest would you
recommend me to see there?
go (be) on a tour [tua] (
)
bridge [brid3] n
embankment [im'baenkmant] n
garden n
narrow ['naerou] adj

VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR EXERCISES


I. a) Say from what verbs these nouns are:
building, crossing, packing, painting, planning, finding
b) Say from what adjectives these adverbs are:
recently, finally, quickly, easily, differently, usually, poorly, historically,
certainly, suddenly
273

II. Make up sentences using the given tables:


a) No wonder almost all tourists visit the Tretyakov Gallery,
the performance is a great success,
our capital attracts so many visitors,
theyd like to see the machine in operation,
they are going to place a big order for the model,
exhibitions are very popular with people,
he has made great progress. He works a lot.

b) The city is famous for its historical monuments.


The district its fine architecture.
The place its rich museums and places of interest.
This writer its industry.
This artist his short stories.
his wonderful paintings.

c) They walked as far as the second crossing,


We got the department store,
Go straight ahead the traffic lights.
Sokolniki park,
the Metropol hotel,
the old University building,
the Ostankino Palace.I.V

III. Add tail-questions to these sentences and answer them:


1. Petersburg is famous for its wonderful architecture. 2. You are fond of
history. 3. A beautiful palace has been built recently. 4. The display of modem
paintings attracts a lot of visitors to the museum. 5. You are not very tired. 6. Bus
6 will take you to the Tate Gallery. 6. Theres a rich collection of books in the
British museum. 7. You know how to get to the new building of Moscow University
from here. 8. St. Petersburg was founded in the 18th century. 9. He hopes to
acquaint himself with the new area of the city.
IV. Put these sentences into indirect speech introducing them with a verb (say,
tell, ask) in the Past Tense:
1. How can I get to Red Square? 2. Its a ten minutes walk from here. 3. Go
straight ahead as far as the traffic lights. 4. Will bus 3 take me to the museum?
5. The shop is just round the comer. 6. Dont cross the street here. 7. What shall
we see first? 8. Weve been told a lot about the Ostankino Palace. 9. When was the
city founded?
V. Him these sentences into the Passive Voice:
1. Peter I built a new city on the Neva, called it Petersburg and made it the
capital of Russia. 2. The Moscow museums and palaces attract a lot of tourists.
3. The engineer said that he had completed the work by January 15. 4. Who has
painted this picture? 5. Rossi, one of the greatest Russian architects, introduced a
new style into Russian architecture. 6. Had they crossed the river before it became
dark?
274

VI. Use the verbs in brackets in the correct voice and tense form:
1. These blocks of flats (to build) before they (to come) to live there. 2 .1wonder
when the old building of Moscow University (to build). 3. Experts say that the
picture (to paint) by Ivanov. 4. The firm let us know yesterday that shipment could
(not to complete) in time. 5. Peter (to be) to the Exhibition of Modern Art? What
paintings do you think (to attract) his attention? 6. With what countries our cultural
relations greatly (to improve) recently?
VII. Fill in prepositions or adverbs:
I advise you to start sightseeing... the centre ... Moscow. 2. My brother is fond
... travelling. 3. ... my way ... the office I met a group of tourists from Bulgaria.
They were standing ... the monument ... Pushkin. 4. What is Yalta famous ... ?
5. What other interesting buildings are situated ... Moscow ? 6. If you are fond ...
Russian art I advise you to visit the Russian M useum... Petersburg.... the museum
you will see a lot of wonderful paintings... Russian artists. 7. The Elistory Museum
is a few minutes walk ... Revolution underground station. When you go ... the
underground station turn ... the left and go straight ahead ... the comer and there
it is. 8. Cross the square ... the traffic lights, then turn ... the left and walk ... the
monument... Gogol. 9. Ill stay here... 11 oclock. 10. When did you get acquainted
... Ann?
VIII. Paraphrase these sentences using the active vocabulary:
1. I like skiing very much. 2. Dostoevsky is well-known both in our country
and abroad. 3. Many new buildings have been built lately in Moscow. 4. There was
only one child in the family. 5. Can you tell me the way to Red Square? Sorry,
I cant. I am not a Moscovite. 6. You can get to that street by trolley-bus 12.
IX. Fill in articles or possessive pronouns where necessary:
1. Is there ... bus from here to the Hermitage? Yes, theres ... bus stop
round ... corner. Any bus will take you there. Tell... conductor you are to get off at
... Palace Square. 2. Is i t ... long way from here to ... British Museum? Im
afraid I cant tell you anything. Im ... stranger here. 3. Is ... Kazan Railway
station far from here? Oh, its quite near. Go straight ahead, then turn to ...
right and youll see it. 4. Im looking forward to ... lecture on ... old Russian
architecture. 5. Everyone was impressed b y ... architecture of St. Basil Cathedral.
6. She teaches ... Russian history at school. 7. He is interested in ... history of old
Russian towns. 8. Both my wife and I are fond of... music. She likes best of a ll...
music of Rakhmaninov and I like ... music of Prokofiev. 9.... Art is long,... life is
short. 10.... abstract art is difficult to understand. 11. My brother is fond of... art
of Picasso. 12. He has completed ... work you asked him to do. 13.... Russia has
made great progress in ... development of... science recently.
X. Make up sentences according to the given models. Use the verbs given in
brackets:
1. A new contract has just been signed (to complete, to point, to cross to attract,
to build). 2. They told us that the exhibition had been visited by a lot of businessmen
(to give advice, to choose, to try on, to change, to wear). 3. Their offer has been
attended to (to fill in, to go through, to send for. to take off).
XI. TVanslate these sentences into English:
1. ,
. 2. , .
275

. 3.
? 4. , ,
. 5. ,
. . 6.
, , . 7.
? .
. ,
. 8. , ,
, ,
. 9.
. 10. .
. 11.
. . ( ). 12.
? .
. . 13.
, . 14. .
,
. 15.
.

SPEECH EXERCISES
XII. Retell the text.
XIII. Reproduce the dialogue: a) as it is, b) in indirect speech.
XIV. Give extensive answers to these questions:
1. Why do a lot of foreigners come to see Moscow? 2. Why do they usually
start sightseeing with the Kremlin? 3. Which of the cities is more beautiful
Petersburg or Moscow? Why do you think so? 4. What is the town you were bom
in famous for? 5. Why does Sochi attract so many tourists? 6. Why are some people
so fond of travelling?
XV. Read the situation and do the assignments.

PEOPLE ARE POLLUTION


The Arguments For:
1. Pollution is increasing. People cause pollution. Therefore if we want less
pollution, we must have fewer people.
2. There is only a limited amount of land. As the population grows, we have
to farm more land for food and build more housing, in this way we destroy
land. There will be famines.
3. Solution The government must have a population control policy, impose
tax on people who have more than two children.

The Arguments Against:


1. Those who want fewer people hate mankind. People are a more important
resource than trees and rivers.
2. Who can really say where there are too many people in the world.
3. There will not be less pollution with fewer people, industry, cities, cars will
still pollute.
276

4. If we have fewer people industry and society will suffer.


increase [in 'kri:z] ; destroy [d i'stroi[ ; famine
['ftemin] ; solution [sa'lu.jn] ; impose [im'pouz]
tax ; mankind [maen'kaind] ; suffer ['sAfa]
.
A. Answer the following questions
1. Why must we have fewer people? 2. Why will there be famines if there are
more people? 3. What is meant by population control policy? 4. Will fewer
people mean less pollution? 5. What effect will a small population have on industry
and society? 6. Where does pollution come from?
B. Take a stand. Give your reasons for your opinion.
1. Which of the two arguments do you agree with? 2. Will a population control
policy work in our country? 3. Will the country suffer or benefit if there are fewer
people? 4. Population is not the main problem nowadays. What do you think
about it?
benefit [ 'benifitj .
C. Discuss the following points:
1. Is birth control right or wrong? 2. What are your views on immigration and
emigration? 3. Talk about world population. What parts of the world are
overcrowed?

LESSON 18

Grammar: Complex Object (with Passive Infinitive)

GRAMMAR NOTES
Complex Object (with Passive Infinitive)
(Complex Object)

(Passive Infinitive)'.

:
Active lntmitive passive lntmitive
I want the student to read this book. I want the book to be read.
, , .

We don't expect the goods to be delivered next week.


He would like the letter to be sent to-day.
Do you want the mail to be brought right away?
,
, , .*
*. . 16.
277

GRAMMAR EXERCISES
I. Read and translate these sentences:
I. We expected Mr. Ivanov to be given catalogues for chemical equipment.
2. We should like the work to be completed as soon as possible. 3. You didnt
expect the goods to be delivered so late, did you? 4. Does the representative of the
firm want all the points to be cleared up to-day? 5. They expected us to be impressed
by the exhibits. 6. He didnt want the matter to be discussed to-day, did he?
7. Would you like the fax to be sent to-day?
II. Make up sentences using the given table:
We should like the goods to be delivered by January 1.
Do you want? this equipment to be tested at the Sellers plant,
We do not expect the contract to be signed to-day.
Comrade N. to be exhibited here,
to be ordered from this firm,
to be sent on a business trip.

III. Open the brackets using the verb in the correct voice form:
1. f I should like you (to settle) the matter to-day.
* I should like the matter (to settle) to-day.
2. f They expected the firm (to sell) the goods on c.i.f. terms.
*They expected the goods (to sell) on c.i.f. terms.
3. The firm wanted us (to place) an order with them.
I The firm wanted the order (to place) with them.
4. / Do you want them (to book) accommodation in advance?
I Do you want accommodation (to book) in advance?
5. f Would you like him (to complete) the translation to-day?
I Would you like the translation (to complete) to-day?
6. f We expect them (to clear up) the matter right away?
I We expect the matter (to clear up) right away.
IV. Translate these sentences into English:
1. , ,
,

,
,

.

.
2. , ,

.
,
.
278

3. . -
?
?
?

?


, ,
,
:
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII. .
I. , ,
, , ,
.
II. :
20th March, 2003
March 20, 2003
III. :
1. ,
2. ,
3. ( )
( ).
IV. :
Dear Sirs, !
Gentlemen: ! (,
).
V.
. : Order No. 2125/34 for Byelaruss
Tractors 2125/34 ".
VI.
:
Yours faithfully, 'j
[ jd:z Teiefuli] ?
Faithfully yours, '

Example:
Black & Co.. Ltd., 23rd October, 2003
20 Moorgate Street,
London, E.C.2,
Great Britain.
279

Dear Sirs,

Yours faithfully,
Traaeimporf

T ext
CORRESPONDEN CE C O N C ER N IN G THE PURCHASE OF
COTTON FABRICS
Brown & Co., Ltd"., of London were interested in buying Cotton Fabrics
from Tradeexport. They contacted the company they knew well who gave them
the address of Tradeexport. The British firm and Tradeexport exchanged the
following letters.
London, 29th March, 2003.
Tradeexport,
Moscow G-200,
Russia
Dear Sirs,
Your name and address have been given to us by Smith and Sons, who have
informed us that you are exporters of Cotton Fabrics from Russia. We are regular
buyers of Cotton Fabrics and shall be glad if you will2 send us your samples with
prices and all particulars concerning delivery dates and terms of payment.

We are looking forward to your reply,


Yours faithfully,
Brown and Co., Ltd.

Brown & Co., Ltd., March 28, 2003


12 Bedford Street,
London, E.C. 2,
Great Britain
Dear Sirs,
We thank you for your letter of the 20th March and are pleased to learn3 that
you are interested in purchasing Cotton Fabrics. We enclose our current price-list
which gives all particulars concerning terms of payment and delivery. Our samples
have been sent to you by separate mail. We hope you will find what you require
among the samples, and if you need any further information, please let us know.
Yours faithfully,
Tradeexport
Enel.

Brown and Co., Ltd. were satisfied with the quality of the samples which they
received from Tradeexport, and asked Tradeexport to make them an offer.
,
.
Ltd. limited ['limitid] .
280

On the 5th of April the offer was sent to Brown and Co., Ltd. On the whole the
offer was acceptable to the firm but they found the prices somewhat high. They
therefore sent Mr. Smith to Moscow to settle the price problem.
Mr. Bobrov, Vice-President of Tradeexport, received Mr. Smith at his office.4
They greeted each other and got down to business.

DISCUSSING THE PRICE


Smith: Weve carefully examined the samples of your Cotton Fabrics, and
we are favourably impressed by samples 58, 81 and 90.
Bobrov: Im pleased to hear it.
Smith: But Im afraid your prices are somewhat high. Wed like to hear
your lowest prices.
Bobrov: We are quoting our best prices. They are not higher than the prices
our competitors quote. All our buyers find them reasonable.5Weve
concluded a lot of transactions at those prices lately.
Smith: You see, we are going to place a big order with you, especially for
sample 81. Will you give us a discount then?
Bobrov: If you order over 500,000 yards well give you a 5 per cent discount.
Smith: Well, I ll contact my people and let you know their reply later.

COMMENTARY
1. Brown & Co. Ltd., of London were interested in buying Cotton Fabrics
from Russia. They contacted the company they knew well who gave them
the address of Tradeexport.
,
, ;
they
(them). ,
, who.
Tradeexport are exporters of mining equipment from Russia. They are
doing business with a lot of foreign firms.
2. We shall be glad if you will send us your samples... ,
...

will.
3. We are pleased to learn ... ...

.
4. Mr. Bobrov, Vice-President of Tradeexpon received Mr. Smith at his office.
Vice-President ,
,
. :
is director of our office.
5. All our buyers find our prices
reasonable. .
to find, to consider, to think :
to find (consider, think) smth. + adj.
281

They consider the price quite com


petitive. .
She found the book interesting. ,
They thought her beautiful. .

VOCABULARY NOTES
correspondence ( .koris pondsns] n ,
concerning [kon'samirj] prep ,
We have received your enquiry
concerning the latest models of our
cars.
syn. as regards, about
purchase f'psitjbs] n
Are you pleased with your purchase?
purchase v
Tradeimport are going to purchase
chemical equipment from Green &
Co.
syn. buy
cotton fabrics [ 'faebriks]
exchange [iks'tjeind3] v ,
inform v
inform smb. of smth.
inform smb. that...
The firm informed us of their new
address.
They informed us that the goods were
ready for shipment.
regular buyers
sample [ 'sa:mpl] n
We asked the firm to send us samples
of their goods.
for sample
The first lot of Wheat for sample 441
is ready for shipment.
particulars [pa'tikjubz] n (pi.) ,
You will find all the particulars in our
latest catalogue.
learn v ( )
I ve just learned that Peter left for
London yesterday.
enclose v
enclose with (the letter) ()
We enclose our price-list with this letter.
enclosure [in 1] n
end. ,
enclosure (
, )
282

current adj
current price-list
quotation
month
year
news
Our office has signed a lot of contracts
in the current year. What are the
current prices for wheat?
by separate mail [ separit] ()
We are sending you our samples by
separate mail,
need v ,
need smth. -.
I shall need the book tomorrow',
further adj ,
further information
development
discussion
be satisfied [ 'sastisfaid] v
be satisfied with smth. (
) -.
Our president is satisfied with the
results of the talks,
vice-president n
Who is vice-president of Tradeinvest?
The vice-president has not come from
abroad yet.
greet v ,
The famous writer was greeted by
thousands of people,
each other pron
The young people looked at each other
and smiled happily.
get down to business
After a short talk about the weather,
they got down to business.
syn. start doing smth.
carefully [ kesfuli] adv
We have carefully studied the firms
latest catalogues.
examine [ig'zaemin] v , ;

examine goods
samples
machines
The goods were carefully examined by
the buyers.
283

favourable [ 'feivarabl| adj ;


favourable terms of payment
conditions
weather
favourably adv
Smith & Co. were favourably
impressed by the quality of our
samples,
quote v
quote the price
the terms of payment
the terms of delivery
Please, quote your lowest price for
Model BC-73.
competitor [ 'petits] n
reasonable adj ( ),

I think, weve quoted quite reasonable
prices.
transaction [trasn'zaekjan] n
to conclude a transaction
When was the transaction concluded?
especially [is'pejbli] adv
These docum ents are especially
important, ask Comrade Petrov to get
them ready in the shortest possible
time.
yard n ( = 0,914 )

Written Speech Patterns Used in Business Language


1. We thank you for your letter of the
1st October. 1 .
2. We learn your address from ... ...
3. We are pleased to learn ... () ...
( )
4. We ask you to send u s ...
...
5. Please, send us ...
6. We shall be glad if you will send u s ... ,
...
7. We enclose with the letter ... () ...
8. We are looking forward to your reply.
.
9. Yours faithfully ... ...
10. Please, let us know ... , ...
11. We are prepared (to do smth.) ( -).
12. We wish to inform you ... ...
We should (would) like to inform
y o u ...
284

13. We have to inform you ... ... (-


)
14. In reply to your letter... ...
15. We are pleased to offer you ...
...

VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR EXERCISES


I. a) Say from what verbs these nouns are:
examination, quotation, reduction, expectation, information, impression,
payment, requirement, enclosure.
b) Form adverbs from these adjectives by means of the suffix ly:
regular, recent, careful, faithful, especial, historical, political, favourable,
reasonable.
II. What are the English equivalents for (see the text):
1. , . 2.
, / .
3. . 4. 20
. 5. , , - .
6. . 7.
. 8. 58, 81 90
. 9.
81. 10. . 11.
500,000 , 5%.
III. Make up sentences using the given tables:
1. The firm informed us of your address.
We have informed them of the results of the tests.
the number of their telephone.
the time of the appointment.
all particulars of the talks.
the name and the address of the hotel.IV.

We consider(s) the price competitive.


They find(s) the time convenient.
The firm think(s) the traffic heavy.
My friend this kind of art wonderful.
I the collection interesting.
the congress.

IV. Make up sentences according to the given model:


M odel: We want the firm to send us their samples as soon as possible.
We want the samples to be sent as soon as possible.
1 .1 would like you to enclose all our latest leaflets with the letter. 2. The vice-
president wants you to examine the goods before they are packed. 3. The firm
expects us to change the terms of payment. 4. We expect our representative to
conclude a big transaction this month. 5. We would like you to quote the prices
f.o.b. London port. 6. I would like the secretary to attend to the matter right away.
285

V. Fill in prepositions or adverbs:


1. We enclose ... this letter our latest catalogues and current price-lists... the
machines you are interested.... 2. Brown & Co. were satisfied... the quality... our
samples. 3. We are sending you our samples... separate mail. 4. The buyers were
favourably impressed ... the samples and placed an o rd e r... u s ... some ... them.
5. Tradeexport quoted c.i.f. prices ... Model GH-5. 6. I wonder who they have
learned our address.... 7. We usually inform our regular buyers... the new models
we introduce ... the market. 8. ... reply ... your letter ... the 2nd April we wish to
inform you that all the necessary documents have been sent ... you ... separate
mail. 9. What organization informs foreign firms ... exhibitions which are to be
held ... our country?
VI. Fill in articles or possessive pronouns where necessary:
1. They have been ... regular buyers o f ... mining equipment from ... Russia
fo r... last few years. 2. We are pleased to inform you that,., goods under Order 231
were shipped yesterday. 3. 1 am afraid our customers are not satisfied with ...
purchase they made from Smith & Co. 4. Tradeimport informed Brown & Co.
that on ... whole ... offer was acceptable to them b u t... prices which they quoted
were somewhat higher than ... prices of their competitors. 5. Our company gave
... firm ... address of Tradeexport. 6. We thank you fo r... enquiry and are pleased
to inform you that we have sent you to-day ... samples of... Wool () by ...
separate mail.
VII. Insert the words:
a) still, yet, more, other, another or else
1. We havent ... got down to the discussion of the terms of payment with the
firm. 2. A few... competitors have appeared on the world market lately. 3. W hat...
has been enclosed with those documents? 4. What ... particulars would you like
me to send to the firm? 5. They are ... examining the goods, arent they? 6. Shall I
give you ... cup of black coffee?
b) to learn, to find out or to get to know
1. They both studied at Moscow University, no wonder they ... each other
well. 2. When I ... that my friend had come back from his business trip I decided
to visit him that same day. 3. Please, contact the firm and ... if they have eliminated
the defects. 4. We are pleased ... that the quality of our goods meets your
requirements. 5. When Bubnov lived in India he ... the life of the Indian people
well. 6. Boris asked me to phone the airport an d ... when the plane from Vladivostok
was due.
VIII. Translate these sentences into English:
a) 1. ? 2.
10 . 3.
. 4.
. ? 5.
,
. 6. .
b) 1. ,
, . 2. ,
, . 3. ,
(on art)? 4.
286

, . 5.
,
? 6. ,
. 7. ,
.
IX. Make up sentences according to the given models. Use the verbs given in
brackets.
1. They want the goods to be delivered next month, (to examine, to ship, to
purchase, to inspect, to introduce)
2. We did not expect the documents to be enclosed with the letter, (to build, to
hold, to impress, to exhibit)
3. Would you like this point to be discussed to-day? (to advertise, to test, to
paint, to quote, to sign)
X. Translate these sentences and letters paying attention to the words and word
combinations given in bold type:
1. . 2.
, ,
-6. 3. ,
. 4. ,
, 5. ,
.
6. , 10 20...
.

!
1 20...
(Wool).

. - ,
. .
,
Tradeexport
.

7. !
",
.
10 000 (Wheat).
, .
, .
.
,
287

SPEECH EXERCISES
XI. Retell the text.
XII. Reproduce the dialogue: a) as it is, b) in indirect speech.
XIII. Give extensive answers to these questions:
1. In what case are samples sent to the Buyers? 2. What materials do you enclose
with your letters when you are sending an offer? 3. What kind of information can
you get from catalogues (price-lists)? 4. What terms of payment do you usually
quote? Do your customers find these terms favourable? Why? 5. What prices would
you call reasonable? 6. In what case can a discount be given?
XIV. Read and discuss these letters:
1.
Tradeexport,
Russia
Dear Sirs,
We thank you for your letter of the 3rd April and the samples of your goods
which you sent us by separate mail.
We have carefully examined them and are pleased to inform you that we are
quite satisfied with the quality of your goods.
We shall be glad if you will send us your offer. Please, quote your price both
c.i.f. London and f.o.b. Russian port.
We look forward to establishing business contacts with you.
Yours faithfully,
Green and Co., Ltd.
2. Moscow, April 21, 20...
Green and Co. Ltd.,
101 Carter Street,
London, E.C.I,
England
Dear Sirs,
We thank you for your letter of the 16th April and in reply we wish to inform
you that we are prepared to sell our goods at the price o f... per ton f.o.b. Murmansk
and at the price of... per ton c.i.f. London.
The goods can be delivered in July August.
Payment is to be made against shipping documents by a Letter of Credit.
As regards other terms and conditions, you will find them in our General
Conditions which we enclose with this Letter.
Enel. Yours faithfully,
Tradeexport

3. 28th April, 20...


Tradeexport,
Russia
Dear Sirs,
In reply to your letter of the 21th April we are sorry to say that we find your
prices somewhat higher than the prices of your competitors.
288

As regards other terms and conditions, they are quite acceptable to us and if
you can reduce vour prices by 10 per cent our Mr. Johnson will leave for Moscow
to start talks concerning our future transactions with your firm.
Yours faithfully,
Green and Co.

4. Moscow, May 10, 20...


Green and Co. Ltd..
101 Carter Street,
London, E.C.I,
England
Dear Sirs,
We have received your letter of the 28th April and have to inform you that we
cannot reduce our prices by 10 per cent.
Our prices are quite reasonable and our goods are in great demand on the
world market.
However, we could give you a 3 per cent discount as we wish to establish
business contacts with your firm.
We are looking forward to meeting your Mr. Johnson in Moscow.
Yours faithfully,
Tradeexport
XV. Read and reproduce the dialogue: a) as it is, b) in indirect speech.
A. Weve examined your samples of winter wheat and find that sample No.
421 meets our requirements.
B. Its a pleasure to hear that.
A. However you are quoting a high price.
B. Why, our price isnt higher than the world price. It may only seem high
since the current prices on the world market are higher than they were last
year.
A. You see, weve got a few quotations from your competitors and their prices
are lower. As you know we are going to order two big lots of 10,000 tons
each.
B. I am afraid, we shant be able to reduce our price. Our wheat is famous for
its high quality and the price is quite reasonable. I think we could give you
more favourable terms of payment.
A. What are they?
B. 50 per cent when you receive our cable that the goods are ready for shipment
and the remaining 50 per cent two months after delivery.
A. The terms seem good. Would you agree to reduce your price if we increase
the order?
B. I am afraid, we cant. Our wheat is in great demand. Weve got a lot of
orders from other firms at this price and more orders are coming. How ever
we are prepared to give you a 4 per cent discount if you double your order.
A. Well, I'll contact my people and give you our final reply in two or three
days.
winter wheat [wi:t] : ton [Un] ;
to double [ 'd,\bl|
289

XVI. Make up dialogues based on the following assignments:


1. Meet Mr. Brown and tell him that their samples impressed you favourably
and you would like to place a big order with them but you find their prices high.
2. Contact Mr. Smith and find out their terms of delivery and payment. Tell
him that you would become their regular buyers if their terms are acceptable.
3. Phone Mr. Lake and tell him that you would like to buy wool from them
but first you would like to see their samples.
XVII. Compose letters according to these assignments, use the written patterns
given in the lesson:
1. Inform the firm that you are regular buyers o f ... and you would like to
receive their samples, catalogues and other particulars concerning these goods.
2. Let the firm know that you are pleased with their sample No. 45 and are
going to place an order with them if they reduce their price.
3. Let the firm know that though both the payment terms and the delivery
dates are quite acceptable you cannot place an order with them as you find their
price high.
XVIII. Read and retell this story. Answer the questions given below.

WHILE THE AUTO WAITS


The girl in grey came again to that comer of the park. She sat down on a
bench and began reading a book. She had come here at the same hour on the
previous day and on the day before that, and there was a young man who knew it.
The girl was beautiful and no wonder she had attracted the young-mans attention.
The young man came nearer. At that moment the girl dropped her book, the
young man picked up the book, returned it to the girl saying a few words about the
weather and stood waiting. He hoped she would ask him to sit down. The girl
looked at him: You may sit down, if you like, she said. Im not going to read
now, I should like to talk. Then the girl told him that she was tired of her rich life
and she wanted to meet a man who was not spoiled by money.
I always thought, said the young man, that money is a very good thing.
Oh, you dont know how tired I am of dinners, trips, theatres, suppers. Sometimes
I think that if I love a man I shall love a simple man. What are you? I am a very
simple man. I work at a restaurant over there. Im a cashier. The girl looked at her
watch. Why are you not at work? she asked. To-day my work begins late. May
I hope to see you again?
I dont know. I must go now. Oh, theres a dinner and a concert to-night.
Perhaps you saw a white car at the comer of the park when you came?
Yes, I did, said the young man. I always come in it, the girl said, the
driver is waiting for me there. Good night.
And she went away. The young man looked at her while she was going out of
the park. When she disappeared round the comer he followed her. The girl left the
park, crossed the street and went into the restaurant the young man had spoken
of. A woman left the cashiers desk and the girl in grey took her place. It was clear
she was a cashier at that restaurant.
The young man left the park, walked down the street as far as the white car.
There he stopped, got into the car and said to the driver, Club, Henry.
(After OHenry While the Auto Waits)
290

bench ; to drop ; to pick up ; to spoil


; simple ; cashier [kae 'Jis] ; perhaps ;
driver ; to follow smb. -
Questions
1. Why do you think the girl said that she was rich? 2. Did the girl know
whose car was waiting at the comer of the park? 3. Why do you think the young
man told the girl that he worked at the restaurant? 4. Did she believe him? Why?
5. Will the young people meet again? Why do you think so? 6. Why is the story
called While the Auto Waits?

LESSON 19

Grammar: Complex Object (after the verbs to see, to hear, etc.)


Absolute form of Possessive Pronouns

GRAMMAR NOTES
I. Complex Object ( )
should (would) like, want, expect,
,
.
, to see, to hear, to watch, to notice, to feel.

to.
I saw him come up to the table and ,
take the letter. .
Did you hear her speak at the meeting? ,
?
: ,
Present Participle (
).

, ,
,
.
I saw him cross the street. , .
1 saw him crossing the street. , .
. Absolute form of Possessive Pronouns
( )
(,
your, her ..), (
),
, (
, , ..).
291

Singular Plural
I mine ours
II yours yours
III his, hers theirs


(absolute form)
.

This is his book. Mine is on the .


table over there. , .
I havent found my pen. Will you . ,
give me yours, please. , .
: a friend of mine (hers . .)
() . :
A friend of mine is coming today.
.
friend is coming today. .

GRAMMAR EXERCISES
I. Read and translate these sentences:
I. Ive often heard him talk about the town he was born in. 2. The father
didnt notice his son put on his coat and go out of the room. 3. I myself saw your
friend walking along the platform. 4. Ive just heard him say that it wont take
them long to complete the work. 5. Little children watched the old men playing
chess. 6. She felt the stranger looking at her.
II. Make up sentences using the given tables:
1. She heard him say something to his friend,
the brother invite his friends to the theatre,
them call the children into the house,
us speak to somebody,
make an appointment.

2 . 1 did not notice Comrade Novikov come into the room,


him put something on the table,
them leave the office,
you get up and go out.
the children get into the river.
her

3. Did you see the inspector examine the goods at the port?
Did you watch him come back?
them get on the bus?
her unpacking?
your mother cooking breakfast?
open the door and come in?
292

III. Complete these sentences using the Complex Object:


1. I saw him ... .2. We have never heard h e r.... 3. The old man watched the
children ... . 4. They did not notice u s ... . 5. Have you ever seen them ... ? 6. She
saw her friend .... 7.1 heard my m other....
IV. Translate these sentences into English:
1. ?
?
?
?
?

2. ,
,
,
.

V. Read the joke and retell it using the Complex Object construction.
It was early morning. Kates father had finished his breakfast and was about
to leave for his office when he suddenly heard his daughter speak to somebody in
the bath-room. The father did not expect his daughter to be in the bathroom at
that time and he looked in. He saw his daughter holding a cat. To his surprise she
was cleaning its teeth with her fathers tooth-brush. Kate did not hear her father
come into the bath-room and went on cleaning the cat's teeth. Kates father got
angry and asked his wife to come and see what their daughter was doing. Let the
cat go right away, said the mother. But the little girl turned to her and said,
Why is Daddy so angry to-day? It isn't the first time Ive done it.
to clean ones teeth ; tooth-brush ; to go on
doing smth. -.; to get angry
VI. Use the absolute form of the possessive pronouns given in brackets:
1. Our town is much older than (their). 2. Here is your translation and where
is (my)? 3. Our street is more crowded than (your). 4. My son is two years younger
than (her). 5. My daughter wants to be a doctor. What about (your)? 6. Whose
program is this? Oh, its (my). Thank you. 7. No wonder their seats are
much better, they bought their tickets in advance, while we got (our) too late.
VII. Translate these sentences into English:
1. , . 2.
, , ? 3. , .
4. , ? 5. ? . 6.
, . 7.
. ?

T ext
TH E RUSSIAN BALLET
Rose Salter, a pretty young girl, is the main character of John B. Priestleys
novel They Walk in the City. Rose arrives in London from a small town in
Yorkshire.
293

Francis Woburn, a friend ofhers, invites Rose to the theatre to see the Russian
Ballet The Swan Lake.

Rose and Francis went to their seats in the balcony. Francis bought a program
and gave it to Rose who was looking about her. The theatre was packed. All around
them people were studying their programs. Rose heard somebody say that the
worlds famous Russian ballerina was dancing that night. She wondered what the
performance would be like.
Then the lights went down and the music began. It was very strange, Rose had
never heard anything of the kind before. She did not know whether she liked the
music or not. She was simply carried away. She wanted it to go on and on.
The curtain went up and Rose saw a new country, a new world. The little
people in this fairy country lived their life only in movement. They were all beautiful
in their movement and grace, and the famous ballerina who was dancing the leading
part made the greatest impression on her.
Now the first act was over. The audience applauded, the curtain fell and Rose
saw excited faces round her. She heard the people speaking about the cast, the
producer and the conductor. They went on repeating that everything and everybody
were marvellous.
Francis got up and invited her to the buffet to have a cup of tea.
I hope youre enjoying the performance, Francis said.
Yes, 1 am. Really I am. Its so wonderful. It is - oh - well, I cant talk about
it, she said.
I see. Im fond of ballet and Im trying to write one, added Francis. Rose
was impressed.
Then they heard the bell ring, so they got up and hurried to their seats.
The lights went down and the music began again. On the stage she saw the
bank of the Swan Lake. The scenery was beautiful and Rose enjoyed every dance.
Then it was all over. The people from stalls to gallery were all applauding. But
Rose was not applauding. She thought it was not enough for the dancers. She
gave them her heart. She would never forget them. She heard Francis say that the
leading dancers had been marvellous, simply marvellous. She looked around.
People were smiling at each other happily. It seemed that nobody wanted to go
out into the gloomy streets of London.
And then they were out in the crowded dirty street. She did not know where
they were going and what was happening. She was still far away in the wonderful
fairy country she had just seen on the stage. The music had not stopped.
(After J.B. Priestley They Walk in the City)

AFTER THE PERFORMANCE


Petrov: Well, how did you like the performance?
Mr. Smith: Its marvellous! I enjoyed every minute of it. I think The
Cherry Orchard has been wonderfully produced here. I
forgot I was in a theatre.
Petrov: I hear Chekhov is very popular with the English people.
Mr. Smith: Oh, yes, a lot of his plays are shown on the English stage.
You can see Ivanov, The Cherry Orchard and other plays
at London theatres.
Petrov: Have you seen The Cherry Orchard at an English theatre?
294

Mr. Smith: Yes. about a year ago.


Petrov: Is the English production different from what youve just
seen?
Mr Smith: Yes. it is. The characters are quite different.
Petrov: That's interesting. And what about the part of Ranevskaya?
Mr Smith: In our performance Ranevskayas part was the leading one
and in yours she is only one of the characters. All your
characters are important.
Petrov: I see.
Mr Smith: Im very glad 1 have seen your production.

VOCABULARY NOTES
ballet [ 'bselei] n 1. ,
2. ,
pretty [ 'priti] adj , (
, )
What a pretty child your daughter is!
character [ 'kaerikta] n , (
)
the main character ,
( )
novel [ 'noval] n
The Swan [swan] Lake
balcony [ 'baelkani]
in the balcony
Id like two seats in the balcony,
be packed v ,

The cinema was packed as a new film
was on.
around [a'round] prep
syn. round
When they came into the pavilion they
saw a lot of people around (round)
Model BC-6.
ballerina [ ,1':] n ,
syn. ballet-dancer [ 'baeli ,da:nsa] n ,
dance [darns] v ,
dance the part (of smb.) (-.)
Who dances the part of Juliet tonight?
dance n
May I have the next dance with you?
like adj ,
What is he like? ?
My son is very much like me.
go down v ( )
The lights went down and the
performance began.
295

strange adj ,
Suddenly Gulliver saw a few strange
men coming up to him.
something of the kind -.
nothing of the kind
What kind of book would you like to
read ?
Something of the kind you gave to a
friend of yours.
Why, I hope Peter said nothing of the
kind.
simply adv
She is simply a child.
be carried away (by smth.) ,
(-.)
He was carried away by the story he
was reading and did not hear me come
in.
go on V
go on doing smth. (-.)
I hope it wont go on raining all day.
curtain [ 'ko:tn | n ( )
go up V ( )
As soon as the lights went down the
curtain went up.
fairy [ 'feari] adj ,
movement [ 'mirvmsnt] n
grace n
play the part of
W hos playing the part of Hamlet
tonight?
play (dance) the leading part
( , )
play n
act n ,
acting n ,
What do you think of his acting?
actor n
actress n
audience [ 'o.djans] n , ,
(
,
)
The English audience were (was)
im pressed by the Russian ballet
performances,
applaud [o'plo.d] v ,
296

When the performance was over the


audience went on applauding for over
five minutes,
fall (fell, fallen) v
The little boy fell down and his mother
hurried up to him.
excited [ik'saitid] adj ,
The young actress was very much
excited after the performance.
cast [ka:st] n (

,
)
The cast was (were) wonderful and the
audience enjoyed the performance,
producer [pra'djuisa] n
production ['/] n ,
The production of Turgenevs A
Month in the Country at St. James
Theatre was very popular with the
London audience,
conductor [kan'dAkta] n
repeat [ri'pi:t] vI ( to repeat
)
I did not hear what you said.
Will you repeat it, please?
marvellous [ 'ma:vilas] adj ,
marvellous city
character
trip
place
summer, etc.
buffet [ 'bufei] n
Shall we go to the buffet?
add v ,
add to smth.
Would you like to add anything to
what he has just told us?
No, we have nothing to add.
bell n
stage n
on the stage
When the famous actor came on to the
stage the audience began applauding,
bank n (, )
scenery ['sirnari] n ,
Some people do not like modern
productions when there is little or no
scenery on the stage.
297

stalls n
in the stalls
Could I have two seats in the stalls,
please?
gallery [ 'gaelari] n , ,
in the gallery
At the box-office there were only a few
seats in the gallery,
heart [ha:t] n
seem v ,
It seems cold today,
seem to smb. -.
The work didnt seem difficult to me.
gloomy [ 'glu:mi] adj , ,
gloomy place
building
man
face, etc.
dirty adj
happen v ,
happen to smb. -.
Im afraid something has happened to
him.
He hasnt come to the office today.
far away
Their house was far away in the forest.
The Cherry Orchard
be different from ...
The production of Hamlet at the
Mayakovsky theatre was different
from Peter Brooks production.

SUPPLEMENTARY LIST
sing (sang, sung) v ,
Who sings in Carmen to-night?
singer n
song n
favourite ['feivarit] adj
favourite actor
singer
writer
colour
song, etc.
drama [ dra.ma] n
comedy ['komidi] n
first night n
playwright f'pleirait] n
variety show [va'raiati] n
298

box (in the box) n


'dress-circle (in the dress-circle) n
pit (in the pit) n
row [rou] (in the first row) n ( )
The scene is laid in ... ...

VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR EXERCISES


I. a) Form adverbs from these adjectives:
simple, possible, comfortable, marvellous, beautiful, wonderful, great, glad,
gloomy, easy, happy
b) Say from what verbs these nouns are. Point out the suffixes:
dancer, producer, conductor, interpreter
c) Give verbs corresponding to these nouns and translate them:
act, smile, play, love, work, look, contact, rain, ship, shop, stay, phone, test,
visit
II. Make up sentences using the given table:
The firm go(es) on discussing the achievements of their plant.
He went on producing these machines.
She advertising the new model of tractor.
They playing tennis.
dancing.
applauding.

III. React to these statements according to the given model:


M odel: Ivanov didnt come to the lesson.
I wonder what has happened to him.
(or: Im afraid something has happened to him.)
1. They missed the 8 oclock train. 2. Your friend is not listening to me, she
seems to be far away. 3. The singer didnt sing though his name was on the program.
4. Youve made very many mistakes in your dictation. 5. He is very gloomy to-day.
6. We havent seen the actor on the stage for a long time.
IV. Turn these sentences into the Passive Voice:
1. My favourite actor played the leading part in the performance. 2. Her
wonderful acting impressed everybody. 3. He will sing a few new songs. 4. He had
written the novel before he came to live in Moscow. 5. She danced the part of
Maria marvellously. 6. They have improved the quality of their goods.
V. Fill in prepositions or adverbs:
1. Where do you like to sit:... the stalls o r ... the balcony? 2. May I add a few
words... what he has just said? 3.1 wonder who plays the part ... Anna Karenina in
the film. 4. What a marvellous ballet! said the foreigner. I havent seen anything
...the kind. I was simply carried...... the wonderful dancing... Maximova. 5. The
lights w ent..., the curtain w ent... and the performance began. It was so interesting
that we wanted it to g o ... a n d .... 6. When the audience saw their favourite actress
... the stage they started applauding. 7. What has happened ... him? Why is he so
gloomy? 8. Why do you think he will get tickets... this performance? He promised
nothing... the kind. 9. This m odel... machines seems quite different... the one we
saw ... display.
299

VI. Complete these sentences:


1. If my favourite singer takes part in the concert.... 2. The audience will not
go away until.... 3. You will be carried away as soon a s .... 4. After the curtain falls
.... 5 .1 shall know about the cast before .... 6. The audience will applaud when ....
VII. Make up sentences according to the given models. Use the verbs given in
brackets:
1. We expect his play to be staged at the Vakhtangov theatre, (to produce, to
pack, to repeat, to exhibit)
2. Would you like him to do it right away? (to go on, to sing, to dance, to
repeat)
3. Did you see him play the part of Bolkonsky? (to fall, to applaud, to go up, to
appear, to turn)
VIII. Fill in articles where necessary:
Are you going to... Maly Theatre? Essex asked. No, Imgoingto... Bolshoi
to see Giselle, Katherine said. You may be late. Its about seven now. I
shant be late, she said. I m never late. I have ... seat in ... box. You can get in
any time you like. I think Ill join you, Essex said. Ive never seen ... Russian
ballet. I wonder what it is like. They were not late fo r... ballet but they were still
i n ... foyer w hen... bell rang.... Bolshoi was... surprise to Essex from ... minute he
came in .... theatre was beautiful. It was packed from ... stalls to ... galleries. Then
... lights went down and ... music began. When ... curtain went up Essex felt he
was carried away by what he saw on ... stage. After ... first act was over he said to
Katherine, This i s ... best of their culture, I think. By no means. Their music
and drama are as good as their ballet. Their opera is better than you will see in
London. In fact theres no place like Moscow fo r... theatre and ... music. When
... ballet was over she said: Have you ever seen anything o f ... kind? I dont
believe I have, Essex answered.
(After James Aldridge The Diplomat)
box ; foyer [ 'faiei] ; by no means
IX. Translate these sentences into English:
1. . 2.
? 3.
,
? ? 4. - ?
. , . 5.
. 6.
, ? . ,
. 7. (concerts) (the State Dance
Ensemble) .
, (the Londoners)
.
, .
. (time), ,
.
(
).
300

SPEECH EXERCISES
X. Retell the text: a) as it is, b) in the person of Rose Salter, c) in the person of
Francis Woburn.
XI. Reproduce the dialogue: a) as it is, b) in indirect speech.
XII. Give entensive answers to these questions:
1. Why is the Bolshoi Theatre so popular both in our country and abroad?
2. What do you know about the tours of the Bolshoi Theatre abroad? 3. What
great dancers have you seen on the Russian stage? What could you tell us about
them? 4. What could you say about such theatrical companies as Beryozka and
the State Dance Ensemble? 5. Have you ever been carried away by a performance?
By what performance? 6. What films have you seen lately? What is your
impression?
XIII. Read and reproduce the dialogue: a) as it is, b) in indirect speech:
IN TH E INTERVAL
Peter: Well, how do you like the play?
Ann: The play is interesting but I dont like the production.
Peter: Whats wrong with it?
Ann: Im afraid, Im old-fashioned a bit but I dont like when theres no
or little scenery on the stage.
Peter: Why, I like it. It helps the audience to concentrate on the acting. I
believe its more difficult for the actors to play as their acting is the
most important thing then. You cant have a lot of scenery in
Brechts plays, can you?
Ann: I see what you mean but unfortunately I dont quite understand
Brecht.
Peter: Im sorry to hear it. Im fond of him. Ive seen all his plays that are
running at Moscow theatres.
Ann: Yes, you have, havent you?
Peter: And what about the actor who plays the leading part? How do you
find him?
Ann: Oh, hes marvellous. His acting is wonderful. You believe every word
he says.
Peter: That's just what I was going to say. Hes my favourite actor. By the
way, I dont quite like the actress who plays the leading part. You
c a n t be carried away by her acting, can you? S hes too
melodramatic, I think.
Ann: You are quite right. I wonder why the producer has given her the
part. I heard some people say they were also displeased with her
acting. Theres the bell. We must hurry.
Whats wrong with it? () ?; Im old-fashioned
a bit. ; to concentrate (on) [ konsentreit]
; I see what you mean. , ;
melodramatic [ .meladra 'maetikj
XIV. Read the situation and do the assignments.
THE GIRL AND THE WOLF
One afternoon a big wolf waited in a dark forest for a little girl to come along
carrying a basket of food to her grandmother. Finally a little girl did come along
301

and she was carrying a basket of food. Are you carrying that basket to your
grandmother? asked the wolf. The little girl said yes, she was. So the wolf asked
her where her grandmother lived and the little girl told him. He disappeared into
the wood.
When the little girl opened the door of her grandmothers home she saw that
there was somebody in bed with a nightcap and nightgown on. She came up to the
bed and saw that it was not her grandmother but the wolf, for even in a nightgown
a wolf does not look like a grandmother. So the little girl took an automatic out of
her basket and shot the wolf dead. Moral: it is not so easy to fool girls nowadays as
it used to be.
basked [ baiskit] ; nightcap ['naitkaep] ;
nightgown [ 'naitgaunj ; shoot, shot, shot [[u;t, Jot, Jot] dead
; fool [fu:l]
A. Answer the questions:
1. Where did the wolf wait? 2. Who was he waiting for? 3. What did he hope
she would be doing? 4. What finally happened? 5. What did he asked about the
girls grandmother? 6. What did the wolf do after this? 7. What did the little girl
see when she opened the door of her grandmothers home? 8. What did she do?
B. Its not easy to fool little girls nowadays. State the arguments for this.
1. Children mature more quickly. 2. Modern world causes this T.V.,
newspapers, etc. 3. Parents cant protect children from society.
State arguments against this:
1. Children always believe what elders tell them. 2. They look mature, but
really not. 3. Many dangers in society (drugs, etc.) children can be fooled.
mature [mo'tjus] ; society [so'saioti] ; look [luk]
.
C. Take a stand. Give your reasons for your opinion.
D. Discuss the following points.
1. Tell the original Little Red Riding Hood story. Does this story differs
much from the original? Which story is better?
2. Describe how todays children are different from the way you were when
you were a child.

LESSON 20

Grammar: Past Participle


Present Continuous for future actions
Article before the names of newspapers and journals

GRAMMAR NOTES
I. Past Participle ( )
1.
-ed
.
translate translated, remedy remedied, discuss discussed
302

2.
.
hold held, build built
3.
,
- . "-, -, -, -.
achieve achieved , build built
4.
:
) :
This is an improved model.
Ill call for the booked tickets on my way back.
) ,
:
The chemical exhibition held in Sokolniki park was a great success.
The progress achieved by this country in industry is great.
II. Present Continuous for Future Actions (
)
The Present Continuous Tense
,
, .
What are you doing tomorrow? ?
We are meeting him after the ()
performance. .
is having an English lesson
tomorrow. .
III. Article before the Names of Newspapers and Journals
, ,
.
The Sunday Times is a popular newspaper in England.
Do you read articles from the Economist at your lessons?

GRAMMAR EXERCISES
I. Give the three forms of these verbs and translate their Past Participle forms
into Russian:
to repeat, to complete, to examine, to hold, to enclose, to quote, to produce,
to tell, to build, to show, to forget, to establish, to purchase, to invite, to sell, to
require
II. Read and translate these sentences:
1. The price of compressors quoted by the firm is very high. 2 .1 believe the
machine-tool advertised by Brown and Sons will be in great demand on the market.
3. The goods ordered under Contract No. 12/1418 arrived with a two weeks delay.
4. The defects found by the inspectors are to be eliminated as soon as possible.
5. The required samples will be sent tomorrow. 6. The goods offered by the firm
are of high quality. 7. We are satisfied with the transaction concluded between our
firms.
303
III. Use Past Participles instead of attributive clauses:
1. The book which was translated by a friend of mine is very interesting. 2. Our
price-list which is enclosed with the letter gives all particulars concerning terms of
payment and delivery. 3. The blocks of houses which were built in the new districts
of Moscow are nice and comfortable. 4. The progress which is achieved by our
chemical industry is wonderful. 5. Everybody likes pictures which are painted by
Repin, the famous Russian artist. 6. The new performance which is produced at the
Sovremennik theatre made a great impression on everybody. 3. Did you take part
in the talks which were held last week?
IV. Translate these sentences into English:
1. , ,
. 2.
. 3. ,
, 5% . 4.
. 5. ,
, . 6.
, 5 ,
. 7. , ,
, .
V. Make up sentences using the given tables:
1. He is visiting London next week.
They are the museum next Thursday.
We a friend of mine one of these days.
the Tretyakov Picture tomorrow.
Gallery
a new factory next Tuesday.

2. What is a friend of yours doing tomorrow?


are his children on Sunday?
your sisters husband tonight?
his friends the day after tomorrow?

VI. Translate these sentences into English using the Present Continuous Tense:
1. ?
. 2.
. 3. ,
. 4. , ?
5. . ( ...) 6.
. 7. . 8.
? .
. 9. . 10.
? 11. ?
, -.

T ext
ENQUIRY
The latest model of cutter1produced by Messrs. Smith and Co. was advertised
in the journal Industry of August, 20... The advertisement said that the machine
304

tool had excellent working characteristics and was reliable in operation. Tradeimport
hoped that the advertised machine-tools were superior to those offered by other
firms2and they immediately sent the following enquiry to Messrs.3 Smith and Co.
Moscow, September 21, 20...
Messrs. Smith and Co..
London
Dear Sirs,
We are interested in Cutter Model GH-66 advertised by you in the latest issue
of the Industry.
We shall be obliged if you will send us a tender for the above Machine-Tool.
Please quote your lowest price and state the time of delivery and the most favourable
terms of payment. The price for the Machine-Tool is to be quoted f.o.b. English
port.
We also request you to send us specifications and all your publications. We
should also like to inform you that Mr. Sokolov, an engineer of our department, is
visiting the London Industrial exhibition next month and will get in touch with
your firm to start talks for the purchase of the Machine-Tool required by us.
We are looking forward to your early reply4.
Yours faithfully,

DISCUSSING A DISCOUN T
Sokolov: Weve carefully studied all the technical data we got from you.
Model GH-66 is just what we need.
Black: Im pleased to hear it.
Sokolov: But Im sorry to say that your price seems too high.
Black: Im afraid I cant agree with you here. Our price is quite reasonable
if you consider the superior quality of our machine-tools. Besides
prices for this type of equipment are going up. These machine-tools,
as you know, are in great demand now.
Sokolov: Yes, we know that. Were in close touch with the world market. But
your competitors quote lower prices.
Black: Im afraid we cant reduce the price. However, we could grant you
a discount, if you order more than 10 machine-tools.
Sokolov: What discount could you give us?
Black: About 3 per cent.
Sokolov: I see. Now, could I see the machine-tool in operation at your
factory?
Black: That can be easily arranged. Ill see to it.
Sokolov: Thank you. As to the price 1 think well settle it after we have seen
the machine-tool in operation.

COMMENTARY
1. The latest model of cutter.
.
2. Tradeimport hoped that the advertised machine-tools were superiorto those
offered by other firms.
305

(machine-tools),
, that
(those).
Your prices are higher than those of your competitors.
The quality of our goods is superior to that of the goods offered by other
firms.
3. Messrs. [ 'mesaz] Messieurs (
). Messrs, ,
. , ,
.
Stockley & . Ltd.
London, S.W.
4. We are looking forward to your early reply. ,
.

VOCABULARY NOTES
journal [ 'd33:noll n (
)
Could you recommend any journals on
agriculture?
:
The Export Trade, the Industry,
the Chemical Engineering Industry
are journals. The L ook is a
magazine,
machine-tool n
excellent [ 'eksalant] adj ,
excellent man
book
journal
working characteristics
[ ,krakta 'ristiks]
What are the working characteristics
of this machine-tool?
reliable [ri'laiabl] adj ,
Weve been doing business with them
for a long time, and we know that the
firm is a reliable one.
superior [sju: 'piaria] adj ,
be of superior quality
This equipment is of superior quality.
be superior to , ( )
...
The quality of Model B-70 is superior
to that of Model B-65.
ant. inferior [in 'fiaria] adj ,
be o/inferior quality
306

This model is of inferior quality, they


say.
be inferior to , ( ),
...
The quality of the goods is inferior to
that of the sample,
issue ['isju:] n (, )
Have you seen the latest issue of the
Economist? There is an interesting
article there,
be obliged [ 'blaid3d] ,

We shall be obliged if you will send us
your catalogues,
tender n ( ,
)
syn. offer, quotation
the above [ bxv]
the above letter
equipment
goods
order
contract, etc.
We are interested in machine-tools
G-21, H-23, GH-26 as the above
m achines have excellent working
characteristics.
in view of the above [vju:]
In view of the above we cannot reduce
the price,
state v ,
In their letter of the 2nd March they
stated their terms of payment and
delivery dates.
We have to state that the quality of the
goods delivered by you is not in
accordance with the sample,
as stated above
As stated above the preliminary tests
are to be made in two days,
request smb. [ri'kwest] v -
We request you to quote your c.i.f. prices.
syn. ask
request n
meet ones request -.
We are sorry we cannot meet your
request as we do not produce this
model any longer.
307

at ones request -.
At the firms request the goods will be
shipped a little later,
specification [ .spesifi'keifn] n
I believe you have already studied our
specification of the machine-tool,
publications [ , 'keijnz] n pi . (
)
get in touch [Mf] with smb. -.
Will you get in touch with Mr. Smith
and make an appointment for Friday
please.
be in touch with smb. -.
agree ['] v
agree with -.,
-.
I believe everyone agrees with you
(with your plan),
agree to -. (
-. , ..)
We cant agree to your price, it is too
high.
consider [ksn'sida] v ,
Your discount is not much if you
consider the fact that we are going to
order thirty machine-tools.
type n ,
go up v , ( )
Prices for this type of equipment are
going up now.
go down v , ( )
Prices for machine-tools B-22 will go
down as they are not in demand on the
world market,
close [klous] adj ,
close relations
friend
contact
I believe you know that there are close
relations between our firms.
I believe youre in close touch with
Brown & Co.
grant [gra:nt] v ,
We shall grant you a discount if you
order more than twenty m achine-
tools.
syn. give
grant ones request -.
308

syn. meet ones request


as to prep
As to the prices we find them quite
reasonable.
syn. as regards

Written Speech Patterns Used in Business Language

1. as stated above ... ...


2. in view of the above ... ...
3. we are pleased to offer you as
follows:... ...
4. the advertisement said ... ...

VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR EXERCISES


I. a) Say from what verbs these nouns are:
production, exhibition, operation, quotation, information, accommodation,
addition, department, advertisement, appointment, arrangement, equipment,
requirement, shipment
b) Give the nouns corresponding to these verbs:
to reply, to purchase, to request, to visit, to dance, to stage, to wonder, to
wish
II. What are the English equivalents for (see the text):
1. ,
, ... 2. . 3.
, ... 4.
... 5.
... 6.
. 7. -66 , . 8.
. 9. ().
III. Add tail-questions to these sentences and answer them:
1. Youve read the advertisement in the latest issue of the journal. 2. The
delivered goods were of inferior quality. 3. We cannot agree to the terms of payment
stated in their offer. 4. The machine-tool is reliable in operation. 5. The
specification wasnt enclosed with their order. 6. They will grant us a discount if
we increase the order. 7. The delivery dates were changed at their request. 8. Hes
got in touch with Mr. Camp.
IV. Fill in prepositions and adverbs:
1. We request you to g e t... touch ... Mr. Smith concerning the purchase ...
the above machine-tools. 2. The second lo t... the goods received ... us yesterday
Us ... inferior quality. 3. The quality ... the wheat () shipped ... Contract
No. 21/182 is inferior... th a t... the samples... the basis... which the contract was
concluded. 4. We are interested ... machine-tool L-5 as machine-tools ... this
type are reliable ... operation. 5. Prices ... chemical equipment are going ... as it is
... demand... the world market. 6. We shall be able to get the necessary information
concerning the latest m odel... this machine-tool as we are ... close touch ... the
309
firm who are producing it. 7. We cannot agree ... your price as the world prices ...
this type of equipment are going ... 8 .1 am sorry but I cannot agree ... your point
of view ( ) on this problem. 9. ... view ... the above we shall not be
able to grant your request. 10. ... our request the firm remedied the defects ... the
machine tools delivered ... Contract No. 15/193.
V. Fill in articles or possessive pronouns where necessary:
1. We find ... quality of... delivered goods inferior to that of... samples on ...
basis of which ... contract was concluded. 2. We have just received ... latest issue
of ...journal Chemical Engineering. There are ... few interesting articles in it.
3. We have sent ... specifications and publications required by you by ... mail.
4. We are sending... latest catalogues and price-lists to Brown & Co. a t ... request.
Dear Sirs,
We are interested in ... Turbines () advertised by you in ... Industry
of... 1st April. We shall be obliged if you will send us all... information concerning
... above model. We also request you to quote ... lowest price, ... most favourable
terms o f ... payment and to state ... shortest possible time o f ... delivery. We wish
to know as well if you grant ... discount to ... buyers who purchase more than 3
Turbines.
Dear Sirs,
We thank you for ... enquiry o f ... 23rd March for ... Turbines Model AB-66.
We are enclosing our catalogue which gives all particulars concerning ... model
required by you. ... price of... Turbine is ... c.i.f. Manchester. Payment is to be
made by ... Letter of Credit which you are to open with the Vnesheconombank
Moscow. We can ship ... Turbines from Murmansk in May-April this year. We
are prepared to grant you ... four per cent discount if you order more than three
Turbines. A ll... other terms are stated on ... enclosed form of... contract.
VI. Make up sentences according to these models, use the verbs given in
brackets:
1. They have already examined the samples sent by the firm, (to advertise, to
state, to request, to require, to purchase)
2. All the points discussed during the talks have been settled (to consider, to
grant, to quote, to enclose, to conclude)
VII. Translate these sentences paying attention to the words and word
combinations given in bold type:
1. ? ,
. 2.
,
. 3. , ,
,
. 4. ,
, , .
5. , , ,
. 6. ,
.
7. ,
. 8. . 9.
310

, ,
. 10. ,
, ,
7 25 19..., .
.
!

:
,
, .
, 10%.
.

SPEECH EXERCISES
VIII. Retell the text.
IX. Reproduce the dialogue: a) as it is, b) in indirect speech.
X. Say whether you agree or disagree with these statements. Give your reasons:
1. If you see a machine-tool in operation no specification is required. 2. You
quote the most favourable terms of payment only to your regular buyers. 3. You do
not study any instructions before you put the equipment bought by you into
operation. 4. It is easier to sell goods than to buy them. 5. If the goods are in great
demand on the world market prices for them go up.
XI. Give extensive answers to these questions:
1. What information can buyers find in advertisements? 2. In what case will
you ask the firm to show you their machine-tools in operation? 3. What is a tender?
What is usually stated in it? 4. In what case can prices of goods go up? 5. Why is it
necessary for our companies to be in close touch with the world market?
XII. Read and discuss these letters:
Dear Sirs,
We thank you for your letter of the 6th January and are pleased to inform you
that we are interested in the purchase of Chipboard that you offer. As this is our
first transaction please, send us a small sample so that we may see the quality, and
if it meets our requirements we shall send you our enquiry. We find your price
somewhat higher than that of your competitors. If you could reduce it we would be
very much obliged to you. As the above Chipboard is required by us as soon as
possible we should also like to know when you could deliver it. We are looking
forward to your early reply.
Dear Sirs,
We thank you for your letter and are pleased to give you all the particulars
concerning the purchase of Chipboard from us. We are sending our samples by
separate mail and hope their quality will meet your requirements. As to the price
we cannot agree with you that it is high. We ask you to consider the fact that prices
for these goods are going up on the world market. Our Chipboard is also of superior
quality. However as we hope to establish close business relations with you we could
311

grant you a 5 per cent discount. As you require Chipboard as soon as possible we
can offer you the goods ex factory in March. All other terms are stated in our General
Terms and Conditions. We hope that you will agree to them and send us your
enquiry.
ex factory - ( )
XIII. Read and reproduce the dialogue: a) as it is, b) in indirect speech:
A. Im sorry to say Ive got some bad news for you.
B. What is it? Anything wrong with the machines?
A. Yes, youre right. The point is we are not satisfied with the result of the test
made at our factory.
B. May I see the Test Report?
A. Here it is. You see the working characteristics are not so good as we expected.
The capacity is somewhat lower than that stated in the specifications.
B. Im surprised to hear it. As you remember the preliminary tests at our factory
showed excellent results. Are you quite sure that the tests at your factory
were made in accordance with our instructions?
A. I think so, though I didnt take part in them myself.
B. Lets make another lest in the presence of both your and our inspectors.
A. All right. When could it be arranged? Id like it to be done as soon as possible.
B. Well try and do our best to make the necessary arrangements this week.
A. Fine.
wrong , ; capacity ; to be sure
; in the presence of
XIV. Render tills letter in English and discuss it. Pay attention to the words and
word combinations given in bold type:
!

10%, , , . ,
,
,
.
, , , ,
.
, ,
, ,
, ,
. ,
. ,
15 , 5%- .
.
,

-. to be made of; -. reference to


XV. Make up dialogues based on the following assignments:
1. You have read an advertisement concerning the goods you are interested in.
Get in touch with the firm and ask them about all the particulars. 2. Ask the firm to
312

make you an offer for the equipment you are interested in. 3. Discuss with the firm
the quality of the samples as you are going to place an order on some of them.
XVI. Compose letters according to these assignments, use the patterns given in
brackets.
1. Write a letter to the sellers and state that you have read their advertisement
of the new model and you have got interested in it. You would like them to send
you all particulars concerning the delivery dates and the discount (the advertisement
said, we shall be obliged if you will.... as stated above, to be prepared, we are pleased
to learn, to look forward to. reply)
2. Compose a letter to your regular Buyers and inform them that you have
started producing a new model of..., give its characteristics (to wish to inform, to
be pleased to offer as follows, we shall be glad if you w ill..., yours faithfully)
XVII. Read and retell these stories. Answer the questions given below.

FRIENDS IN BUSINESS
A rich businessman was dying. He asked all his family to leave him alone with
his partner who had been in the same business with him for years. The rich man
considered him a reliable partner and an excellent man. The dying man wanted to
tell him something important and he did not want anybody to hear their
conversation. George, the man said when they were left alone. Im dying.... I
must tell you. Listen, please. Ive always been bad to you. When you were away on
business two years ago, I took a big sum of money from the safe and never put it
back. Ive always tried not to let you be a success in business. Ive greatly disliked
you all my life. You, certainly, remember that plan of yours. I did my best to fail it.
You thought that the changes in business had caused its failure, but it wasnt so.
The real reason was quite different. I had sold your secret to another company for
a hundred and fifty thousand dollars. Oh, George, forgive me, please. Dont
worry, Jim, said George, Thats all right. Ive also got to tell you something. I
was not so reliable as you thought I was. It was I who put poison into your soup at
dinner yesterday.
to die ; to fail ; failure [ 'feilja] , ;
to forgive (forgave, forgiven) ; poison ; sum
Questions
1. Can you call the partners friends? Why not? 2. Why did they dislike each
other? 3. Why couldnt they become close friends?

LOVE FOR ART


Joe and Delia both loved art. Joe to New York to study painting. Delia
left the little town she was bom in for New York to study music. Joe and Delia met
at the friends studio. In the evening the studio was always crowded with young
artists who were fond of talking about painting, theatre and music. Delia attracted
Joes attention the moment he saw her. They often met at the studio and soon got
to know each other well. A year later they were married. They were very happy,
they had their art and they had each other. But one day they found that they had no
money. Delia said she had to give music lessons and she started looking for pupils.
A few days later she came home very pleased with herself. Joe, dear, she said. I
313

have found a pupil. She is the only daughter of a famous architect. Im to give her
i three lessons a week. The family is rich, theyll pay me five dollars a lesson!
However Joe was not happy about that. He did not want his wife to work, he wanted
her to study and be a famous pianist.
A week later Delia brought home fifteen dollars. To her surprise Joe put four
five dollar bills on the table too. Ive sold one of my paintings to a gentleman from
the country, he said, and he asked me to paint another picture for him.
Every morning Joe went to Central Park to paint his pictures and came back
only in the evening. One Saturday evening Joe came home before Delia. Delia was
late. When she appeared her right hand was bandaged and i she looked very tired.
Whats the matter? asked Joe. The architectss daughter invited me to dinner
after her lesson and she spilled some hot sauce on my hand. She was very sorry
about that. Oh, Joe, did you sell another picture? she asked when she saw the
money on the table. I did. And Im going to sell some more next week, Joe
added. At what time did you bum your hand, Delia? About five. The iron ... I
mean the sauce was ready about five. Why? Darling, Joe took her hands in his,
where are you working? Tell me! And she told him the truth.
Delia could not find any pupils and as she very much wanted Joe to study
painting she had to work in a laundry. Delia pressed shirts there. How did you
know I wasnt giving music lessons? she asked. I sent up these bandages this
afternoon for a girl who had burnt her hand with an iron. Im working in the machine
room of the same laundry.
(After O. Henry)
pianist ['pjsenist] ; to bandage ['basndid3] ;
bandages ; to spill ; sauce [so:s] coyc; to bum (burnt,
burnt) ; iron (aion | ; I mean [mi:n] ; darling
; to tell the troth [tru:9] ; laundry [ 'b:ndri]

Questions
1. Why did Delia start looking for a job? 2. Why was it difficult for Joe to sell
his pictures and for Delia to find pupils? 3. Why did Joe not tell her the truth about
his work in a laundry? 4. What do you think of their love for each other? 5. Do you
think their life will change in future?

LESSON 21

Grammar: Present Participle


Modal verbs should and ought to
Article before proper names

GRAMMAR NOTES
I. Present Participle ( )
(4- )
-ing (
to) .
314

to paint painting to play playing


to take taking to study studying
to put putting
Present Participle :
1. :
)
The young mother looked at her
playing child and smiled happily.
.
)
The stand-attendant speaking to Mr. ,
Brown is an old friend of mine. - , .
Present Participle
,
-,
, -.
:
(, ,
.) , -
.
, We have just examined the goods
. which arrived yesterday afternoon.
, The engineers who took part in the
, tests of the machines are pleased with
. the results.
2. : _ v
)
Walking about the city I met an old ,
friend of mine. .
1: ,
, when while,
.
While making the test we found a few , -
defects in the machine-tool.
.
2: Present Participle to be
.
While in Petersburg (or: While 1 was (:
in Petersburg) I visited the Smolny. ...),
.
)
Not knowing how to get there he asked He , ,
me to show him the way.
.
Being very tired he decided to have ,
a rest. .
315

)
They crowded near the picture talking ,
loudly. .
sat at his desk looking through -
catalogues. , .
, Present Participle

, - -.
II. Modal verbs should and ought to
must, should ought to
, , must.
must , ,
, should
ought to .
should ought to , .
You should read this novel. Its very -
interesting. . .
Students must be at the institute at -
nine oclock every morning. 9 .
Should ought to Indefinive Infinitive
.
You should sing this song at tomor-
rows concert. Everybody will like it. .
.
Should ought to Perfect Infinitive
, , ,
-
.
You should have granted their request.
.
ought to have got in touch with -
them long ago. .I.
III. Use of the Definite Article Before Proper Names (
)

.
The Browns have left for Moscow. .
The Ivanovs are in Paris now. .

GRAMMAR EXERCISES
I. Give the Present Participles of these verbs:
to advertise, to crowd, to produce, to exhibit, to cross, to complete, to sit, to
study, to build, to turn, to inform, to greet, to examine, to play, to quote, to dance,
to fall, to state, to request, to agree.
316

II. Read and translate these sentences:


1. Look at the smiling girl, isn't she happy? 2. Feeling tired he went for a walk
to Sokolniki Park. 3. They have booked two seats for the plane leaving for Paris
tomorrow morning. 4. Peter and John stood at the window, watching children
play football. 5. Not knowing his new address I could not send him a letter. 6. We
shall contact the firm advertising the latest model of boiler. 7. The man greeting
my father is a famous actor. 8. While walking about Suzdal the tourists looked
with interest at the wonderful monuments of the past.
. Replace subordinate clauses by participial constructions:
1 .1 think the man, who is trying on that suit, wears the same size as you do.
2. When the director came into the office he saw several people who were waiting
for him. 3 .1 dont know the name of the actor who is playing the part of Karenin.
4. When I lived in Petersburg I often visited the Russian Museum. 5. The famous
ballerina who was dancing the leading part made the greatest impression on us.
6. When she crosses the street she is always very careful. 7. When I travel I always
reserve accommodation in advance.
IV. Translate these sentences into English:
A. 1. , ;
. 2. , ,
. 3. ,
,
. 4. ,
. 5. , ,
. 6. ,
, . 7.
, .
B. 1. , ,
. 2. , , .
3.
, .
4. , ,
. 5. ,
, .
C. 1. ,
. , ,
. 2.
. 18/925.
, 18/926. 3.
, . ,
, .
V. Read and translate these sentences:
1 You should discuss the matter in detail as soon as possible. 2. He ought to
have enclosed the current price-list as well. 3. I think you should agree to your
fathers plan. 4. They should have introduced the recommended changes long
ago. 5. You should read the latest issue of the " Industry. There are some interesting
advertisements in it. 6. You should have told the director about it yesterday. 7. You
ought to get to know them better. They are a wonderful family.
317

VI. Choose the correct form of the infinitive:


1 Why didnt you buy the coat? You ought to (buy, have bought) it, the coat
fitted you very well. You should (try, have tried) on another suit, this one is too big
for you. 2. I think N. himself should (take, have taken) part in the talks. You
should (take, have taken) part in the conference, you were in Moscow at that
time. 3. You should (offer, have offered) her your help, she needed it. You should
(help, have helped) Ann with her English now. 4. You should (call, have called)
on Peter, he isnt well. You should (call have called) on Mary, when you were in
Petersburg. 5. You ought to (read, have read) this novel, its very interesting. You
should (read, have read) the novel when you were preparing for your examination.
VII. Translate these sentences into English:
1. . 2.
. 3.
. 4. . 5.
. 6. . 7.
,
. 8. ,
.

T ext
ONE COAT OF WHITE*
Coming home from our first trip to Europe on board a steamer Betsy and I
met a tall old man who called himself Monsieur Roland. He was a pleasant, clever
fellow and we soon made friends with him. One evening he suddenly told us that
his name was Lautisse and asked us not to mention it to anyone. Having no idea
why we should keep his name a secret we decided to find out who Lautisse was. At
the ships library we learned that our new friend was probably the worlds greatest
living artist. He lived in the South of France and had not painted anything for the
last ten years. He said he would never touch a brush again as long as he lived.
Lautisse was going to spend a month in New York, and we invited him to
come down to our place for a weekend. When accepting the invitation he got us to
promise' that we would not invite any guests or talk to him about art. Lautisse
arrived on the five o clock train the following Saturday. We had an enjoyable time
that evening. The next morning I got up at seven-thirty as I had a job to do2. Our
garden fence needed a coat of white paint. I was about to start painting when I saw
Lautisse coming towards me. I thought I should have to put off the job, but he
took the brush out of my hands.
Why, it must be done. Let me do it, he said. I tried to protest but he took no
notice of my words and he spent three hours on the job. When he came back into
the house he looked as happy as a child. He said that he had not enjoyed himself so
much for years.
That evening he went back to New York and we did not hear anything from
him or about him for ten days. Then a story appeared in the New York papers. It
said that Lautisse, the famous French artist, was staying in the USA, and since
his arrival he had not left New York except for a weekend which he spent with the
Greggs (that was with us).
One coat of white .
318

The next day our place was crowded with newspapermen who wanted to know
every detail about Lautisses stay with us. When Betsy told them about our garden
fence they took pictures of it. Then a long story was published in the papers under
the title Lautisse paints again . The next few days were terrible. A lot of
newspapermen, businessmen and representatives of art galleries and museums
came to our house. They wanted to buy our fence and offered me large sums of
money, but 1 did not know what to do though 1realized that I was to do something.
On the fourth day Gerston, Lautisses friend, called on us. He saw I was at a loss
what to do. You shouldnt sell the fence yet, he recommended. You should
allow the Palmer Museum in New York to exhibit it. I followed his advice and
some days later I went to the Palmer Museum where I met Gerston, who said that
my fence was a great success. Then we entered the room where the fence was on
display. I couldnt help laughing* it had been cut into thirty sections and had a
fence around it. At the lower comer of each section there was a word in black
paint. I recognized Lautisses signature. I was so much surprised that I could only
say, But why? ... What? ... Where is he? ... Then Gerston told me that Lautisse
had left for France the day before.
You see, he added, Lautisse was really fond of you and Mrs. Gregg. He
had no idea when he painted your fence that it would cause so much excitement,
but when it did he was very amused. Ive never seen him laugh so much, and it was
his idea to have the fence cut into sections and to sign each section. You should
sell the fence now.
I followed his advice and twenty nine sections were sold within a month at the
price of $ 10,000 per section. The thirtieth section is now in our living room.
(After H.A. Smith One Coat of White)
W EATHER TALK
1.
A. What a lovely day, isnt it?
B. Yes, its wonderful weather were having!3
A. I think, itll keep fine.4
B, I hope so too. Its a very pleasant change after all the rain weve had.
A. Yes, and Im so glad we came to the country for the weekend.
B. Would you mind walking a little before dinner?
A. Not at all. Its a pleasure to walk in the bright sunshine.
.
2
P. Its drizzling again. Isnt it a nasty day?
G. Its awful.
P. Yes, autumn is here. And Im afraid the winter will be cold again.
G. Why, they say well have a mild winter.
P. It would be fine.5 It was awfully cold last winter.

COMMENTARY
1. get smb. to do smth. , , -.
-.
At last the mother got her little son to eat the soup.

* I couldnt help laughing .


319

Will you get him to come down to the seaside for a weekend?
2 .1 had a job to do () .
I have a lot of work to do. .
.
3. Its wonderful weather were having! () !
4 . 1 think, itll keep fine (cold, hot, , (,
warm). , )
().
5. It would be fine. (
)!

VOCABULARY NOTES
Europe [ 'juarap] n
on board a steamer [ba:d]
They spent seven days on board a
steamer.
tall adj
monsieur [ma'sja:] n . , ,
clever [ 'kleva] adj
fellow n .
make friends with smb. -.
I believe, my daughter has already
made friends with your children,
mention v , ()
You should not mention his name
while speaking to her.
Dont mention it. .
Thank you for your help.
Dont mention it.
syn. Not at all.
idea [ai'dia] n , ,
have an idea of smth. -.
You see, I have no idea where she is.
Thats a good idea. () .
Not a bad idea. . ,
keep (kept, kept) v ,
May I keep this book for a week?
keep smth. a secret -.
library n
probably [ 'prabeblij adv , -,

Ill probably get the book you need,
the South [sauG] n
in the South
They are going to spend the summer
in the South,
the North
the West
320

the East
Proverb: East or West home is best, , .
touch [UtJ] v ,
brush n
come down (go down) ()
,
The parents hoped that their son
would come down to the village one
day.
ant. come up (go up)
weekend [ 'wi:k'end] n

for a (the) weekend
Id like to go down to the country for
the weekend,
guest [gest] n
job n 1. , ,
I have a job to do today.
Has Pete found a job? 2. ,
garden fence
towards [to wo:dz, to:dz] prep ,
She saw a lot o f people hurrying
towards the Russian pavilion,
put off V ( )
put off smth. till (until)
I decided to put off the translation till
tomorrow morning,
protest v ,
protest against ,
I hope he will not protest against the
arrangements.
take notice /sm b., smth. -., -

Did you take notice of the girl sitting
near Peter? She is his younger sister,
look v (, ..)
look young
old
happy
gloomy, etc.
He looks young though he is over forty.
How happy she looks today.
hear from smb. -. -
-.
Have you heard from your son lately?
arrival n
on ones arrival
Dont forget to send us a telegram on
your arrival.
321

except [ik'sept] prep ,


We have got leaflets for all the models
except model BC-50.
:
Besides Peter Ann will help us next week.
take pictures
take pictures /sm b., smth. -., -.
I am afraid I shall not be able to take
any pictures on Sunday.
publish v 1. (, );
2.
A new English text-book has been
published lately.
His story is to be published in
tomorrows newspaper,
title n
under the title
terrible adj ,
The weather has been terrible this
month, hasnt it?
sum n
realize [ 'riolaiz] v ,
Does he realize he was not right? I
realize how difficult it was.
But: Did you understand the question?
be at a loss , ,
be at a loss what to do
where to go
which way to choose
which book to buy
When I came to the fair I saw so many
wonderful pavilions that I was at a loss
which to start with.
allow smb. to do smth. [ Tau] v -. -.
: allow
.
I cant allow you to go out without a
coat on, its cold to-day, said the
mother to her son.
follow smb.s advice -.
You were given good advice, why
didnt you follow it?
enter v ,
syn. come in
laugh [la:f] v
laugh at smb., smth. -., -.
What are you laughing at?
cut (cut, cut) V
322

Please cut the cake in two.


recognize [ rekagnaiz] v (-., -. )
He had changed so much that I did
not recognize him.
signature [ 'signitjb] n
for signature
The contract will be sent for signature
tomorrow.
excitement [iksaitmant] n ,
be amused [s mjutzd] ,
within [wi 'din] prep , ,
The firm will deliver the goods within
three months (any time during three
months).
per prep , ,
: per
.
They sell wheat at the price of... per ton.
change n ,
Lets hope there will be a change in
the weather tomorrow,
bright adj
drizzle v
Im afraid its drizzling again,
nasty [ 'na:sti] adj , ,

What a nasty day!
awful ]'1] adj ,
Isnt it a nasty day?
Its awful!
awfully adv , ,
Its awfully hot to-day, isnt it?
mild adj ( , )
The weather is mild in England in winter.

VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR EXERCISES


I. a) Form adverbs from these adjectives by means of the suffix -ly:
bright, mild, sudden, terrible, wonderful, faithful, awful, real, easy, favourable,
probable, recent.
b) Form adjectives with negative meaning by means of the prefix un-\
happy, real, reasonable, favourable, acceptable, comfortable, married, like,
reliable.
II. Add tail-questions to these sentences:
1. He has made friends with Peter. 2. He did not mention her name. 3. Thats
a good idea. 4. She did not look quite happy. 5. You havent heard from her lately.
6. Itll keep fine. 7. You will get in touch with him on his arrival. 8. He spent a lot
of time on the job. 9. Hell come up to town within this week.
323

III. Insert one of the words given in brackets:


1. A good teacher must (to realize, to understand) children. 2. Does he (to
understand, to realize) he was not right then? 3. Im sorry to say I dont (to
understand, to realize) you. 4. He is very good at languages. He (to realize, to
understand) both French and English. 5. I hope they (to understand, to realize)
how important the information is. 6. She has changed so greatly that it was difficult
(to recognize, to get to know) her. 7. Can you (to find out, to learn) when he is
leaving for London? 8 .1 was happy (to find out, to learn) about his arrival. 9. Will
you (to find out, to learn) how to do it? 10. You should (to learn, to find out) why
he has done it. 11. The mother did not (to get to know, to recognize) her son
whom she had not seen for twenty years. 12. When you (to learn, to get to know)
these people well, you will see how good they are.
IV. Fill in prepositions or adverbs:
1. Ill be pleased to join you as its a long time since 1 travelled ... board a
steamer. 2. Did you take notice ... the beautiful picture ... the Smirnovs living
robm? It was given... them ... the artist himself. 3 .1 liked all the actors... Nikolaev.
His acting didnt impress me favourably. 4. Will the trip be put ... if there is a
change ... the weather? 5. Peter promised to send a telegram ... his arrival ...
London. 6. How long are you staying ... the Ivanovs? Only ... a weekend. 7. My
son spends a lot of money ..r books. 8. Do you know anything ... Nick? He is ...
the East but I havent heard ... him ... a long time. 9. We took a lot of pictures ...
our trip. 10. What were you laughing... when I entered the room? 11. Please, find
... how long he is going to keep the book. 12. Why do you want to put ... your
report... Saturday? 13. You should send these documents... signature right away.
14. Whats their price ... ton?
*
A SHARK
It happened ... board ... a steamer going ... Europe ... the East. Miss Smith, a
tall girl ... eighteen was ... board with her mother. Her father was a high official
somewhere ... the East and they were going to join him. She was a pretty girl and
easily made friends ... everybody. All the passengers ... board thought the girl
wonderful. There was nothing she could not do better than any woman and than
most men: sing, play, dance, dive and dress. She was an artist in all that. There
was a big tank ... sea w ater... board the steamer. The passengers threw small coins
... it and the girl dived and easily collected the coins.
One day the ship arrived... the port of Colombo. All the passengers knew that
native boys were good divers. Miss Smith wanted to see the boys dive, and the old
captain allowed the boys to come ... board. Miss Smith took a collection ... small
coins and threw them ... the sea watching the boys dive and get them. One boy...
twelve or thirteen was an excellent diver. He dived most beautifully. Suddenly the
boy g o t...... the water and helped his friends to g et... as well. Whats happened?
asked Miss Smith. A shark, I think, said the captain. He told the boys to go
away, but Miss Smith protested. Please, one moment, captain, she said. She
asked the best diver if he would dive again. Shark! he said looking ... the sea.
N o, she said, There is no shark, dive again, and she threw a coin ... the sea.
That made no impression ... the boy. Some ... the passengers tried to protest but
Miss Smith took no notice ... their protests. Looking ... the boy she threw a lo t...
324

coins... the sea. At first the boy was... a loss what to do. But then he dived after the
coins. The moment the boy entered the water something terrible happened. The
shark cut him in half.
(After Jack London)
shark; Colombo [ks'bm bou] . ; to dive ;
tank ; to throw, threw, thrown [9rou, 9ru:, 9roun] ; coin
; native ; captain ['kseptin]
V. Fill in articles or possessive pronouns where necessary.
One sunny day in July... Russian ship arrived a t ... Italian p o rt.... ship was to
stay there f o r ... few days. ... sailors wanted to see ... places of interest and take
pictures of them. When they went ashore they took notice o f ... small girl singing
... song. They stopped and listened to her as she was singing beautifully. After ...
girl finished ... song she asked ... sailors fo r... money. They gave her some money
and asked ... girl why she was alone in ... port. ... girl told them ... story. ... name
was Jina Spontany. She was living with ... old grandmother who was too old to get
... job. So Jina had to work.
All... days... ship was staying in ... p o rt... girl came to sing fo r... new friends.
She liked them. Especially she made friends with Makarov,... old sailor, who was
very fond of... music and who himself had sung well in ... young years. One day he
asked Jina, Child, would you like to be ... real singer? Oh, Id be ... happiest
girl in ... world then, answered ... girl and she looked happy when saying that.
Then come with me. Ill help you, said Makarov. He took ... girl to ... famous
music teacher and paid for ... lessons in advance.
Ten years had passed. One summer day the same Russian ship arrived at
Naples. Makarov was among ... sailors who went ashore. When walking ab o u t...
town they saw ... name of Jina Spontany on ... big announcement. She was giving
... concert that evening. With ... great difficulties Makarov and some other sailors
booked ... seats fo r... concert. When Jina appeared on ... stage it took them some
time to recognize in ... beautifully dressed tall woman the small hungry girl who
had sung for them ten years before. She was marvellous and ... concert was ...
great success. ... moment... concert was over ... sailors threw ... flowers and ...
note on to ... stage and hurried away to ... ship as they were leaving ... port that
night.
They were terribly sorry that they had no time to have ... word with their Jina.
They wanted to tell her how happy they were that she had made such ... great
progress. When ... ship was getting out of p o rt... sailors saw Jina running towards
... pier. She was saying something but they could not hear. They only smiled
happily.
sailor ; to go ashore [s'jb:] ; alone [']
, ; Naples ['neiplz] . ; pier [pis]
VI. Make up sentences using the given models. Use the active words given in
brackets:
M odel 1. He looked at the girl sitting near the window. (to take pictures of, to
laugh at, to cut, to enter, to protest against)
M odel 2. You should make the lesson a success. (to make friends with, not to
publish, to follow smb.s advice, to send smth. for signature, to
mention, not to keep, to take pictures of, to come down)
325

M odel 3. He should have sung a few more songs, (not to follow smb.s advice,
to realize, not to allow, not to go out in this nasty weather, to
invite guests)
VII. Translate these sentences into English:
1. , .
. 2. , ? 3.
! . 4.
. 5. ,
. 6. , ,
. 7. . 8.
,
. 9. , .
. 10.
. . 11.
, . . ,
. 12.
. . 13.
? 14. .
15. , ? 16.
! . ,
. 17. ! ,
. 18. , ?

SPEECH EXERCISES
VIII. Retell the text: a) as it is, b) in the persons of Mrs. Gregg and Lautisse.
IX. Reproduce the dialogues: a) as they are, b) in indirect speech.
X. Read and retell the story.

TH E MODERN VENUS
It happened in Rome. George Arnold, a poor artist, who had come from the
USA to Italy to study art, fell in love with Mary Brown, the beautiful daughter of
a rich American businessman. The girl loved the young sculptor too, but her
money-loving father would not allow her to marry George.
One day Mr. Brown called the young man to his office and said to him, My
dear sir, I cannot allow my daughter to marry a poor man. If you want to be my
daughters husband you should have fifty thousand dollars. When you show me
the money you can marry my daughter.
George was at a loss what to do. He did not know what to answer. He had no
idea how to get such a big sum of money. You must get the sum within six
months, Mr. Brown added. If you dont get the money she will marry another
man. George went home. He felt very unhappy. What am I to do? he thought.
He had nothing to sell except a beautiful statue of a girl his last work. But he
knew that nobody would buy it as he was not famous.
His thoughts were interrupted by the arrival of John Smith. John Smith was a
pleasant clever fellow. George had made friends with him on board a steamer.
They had come to Italy by the same steamer and they had been good friends since.
326

George told John about his conversation with Marys father and asked him for
advice.
You say. he gives you six months to get the money, doesnt he? asked John.
Its a lot of time and I'll help you. But promise not to protest if I do something
that you don't like. I promise, George answered.
John came up to the statue, broke off her nose, part of her right arm and her
left leg. Then he put on his hat, took the statue and left.
Two months later a story appeared in one of the Italian newspapers. It said
that Mr. John Smith, an American gentleman, had bought for a small sum of
money a piece of land not far from Rome. One day while digging the earth he
found a wonderful statue of a beautiful woman. Unfortunately, the nose, the left
leg and the right arm were gone. The experts said they were sure that the statue
was a Venus and the work of some unknown artist. They also stated that it cost
about ten million francs. Mr. Smith was to be paid five million francs and the
statue was to be taken to one of the Italian museums. Good luck! said the
Americans and immediately decided to form a company which would buy up lands
in Italy.
As to George Arnold he married Mary Brown and they lived happily but
George never mentioned to anybody what he knew about the famous Venus.
(After The Modem Venus by Mark Twain)
as to George ; Italy ; to fall in love with
smb. -.; to interrupt ; to break, broke, broken
[breik] , ; nose ; leg ; arm ; to dig
(dug, dug)
XI. Speak on these topics:
1. Your favourite artist (painting). 2. What is the weather like in different
seasons. 3. The best way to spend a weekend in summer.

LESSON 22

Grammar: Present and Past Perfect Continuous Tenses

GRAMMAR NOTES
Present and Past Perfect Continuous Tenses
The Present Perfect Continuous Tense to
be Present Perfect Present Participle (
) .

have been
+ Present Participle
has been

My friend has been learning English


since 20... 20... .
327

I have been waiting for them for an hour. .


Has your friend been working at the -
Ministry for a long time? ?

The Present Perfect Continuous Tense


,
. ,
(for 5 years, since 20...).
the Present Perfect Continuous Tense
.
The Past Perfect Continuous Tense to be
Past Perfect Present Participle .

had been + Present Participle

This firm had been producing Model -5


A-5 for five years, before they started 5 ,
producing Model A-6. -6.
How long had you been buying this
equipment before you got in touch ,
with us? ?
The Past Perfect Continuous Tense
, - ( )

( ) .
1: the Present Past
Perfect Continuous Tenses the Present Past Perfect Tenses.
They havent produced this equipment -
since 20... 20... .
2: to know, to have, to be, to love
Perfect Continuous.
the Present Past Perfect Tense.
How long have you known this man?
?
I had been at the seaside for a week -
when my friend came there. ,
.

GRAMMAR EXERCISES
I. Read and translate these sentences:
1. He has been working in the factory since 20... 2. The prices for this type of
equipment have been going up lately. 3. How long have they been building the
house? For six months already. 4. How long has she been dancing the part
of Odetta? For the last five years. 5. It had been raining heavily for a week
before I came there. 6 .1 had been shopping all day and I was awfully tired. 7. He
had been walking for half an hour before he came to the station.
328

II. Make up sentences using the given tables and translate them into Russian:
I have been working at the exhibition for a few months.
you has examining the samples since nine oclock.
we learning to paint since 20...
they looking through the journal for an hour.
he reading the magazine for the last few months.
she singing the part of Cannen

How long have you been learning English?


has they testing the equipment?
he producing these machines?
she writing the novel?
keeping the library book?
considering their tender?

We had been doing our homework before Ann came back.


you advertising for two hours
they discussing the model for before it was a success
he learning a few months on the market.
she snowing the price problem before they agreed to
it for a few days sign the contract.
French for a few before she got to
years know it well.
hard for five days before our arrival.

III. TUrn these sentences into the Present and Past Perfect Continuous forms.
Make the necessary changes:
1. He is looking through the specifications for these machines. 2. Comrade
Sedov is trying to get in touch with the Sales Manager of the firm. 3. He had
travelled over France before he visited Germany. 4. We were examining new
machines when the president came in. 5. We have imported a lot of equipment on
favourable terms lately. 6. We were studying the working characteristics of the
new model when the secretary brought in the e-mail message.
IV. Open the brackets using the verb in the correct tense form:
1. What you (to do)? I (to go through) the documents as we (to have) talks
to-morrow. How long you (to go through) them? Oh, I (to do) that for two
hours and not (to finish) it yet. 2. Two years ago 1 (to meet) Nick Pavlov in
Vladivostok. He (to say) he (to work) there all those years since we (to meet) last
time. 3. How long you (to do business) with this firm? We (to do business) with
them for about four years. You (to conclude) many transactions since then?
Oh, yes, certainly. 4. The weather is awful now. It (to rain) since the beginning of
the month. But we hope it (to change) for the better soon. 5. We (to walk) for a
few hours when we (to find ourselves) in a village we never (to be) before. 6. Who
you (to wait) for here? I (to wait) for a friend of mine. I am afraid that something
(to happen) to him. How long you (to wait) for him? For about a quarter of
an hour, I think.
329

V. Ask and answer questions using the given model, use the verbs given below:
M od el: Are they travelling in the Caucasus now? How long have they been
travelling there? Have they travelled a lot? When did they travel there?
Were they travelling in the Caucasus when you met them? How long
had they been travelling there before you met them? Had they travelled
in the Crimea before they came to the Caucasus? Do they travel much?
Are they travelling next summer?
(to paint, to consider, to dance, to hold a meeting, to play, to improve)
VI. Translate these sentences into English:
1. . , .
2. . 3.
() , . 4.
, . 5.
,
. 6. ,
. .

T ext
REPLY AN ENQUIRY
Tradeexport were recommended to El Nazr, Cairo* as makers of Drilling
Rigs of high efficiency. Experts of El Nazr studied the publications of Tradeexport
concerning the Drilling Rigs. They found that Model B-3, which Russia had been
producing for the last few years, was among the best on the world market.
El Nazr sent an enquiry to Tradeexport
The reply of Tradeexport ran as follows1:
15th September, 20...
Messrs. El Nazr
Cairo
Dear Sirs,
Re2: Enquiry for Drilling Rigs
We thank you for your enquiry of 8th September this year concerning our
Drilling Rig Model B-3. We are pleased to offer you 10 machines at the price of...
per unit c.i.f. Alexandria** including packing. Payment is to be made against a Bill
of Lading3 an Invoice3 and a Works Test Certificate3 by an irrevocable Letter of
Credit.3 The L etter o f C redit is to be opened in our favour with the
Vnesheconombank, Moscow, for the full value of the goods intended for shipment.
The machines can be dispatched within 6 months upon receipt of your formal
order. We enclose a list of firms whom we have been supplying with our machines
for the last few years.
Yours truly,4
Tradeexport
DISCUSSING THE GUARANTEE PERIOD
AND DELIVERY DATES
Mulki: Ive seen your Drilling Rig Model B-3 in operation.
Sokolov: And how did you find it?
* Cairo ['kairou] .
** Alexandria [aslig 'za.ndris] .
330

Mulki: Oh. I am quite satisfied with its efficiency.


Sokolov: We thought you would be. Weve been selling the machines for the
last few years and all our customers are satisfied with them.
Mulki: The machine is certainly good. Now there are some points Id like
to discuss. Can you make us an offer for shipment in April-May?
Sokolov: Yes. in how many lots would you like the machines to be shipped?
Mulki: In two lots of 5 machines each.
Sokolov: W'e could ship the first lot at the beginning of April and the second
in the middle of May. Is that all right?
Mulki: Yes, that suits us very well. Whats your guarantee period?
Sokolov: 12 months from the date of putting the machines in operation and
not more than 15 months from the date of shipment.
Mulki: We didnt expect it to be as short as that. We hoped to get at least 18
and 24 months respectively.
Sokolov: I am afraid that goes against our usual practice.5
Mulki: Please try and see our point of view. This is our trial order and wed
like to have a longer guarantee period.
Sokolov: Well, if you insist, we can meet you half way6 and extend it to 15
18 months respectively.
Mulki: Thank you. Now wed like you to specify payment terms.
Sokolov: You are to open a Letter of Credit within 7 days after you receive
our notification of readiness.
Mulki: Then 1 think, we can accept the terms.
Sokolov: When will you be able to send us your formal order?
Mulki: In about 10 or 12 days and I hope the order will lead to further
business between our firms.
Sokolov: Yes, I hope so too.

COMMENTARY
1. The reply ran as follows: .
2. Re: .
in re
, .
Re About .
Re: Contract No. 18/239
About: Contract No. 18/239
Contract No. 18/239
3. .
We have received an Invoice enclosed with your letter of December 2.
4. Yours truly
syn. yours faithfully
Yours faithfully ,
Yours truly.
5. that goes against usual practice.
:
.
Could you extend your guarantee period to a year and a half? I
am afraid we shant be able to. It goes against our usual practice.
331

6. to meet smb. half way -. (


)
to meet smb.s request -.
()
You insist on 20 per cent discount. We consider it too high. We can meet
you half way and grant you a 10 per cent discount (We cannot meet your request).

VOCABULARY NOTES
as adv
She worked as an interpreter at our
exhibition in London,
maker n ,
We have known the firm for many
years as one of the best makers of
tractors Model HG.
efficiency [i'fijbnsi] n ,

These machines are in great demand,
because their efficiency is very high,
drilling rig
unit [ 'ju:nit] n ( ..),
Our price is 100,00 per unit.
include [in 'klu:d] v ,
The charge at the hotel usually
includes breakfast.
packing n
The packing of the goods was not up
to standard,
bill of lading n
invoice n -
works test certificate [sa 'tifikit]
Who was the works test certificate
signed by?
irrevocable letter of credit [i revaksbl]
Payment is to be made by an
irrevocable L/C.
in favour o/[feivs] -., -.
open a L/C in favour of... -.
, -.
The L/C is to be opened in favour of
the sellers.
full adj
value [ 'vselju:]
Payment is to be made by an
irrevocable Letter of Credit, which is
to be opened for the full value of the
goods.
332

intended for shipment [in tendid]


The goods intended for shipment have
just been inspected.
dispatch [dis'ptetj] v
The goods can be dispatched within 3
weeks after the contract is signed.
dispatch n
The dispatch of the goods has been
delayed.
receipt [ri'si:t] n
upon receipt iV pow }
We shall dispatch the goods within 2
months upon receipt of your order,
formal order [ :1]
Please let the firm know that weve
received their formal order,
supply [sa'plai] v ,
supply smb. with smth. -. -.
We shall be pleased to supply you with
any further information on the model
in the shortest possible time.
guarantee period [ ,() Ti: 'piariadj
Your guarantee period seems very short.
guarantee letter
A guarantee letter of a first-class
British bank is to be sent to us within
five days of the date of signing the
contract.
at the beginning o f
We shall go to the Caucasus at the
beginning of August.
ant. at the end of
in the middle o f
The weather suddenly changed in the
middle of September.
There was a table in the middle of the
room.
put smth. into (in) operation -.
Have the machines delivered under
contract No. 1045 been put into
operation?
at least [at Ti:st] adv ,
We hoped you would reduce your price
by at least 6 per cent.
respectively [ris'pektivli] adv
We are interested in buying Machine-
tools Model H-5 and G -10. The prices
are too high. We hope that the firm
333

will agree to reduce the price by 3 and


4 per cent respectively.
point of view
I cannot agree with your point of view.
trial order [ 'traial]
They hope that the prices will be the
same as under the trial order of last
September.
insist [in'sist] v
insist on smth. -.
What guarantee period do they insist on?
extend [iks'tend] v ()
extend by (- )
extend to (- )
They did not agree to extend the
guarantee period to twenty four
months.
: increase by
reduce to
specify [ 'spesifai] v ,
Wed like you to specify the delivery
dates.
notification [ .noutifi 'keijbn] n ,
notification o f readiness

The firm is to send a steamer to the
port as soon as they receive our
notification of readiness.
lead [li:d] (led, led) v
lead to smth. , -.
We believe that these talks will lead to
a big transaction.

Written Speech Patterns Used in Business Language


1. Payment is to be made ... ...
Shipment is to be made ... ...
A Letter of Credit is to be opened ... ...
2. You are to open a Letter of Credit
in our favour (in the Sellers favour). ( ).
3. The Buyers are to open a Letter of -
Credit for 80 per cent of the value 80%
of the contract, (...for the full (...
value of the contract). ).
4. The firm is to open a Letter of
Credit for 80 per cent of the value 80% ,
of the goods intended for shipment. .
5. We shall ship the goods upon receipt- -
of your instructions. .
334

6. The firm needs the goods for ship


ment in April (...for immediate (...
shipment). ).
7. These terms go against our usual
practice. .
8. Yours truly. .
9. We shall deliver the machines in
3 lots of 5 machines each. 5 .

VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR EXERCISES


I. Give nouns corresponding to these verbs and translate them into Russian:
to dispatch, to order, to supply, to value, to guarantee, to call, to act, to crowd,
to dance, to exchange, to purchase, to touch, to book, to offer, to wish, to contact,
to cook.
II. What are the English equivalents for (see the text):
1. . 2. ?
3. , . 4.
. 5. . 6.
.
III. Fill in prepositions or adverbs:
1. Our firms have been doing business ... 20... and we hope our business
relations will lead ... more contracts... future. 2. Mr. Brown said their firm had
never granted a guarantee period... twenty months before as it was... their practice.
He added, however, if we increased our order... fifteen machine-tools they would
agree ... a longer guarantee period. 3. They are to put the reactor... operation ...
the end ... this month ... accordance ... the contract. 4. Do you know ... how
many lots the goods are to be shipped? ... three lots ... ten machine-tools
each. 5. Did they agree to extend the guarantee period... twenty four months.
No. They are prepared, however, to extend it ... three months. 6. How long
have you been supplying them ... your machine-tools? ... five years. And
theyve always been satisfied ... their quality and efficiency. 7. Do you still insist
... a longer guarantee period? 8. I hope to have ... least two hours to prepare ...
the lesson. 9. The Letter ... Credit is to be opened ... our favour... the London
Narodny Bank... the full value ... the goods intended ... shipment... seven days...
your receipt... notification ... readiness.
IV. Fill in articles or possessive pronouns where necessary:
Dear Sirs,
We are obliged for... enquiry o f... 5th March concerning... purchase of Cotton
from us. We are pleased to offer you 6,000 tons o f ... Cotton Grade A and 3,000
tons o f ... Cotton Grade at ... prices o f ... and ... per ton respectively. ... price
includes packing. ... goods can be delivered in two lots on c.i.f. terms.
We can dispatch ... first lot a t ... beginning of June, and ... second in ... middle
of September.
Payment is to be made against... shipping documents b y ... irrevocable Letter
of C redit. ... L etter of C redit is to be opened in our favour with the
Vnesheconombank, Moscow, for 80 per cent of... lot intended fo r... shipment....
remaining 20 per cent is to be paid within 3 weeks after... last lot is delivered.
335

We enclose ... list of... firms whom we have been supplying w ith... Cotton for
many years.
... samples have been sent to you by separate mail. We hope they will m eet...
requirements and if you need any further information, please let us know.
Yours truly,
Tradeexport

cotton ; grade ; ton


Y. Open the brackets using the verb in the correct form:
Smith and Co., Ltd. (to recommend) to us as makers of computers. We (to
tell) that they (to produce) various types of these machines for a few years and all
the firms who (to buy) computers from them (to be satisfied) both with the design
and the efficiency.
As we (to be going) to buy some computers for our clients in Sverdlovsk we
(to get in touch) with Smith and Co., Ltd. Soon we (to receive) all the publications
concerning the computers produced by them.
At our request the firm (to make) us an offer for two models of computers:
model AB-25 and model BC-20.
The computers (to offer) at the price o f ... and ... per unit respectively. The
prices (to quote) c.i.f. Russian port. Payment (to be to) (to make) by an irrevocable
Letter of Credit. The Letter of Credit (to be to) (to open) for the full value of the
goods intended for shipment. With the letter the firm (to enclose) a list of firms to
whom they (to deliver) their computers for the last two years. On the whole the
offer (to look) good to us. But as we not (to do) any business with the firm before
we (to request) them to extend their guarantee period by three or four months. We
also (to ask) them to change the delivery dates.
In their reply the firm (to write) that they (to meet) us half way and (to extend)
the guarantee period to twenty four months as it was our trial order. As to the
delivery dates they (to promise) to dispatch the goods in the middle of August if
they (to receive) our formal order within a fortnight.
client ['klaiant]
VI. Open the brackets using the correct form of the participle:
1. a) The model of compressor (to advertise) by. Brown and Co., Ltd. is quite
new b) The office of the firm (to advertise) this model is in Liverpool.
2. a) We have offers from firms (to quote) much lower prices for these goods,
b) We find the price (to quote) in your letter of the 5th May somewhat high.
3. a) The equipment (to export) from Germany is usually of high quality,
b) What is the name of the office (to export) power equipment?
4. a) The goods (to supply) under contract 73/14 are of inferior quality, b) The
firm (to supply) this equipment is a very reliable one.
5. a) The first transaction (to conclude) between our firms will lead to further
business, b) (to conclude) the transaction we knew that it would lead to further
business.
VII. Translate into English paying attention to the words and word combinations
given in bold type:
1. 8
, - .
336

2. , . 3.

. 4. ,
,
. 5. ... . 6.
30 " ,
. 7. , , , 10%-
, 20...
. 8. , ,
, . 9.
,
81/321. 10. ?
!
. 10 20... .
10 ,
, 1 ,
.
,
, 1
.
90% , ,
10%
.
,
24 .
.
.
, .
.
,

to reconsider; by cable transfer;


expiration

SPEECH EXERCISES
VIII. Retell the text.
IX. Reproduce the dialogue: a) as it is, b) in indirect speech.
X. Give extensive answers to these questions:
1. What is a trial order? 2. What terms ofpayment does your office prefer? 3. When
is a Letter of Credit usually opened? 4. Against what documents is payment usually
made? 5. What documents do we call shipping ones? 6. When are Buyers satisfied
with the offered goods? 7. Does the price always include packing?
XI. Read and discuss these letters:
Dear Sirs,
We have learned your address from the company we deal with who have
informed us that you are exporters of Crude Oil from Russia.
337

We are regular buyers of Crude Oil and write to enquire whether you could
offer us Crude Oil for immediate shipment as well as for shipment at regular intervals
this year.
We request you to send us samples of different grades of Crude Oil available
for export from Russia stating your lowest prices and all the particulars concerning
delivery dates and terms of payment.
Yours faithfully,

crude oil ; grade ; at regular intervals



Dear Sirs,
About: Your Enquiry of March 22
We thank you for your enquiry of the 22nd March concerning Crude Oil and
wish to inform you that our samples have been sent to you by separate mail.
We can offer you for immediate shipment, 6,000 tons of Crude Oil for sample
A5 at the price of... per ton c.i.f. London.
Payment is to be made in cash against shipping documents in London. You
are to present a Guarantee Letter of a first class British Bank for the full value of
the contract.
As regards Crude Oil for shipment at regular intervals during 20... we would
request you to let us know the quantities and the time of shipment required by you
and we shall be pleased to send you our quotations.
in cash ; to present
XII. Read and reproduce the dialogue: a) as it is, b) in indirect speech.
A. Can you supply us with machine-tools BH-68?
B. Certainly. When would you like them to be delivered?
A. We should like them to be delivered at the beginning of December.
B. Im sorry to say we shant be able to dispatch them until the middle of
January. Will that suit you?
A. Well, I think it will have to, if you cant send them sooner. And whats
your price?
B. Its ... per unit c.i.f. Liverpool including packing.
A. Im afraid thats rather high, its higher than the price of your competitors.
B. But you should take into account the high efficiency of our machine-tools.
A. Certainly, but still I hope youll reduce the price.
B. Well, probably, we can meet you halfway, well grant you a discount for a
confirmed irrevocable Letter of Credit.
A. Thank you.
B. Youre to open a Letter of Credit in our favour for the full value of the
goods intended for shipment with the Vnesheconombank.
A. All right, lets consider the matter settled. When will you be able to make
us a formal offer?
B. In about three or four days.
A. Fine, thank you.
take into account ; a confirmed Letter of Credit

338

XIII. Render these letters in English and discuss them:


!
Kac. 15
15 . . ,
-64, , -75.
.
, ,
, .
,
, .
,

, .

,
.
,

Diesel ; by return

!
20
,
20
-52,
, ... , ,
.
,
-. ,
.
,
,
.
10
.
, ,
, .
,

a wooden case
XIV. Compose letters according to these assignments:
1. Write to the firm that you have received their letter o f... stating their general
conditions for sale. Everything suits you except the price and the guarantee period.
Give them your reasons.
339

2. Compose a letter informing your Sellers that you have received the goods
delivered under contract No. 25/811, but you are not pleased with the quality of
the goods as it is inferior to that of the samples. Ask for a discount.
XV. Make up dialogues based on the following assignments:
1. Receive Mr. Nelson in your private room. Have a talk about his impression
of Moscow. Then discuss the price. They ask you for a discount, but you cannot
grant it. Give your reasons.
2. During your talk with Mr. Kiev discuss the guarantee period and the delivery
dates. Ask him to extend the guarantee period and ship the goods within four
months.
3. Receive Mr. Brown in your private room. Have a talk about his impression
of the exhibition he has just visited. Then discuss the working characteristics of
the machine he got interested in at the exhibition. Tell him of your terms of
payment and delivery.
XVI. Read the situation and do the assignments:
Not long ago one September night a valuable painting was stolen from an
exhibition of Dutch paintings in a museum in Brussels.
Ten days later the thief called the radio stations and the newspapers and said
that he would return the painting on the following terms:
1. a ransom of 5 million dollars was to be paid for refugees from Bengal where
thousands were dying from hunger.
2. the museum should finance a campaign against hunger in the world.
3. the thief would sell the painting if the ransom was not paid.
The ransom was not paid because very soon the police found the painting and
arrested a 24-year-old Belgian barman, Mario Royman. Roymans action was a
form of protest in favour of the refugees from Bengal. But did it really help them?
to steal (stole, stolen) ; thief ; ransom ; refugee
[refju: 'd3i:] ; arrest ; Brussels ; Bengal
[ben'go:l]
A. Answer the questions:
1. What happened one September night in a Brussels museum? 2. Who stole
the painting? 3. When did the thief call the radio stations and the newspapers?
4. What did the thief insist on? 5. Did the museum pay the ransom? Why?
B. Take a stand:
1. Do you think Royman was right in what he did? Was it a good idea? 2. Did
Royman realize what his protest would lead to? 3. Can you think of another more
effective form of protest that he may have chosen? 4. What is your opinion of
people who commit criminal acts as a form of protest?
C. Discuss the following points:
1. Protests like this never help the people they were intended to help. Do you
agree or disagree? Why? 2. What do people nowadays protest about? Give
examples. 3. If you and your friends wish to oppose a plan to turn a local park into
a shopping centre, how would you protest?
340

LESSON 23

Grammar: Subjunctive Mood (in simple sentences)


The use of article
Pronoun other

GRAMMAR NOTES
I. Mood
, ,
:
1. The Indicative Mood ( ).

, .
friend works at the Ministry.
The film impressed everybody very much.
The exhibition will be held next summer.
2. The Imperative Mood ( ).
, . .
, ..
Close the door, please.
3. The Subjunctive Mood ( ).

, .
,
:

should
+ Indefinite Infinitive
would*

In your place I should (Id) spend the


week-end in the country. .
In his place I shouldnt buy this suit,
it doesnt fit him. ,
.
: should, would
could , .
Get in touch with him. He could give .
you good advice. .
II. The Use of Article ( )
hospital, college, school, bed town
:

*
would.
341

be at school 1
, . . t
go to school J

leave school
go to college
be in hospital

take smb. to hospital () -.

go to bed
be in bed 1
,
stay in bed f
be in town \ :
stay in town /
go to town ( :

)
,
.
is in hospital now, he feels bad. There is a hospital not far from our
house.
The hospital where my wife works is
near our house.
Hell stay in town this summer. The town 1 lived in as a child is situated
on the Volga.
III. Pronoun other
other
-,
-. -
,
.

/ another ( ) others
| {^ 1^ ( )
I have already read this book. Give
{
the others
.
me another, please. , , .
I have given you two books. Here is . ,
one book, and where is the other? ?
I took this pen because there were ,
no others. .
There are only three students here. .
Where are the others? ?
: -
, -.
If this article is too difficult for you ,
read another one. .
342

GRAMMAR EXERCISES
I. Read and translate these sentences:
I. In your place Id try and get in touch with them right away. 2. How would
you spend the week-end? 3. In his place Id accept the job. Its interesting. 4. In
your place Id get your younger son to start playing tennis. 5. I wouldnt advise
him to send this material to the journal. 6. You could spend more time in the open
air. 7. In your place, I wouldnt give the boy such a big sum of money.
II. Make up sentences according to the given models:
M odel 1: In your place I d spend holiday at the seaside.
In your place to join them.
to agree to the plan.
to ask them for information.
to make an appointment for 2 o clock.
to go there on board the steamer.

M odel 2: I am sorry he is not here now, hed give you a piece of good advice.
I am sorry he is not here now to give us the necessary book,
to show us his latest paintings,
to get tickets for this performance,
to tell the story in detail,
to take you to the picture gallery,
to sing a new song.I.V

III. Answer these questions. Use the Subjunctive.


1. Suppose you were interested in the equipment produced by an English firm.
Would you try to get in touch with the firm? Would you ask them to send you
catalogues? What other information would you ask them for? Would you ask them
to make you an offer before you have studied the working characteristics of the
machines?
2. Suppose you wanted to go to the theatre. What theatre would you go to?
Who would you invite to join you? Would you buy tickets in advance?
3. Suppose you were making plans for the summer. Would you go to the South
or to the North for your holiday? Why would you go there? Would you go there by
plane or by train? Why?
4. Suppose you were in London now. Would you go sightseeing? What places
of interest would you like to see? Who would you walk about the town with?
IV. Translate these sentences into English:
1. .
. 2.
. . 3. .
. 4. .
. 5. , , ,
. 6. . 7.
, . 8.
. .
343

V. Fill in articles w here necessary:


A. 1. She has been out of ... hospital for a week already and she feels well
again. 2. My friend has three children. Nick and Ann go to ... school. The younger
son, whose name is Pete, will go to ... school next year. 3. When was he taken to
... hospital? Yesterday. What hospital was he taken to? The one
round the comer. This is ... new hospital. 4. Where are you going to spend your
holiday? I dont think Ill go anywhere. Ill stay in ... town this time. 5. You
should stay in ... bed for a few days, the doctor said. 6. They made friends when
they went to ... college. 7. My sister has been working a t ... hospital for five years.
8. My friend is a schoolteacher. She works a t ... school where her children study.
9. After... school I am going to ... hospital to see my mother. 10. The old man was
making good progress and the doctor hoped he would not have to stay in ... bed
long. 11. They have bought the child ... new bed as the old one was too short for
him.
V I. In sert the words the other, the others, another or others:
1. We expected you to send us two exhibits. We received one yesterday and
what ab o u t... ? 2. I brought five books from the library. There are only three on
my desk now. I wonder where ... are. 3 .1told Mary and John about the exhibition.
Dont forget to tell.... 4 .1hope Nick, John, Pete and ... will join us. 5. Rose heard
Francis a n d ... around her say that the performance was marvellous. 6. This theatre
has produced two new ballet-performances lately, one is by Tchaikovsky and ...
by Khatchaturyan. 7. He saw a lot of people in the pavilion, some were watching
machine-tools in operation, ... were looking through catalogues.
V II. T ranslate th e se se n te n c e s into English:
1. , ,
, . 2.
, ,
, . 3. ,
, . 4.
.
, . 5. ,
.
. 6. . .
.

T ext
AN OPEN WINDOW
Mr. Nullels health had never caused him any trouble. He never had even a
cold. But one day his sister said that he looked pale and that in his place she would
see a doctor. He followed her advice.
The doctor examined him and found that he was ill with many diseases.
However, he said, Nuttels health could be restored if he went to a quiet place
to have a rest and a proper treatment.
So Nuttel decided to go to a small village in the mountains. He arrived there
late on Friday evening. The landlady of the boarding house* met him and showed
* landlady of the boa