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Martin von Morgan, 2006


DRT, 2006
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................................................................................................................................ 2
................................................................................................................................. 5
1. .......................................................................................................................12
2. ..........................................................................................17
2.1. ..................................................................................................................17
2.2. ..........................................................................................................................24
2.3. ...............................................................................................................31
3. ............................................ 36
3.1. .........................................................................................................................36
3.2. ........................................................................................37
3.3. .......................................................................37
3.4. .....................................................................................................38
3.5. ..............................................................................................38
3.6. ...........................................................................40
3.7. ..................................................................................41
3.8. ...............................................................................................................41
4. ...........................................................................................43
5. .......................................................81
6. .............................................................................................................88
6.1. ......................................................................................................................................88
6.2. ............................................................................................................90
6.3. .................................................................................................................91
6.4. .....................................................................................................................92
6.5. .....................................................................................................................95
6.6. ...........................................................................................................98
6.7. , , .......................................................................................................... 102
6.8. ................................................................................................................................... 103
6.9. ................................................................................................................................... 106
6.10. ...................................................................................................... 109
7. .........................................................................................113
7.1. .................................................................................................................. 113
7.1.1. ............................................................................................................................ 113
7.1.2. ................................................................................................................. 117
7.1.3. ........................................................................................................... 118
7.1.4. () ....................................................................... 119
7.1.5. ......................................................................................... 122
7.1.6. ............................................................................................ 122
7.1.7. (2--4,6-, , )..................................... 123
7.1.8. () ............................................................................................... 123
7.1.9. ............................................................................ 125
7.1.10. .......................................................................................................... 125
7.1.11. .......................................................................................................... 125
7.1.12. ....................................................................................................... 126
7.1.13. .............................................................................................................. 126
7.1.14. ( , ) ..................................... 129
7.1.15. ( 5-(4--1-)) ........................................ 129
7.1.16. (2,3,4,6-) .................................................... 130
7.1.17. .......................................................................................................... 130
7.1.18. ( , , )...................................... 131
7.1.19. ()..................................................................................... 131


3

7.1.20. .............................................................................................. 132


7.1.21. ................................................................................................................. 132
7.1.22. ................................................................................................... 135
7.2. ....................................................................................................................... 136
7.2.1. ........................................................................................................................ 136
7.2.2. ......................................................................................... 137
7.2.3. ( , ).......................................... 137
7.2.4. .................................................. 138
7.2.5. (2,2',4,4',6,6'-, )........................................ 143
7.2.6. (, ) ................................................ 144
7.2.7. ( )........................................................................ 144
7.2.8. (, )....................................................... 144
7.2.9. ( )......................................... 146
7.2.10. ()........................................................................................................ 147
7.2.11. () ............................................................................. 147
7.2.12. ..................................................................................................................... 148
7.2.13. ( , ) ...................................... 150
7.2.14. ()................................................................................................... 151
7.2.15. () ........................................................................................... 152
7.2.16. (, ) ................................................................. 152
7.2.17. ( ) ................................................. 155
7.2.18. () ..................................................................................... 155
7.2.19. (, )............................................................... 156
7.2.20. (, ).............................................. 157
7.2.21. ().................................................................................. 160
7.2.22. .......................................................................................................... 161
7.2.23. (, HMX) ................................................................ 163
7.2.24. ................................................................................................. 165
7.2.25. (2,4,6-, ) ......................................................... 166
7.2.26. ................................................................................ 168
7.2.27. ......................................................................................................... 171
7.2.28. (, ) ........................................................... 171
7.2.29. ( , )......................................... 171
7.2.30. (N-[2,4,6-]) ........................................................ 172
7.2.31. (1,3,5-, )............................................................... 173
7.2.32. (1,3--2,4,6-, )....................................... 173
7.2.33. (2,4,6-, , , )............................................ 174
7.2.34. (-[]-, ).................................... 175
7.2.35. () ................................................................ 175
7.2.36. (, ) ............................................................................... 176
8. .....................................................................................177
8.1. ..................................................................... 179
8.1.1. (DM) ................................................................................................................. 179
8.1.2. ( , CR) ......................................................................... 179
8.1.3. ........................................................................................................ 179
8.1.4. ........................................................................................................ 179
8.1.5. (, CN) .................................................................................... 179
8.1.6. (S) .................................................................................. 180
8.1.7. () .................................................................................. 180
8.2. ...................................................................... 180
8.2.1. ( ) ....................................................................... 180
8.2.2. ....................................................................................................................... 181
8.3. - .................................................................. 181
8.3.1. ( ) ................................................................................................... 181
8.3.2. .......................................................................................................................... 181
8.4. .......................................................................... 182
8.4.1. ....................................................................................................................... 182
8.4.2. ........................................................................................................................... 182


4

8.5. - ......................................................... 182


8.5.1. - (VX) ..................................................................................................................... 182
8.5.2. ............................................................................................................................. 183
8.5.3. ............................................................................................................................. 183
8.5.4. ............................................................................................................................. 183
8.6. .......................................................... 183
8.6.1. -3- (BZ)........................................................................................... 183
9. ...................................................................................184
9.1. ............................................................................................................ 184
9.2. ............................................................................................................... 186
9.3. ........................................................................................................... 186
10. .........................................................................................201
10.1. ............................................................................................... 204
10.1.1. ................................................................................................. 204
10.1.2. .......................................................................................... 204
10.1.3. ............................................................................................... 205
10.1.4. ............................................................................................. 205
10.2. ............................................................................................................. 205
10.2.1. ................................................................................................ 206
10.2.2. ............................................................................................ 209
10.2.3. ........................................................................................................ 209
10.2.4. - ........................................................................................................... 209
10.2.5. ....................................................................... 209
10.2.6. ............................................................................. 210
10.2.7. - ........................................................................................................... 210
10.2.8. ................................................................................................... 210
10.2.9. - ................................................................................................ 211
10.2.10. ........................................................................................................................... 211
10.2.11. ....................................................................................................... 211
10.2.12. ............................................................................................................ 212
10.2.13. ................................................................................................................ 213
10.2.14. ..................................................................................................... 213
10.2.15. ............................................................................ 213
10.2.16. ....................................................................................................... 214
10.2.17. ................................................................................................. 214
10.2.18. ...................................................................................................... 215
10.2.19. ........................................................................................................ 215
10.3. ..................................................................................................................... 217
10.3.1. ............................................................................................................. 217
10.3.2. ............................................................................................ 217
10.3.3. ............................................................................................................... 217
10.3.4. ............................................................................. 217
10.3.5. ............................................................................................. 217
10.3.6. ................................................................................... 218
10.3.7. ............................................................................................ 218
............................................................................................................................224
..............................................................................................................................226
...........................................................................................................................231
1. ....................................................................................................... 231
2. .................................................................... 234
3. .......................................................................................... 238
4. .................................................................................. 262
.......................................................................................................263


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, , , -
,


2. 24

6 2%. -
, 15-20%. -
( ) -
. -
, , ( ~220C).
(,
, ) ( )
- ,
, .. 200-250C
100-150 .
- . ,
, , -
, , , , -
. (
). , -
(, ).
, -
. -
- . ,
.
,
, .

2.2.
(,
, , ..), -
- .
, , -
, . , -
, , . -
[26].
.
, , -
( , ) , -
: , . -
. -
.
.
, -
, . -
,
, , / -
,
..
. , ,
-
.
,
,
, . -
. 2.9. . . 2.10. .
-
(
- . 2.9).
;
, , ,
( ) . 2.11. .
( ),
. ( ) , .


2. 25

( 11 ,
~45 ). 1 . -
( -
, ).
( ). , -
, . -
: ( , -
). , ,
( ), .
, -
( , ).

( ).
,
,
(, ).
.
, -
, , , ,
( -
, -
).
25 : -
(1, 10, 100 ) . 2.12. .
, - , -
100 - 1,
50 - 0.5. -
, .
5 : -
.
: 11 /3, .. 10
0.95 3. : -
(, ..) -
, , . -
,
( ).
5 ,
. ,
0.94 3 ( -
). : - . 2.13. .
(, , ) (-
, ) ,
. -
,
, -
.
, -
( ,
, 10 , 10 ) -
. 2.14. .
, ( -
, ).
.
, . -
, 100C.
.
.
. ,
(. 2.14). , -
.


2. 26

.
(,
) - ,
, ( -
), , .
.
(, : -
, , ),
pH ( ). , pH -
7, 07, 714. -
. .
- 10 ( ,
). , -
() - . -
( ).
: ( -
).
: , , , -
, . -
, , , .
() . -
!
.
" ",
. -
"" - , -
. -
, .
.
( -
). ,
. , -
. .
.
,
( ). .
, -30C (
. - ,
, ).
2.1. (1).
33 34 35
60 13.6 -13.6
133 13.2 -18
30 13.3 -5.1
16 13.2 3
150 10.8 -23.7
30 13.2 0.6
() 250 10.8 -12.4
75 13.2 -5.3
20 12.5 5.7
() 110 10.7 -8
36 12.6 10.1

33
(..) 100 .
34
, C.
35
, C.


2. 27

2.2. (2).
-37 -35 -33 -31 -29 -27 -25 -23 -21 -19
(66%), .. 48 42 36 31 26 22 19 16 13 10
, .. 52 58 64 69 74 78 81 84 87 90
2.3. (3).

45 -17.3
62 -19
25 -15.8
30 -11.1
() 143 -55
51.5 -3.9
59 -18.5
33 -21.2
() 20 -2.1
2.4. (4).
100

- 26 - 14 -17.8
52 - 55 - -25.8
- 13 37.5 - -30.7
2.5. (5).
1 2
29 18 15 -10.6
28 17 10 -14
22 51 15 -9.8
21 48 10 -14
63 88 25 -10.8
60 72 15 -17
58 65 10 -20.5
61 90 25 -12.6
59 78 15 -19.6
22 98 25 -13.8
15 82 15 -20.4
61 89 25 -16.4
48 75 15 -22.7
15 154 25 -15.8
() 100 100 10 -14

.
-
. -
, .
5.25 (
) . 4 - , , .
- , , - - (
) , - .
(- 12 ,
6 , "" ). ,
10-15 ( !).


2. 28

(, ) -
. , -
( ),
. -
.
.
. -
, .
() , -
(. 2.15).
.
-
, -
, -
,
.
15-20C.
. . 2.15. .
,
.
. -
,
-
. -

30-40C .
.

.

.
,
- -
, -
, , . 2.16. .
.
.

, , , . , -
, , .. , .
, (. 2.16).
(1) (3) (4) ,
(2) (7). - -
(, ) , ,
; , (
), .
(6) (5). ,
. - (150-300
300-500 ). ,
. (-
, ), , , -
, , , -
.
(8) , ( -
). ! ,
, , ,
( -
,
, ..).


2. 29

.
( -
) , , , 0.5
. , -
. , ,
.
,
150-200 ( ) -
, , , , .
( !), - 20 ,
- , (
, ) .
, , (, )
. , , ,
, . ,
, , , ( ) -
, , ,
. , . -
- . , -
, , , ; ,
, , .
.
(, , ). , .
,
. , , ,
- .
,
( ) -
. -
- , ? -
1-2 .
, . -
, ; -
- . -
, , -
. -, -
, , -
. .
, , , -

.
( -
). , , -
. ,
.
, , -. -
, , , . -
, , , . -
.
"" , -!
2-3 . (. 2.17),
:
1) ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) ;
5) , , , (
);
6) () , , 2-2.5 , 5);


2. 30

7) 3-3.5 5) -
3). , 5);
8) 2 , 5) - 2 ( -
6)).
5);
9) () .

: -
1 , 2 -
. -
.
,
.
: .
2 , 1 -
.
.
-
2.

. 2.17. -.

. 2.18. . . 2.19. . . 2.20. -.

.
1) . - !
-
. - , "" - ,
, , . , -
- . . , -
, .


2. 31

2) . . ()
- . ,
(~3 ) ~1.5 .
- (, ), -
() . 2 6) -
8) ( ).
3) . , (-
) .
4) . . ,
, (. -
). ,
- , . ,
.. ( ).
5) . - , , , -
. -
, , , (, , ).
- . -
; - .

2.3.
, . ""
: , -
, . , -
1% , -
- " , ".
, -
[43]. / -
-
! :
1) .
, ( , ,
, ) 100$ 36.
2)
. , (, )
, 37.
3) .
, .
- .
4) 5-15$,
. , .
5) . -
. ...
, .
, -
.

36
, -
( , ,
),
. , ,
"", : " , ,
. ".
, -
. -
, , ,
- .
37
, -
: , ,
2 , .


2. 32

1. .

1.1. -
. ,
, . -
.
1.2. , -
, -
.
1.3.
, , , , ,
. -
, , ,

.
1.4. , , -

. , -
. -
: (70 ), (50 ), (1 ),
(879 ).
1.5. -
, .
1.6. -
, , . , -
. -
, .. -
.
1.7.
.
, , - .
1.8. . , -
.
.
1.9.
.
.
1.10. , -
, .
1.11. -
. -
. , , .
1.12. ,
, .
, , , ,
. -
, .

1.12.1. : ,
, (
, - -
), .
1.12.2. (, ) : , ,
, , , .
1.12.3. : , , -
, .
1.12.4. , -
, , , , , , -


2. 33

. -
.
1.12.5. , ,
, , .
1.12.6. , -
, , .
1.12.7. (, , )
.
1.12.8. .

2. .

2.1. -
. -
, .
2.2. -
. -
.
2.3. , ,
,
-
-
. , ,
, , -
: , ( - 8 .., - 2 ..,
- 85 .., - 3 .., - 2 ..), (125 -
, 12 ) ,
(165 , 90C), -
.
2.4.
,
.
2.5. , -
, -
.
.
2.6. ,
.
2.7. , -
-
.
2.8. .
-
.
.
2.9.
,
.

3. .

3.1. ,
.
3.2. , , -
. , ,
.
3.3. , , .
.


2. 34

, - -
. 65.
3.4.
, -
. -
: , - -
.
3.5. . -
,
.
3.6. , , , , ,
- .
3.7. ,
.
3.8. ,
,
.
3.9.
.
3.10.
, .
3.11. ,
.
3.12. , -
.

4. .

4.1.
, .
4.2. , , ,
.
4.3.
, .
4.4.
.
4.5. , , -
, -
. .
4.6. , -
, .
, , ,
, .
4.7. , -
-
.
4.8. (-
).
.
4.9. ,
. .
4.10. , , ,
.
4.11.
. , -
.
4.12. .
4.13. -
.


2. 35

5. .

5.1. . -
. . -
.
5.2. . ,
50 . , -
.
5.3.
. -
. ,
- .
5.4. .

.
. ,
. -
, ..,
, ,
, .
5.5. , , -
, .
5.6. .
5.7. -
.
5.8. , ,
, .
5.9. , .
5.10. . , , ,
( ), .
5.11. .
5.12. -
-
.


3. 36

3.
, .

XIX -
.. [130]. , -
; -
.

. ,
, , , -
[139].

3.1.
( -
). , -
.
, ,
. ,
.
-
. , -
, .
1. , , -
:
KClO4 + 4Mg => KCl + 4MgO
,
.
-
( - 39, - 35.5 -
- 16 4 = 64); 138.5 / (139 ). (24.3) 97.2
/ (97 ). : 139 + 97 = 236
: 139 (1 ) 97 (4 ).
2. ,
.
:
Ba(NO3)2 => BaO + N2 + 2.5O2
MgO. , :
Ba(NO3)2 + 5Mg => BaO + N2 + 5MgO
1 : Ba(NO3)2 - 68%, Mg - 32%.
, , , -
, :
Ba(NO3)2 + 8Mg => BaO + Mg3N2 + 5MgO
: Ba(NO3)2 - 57%, Mg - 43%.
, , -
, 3 ,
. , -
, :
1) ;
2) ( ).
3. .
1. 12N3 + 13122 => 62 + 6N2 + 132 + 62
2. 34N3 + 513122 => 172 + 17N2 + 65 + 302
: N3 (86%) + (14%) -
: N3 (77%) + (23%).


3. 37

3.2.
,
. ,
, (),
.
4. , , , -
.
( ) :
{ (88%) / (12%)} { (68%) / (32%)}. , 4% -
,
2 1. :
: 68 2/3 + 88 1/3 = 75%; : 32 2/3 = 21%; : 12 1/3 = 4%.
, ,
, .
5. , ,
. :
10KClO3 + nSrCO3 + 13122 => 10KCl + nSrO + (13+n)2 + 62
(. 1) (123 /) (200 /),
.. 10 1 . 1230
(123 / 10 ) 200 (200 / 1 ). 1230 + 200 =
1430 .
, , ,
20-25%, 80-75% . -
, (1230 75%) / 1430 = 64.5%, (200 75%) / 1430 =
10.489%. 25% SrCO3 : (64.5%) +
(25%) + (10,5%).

3.3.
, , -
, . ,
.
,
.
, ,
, ,
. .
,
.
, , -
,
.
, , -
, .
, , -
, .
. -
, -
.
(n) ,
100 .
6. , ,
n=-20 . :
KClO3 + 3Mg => KCl + 3MgO
20 : 20 / 16 / = 1.25 ,
(24.3), , 20 30.375 (~30.4 ) . -
69.6 ( - 100 )
.


3. 38

2.55. ,
: (2.55 69.6) / (2.55 + 1.25) = 43.6%, , -
: 100 - 43.6 = 56.4%.
, 56.4 - 30.4 = 26% , -
. k =
26.0 / 56.4 = 0.46

3.4.
-
, .. 1840 : " -
-
".
, 1 3,
- ,
.
Q1-3 = Q1-2 + Q2-3,
Q1-3 - , 1
3;
Q1-2, Q2-3 - ,
1 2 2 3.
, :
Q2-3=Q1-3 + Q1-2,
Q2-3 - ;
Q1-3 - ;
Q1-2 - .

, .. . -
, Q2-3 -
, .. Qp.
, Qv.
Qp Qv :
Qv=Qp + 0.57n,
n - , .
7. :
3Ba(NO3)2 + 10Al => 3BaO +3N2 + 5Al2O3
2399 ( : 400 5 =
2000 + : 133 3 = 399). - 711 ( -
: 237 3 = 711 + : 10 0 = 0). , : Q = 2399 - 711
= 1688 . : 261.4 3 + 27.0 10 = 1054 . -
: Q = 1688 / 1054 = 1.60 / (6.67 /, .. 1 = 4.186 ).
, -
, .
, 68% Ba(NO3)2 32% Mg. , 0.32
0.32 5.9 = 1.87 . 261 104 , 0.68
- 0.27 . : Q = 1.87 - 0.27 = 1.60
/ (6.67 /)
14% , -
. -
(75% Fe2O3 25% Al), Q = 1.82 - 0.86 = 0.96 / (4.02 /). -
47% , .

3.5.
, .. -
, . -
:


3. 39

1) (. ). ,
, -
.
2) .
, .
, , .
-
( 2000C);
. , -
,
, .
, -
.
, , -
, , ,
2000C, .
.. , -
. ( 3.1) -
-
- .
3.1. (/).
2, 2, , N2 2 2
0-100 7.0 8.0 9.1
0-500 7.1 8.3 10.3
0-1000 7.3 8.8 11.3
0-1500 7.5 9.5 11.9
0-2000 7.7 10.3 12.3
0-2500 7.8 11.4 12.5
0-3000 8.0 12.8 12.7

, , ,
- 6.4 / (26.8 /).
, ,
(-
-).
3.2. , .
,
Al2O3 30-1100 27.7
Al2O3 30-1500 28.1
Al2O3 20-2030 28.5
BaCl2 100 19.6
BaCO3 1000 31.8
Cu 20-1500 9.4
Fe 20-1500 9.6
KCl 400 13.3
MgO 20-1735 12.1
MgO 20-2370 14.0
MgO 20-2780 14.3
NaCl 20-785 13.6

, . -
1.3 -
().
:


3. 40

Qs=0.002-0.003Ts,
Qs - /;
Ts - .
-
:
Qs=0.002n ( )Ts,
n - .
Qk / (39.6 /)
( ) :
Qk=0.02 (0.08 )Tk.
:
Q S(Q s + Qk )
t= ,
S Cp
Q - ;
SCp - ;
S(Qs+Qk) - .
8. , -
65% , 20% 15% .
:
7.1KClO3 + 1.8SrCO3 + 13122 => 7.1KCl + 1.8SrO3 + 4.32 + 62 + 8.7
.
830 [ (7.1 96
/ = 682) + (0.74 200 / = 148)]. - 1726 [ (6 57.4
/ = 344) + (4.3 94 / = 404) + (8.7 26 /
= 266) + (7.1 106 / = 752)]. , -
, : 1726 - 830 = 896 .
, 1500C, -
: Qs=6.3 768C Qk=40
1415C. : S(Qs+Qk) = 46.3 7.1 = 329; Q - S(Qs+Qk) = 896 - 329 = 567.
0-1500C 173.4 [ (6 9.5 = 57.0) +
(4.3 11.9 = 51.2) + (8.7 7.5 = 65.2)].
(12.8 7.1 = 90.9) (32.0 1.8 = 57.6) 148.5.
: Cp = 173.4 + 148.5 = 321.9 /, t = 567 1000 / 321.9 = 1760C.
-
( ), -
. ,
1600C.
, -
, , -
- 2000-2500C, - 1200-2000C, - 400-1200C.

3.6.

. -
,
, ,
:
FD
Pmax = ,
(1 - a) D
max - , [];
F - , [3/];
a - , [3/];
D - , [/3].
- , , -
, , .


3. 41

3.3. .
F, 3/ , 3/
9980 1.24
2870 0.99


-.
, :
F
Pmax = ,
D 1
- , [];
F - , [3/];
D - , [/3].
9. 2460
, 90 , 9660 3/ 6.5 ,
3

2925 3/.
90 + (6.5 (2925 / 9660)) = 92
D = 92 / 2460 3 = 0.0374 /3; . = 9660 / (1 / 0.0374 - 1) = 375 .

3.7.
,
( ), -
.

(2g S q 1.0333)
L = G 2 ,
V02

L - , [];
- , [/2];
g - , [9.81 /2];
S - , [];
q - (), [S = R2], [];
V02 - , [/];
G - , [].
10. , :
- 4020 /2; - 1500
/; - 8.5 (0.0085 ); - 69 (0.69 ); - 0.754
(0.000754 ).
L = ((4020 (2 9.81 0.69 (0.000754/2)2 3.14 1.0333) / 15002) - 0.0085) 2 = 5.4 .
: 5.4 .
2.46 5.56 ( ), , 5.4
2.46, : 13.284 (~13.3 ).
, ,
30-50%.

3.8.
, 1945 ..
, , ,
. U - ,
, , -
, V
V :

[1] [2]
U U U U
VC = U1 + U 2 = + = U ctg V = U1 + U 2 = + = U tg
sin tg 2 sin tg 2


3. 42

m m m :

[3] [4 ]
1 cos 1 + cos
mC = m m = m
2 2

(1), ,
U. 90 / -
.
h,
L , :
1
P 2
h = L C
P
, , -
, ,
, , ,
.

, ,
, .


4. 43

4.
... ...
( / " ")

, , -
- , " ". :
, , , -
, , . , ( ),
, -
- , , .
, , ,
: - - (, ,
- , ,
...).
" " -
, "". -
?..
, -
, , -,
, -, .
, , [142]. -
" " [15], , -
,
(. "").
, -
. -
, , , -
, , , , -
.
, ,
, .., , " " "
".
, , -
, ,
, , -, -
. - .
(
) , .. -
. - , -,
(, , )
. , :
) , -
.
) , , , .
) ,
! : , /
- , . , "" -
.
) , 10 -. ,
.
) ,
.
,
-/ .
"" -
.

r
4. 44

[HNO2].
, .. , -
, -
:
HCl + NaNO2 => HNO2 + NaCl
:
3HNO2 => HNO3 + 2NO + H2O
. - .
[HN3].
, t.=-80C, t.=36C. -
,
, . - .
:
HNO2 + N2H4 => HN3 + 2H2O
.
, , -
, :
Pb + 3HN3 => Pb(N3)2 + NH3 + N2
!
[HNO3].
- -
, .=1.513 /3; t.=82.6C. .
- . -
(, ) . - .
. -
1.5 .. 1 .. . -
( ):
NaNO3 + H2SO4 => HNO3 + NaSO4 + NO2 + 2H2 + O2
,
- .
, , -
:
4HNO3 => 4NO2 + 2H2 + O2

. ( ) ,
:
NH4NO3 + H2SO4 => (NH4)2SO4 + HNO3
, ,
( ).
, .. -
38.
, . .
, . .
, . , .
, . .
[Al].
- , (.=2.7 /3).
.
, . -
, - .
, , , .. -
()
10, 50, 100, 150 ~5$/.
( ) [AlCl3]. . 4.1. .
, , t.=180C ( ), .=2.44 /3. -
.

38
, ,
99%, .

r
4. 45

, . .
[NH3].
, . -
,
.
Na2CO3 + 2NH4NO3 => 2NaNO3 + CO2 + 2NH3 + H2O
( ) , -
.
, . .
, . .
[(NH4)2Cr2O7].
- .
, , . -
. 1843 .
( , ) [NH4NO3].
, , -
, t.=169.6C, .=1.725 /3,
~240-250C, , -
, , , -
(, , , ).
.
(-
, .), . 1
0.2 ,
(,
, ). ,
, , -

, .
(179 100
20C), -
.
. 4.2. .

, (+32.3C).
.
1400
/. -
.
( -
-
). ( 34% )
1$/.
[NH3COOH].
, , -
, , .
() [NH4ClO4].
, t.=150C ( ), .=1.952 /3, ,
, . 25C: - 24.92 100 , - 2.26 100
, - 1.907 100 , - . -
, ,
. , ( )
. -
(), , .
- 1 /, - 5 /.
, -
, 2500 /c .=1.17 /3, -
~2.05 /, ~220 3, ~810 3.
- -
. , -

r
4. 46

( -
, ). -
:
4NH4ClO4 => 2Cl2 + 2N2O + 3O2 + 8H2O
, -
1831 .
, . .
( ) [(NH4)2SO4].
, , .=1.766 /3,
100C . .
.
( ) [NH4NCS].
, t.=149.6C, .=1.3057 /3,
. ,
; .
( ) [NH4ClO3].
, 101.5, ,
- ; . 100-
130C (
). , .
- (+23.6%) -
: 1923 /, 1850C, -
828 3, 245-255 3, 3300 /. -
- , -
.
-
/// . , -
( ).
- -
. -
, ( -20C) . ,
, .. ; -
(1-2 ) ,
- - .

. 122.6 , 70 350
.
(1.4 ) 80% , -
. -
. : ~90 .
-
.
200-300 , ( -
15-30C), , . -
"-" 8-10 -
. , , -
106.5 (
).
-
. , , , 7.7 13 12.5
7.7 6 17 ,
( /) -10-15C; -
, . : 5-6.5
( -
).
( , ) [NH4Cl].
, t.=337.6C ( ). -
, . -

r
4. 47

, , . (
25% ).
, ,
( 66% ) . , ,
, . ..
, ,
.
, . .
[C6H5NH2].
, , -
, t.=184C, .=1.02 /3, , .
. -
. - . , -
, , ,
, .
, . .
[C14H10].
, t.=216C. . ,
, .
.
. , -
, - .
, . .
( ).
, ,
t.=20-100C, .=1.1 /3. , , ,
.
, . .
, . .
, . .
( , ) [3].
, t.=20.16C. ,
, .
[C2H2].
, t.=84.1C, .=1.0896 /. :
H2O + CaC2 => CH=CH + CaO
,
.
(, , ) [CH3COOC6H4COOH].
, t.=141-144C, (1:300). -
. ( -
, - -
)
, .
( ), .
- -
. .
(50 ) 200 70% -
. ( -
, !).
; 0-10C, ,

, .
(, - ) [].
, t.=56,1C, .=0.79 /3.
, ,
. , -
- . , -
"" , .

r
4. 48

, -
, . -
( "") 1$/0.5.
, . .
( ).
, , -
- ;
- . -
-.
, . .
[Ba].
- . , .
, (, ).
[Ba(OH)2].
. - . -
- -, , ,
- .
( ) [BaCO3].
, t.=1555C, .=4.25 /3, . -
. , , -
( ).
( ) [Ba(NO3)2].
, t.=595C ( ), .=3.24 /3, .
.
, ,
. . .
.
. , -
1000-1300C 1.5-2 . , -
, .
. ,
; -
[229].
, , -
.
[BaC2O4H2O].
- .
[BaO2].
, t.=500C ( ), .=4.96 /3.
. , .
( ) [BaSO4].
, t=1880C, .=4.50 /3. -
. , ,
, .
[BaS].
, t.=2200C, .=4.25 /3.
.
[BaF2].
, t.=970C ( ), .=4.893 /3, .
. , , ,
.
[Ba(ClO3)2].
- .
[BaCl2].
, t.=961C, .=3.856 /3.
. ,
, , ,
, .

r
4. 49

[BaCrO4].
, t.=1380C, , .
. -
.
, . .
( ) [C6H5CHO].
, t.=179C. -
; .
() [C6H5CH2OH].
, , - ,
t.=-15C, t.=205C. . -
, , (
), .
.
t.=30-205C, , .=0.70-0.78 /3. -
. - -
, , , .
, . .
[C6H6].
, t.=80.1C.
. -
. ,
( " " - ).
[Be].
- . , - , -
. .
-() [{C(NO2)3CH2}2NH].
, , t.=107, -
(0.43% 25), . 5220
/ .=1.02 /3, 25.5 , 370 3, : 50%
2 24 .
2 1.1-1.2
20-30:
2C(NO2)3CH2OH + NH3 => [C(NO2)3CH2]2NH + H2O
, .
. . .
, . .
[B].
, . , -
( .. ),
..
[ ].
[HBO2], , [H3BO3]
[nB2O3mH2O]. H3BO3 - , - ,
.=1.46 /3, t=107.5C .
; (
, )
.
( ) [Na2B4O710H2O].
, t.=765C (), t.=60.8C (), .=2.2 /3;
. , , .
, . .
, . .
() [CH3CH2CH2CH2OH (1- )].
, t.=117,4C. , , -
, , (-
) .

r
4. 50

.
,
(, ). - ;
. .
( ) [V2O5].
- ; t.=680C, .=3.36 /3. ,
. , ,
, .
( , , ) [CH2=CHCl].
, t.=-158.4C.
, , .
, . .
, . .
[Bi(NO3)35H2O].
, t.=75C, .=2.8 /3, . -
.
[Bi2O3].
, , - . -
, , , .
( , , ) [H2O2].
, .=1.45 /3, t.=-0.41C, t.=150.2C.
. 1818 -
:
BaO2 + H2SO4 => H2O2 + BaSO4
- - ,
-1C ; ,
. , , -
:
2H2O2 => 2H2O + O2
, , (
- ), , , , -
. 30-90%- (30%-
39). -
, .
(3,4,5- ) [(HO)3C6H2COOH].
, t.=240C ( ).
, , ().
. , , -
,
.
, . .
, . .
() [C6Cl6].
, t.=231C, .=2.044 /3, , - -
. , . , . -
(75% ).
() [C2Cl6].
, t.=187C.
, -
, (90% ),
( ), -
. , -
, .. ,
, . ,
, .

39
, ,
3% ( ), .

r
4. 51

() [C6H4(OH)2].
, t.=173.8-174.8C, , -
. 4-
. -
, . -
- .
, . .
.
, - ,
. -
. , .
, . .
() [Na2[SO4]10H2O].
. .
. . .
[CH2OHCHOHCH2OH].
, , t.=17.9C, t.=290C.
, (.. "") ,
. , , . -
, , ,
.
( ,
, , , , -
, ) (-
).
, 30% . -
( )
( , .)
, . .
, . .
[C].
,
. . - , -
, , .=1-2, .=~2.2 /3. , , . -
, . ,
, , , ..
- . -
, -
.. : -
0.5$/, - 0.15$/.
, . .
[(H2N)2C=NH].
, , t.=50C. -
. -
:
C(OC2H5)4 + 3NH3 => (H2N)2C=NH + 4C2H5OH
,
, (- ).
, - , [NH2NHC(NH2)=NH]
.
( ), (), [H2N-C(NH)-NHNH2H2CO3], t.=170C, -
; () [H2N-C(NH)-NHNH2H2SO4], t.=203C, , -
.
.
, . .
, . .
[C6H10O5].
, . ,
, , , , -

r
4. 52

, . t=210C,
, , .
- ,
.
, . .
() [SiO2K2O + Al2O3 + Fe2O3 + CaO].
, -
. , , -
.
, . .
, . .
, . .
[C6H5N(CH3)2].
, t.=194C. -
. , ,
. .
, . .
, . .
().
, t.=~215,
, , .
, (. ).
- ( ),
.
() [C6H(NO2)2(OH)COOH].
, , -
. , , , -
,
- .. -
. -
, - .
.
76 20
. , -
, , ( ) 100C
( ) 150C ( ""
200C) - - ( -
, ).
, , 70C, -
30 ( 2-4 ) -
, . ( ) 100C
( 80-90-100C) ( )
100C ( ); -
-.
200
( ).
10-15C - -
.
(50-100 ) -
; -
. ( , ) ,
( !).
, -
. -
. -
.
.
, . .
- , . .

r
4. 53

( - ) [C6H4(COOC8H17)2].
, t.=229C, , ,
. , .
[(C6H5)2NH].
, , t.=54-55C,
, , .
t=300C ( - , ). , -
, , .
.
. 160C .
, . .
() [C2N2].
, , .
. ( 350-450) -
:
t
Hg(CN)2 Hg + C 2N2
.
( , , ) [C2H5OC2H5].
, ,
t.=34.5C, .=0.71 /3, , , -
, : 7.5 100 20C.
-
(. 4.3). -
(1) ( 30 );
(
),
,
-
. -
. ,
, (2)
0...200C.
, ,
,
. 4.3. .
,
1 .
(3) 250 50 , -
, 50 . 5 -
,
.
(4), (5)
- , ,
(6). ( ) -
. (7).
100 . -
. 130-140C,
( , ).
, 140C ( "",
).
; , -
:
C2H5OH + H2SO4 => C2H5OH(SO3) + H2O
, -
:
C2H5OH(SO3) + C2H5OH => C2H5OC2H5 + H2SO4
, .
- , : -
, -

r
4. 54

; -
. ( 0.5 ): -
5%- , 1/3
. , ,
, ,
.

. 100 , 10
. -
100 -
.

100-200 -
(. 4.4).
-
: -
, -
. (2) t=80C
(1), -
, (3) -
33-38C. -
. - . 4.4. .
, , (5).
,
.
, , .
, . .
().
, .
, , , .
, . .
, . .
, . .
[Fe].
- . - .
( -
). - -
, . .
, . .
, . .
, . .
, . .
, . .
[C13H12O2].
. 30-40%- -
90-95%- - .
[C6H4NHCOC=CNHCOC6H4].
- , t.=390-392C. ,
, , , . -
t=100C . -
.
[I].
- , .=4.94 /3, t.=113.5C; t.=184.35C.
, .
. -
: -
. .
.
. -

r
4. 55

20-30 .
(, ) . ,
.
- . 5%- ,
( [I2] [KI]).
.
, (0.4 100 ), t.=70-75C. -
1.5 1 , , -
( 20C) , 1.5 (98%). -
1.5 .
.
.
- .
.
- .
, . .
[K].
- , , (t.=63.51C). ,
. - .
.
, . .
, . .
, . .
( ) [KOH].
( - ),
(). , . -
. , .
, ,
, , "" (0.4$/) .
( , , ) [K2Cr2O7].
- , t.=396C, .=2.69 /3, , -
. , -
, , , -
. , ,
, -
.
[KI].
, t.=681C, .=3.115 /3, , , -
. .
. -
, , -
.
( , ) [K2CO3].
, t.=891C, .=2.44 /3, , .

. ,
, . ,
.
( , ) [KNO3].
, , t.=334.5C, .=2.11 /3. -
: 31.6 20C, 243.6 100C, -
118C. ,
. (, ) -
. , - -
. , ,
( ), .
[KNO2].
, .
, .

r
4. 56

( , ) [nO4].
-, ,
( - ), , , . 240C -
K2MnO4, K3MnO3, MnO2. -
. , , , , -
, - , . -
0.03$/.
[KClO4].
. -
.
[C6H2(NO2)3OK], . * 40.
( ) [K2SO4].
, t.=1074C, .=2.66 /3, .
,
. , .
.
( ) [KNCS].
- .
, . *.
( ) [KCl].
, t.=771C, .=1.989 /3, , - -
. . -
( ), , -
. , , -
, .
( ) [K2CrO4].
, . , ,
.
, . .
, . .
[Ca].
- . .
.
[[CH2OH(CHOH)4COO]2H2O].
, -
.
[2].
. - , -
, t.=2160C, .=2.22 /3. :
2 + 2 => ()2 +
.
, .
( ) [CaCO3].
, .=2.94 /3, . -
, ( ) - , ,
- .
( , ) [Ca(NO3)2].
, t.=561C, .=2.36 /3, . -
. (
1$/), .
[CaO].
. ( ) . -
( ):
CaO + H2O => Ca(OH)2 + Q
, , , ,
.

40
, (*), , -
.

r
4. 57

[ ].
: [CaSiO3], t.=~1544C, [Ca3Si2O7], t.=~1450C, -
[Ca2SiO4], t.=~2070C. . -
, , -
; ; -
.
( , , ) [CaSO4O, 5H2O].
t.=1460C, .=2.587 /3, ( -
), . [
CaSO42H2O] - .
( ) [CaCl2].
, , t.=775C, .=2.512 /3. -
[CaCl26H2O] 59% 41% , -
-55C. - , -
, . , -
, ( , ).
10% , .
().
, ,
. ,
, ,
.
.
; -
( ). .
.
, t.=100-140C, - - -
. .
, .
( ).
, [Al2Si2O5(OH)4]: Al2O3 - 39.5%; SiO2
- 46.54%; H2O - 13.96% . , -
, , ; , -
, .
, . .
, . .
[{C6H7O2(OH)3-x(OCH2COOH)x}n].
, -
. , -
, . .. .
.
- , , ,
. .
. ,
, , , -
.
, . .
.
, 100-320C, .=0.78-0.85 /3, -
~43 /. .
, , -
, -
, .
, . .
[O].
, .=1.42897 /, t=-218.7C, t=-192.98C, -
( ) . (, , ..)
() , , . -
.

r
4. 58

: ;
(88.8% ) ( 70% ). -
, , ( , -
0.01$/). - .
, . .
, . .
.
- .
.
- .
, . .
.
, ( -
), . .
. , .
.
, . .
[Si].
- , t.=1415C, .=2.3 /3.
. ,
, . (
), , , .
() [SiO2].
. , -
.
" " - [Na2SiO3].
, , . . -
, , , , .
(" ") - .
.
, - -
, . -
; - .
, . .
() [(CH3)2C6H4].
, t.=144.411C. , ,
, . -
. , , , , -
.
[ ].
: ()
[FeSO47H2O], (-) [CuSO45H2O], (-) [NiSO47H2O], -
() [ZnSO47H2O]. .
( ).
, . , . -
. ,
.
.
- .
().
. ;
.
, , .
.
- ; ( ). -
( ) ( -
).

r
4. 59

[(HOOCCH2)2C(OH)COOH].
, , t.=153.5C.
(, ). , . ,
. () -
.
[Li2SO4].
- .
.
- , , -
( ). -
. , , , -
260C. , , -
. , ( ).
[Mg].
, t.=650C, .=1.74 /3.
. - , ,
, . -
, , .
, , .. - .
[MgCO3].
, t.=990C ( ), .=3.0 /3,
( ).
, -
.
( ) [MgO].
, t.=2827C, .=3.58 /3. -
. , -
. , -
.
, , -
.
( ) [MgSO4].
, . (-
MgSO4H2O, MgSO47H2O). , (-
), () ; ; - -
() .
.
- ,
, . 0.89-1.00 /3,
39.4-40.7 /. , -
, , .
[HOCH2(CHOH)4CH2OH].
, t.=168C. , -
, ; - ,
. .
, . .
[ ].
( ) [MnO2] - -
. , , .
[Mn2O7] - , , -
- , , - -, t.=5.9C,
t.=55C, 95C ( Mn2O3 MnO2), -
. .
15 -
10-15 23 ,
:
2KMnO4 + 2H2SO4 => 2KHSO4 + Mn2O7 + H2
, ,
.

r
4. 60

, .
, -
. : 10 (62%).
, . .
, . .
[Cu].
( - ) , ;
( ). , 2 2 -
- (). -
.
(II) ( ) [Cu(CH3COO)23Cu(AsO2)].
- .
.
- .
( , ) [2Cu3Cu(OH)2].
, t.=220C ( ), .=3.78 /3, -
. - . -
. , -
.
[Cu(NO3)2].
, t.=~225C ( ), .=2.32 /3, -
, . -
. , , -
.
( ) [CuO].
, t.=1447C, .=6.51 /3, . -
80C
~200C;
400-500C. , , , .
, , , .
.
- .
[ ].
[CuCl] - , t.=408C, .=4.14 /3,
, - , , . -
[CuCl2] .
, CO , ..
[CuCl2Cu(OH)2] - - , t=250C
, . ,
, . - -
.
.
- .
() [Cu2Cu[CO3]2(OH)2].
- , .=3.8 /3. , .
, . .
, . .
.
9 1.
-, . .
(, ) [CH4].
, 537.8C, . -
: , . , -
, .
, 1 , 0.5 (0.5
) , .
, , , , .
, . .
, . .

r
4. 61

( ) [2=3].
, , t.<-75C, ,
, , - , . -
( , ).
, . .
, . .
[{(CH3)2NC6H5CNC4H4CSC6H5N(CH3)2}Cl3H2O].
- , , ,
, . - . ,
, (""), ,
, -
.
(, , ) [3].
, ,
t.=64.509C, t.=-93.9C, .=~0.9 /3. , ,
. , : -
. , -
, 5-10 , ; 30 - -
. , ,
, , ..
, . .
[H3OC(O)Cl].
- .
(2-) [CH3COC2H5].
, , , t.=79.6C. -
. , -
, .
.
, .
, . .
, . .
, . .
( , ) [(NH2)2CO].
, t.=132.7C, .=1330 /3, . -
.
, , (, ),
. - ( 46% ). -
.
, . .
() [As4S4].
- , t.=321C, .=3.506 /3, , -
. . -
, , (
), , . ,
.
() [As2S3].
- , t.=310C, .=3.48 /3, ,
. -
. , , (-
). , .
( ) [AsCl3].
, , t.=-16C, .=2.17 /3, -
. (
). , , -
. t=180-
200C. ,
. !
, . .

r
4. 62

().
.
. -
, , .
( 5-8 50 )
2-3 . .
, . .
[Na].
- , , ;
. ,
, - .
, . -
(, ).
[Na(AlSi38)].
: .
() [Na3(AlF6)].
. .
[C6H5COONa].
- .
, . .
( , , ) [NaOH].
( - ), t.=323C, .=2.02
/3. , ,
, . (), -
, . -
, . , , -
, , ,
"" (0.4$/) .
( (I) ) [NaOCl].
, , -
- . :
35C.
.
(. 4.5). -
, - , 12 V ( -
, - ,
, [
], ). -
.
-
. ,
. . 4.5. .
, ,
50% -
( t=10-15C) .
,
, , "", -
, .
, . .
( , ) [NaNO3].
, t.=306C, .=2.26 /3,
(176 100 t=100C),
t=119C. ( ) - , -
. 380C
. ( NO
NO2) ( ), -
.
.
(

r
4. 63

). : (
), ,
, .. :
2NaHCO3 + Ca(NO3)2 => 2NaNO3 + CO2 + H2 + CaCO3
: ,
. -
: ()
3-5 .
.
(16% ), -
, , -
.
[NaNO2].
, t.=284C, .=2.17 /3,
(160 100 t=100C) .
; , , -
- , :
NaNO3 + Pb => NaNO2 + PbO
-
. , ,
, .
[Na2C2O4].
- .
[Na2O].
, t.=1132C, .=2.37 /3. 400C -
. :
t
2NaOH + 2Na 2Na 2 O + H 2
"".
(I) , . .
[NaClO4].
, t.=469C ( ), .=2.495 /3, -
, , . -
t=30-60C 2-2.5 /2 (. 4.5).
- , .
(, ) [HOCH2CH2CH2COONa].
, t.=193C, , - .
, - , -
. -
.
, . .
( , ) [Na2SO4].
, .=2.663 /3, , - - -
. [Na2(SO4)10H2O] . -
, , , ,
.
, . .
( ) [Na2S2O3].
, . [Na2S2O35H2O] -
( - ), -
, , .
.
"".
( , ) [NaCl].
, , t.=801C, .=2.161 /3, ,
, , . , -
, , , . -
: , ,
99.9% . 1500
. 0.2$/.

r
4. 64

[NaClO3].
, t.=263C, .=2.493 /3,
. , -
t>35C, (. 4.5 -
0.7-1.0 /2, 3.8-4.2 ). -
. - . -
.
[C10H8].
, t.=80.29C, -
, - . -
. , , ,
.
, . .
, . .
, . .
( ) [NiSO4].
, . -
. , .
[ ].
, t.=71.5-149C, , , , -
- . ,
. .
, , -
. , .
[C6H5NO2].
,
. - 123.1,
t.=5.7C, t.=210.9C, .=1.205 /3. - , , -
, ; , . -
, -
.
12.5 (.=1.84 /3) 10
(.=1.41 /3) . -
( ) 9 ; -
25-50C ( / ).
45 60C ( ,
, ):
C6H6 + HNO3 => H2O + C6H5NO2
() ; ,
.
(-
, ). :
~11 .

, .
[3NO2].
, .=1.137 /3, t.=100.8C,
t.=42-43C; t.=440C, , - (9.5
100 ), , ..,
[CH2=NO-ONa], . , =30 /3.
. (0.8%
10 , 25 ) , .
. -
.
. 6370-6600 /, 12.5 , 4.76
/, 470 3, 25 .

400-700C. - , -
; :

r
4. 65

NaNO 2 CH NO
(H 3 ) 2 SO 4 3 2
, ACBB, , -
, .
[ ].
[CH3C6H5-n(NO2)n] - - .
, , , , - . -
, , .
(55-66% + 28-32% + 12-20% ).
,
25C .
; -
35-40C.
. ,
.
.

(H2SO4, BF3 .) (, ) -
3 1.
, . .
- [C6H7N3O11].
. -
( , ), ,
.
, . .
, . .
, . .
[Sn].
- , , t.=231.91C. , -
, . , , -
(), (). -
(), .
-, .. .
, . .
, . .
-, . .
, . .
[ ].
, 1838 - 3572, .=0.880-
0.915 /3, t.=45-65C, ,
, , .
. ,
, , ..
, .
, . .
().
, : [-CH2O-]n, n=8-100.
, t.=120-170C, , .
- ( -
), . .
.
, . (II) .
[(C5H7Cl3)n].
, ,
(68% ), . -
- -
. .
, . .

r
4. 66

.
,
(, , , ) .
,
, , .
, . .
() [C(CH2OH)4].
, t.=268-269C, , - -
. -
[Ca(OH)2]:
CH3CHO + 4CH2O => C(CH2OH)4 + HCOOH
, , , -
. . .
, . .
, . .
, . .
, . .
[C6H4(NH)2].
, t.=112C, , . -
( , , ) (
); .
[{-CH2CH=CHCH2-}n].
, . -
, , ,
(.. , " ").
[-CH2-CH(OH)-]n.
, ;
. , ,
. , ,
.
() [{-CH2CHCl-}n].
, .=1.35-1.43 /3, , -
, - , , , . 57% . -
, 120C , -
300-350C.
: .. :
-7059 - , -7058 - .
[{-CH2C(CH3)(COOCH3)-}n].
, t.>160C, .=1.19 /3, ,
, , . ..
" " -.
[C6H5{-CH2CH-}n].
, , , ,
.=1.05/3, , , , ,
. (, , ).
[ ].
, / [-
N(R)-C(O)O- (R=H, , )]. , .
(, , .=0.015-0.045 /3).
, . .
.
- - , .=1.1-1.5 /3. -
,
( ). - -
( , , ), -
, (.. "-").
, . .
[KNO3/C/S].
.

r
4. 67

, . .
, . .
- , . .
. .
, . .
.
, .
.
, . .
, . .
[C6H4(OH)2].
, t.=109-110C, ,
, - . ,
, ( )
. . .
( ) [ ].
FeO - , .=5.7 /3; Fe2O3 - - -, .=5.247 /3
, .=4.4-4.88 /3; Fe3O4 - , .=5.18 /3.
, -
, . ,
, -
.
, -
(""). . -
!
. 50 -
100 . , -
. ( ),
. , -, . -
( 15) , . -
, . ,
, , 20.
.
, , 0.5-1 , -
50-100 , . -
. ,
.
[C28H30N2O3].
- , t.=210-211C ( ), , ,
. . , , ,
.
, . .
() [HgCl2].
, t.=280C, .=5.44 /3, , , -
. , , .
, . .
( ) [Hg(SCN)2].
, t.=165C ( ), , - -
. , -
.
, .
[Hg2(NO3)2].
, t.=70C, .=4.79 /3, . -
45C. , -
, .
( , ) [Hg2Cl2].
, t.=525C, .=7.15 /3, , .
383.7C , , -

r
4. 68

.
, , - .
[Hg].
( ), (.=13546 /3),
(t.=-38.87C) . -
. , , ; -
. -
- .
, ,
. ,
! -
. .
[Rb2SO4].
- .
, . .
, . .
( ) [C].
, -
. ( 10-350 ), -
, , , . -
, , ("").
[C12H22O11].
, , . -
, . -
, . -
. - ( -).
.
[Pb].
-, , , .
. ,
. , , -
, . -
.
[PbCOOH].
, .
.
( ) [PbCO3].
, . - .
; .
[PbO].
: () (), .
.
:
Pb + NaNO3 => NaNO2 + PbO
. -
, .
[Pb(NO3)2].
, t.=200C ( ), .=4.538 /3, -
, , , , . ,
,
. , -
.
[ ].
[PbF2] - , t.=822C, .=7.68 /3,
, ;
. [PbF4] - , t.=~600C,
.=6.7 /3,
PbF3; PbF2 . ; =0.01 /3 ( -
).

r
4. 69

, -
, , , , -
, .
( ) [PbCl2].
, t.=501C, .=5.85 /3, -
. :
PbO + HCl => H2O + PbCl2
. -
, .
[ ].
sal - nitrum - . , ,
, . , ,
(Na, K) , - .
, -
NO3, -
. 100-300C, - 400-600C (NaNO3,
KNO3 ). -
: , , - NO, NO2, O2 N2.
, -
, , . ,
, N2, O2 2; -
N2O 2.
() , -
,
NO3. , , - -
, , -
25-100C. , -
, .
, ,
, , ,
, ,
. : , , , - -
. : 8-15 .
[S].
, ,
, .=2.07 /3. , - ,
, . : ,
.
114C ,
. (t.=120C)
. , 160C
, 170-200C , ,
, 330C , 400C .
444.5C . , 330-350C, ,
, , . -
.
( 250-260C) - ,
(SO2), .
-
, , , ; ,
, , , , ,
. , , -
, (,
~20% ) . -
,
( ). -
, ( -
). -
- - , - , .

r
4. 70

( ) [AgNO3].
, . -
, , , ( ),
.
( ) [Ag3N].
, . ,
, , , .
, . -
. , -
, :
3[Ag(NH3)2]OH + 2H2O => Ag3N + 5NH4OH
! -
( !) , (
) . , -
.
[Ag2O].
, , 100 Ag O.
AgOH.
, , -
. , .
. -
, ; - .
, . .
[H2SO4].
() - , , , -
, 2 ; 0C , 290C , -
. . , , ..
, , , -
, . -
, , . -
, (). -
.
.
, : -
, .
, .
-
( ); -
-
. , -
100C, - 290C,
100C-190C,
. 4.6. .
41.
[H2SO3].
. , -
. - . (. 4.6). -
, ,
.
, . .
, . .
, . .
, . .
, . .
, . .
, . .
, . .

41
, ,
99%, .

r
4. 71

, . .
.
25 .. , 25 .. 7 .. .
, . .
( ) [H2S].
; t.=-85.54, t.=-60.35; 0 -
1 . . ,
.; .
. , , , -
, , . .
[SCl4, SCl2, S2Cl2].
[S2Cl2] - ;
t.=-82, t.=137.1; [S2Cl2] - , - ( -
[SCl2]); . .
, . .
[SiO2xH2O].
, .
, , -
.
[ ].
. [Na2CO3]
() ( [Na2CO3102]); -
() [NaHCO3] - (). , t.=585, t.=100-150 (
), : 14.9 9.6 100 20, ;
.
2-3 :
NaHCO3 => Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O
Na2CO3 , , . -
- , , .
. . .
( ) [HCl].
, .=~1 /3, -
. ( -
, ).
, (. 4.7).
(1) 58 50
. ,
:
NaCl + H2SO4 => NaHSO4 + HCl
(2),
50 . ,
, ( 40%)
, - . 4.7. .
( , -
, ). , ""
- .
, , , ,
, , ,
. -
.
[HOCH2(CHOH)4CH2OH].
, t.=97.7 ( ).
, , , . ,
. .
[ ].
, : , (-
), (), : , , (
) .. - , . -
.

r
4. 72

. , ,
.. "" , , (,
, , ). -
: , . ,
( ), -
. , -
. .
, , :
- , ..
.
, , t.=53-65. -
, (<5%) .
.
- () , ~90%.
( ) [CH3(2)16COOH].
, , t.=69.6. , -
.
, .. ()
. ( -
), . .
(, ) [C6H5-CH=CH2].
, t.=-30.6.
, - , , .. .
. ,
, .
[Sr].
- . , , -
, , ,
, , .
[SrCO3].
, t.=1494, .=3.785 /3, .
.
. (
.. ), .
[Sr(NO3)2].
, t.=645 ( ), .=3.0 /3, .
, ,
. , -
, .
[SrC2O4].
- .
[SrO].
- .
.
- .
[SrSO4].
, t.=1580 ( ), . -
. -
, .
[SrCl2].
, t.=874, .=3.085 /3, .
, , .
[SrCrO4].
. -
. , (" "), -
.
, . .

r
4. 73

[ ].
: [Pb3O4], - , .=~9 /3,
, - ; [Fe2O3],
- , .=3.9 /3, , -
.
,
. -
.
[Sb].
- , ,
. ( ), -
. , "-
", .
[Sb2S5].
- , t.=120 ( ), .=4.12 /3, -
, . [Sb2S3], -
- , t.=559.5, .=4.635 /3, , -
, . -
, , , .
- , . -
.
[TlClO4].
- .
, . .
(, ) [{-CF2CF2-}n].
, t=270-327, .=2.15-2.24 /3,
. , , , . -
, , .
() [(HOCH2CH2)2S].
, t.=-10, ,
, . -
. , -
.
( ) [HNCS].
, t.=-110. . -
, (), , ,
, ,
, .
[Ti].
- , , , , .
(TiO2). - -
-, -, , (,
, ). , ..
; .
() [C6H5CH3].
- , t.=-94.99, t.=110.62; -
, , .
, t=340-380. -
, (),
, . -
, , "647".
, . .
[{C6H7O2(OH)3-x(ONO2)x}n].
, , ,
, , - .
.
(60-70%) (92-95%)
1:3 2:5 . ,
, ,

r
4. 74

, 98%. , -
.
.
, , / .
30-50, 100- -
, 100 63.6 . -
, .. .
, .
, -
,
.
-
, -
. .
- ,
- . ,
, , , ; -
11-12%, (1:2.5),
, .
.
, . .
( ) [C(NO2)3CH2OH].
, 181.06, , -
, t.=72-73, t.=103, .=1.4578 /3.
, .

; ( , -
):
CH(NO2)3 + 2 <=> C(NO2)3CH2OH
, -
.
, (t.=120) -
. -
- , -
. , -
, , ,
, -, -
; ,
. -
- .
[Ca3(PO4)2].
(,
).
, . .
, . .
, . .
, . .
, . .
, . .
[C].
- ,
. - ,
, .
, , .
.
, . .
( ) [CH3COOH].
() -
, t.=117.8. -

r
4. 75

.
, ;
- - .. .
. - . -
, , .
, . .
[(CH3CO)2O].
, t.=139.6, , , -
- . -
. , -
, .
[CH3COOH].
80%- .
. .
(, ) [C6H12N4].
, ( 20 -
81.3 100 , ), (2.9
100 ), - . 230, 280. -
, . -
. .
12.5 35%- -
15 . , -
2.5 , . -
. 60 1
, . -
. 80%, .. 5-6 .
(, ), -
(" "), ( ""
). : ( )
(), .
.
. :
(.. ) -
. , ,
- - -
, .
, . .
, . .
, . .
[ ].
,
. - -
(, ), (, , ) .. -
, , - .
.
- - -
, t.=180-182, ; . -
- . -
( " "), -
, , (, -
), , . -
. , -
().
[C20H14O4].
, t.=277-279, , - -
. , - (-
""). .

r
4. 76

[ ].
, , (Fe/Al - 33/65), -
(Fe/Si - 88-93% ), (Fe/Ti - 60/40), -
. -
. . ,
.
().
, ( -
, ).
(, ), ( ),
(, ) , -
( ). -.
().
, .=1.1109-1.0764 /3, 37-40% 6-15% -
(), . , .. - -
(). , -
( ) . -
. . .
( , ) [CHO].
, , t=-19.2.
.
400 . -
, ,
. , -, -
.
, , , -
, .
, . .
[P].
: (t.=44.14, .=1.828 /3), (t.=593,
.=2.31 /3) (t.=1000, .=2.702 /3). ,
( ), ; , .
, -
, , .
, .
, : XII -
, "", -
" ". XVIII -
, -
(1743 .).
-
t=375-400. - ( ); -
, ( ) .
, . .
( , ) [P2O5].
, , . ,
. , -
"", .
-30, . .
, . .
, . .
[C4H4NCO].
, t.=158-159, -
. , , , , .
-30, . .
[Cl].
- , . ,
. ( -
, ) (. 4.5). -

r
4. 77

, , , -
() .
(VII) [Cl2O7].
- , t.=93.4C, t.=83C. (VII)
(V) :
2HClO4 + P2O5 => 3Cl2O7 + HPO3
, .
.
, [NH3-XClX], =1-3.
[C6H5SO2N(Na)Cl3H2O] ,
t.=180-185 ( ), ; -
. , , -
, , -
.
[CH3C6H4SO2N(Na)Cl3H2O] - , t.=175-180 ( ).
(
, , ).
.
- .
( , ) [C6H5Cl].
, t.=131.68.
80-85. , , .
[HClO2].
, , . -
, , .
. , -
, . (10-70C) -
.
, . .
, . .
, . .
, . .
, . .
, . .
, . .
, . .
(, -30, , -30) [CH2Cl2].
, t.=-96.7.
, - . CH2O .
. -
, , ,
.
, . .
, . .
, . .
, . .
.
, .
:
Cl2 + H2O <=> HCl + HClO
. -
, . .
[HClO4].
. - ,
, . - ,
:
NaClO4 + H2SO4 => HClO4 + Na2SO4
..

r
4. 78

( ) [(Ca(OCl)2+CaCl2+Ca(OH)2)nH2O].
; , -
. , , -
.
[HClO3].
, ( 40%),
. - , , ,
. (70-80C)
.
, . .
[HClO].
, , -
75, .
. - , , ; -
(0-10C) . .
() [CHCl3].
, t.=61.1, 4.1.
, (. 4.8).
(1) 0.5 250
63.5 ; -
14.5 .
,
, (2)
,
:
2C2H5OH + Ca(OCl)2 => 2CH3CHO + CaCl2 + 2H2O
2CH3CHO + 3Ca(OCl)2 => 2CCl3CHO + 3Ca(OH)2
2CCl3CHO + Ca(OH)2 => 2CHCl3 + Ca(COOH)2
- . 4.8. .
,
(3) (4), ,
. , . -
20 . , ; -
, .
, . .
, . .
(III) , . .
( [III] , ) [Cr2O3].
- , t.=2334, .=5.21 /3, -
. , -
, , ,
("").
.
1:10,
, ,
;
. , ,
.
, , , -
. , ,
( ), ... -
!
, . .
, . .
.
: (1 ) (3 ). -
, , .
[CsOH].
- .

r
4. 79

().
, .
, (6105); -
, 10000 6105. ,
6105 - - 6105(OH)3. , -
, ,
(, 40-55% ).
3%- , :
(C6H10O5)x + xH2O => xC6H12O6
-
, , , , . -
( ).
, . .
[Zn].
- . .
, .
.
.
- .
[ZnCO3].
, .=4.40 /3, ,
. -
. .
[ZnO].
, t.=1800 ( ), .=5.7 /3. -
( ), -
, - , , , , , -
, .
( ) [ZnCl2].
. , .
(, ), , .
, . .
[Zr].
- . . -
.
, . .
( ) [HOOC-COOH].
, t.=189.5, , .
;
, :
H+
NaOH + CO HCOONa NaOOC COONa HOOC COOH
H2
. () -
,
.
.
- -
, t.=77-85, .=1.14-1.22 /3, (-
- ). - ,
. , -
, (). -
( ), .
.
, ; -
. -
. ,
, , . -
, , , - .. - -
.

r
4. 80

[C(CH2ONO2)4].
. , -
, , .
. , , .
10 ( ).
, . .
, . .
, . .
, . .
, . .
() [C2H4].
. ,
. ( 1:3)
, .
, , . -
.
[HOCH2CH2OH].
, , , t.=197.6,
, ; - , .
. ,
, "-40", ,
( , .. ).
, . 300 ( 1 )
, .
, ,
( - ).
.
- .
(, ) [C2H5OH].
t.=78.39, -
. "" , "": .
,
, , , : , ,
, , . -
( ), . 95-96%-
, ()
.
(. 4.9).
. -
3-4 ( ) -
-
, 50 , 1 , 0.5
, 0.5 0.5 . -
500 ,
100 20 , -
(-
). -
-
U- , - . 4.9. .
.
, 27 (
). -
U- , - .
- . -
- ( ).
(. 4.4) 75 85. , -
,
, . .
, . .

r
5. 81

5.
- 03,
02

- , :
" ".
, , , : -
42 , ,
. , -
!
,
, , ,
. -
, -
. , ,
; , ,
!
,
, . :
, !
1. .
( )
, , . -
"", -
. "" , -
[91].
2. .
, .
. , ,
, . ,
. , [142].
3. .
, , . -
.
, ,
,
1 . . -
[145].
4. .
, ,

2. , ,
[142].
5. .
() 50
.
1-2 - [119].
6. .
10-20% -
. .
(!) ,
.
, [119].

42
-
, .

K
5. 82

7. .
1. (, , ) , (,
, ) , (, , ) .
1: 3-10 50 -
20-30C . ,
, 50
( ,
).
2: 20-30C 1-2
100 .

1 , . ! 10-15 -
. 1 2.
2. (, ).
, ,
, , , , ,
.
, -
, , -
. [119].
8-9. .
1) : 84.4% , 12.2% 1.7% (, "" -
) [2].
2) 3%- 4%-
. . -
, ,
( 0.1%). ,
. - , -
[73].
10-12. .
1) , ,
( , ), ,
.
250-300 ( 20-30)
. ( ) .
,
, . 2-3
, .

. . -
.
2) 80
, , . -
.
3) ( 60C) 100 . -
- ,
.
(, ),
. " " - [96]!
13. .
, , -
. -
. -
. ,
[9].
14-20. .
1) .
108 100 -
, -

K
5. 83

. . , -
: 60 , . -
, . -
, . ,
, :
2K2SO4 + Na2SO4 + 10H2O => Na2SO42K2SO410H2O
, .
2) .
100-200 50-100 -
, , , 30-60
( ).
,
.
3) .

, . 20-25.
2 , . -
( - ) (III) . -
. .
4) .
,
10-15%- , . -
- , - -
:
C6H4(OH)2 + H2O2 => (C6H4)O2 + 2H2O
HCHO + H2O2 => HCOOH + H2O
-
- , :
2HCOOH + K2CO3 = 2HCOOK + CO2 + H2O
5) .
, , .
6) .
, , -
. , , , , -
, ( ).
, .
7) .
- , , ,
. , ,
(, )
. ( 5.1) -
.
5.1. .
\
- - 8 - 10.4 8
- - 3 - 4 2
1 1 - 1 - -
1 - - - - -
20 4 4 20 - -
1.2 2 4 1 4 4
1 0.8 1.4 - 2.4 2.4
- 0.5 - 0.8 - -
1 0.3 1 0.8 0.8 0.8
6 6 8 6 7 7
- 16 - - - 2
- - 6 - 6 6

K
5. 84

, -
15 .
( ), -
[9]!
21-25. .
1) ,
, , .
.
2) " " - -
, , .
,
( "", ).
3) ,
, . ,
, . , -
, , -
, -
, , .
4) 10-15 ,
. ,
. , . -
( )
.
5) 2 ,
, - . , , ! -
, -
[45].
26. .
(
, ). ,
- , . -
,
, ( ). , -
- "" "" [142].
27-31. .
1) .
, "", , -
"" - (III) - -
, , ,
, . -
. : .
 , -
.
2) 2 2 (
- , [1645-1715]). -
,
, , , . -
. -
.
3) 1 2 ,
. , 4-5 ,
, . ,
. -
, , , - . -
,
- .
4) ,
, , "" -
. ,

K
5. 85

. ,
, ( , !).
 ,
: . , -
, -
, .
5) , -
. [87].
32. .
, : , -
, ; , ,
. ,
. -
, .
-
, [40].
33-38. .
1) , -
. , -
, . , -
, , .
2) 10 , 5 () 10 ,
. , - -
"". 4 ~2 / 10 !
3) , -
, . -
,
, . -
, .
4) -
. " "
; .
, , ,
"". "" , .
5) ,
. : -
, , "-
" . , -
. -
, .
6) -
- ,
( ) "" , :
2Hg(SCN)2 => 2HgS + C3N4 + CS2
1 20-30 .
[91].
39-42. .
1) 5 , 1 0.25
. 2-4 . -
, .
, ().
.
2) 1 ,
2-3 - , . .. -
, ,
. -
, - .
3) , -
. , .

K
5. 86

. ,
, .
4) : .
, [143].
43. .
, , -
. (800-
1200) 5-10 , .
(, ..) -
- , - -
, .. 4-17%.
( 1600) -
(, ) 30% -
.
, -
. "", -
. , ,
. -
[34].
. 55% , 40% 3% 70
:
0.5%, 15% 100% . .
. 25% ( ), 50% 25%
{95% , 3% , 2% }, .
. 1:1 -
. .
. , , -
30% .
44. .
400 2 12 . -
, -
. ( 5-6 ).
40 70%- 10C 60
. " " ( ),
20C. 20 , -
, ( 15-20 ).
" " , .
30
" " 5%- -
( ).
[58].
45. .
15 70%- 3 . 15C
, . 30 90%-
, , (
15C). .
150 ,
40C (40-45C) . .
25C .
10 100 .
45 15 . 5 -
15 .
150 ,
40C (40-45C) . ,
[58].
46. , .
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6. 100

6.23. .
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6. 101

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6. 102

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6. 103

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75 - - 61 55.2 44 59.2 - 69 57 69 79
- 80 70 - - - - - - - - -
- - - 0.9 0.3 2 - 1 - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - 31 -
- 20 - - - - - - - - - -

.
1000 .
.
, ,
, ; : 2
, 2 , 3 .
, .
. , , -
( ).
...
.
.
. 15 , -
, . -
, . 2
10-12 ; ,
. (
!).
-
. .. - :
1) : 81% + 4% + 15% ;
2) : 25% + 5% + 60% + 10%
;
3) : 40% + 60% ;
4) : 24% + 76% .
.
, , ,
.
67% 33% ,
.
. , -
- .
 ,
!
- -
(, ). ,
: 90% (PbF2) 10% .
.
 !


6. 106

: 75%
25% . -
, . , -
. ,
, .
( -
). - 1200-1600, -
.
1: 89-90% + 11-10% .
1: 33-36% ( ) + 64-67% { +
3

+ + + }.
.
, , ( -
, ), .

6.9.
1. .
, 100 -
( - 100 ),
( , , ).
( !) -
- . , ,
. , , -
- . , ..
.
(. 6.1).

. 6.1. .

. 6.2. .

. 6.3. . . 6.4. .

( , .. -
) (2), -
. (1) 45. -
: ,
(- )! , -
-
.
2. .
- 4 (~27.4 ),
,

45
, : -
, . , , -
, 50 50.


6. 107

( )
. , ,
(. 6.2), , ( 6.39)
.
6.39. .
\ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
- - - - 30 - - - 22
- - - - - - - - 11
- - - - - - 77 - -
2 2 2 2 - - 2 2 -
- - 5 5 - - - - -
- - - - - - - 75 22
70 70 70 70 70 70 - - 23
- - - - - 30 - - -
- - - 25 - - - - -
12 - - - - - - 10 11
- - - - - - - - 11
18 30 30 - - - 23 15 -

, , . :
(3-4 ), ( -
, . 6.4-) (1/3 , 3 , . 6.4-).
(
) . , ,
, . -
"", (. 6.3).
, , , -
( ). . -
.
6.40. I.
\ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
67 50 50 67 - - - - - - - - 67 - 75
- - - - - - - - 60 - - - - - -
- - - - - 67 60 50 - - - - - 50 -
- - - - - - - - - 67 60 50 - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - 3 - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - 27 - -
- - 25 33 30 - 20 - 40 33 20 25 - 25 -
- - - - 65 - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- 35 - - - - - 50 - - - - - 25 -
33 - 25 - 5 33 20 - - - 20 25 3 - 10
- 15 - - - - - - - - - - - - 15
6.41. II.
\ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
- - - - - - - - - - 30 5 - 3 35
- - - - - - - - - 20 - - - - -
- - - - - - 35 85 - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - 43 55 - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - 30 - - - 60


6. 108

- - - - - - - - - - - 90 - - -
25 20 73 77 36 56 45 - 57 - - - 8 - 5
- - - - - - - - - - 30 - - - -
- - - - - - - - - 25 - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - 5 - - -
65 75 - - - - - - - - - - 64 91 -
- - - - 45 - - - - - - - - - -
10 5 11.5 9.5 9 34 - - - - - - 4 - -
- - 15.5 13.5 10 10 20 15 - - - - 24 6 -

,
, . -
.
6.42. .
() 7.62 10 - 15 20
() 7.62 10 12 15 20 25 30
() 40 56 70 140 395 950 1250

( 6.43) , -
. , , -
, - -
. , -
. - -
. - .
6.43. .
\ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
- - - - - - - - 16 - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - 8 1.99 - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - 72 72.79 85 - - - - - -
- - - - - - - 80 69.9 - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - 4 - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - 25 - - - - -
- - - - - - 0.95 - - - - - - - - - - -
60 61 60 59 - 72 71.79 - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - 75 80 77.5 75 70 -
- - - - - - - - - - 0.25 - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - 0.25 - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - 12.22 - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - 0.49 - - - - - - -
- - - - 69 - - - - 16 - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - 12.04 - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - 20 22.5 25 30 -
- - - - - - - - - - - 15 - - - - - -
8 5 15 10 4 4 13.45 - - - - - - - - - - 32.9
- - - - - - - - - - 2.22 - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - 0.07 - - - - - - - - -
20 34 25 31 27 24 13.81 - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 67.1
12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - 20 1.96 - 9.79 - - - - - - -


6. 109

6.44. 46.
\ 1 2 3 4 5
3 3 2.5 5 3
64 64 73 70 76
1 1 1 1 1
32 - 26 30 -
- 32 - - 23
6.45. 47.
\ 1 2
60 63
15 -
5 -
- 22
25 -
- 10
- 5

6.10.
(
" "). , -
, -
.
" " :
1) . . -
, ( ,
..). - ( ,
- /) (-
,
3-9 ). , ,
;
2) ;
3) -, ;
4) ;
5) ;
6) (. );
7) .
(. 6.5).
40-50 . , .
. , -
- !
(1.5-4
), . -
- , (
14 ). -
, .
, 10
. , -
, , .. -
, .

46
,
( , .. ).
47
, , -
. ,
.


6. 110

. 6.5. .

. 6.6. . . 6.7. .

;
(. 6.6).
""
,
; ,
(, ).
5 "" . -
4 , .
, .
,
, , ,
. !
, 1.5 2 -
"" , , .
-
. ( ) -
. , ,
. , , ,
.


6. 111

( ) .
, , , 4 ;
2 . ,
( )
. , -
.
, , -
. , . ,
.
, ,
.
, -,
. , ! -
. . !
, , ,
.
. /,
(8 ), ( ).
, .
, .
, .
(, ), -
.
, 35-40 .
, , - 3 .
- 3-5 , . -
10 20 , -
, .
15-20 . , -
, 10 -
. - !
, , , -
, . -
"", .
6.46. .
. .
... . 10 . -
, .
, -
30 ,
.
, - ! ,
. - - , -
. 30
. , -
, .
-
. , , -
.
, , -
, . . -


. , ,
. , -

.


6. 112

, , " -
! " ()!
, -
,
. -
. , , -
, ,
-
. , -
,
, . , -
, ,
,
.
.
, -
, .. "-
": (53%) +
(7%) + (7%) +
(10%) + (23%).
. .
, .
. ,

, .. -
,
. -
.

-
.


7. 113

7.
!

, (
) , , , -
. !
: -
, . -
. , , 1 , ,
, 0.04$, ,
.
, ,
. -
, , ,
?..
, , ! -
, , ,
. , -
, . -
, , -
, .
 -
, , ,
, , - , -
.

7.1.
" " ,
- . , -
, (, )
. , , , ,
"" , -
, , ,
.

- , !
7.1.1.
- , -
N3, . -
: < < < .
,
.
.
[Ba(N3)2].
243.43, , -
, , , t.=150, .=2.94 /3.
(50% 10 10 ).
:
Ba(OH)2 + 2N => (N3)2 + 22O
.
[Cd(N3)2].
196.46,
( ). , , -
558-625 / (2336-2616 /), t.=291 ( ), ~360,

0
7. 114

4200 / .=3.2 /3. -


.
( ~98%):
Cd(OH)2 + 2HN3 => Cd(N3)2 + 22O
CdCO3 + 2N3 => d(N)2 + CO2 + 2O
-.
[KN3].
81.12, , -
, .=2.05 /3, . -
:
NaN3 + 0.523 => KN3 + 0.5Na23
: , , ,
, , .
. 3 4.3
. 0 , ,
11.1 (13.7 ) . , 10-15
, (0) 11.4 45
; , :
2C4H9OH + 2NaNO2 + H2SO4 => 2C4H9ONO + Na2SO4 + 2H2O
, -
.
3 , 2.3 0.3 9 .
- . 3.6 -
27.6 . 3.3 85%- -
. 1 -
. ,
, ( ~30
). 15 -
:
C4H9ONO + N2H4H2O + KOH => KN3 + C4H9OH + 3H2O
; , 10
. : 2.60.7 .
[LiN3].
48.96,
(50% 2 108 ), ,
(66.41 100 16), , , .
298, t.=145.
990 /. -
:
2NaN3 + Li2SO4 => 2LiN3 + Na2SO4
.
[Mg(N3)2].
108.37, ,
, , ,
. :
(C2H5)2Mg + 2HN3 => Mg(N3)2 + 226
.
[NaN3].
65.02, t.=275C,
+18C b-,
1.846 /3. b-. (41.7 100
17C), , , , ;
, , , , , , . -
. , -
330 . . -
:
Na2CO3 + 2HN3 => 2NaN3 + CO2 + 2

, .

0
7. 115

[RbN3].
127.5, , -
, , t.=317, .
:
2NaN3 + Rb2SO4 => Na2SO4 + 2RbN3
.
[Pb(N3)2].
4- , a- - -
, - . (0.023 100
18), , - (146 100 ).
.

. , ,
,
.
, . .
, - 30%
. , , -
, (,
..) . -
; -
, , . ,
- .
1.54 /, ; 240-
250, ~330, .=4.71 /3 ( ~1.2 /3),
5300 / .=4.1 /3. . 308
/, 110 3, 15.8 .=3.7 /3.
- , -
-
( 0.5 ).
, .
, -
. , , , ,
.
1.
: , , , ,
, .
207 85 , -
:
NaNO3 + Pb => NaNO2 + PbO
, .
100 :
NaNO2 + H2SO4 => NaHSO4 + HNO2
, 8 ,
, , 32 :
HNO2 + N2H4 => HNN2 + 2H2O
, (
.. -
), 106 :
2HNN2 + Na2CO3 => 2NaNN2 + H2 + CO2
, ( -
O2). :
PbO + 2HNO3 => Pb(NO3)2 + H2O
:
2NaNN2 + Pb(NO3)2 => Pb(NN2)2 + 2NaNO3
. -
, .
: ~300 .

0
7. 116

2.
: , ,
.
-
. .. ,
, , ,
.
, -
0.1 , ,
. -
( -
; [96-98%], -
, , ).
(, ) -
b-,
g- d-. d-, b-, g- -
a-, b- ,
.
80 - -
-:
-
, , -.
, ..
, , , ,
- .
[AgN3].
149.9. , -
, , -
; , , t.=300 (
), 300 , .=5.1 /3,
4400 /, 244 /, 115
3. , ,
.

(Sb2S3), . -
:
(NH )
AgNO3 + NaN3 3 AgN3 + NaNO3
,
. ,
, .
(, ).
[Sr(N3)2].
171.68, -
. , 194 -
, t.=169, 295 / (1244.9 /).
:
SrO + 2N3 => Sr(N3)2 + 2
.
[TlN3].
246.41.
, t.=334, t.=500. ;
, . . -
.
:
TlClO4 + NaN3 => TlN3 + NaClO4
.

0
7. 117

[CsN3].
174.93, , -
, , t.=326. 151. -
. :
CsOH + HN3 => CsN3 + 2
.
7.1.2.
(1,2- ) [Cu2C2].
- ,
.
CuCCCuH2O.
-
, , , , . -
. ~120. .
.. .
: , , ,
, , .

20 ; , , , - -
.
-, .
, -
.
.
(. 7.1): 1 -
, - :
Cu(NH3)2OH + C2H2 => Cu2C2 + 2H2O
, - . 7.1. .
. - ,
.
,
.
(1,2- ) [Ag2C2].
, . -
. ~210, 1.89 /,
4450 / .=5.36 /3, 136 3. -
.
: , , .
. .
, , . -
Ag2C2AgNO3 ( , Ag2C2 ).
.

. 7.2. . . 7.3. . . 7.4. .

, ,
. ( 7.1) ,
.

0
7. 118

7.1. .


- -

, , . - 500 ,
. , . .
33.0 1.0 12 43.0 225
33.0 0.0 4 15.0 177
12.5 0.0 2 6.6 171
50.0 0.2 8 79.0 200
50.0 2.0 16 64.0 200
25.0 0.0 3-10 24.0 -

- .
.
- , . 5
200 5.3 .
- , . 5
200 20 .
- . -
5 5 .
- , . 5
25 .
, , -
- . -
.
.
7.1.3.
[NI3].
- -
, , . ,
(
,
- , ).
: , .
;
:
2NH4OH + 3I2 => 2(NI3NH3) + 2H2O
, -
, , , . ,
, -
, -
, .
.
, -, -
. " "
NI3NH3, -
NI3, (NHI2
NH2I), HI ( ) I2,
. - ,
: ,
. 7.5. NI3. , , ,
, . ,
( -
!). , , , .. -
, - -

0
7. 119

, (
).
, , -
, , ,
, ! ,
: , ,
, .
: , ,
, , .
[NCl3].
- , t.=-27, t.=-71, -
, , . -
, , 60C .
1.
: , .

 , 1- -


,

-
.

. 7.6. .

-
. (. 7.6):
2NH3 + 3l2 => 2NCl3 + 3H2
- . ,
.
2.
: , , -
(70%).
 - -
, .
30 10 ; 30 300
, , .
.
(
), ; ,
, . -
, 20 . 1-2 -
- - .
7.1.4. ()
, , -
, . , , , -
. -
.

0
7. 120

, ;
, 4560-5100 /. -
, , -
. 140 3.
1.
: ( > 15%),
, .
56 160 -
84 ( -
).
30C! ,
, -
. 2- , -
12, , 20 500 5%
. : 56 (68%).

. 7.7. . 7.8. , - . 7.9. . -


. - . - - 100 . -
- . , - ...
, .. . ,
. . .
20.

2.
: , , .
10 , 30-40 15-20
. ( -
) - . 5
( , ).
- ( 50) ( / ,
). , , , ,
, (1-2 ) . -
. .
3.
: , ,
(37%- ).
50 500 ,
55C 5.3 .
. . , .
4.
: (30%), ,
.
10 6-8 5 . -
, .. -
, . , -
, 15 - -
.
, ,
- ( - -
). , , 30%,
- .

0
7. 121

, .
N , , .
( -
).
.
-
, .
5.
: (33%), ,
, , .
, , -
. , -
. ,
. -
.
.
16
40 ( ).
, 21 ,
0.1 "", 0.1 .
, , - -
25-28C. , 20-30
. ,
35-38C. , -
, , 25-28C.
 30C , ..
, - -
.
, , (
) . - 10 -
. , , -
.
, , .
- 25-28C. -
, , , ,
. , 3 . -
- , -
.
 (3 ) , ..
, (
).
, , .. .
, ,
!
, , -
( ) . (50C) -
3-5 "", -
( , ,
).
, 10-15. ,
, 2-3 -
. 5 .
, .
, 12
.
2-3 ( )
() 1-2 . -
:
. : ~14 .

0
7. 122

.
50-200 ,
- . -
, .
1) 5-10 ,
. , ,
, . ,
(13-15 ).
;
. , ,
. ,
,
. .
2) -283 .
, , .
- .
.
3)
.
, , .
(!) .
4) 3 7.
,
, . ,
, . , .
, , .. -
- , .
7.1.5.
208 ( );
345 . ,
.
, - .
: , , .
40 60 4- -
96
35-40. , 30 ,
60 . 10 ,
.
.
10 9 16 -
. ,
100. 500
, , .
.
.
7.1.6.
; , N 2 C 6 H 4 SO 2 O
60C , .
, .
. .
: , , .
20 25 .
180-190C 20-25 . , 100
, , 0C.
.

0
7. 123

8
15 200 . , 10-15 -
. : 17-18 .
.
7.1.7. (2--4,6-, , )
- ( - - C 6 H 2 N 4 O 5
-), , ., -
(0.08% 25C), (2.43% 50C).
, . -
, ;
. 0.375 - 22 (
- 15 ). . ,
( ) . -
-.
2.15 / .=1.45 /3, t.=157C, t.=~177C, 3.44
/, 4400 / .=0.9 /3, 6600 / .=1.5 /3, 6900 /
.=1.6 /3, 1.71 /3, 0.3-0.9 /3, 1.63 /3,
876 /, 326 3. ; -
200 /3 ( ) -
. . .
: , , -
, , (~80%).
1 65 6
. 5 5
10 - ,
. ( ) -
, 130 t=100C. -
, - . -
15 . 3.75
, 150 ( 10-15
), .
, , , (
, ), . -
.
7.1.8. ()
, , -
, ,
t.=132C. ~0.7, -
- 0.9, 5 /3 - 3700 /, 1.18
/3 - 5300 /. 1895 .
, , -
, ,
, .
: , , [
]. , -
(90-96%), , 50%- . -
, 5%, , 15% .
1. .
. -
( ) . -
, - ( - -
). , - -
. - .
2. .
: , . -
( ), .

0
7. 124

: ,
, , . : -
, ,
( , !).
1.
-
( -
!). -
, 1 1.
,
. -
10-12 .
-
, -
.
. 7.10. .
-
( ) - . -
- -
.
( -
).
,
. : 20-30%
, .
2.
-
( ). - . 7.11. .
()
. (
, !).
. , ( - -
, ). -
. , 1.
3.
. -
5-7C . -
- ( !). -
( , ), 3-4 .
- 2-3 .
, -
, . ,
- . ,
. -
12-24 . .
3. .
, .
. , , - - -
(, ) .
( ) ,
, . -
, , , -
. , , -
, , . ,
,
, .
4. .
: , -
; , , .

0
7. 125

1.
,
, 1-5% .
, .
, (, ). -
, .
, ., .. .
2.
90C : (10-20 )
. , .
(
). , .
, ,
.
( )
. , , ,
. 2-4 5-10 .
. -
, .
, :
. :
(, , , -
, , - .). . -
, , .
7.1.9.
,
, ; .
: , ,
(99%), (20%).

. , .

; .
. , -
.
7.1.10.
, .
NO2 O2. -
, -
. 33C .
: , .
, ( ),
, , 0.45 -
:
2HNO3 + P2O5 => N2O5 + 2HPO3
.
7.1.11.
- , t.=161C ( ), t.=165C, (NH2 )C(= NH)NHNO
( ), -
, . , . ( -
, ), , , ;
, . 6000 /. -
.
: , , ( ).

0
7. 126

21 , 11 ,
18 250 . 20-25C.
; 0C .
65C
40C. : 8-9 .
- .
7.1.12.
, , -
, ; t.=105C.
: -
, , .
,

:
2C6H5COCl + 2NaOH => (C6H5COO)2 + 2NaCl
.
. -
.
, ..
, , , -
. , (60/40) -
, 23% , .
[33% , 33% 34% ],
, 112C, , -
.
7.1.13.
- (
) [HMnO4]. ,
.
,
, .
,
( ) - ,
.
, -
- ( -
-) . - -
,
. , ..
, - .
,
.
, -
, , .
, ( , -
), ( -
) (
).
( , , , -
), -
.
-
, (, ).
, , (5-
10 ) "" , -
.

0
7. 127

, ,
. , -
,
() .
, , -
- - . , -
( ) -
- (
) .

-. , -
( -
).
, ""
, - .
( ) [NH4MnO4].
137.0; (-
-) , .=2.21 /3,
(7.3% 15C). 60-110C; -
, , , - . -

; -
.
; , -
- 1700 / .=1 /3, -
110-125 3 (.. 37-42% ); 2370 /;
409 /. ,
(- )
0 +5.8% ( Mn2O3) +7.8% ( Mn3O4).
, , -
-
, . -
(, - -
) .
: , -
.
100 20 ; -
(, , ), 4 -
-
.
0C, -10-12C - -
( -15C!); -
.
 , (- -
) ; -
0C () -
.
, ,
- (5-10 )
.
(0-5C). : 2-2.4 (60-70%).
;
, ( - )
. -
- .
-
, - -
. (

0
7. 128

- ), .
.
, ()
90% - , 100
6 50 -
.
() [{Zn(NH3)4}(MnO4)2].
371.2; -
( ) -4.3-8.6% (-
, , MnO Mn2O3) ~483 /.
, , - (
), - -. -
, , ;
- - , -
. ; -
, .
- -
() ( 1:7000). ,
; -
. ,
, .
: (10-30%- ), -
, , .
100 4 ( -
). 8
1.1 1.4 , (-
).
-
, -
.
, ; -
, ,
-
( - .. ).
4-4.5 ( 85-95%).
, -
.
, ( ) -
-
, .
() [{Cu(NH3)4}(MnO4)2].
369.3; -
, 0 -8.7% (-
, , MnO Mn2O3 CuO) -
485 /.
- , - -
. , -
- , -
, . , -
1-2 , - -
. , , - -
, - . -
; , .
-
; -
. -
, , , ,
.

0
7. 129

: (10-30%- ), -
, .
100 5 ( -
). 15
5 7.5 ( -
- ).
( 80-90% ) -
,
- .
, ,
; , -
, (, -
) -
.
4.7-5.2 ( -
80-90%); , -
- .

- , -
; .
7.1.14. ( , )
, .=1.042 /3 15C,
, 100C. -
: - C4H10(O)4, - C8H18(O)6, -
C8H16(O)4. - -
, . ,
, ,
. -
( ). - -
.
: (27.5%), ,
(98%).
25 40 ,
. -
, 5 , -
, .
 , ,
5C, !
, . -
- - .
, 200
. , -
, -
.
.
, ,
, .
, : 11
100 44 51 .
7.1.15. ( 5-(4--1-))
-
188.18, .=1.635 /3. ,
( [ 60C] - )
.
, , -
. ( ), - -

0
7. 130

, 0.78 /, 155 , t.=~160C, 550 / (2302


/), 400-450 /. , -
, -
.
60C.
1.
: (16%),
(), , (2%).
, 70C, 50 , , -
, . 5%-
, 60C, , , ,
. , 40-50 . -
, . 45C 6-10 .
2.
: , , -
(), (70-100%).
55C , , , -
t=60C . -
, 70C, -
. , , -
50C (- ).
, ,
1-15% .
7.1.16. (2,3,4,6-)
, t.=149C ( ), .=1.5 /3,
t.=187C, , , , -
, , , - , , , -
, . - -
3 . 7630 /
.=1.6 /, 1017 /. ,
, 15% . , -
- .
: , , .
1 .. , 3 .. 36 .. -
70C:
C6H5(NH2)(NO2) + 3HNO3 => C6H(NO2)4(NH2) + 3H2O
100C -1 .
20C . 70% .
-
; .
7.1.17.
, t.=14.2C,
t.=125.7C ( ), .=1.65 /3. -
, ,
; . . -
, -
(, );
( - ):
C(NO2)4 + KOH + C2H5OH => KC(NO2)3 + C2H5ONO2
- , -
, . -
1915 /, 670 /, 6400 / (
21 ). ~0.2% -
, .
[ - Hg(NO3)2], -
.

0
7. 131

: (95%), .
( -
) ,
95%. 15C 50C:
4HNO3 + 4(CH3CO)2O => C(NO2)4 + 7CH3COOH + CO2
3-7 . : 70-75%.
, ,
.
7.1.18. ( , , )
- - , .=3.095
/3, (0.09 100 20C) -
, . 100C -
, ~200C , ~240C -
; . -
5200 / .=2.9 /3, t=275C,
1554 /, 130 3. ,
.
: , , .
, -
- (-
).
, , ;
() , , -
:
6H(NO2)3(OH)2 + Na2CO3 => C6H(NO2)3(ONa)2 + CO2 + H2O
:
t = 70 o C
C 6H(NO 2 ) 3 (ONa) 2 + Pb(NO 3 ) 2
C 6H(NO 2 ) 3 (OPb) 2 + 2NaNO 3
, .
 , .., -
, . -
(-
), , , , .
- -
, -.
7.1.19. ()
, t.=191C (
), .=1.792 /3. : 80C -
1% 700 , 100C - 53 ( - 340
109C). : 1.07% -
120 75C; - 1.27%
( ), -
. (0.08 100 25C), , , ,
, (17.5 100 25C).
5.86 /, 26 , 528 3, 7400 /
.=1.45 /3 8000 / .=1.62 /3, 687 /.
: 50% 2 30 17 2.5 (
).
: , .

80-85C 2 . -
. : 80-85% .
, .. , -
, , ..
- .

0
7. 132

7.1.20.
- , (NH3 ) 3 CrO 4
, . .
: (10%- ), (30%-
), (50%- ).
25 5 0C 5
. ; ~50C
. -
, . : ~0.3 .
7.1.21.
( ) [Hg(CNO)2].
, -
, , .=4.4 /3, t.=180C,
1.8 /, 315 /, 1.25
/3 2300 /, 4.20 /3 - 5400 /, 700 -
5.5 , - 8.5 , 38 . ( -
) , ,
, ,
, 0.32 .
, ,
, , 10%
, ; -
. ,
, . , .. " "
500 /3, .. ,
, 3 1 , -
2000 /3.
: , , (90%).
5 55 :
Hg + HNO3 => Hg(NO3)2 + H2
50 - , -
.
, , -
, :
Hg(NO3)2 + C2H5OH => Hg(OCN)2 + H2O + 2H2O2
20 . -
( ). -
-
.
-
, 30%- . -
, -
.
( ) [AgCNO].
, , -
, .=4.09 /3. , -
( 2.8 100 );
.
( -
, 5-10 ), :
, , -
( 1838 , , - -
, , ; -
);
, .
, - -
, , , ("").

0
7. 133

. :
+ { + } ,
. : -
, ; 5-10
, ; -
( ).
"" "" , -
"" , :
1) ( -
) "" H-O-NC. , -
.. "" H-CN=O,
. , , ,
-
(, , "" ).
2) -
" " (, , -
2.5 , -
, ). , .
, -
( -
) (, ), -
, , .
(, , -
). ,
, , - -,
, ,
( , ).
, -
- -
(, ),
( 2-3 -
).
, -
: , ( -
) ,
,
(7-10 ) . , - -
- - , , , -
, .
, -
, ,
( 5-10% -
).
"" .
( ) - , ,
,
( ),
. , -
,
.
"" ,
.
: (65-70%), , ( -
), (, 90-95%).
: (100 )
(200-300 ), ( - 2 )
( ) , . , -
- 4-5 .

0
7. 134

( 20-50 ), . -
(, ).
 "" 40-50C. -
, -
(.. , ),
.
11 3 ( -
"" , -
, ) -
40-45C; .
10 1.2 ,
(80-90C) - -
NO NO2.

, - , (),
; .
15-30
; - (,
NO2), (,
).
75-80C ( /
) 75-85C ( -
);
85C, ( )
, .
10 .
;
.
20C ( - ) 20-30 -
. , ,
( - ). -
.
3-4 ( 10 )
; , 40
. , . -
7-10 ( ); - -
- (, - ).
-
- -
. -
;
( ) 3-4 , -
.
,
, , -
. 1.5-1.6 (.. 90-96%
) - . -
- , ,
.
10-20 5-10%-
- .
. (),
.
-
( 10% ). ,
, .
- -
( ),
- .

0
7. 135

, ( ) 0.3 -
- , -
. , ,
.
, (,
) , .
"" .

. , (
) , , . -

.
-
, - .
- ,
, -
.
, , ,
"" -
.
: , , (
), (, 70%).
4 2 -
. 2 0.5 ,
(, ) , -
(10-15C) .
 - -
;
( ) .

. (20-25C) - -
, , -
.
-
, 4-5 ( 10 ) . -
"" . : ~0.65-0.68
- . "" , -
.
, -
"" , -, .
,
.. , .
( )
. -
- . -
- , -
; , -
. - -
, .
7.1.22.
( (2) , ) [Cu(NH2)4ClO3].
, , .
, . -
; 4300 /,
. . . .
: , , , (-
, ).

0
7. 136

, 1 .. 30 .. -
3 .. . 30 ,
, (~98C). -
, .
( ), -
. , , -
, -
(. 7.1). ,
- . ,
- . ; -
(16- ) .
( , ) [{Zn(NH3)4}(ClO3)2].
, ,
.=1.84 /3, ; ( -
) , , .
- ~79% , ..
237 3. , -
(< 2 ), .
, - -
; . -
, .
( ),
( ) , -
.
: (15-30%- ), (
), ().
3-5 3 . -
7.5 ( 7.8 -
3.9 ; -
).
 -
( ) ;
( ) !
-
( ).
( )
( 30-40C); 12-25 .

-20-30C - . (
) ,
, .
, -
, . -
: ~7-10 .

7.2.
, -
, , . ..,
, , ,
- .
7.2.1.
. -
- 9500 / (!), , -
:
.
- , -
1960- . ,

0
7. 137

; , -
, , 4- .
: , .

, .. !
-
, :
NH4NO3 + N2H4 => N3H3O3 + 2NH3
-
, -
. .
, -
1 4. .
7.2.2.
, ,
t.=160.5C ( ).
: ,
, , (99%), ().
26 , 10.4 150
. 42 ,
40C. , -
, , , -
. , , 45 102 -
. ,
. .
7.2.3. ( , )
, , , .=2.536 /3,
t.=580C ( ). 1785 ..
.

.
30%- , - 45%- -
. , ,
.
, ,
, KCl :
Cl2 + 6KOH => 5KCl + KClO3 + H2O
( -
, .. ) .
,
, , , .
, , , , , ;
.
, 100C, -
. -
.
: , .
"" 63 -
, , ,
1.3 ( 15 ).
0C. , . ,
. , -
.
56
100 . , : , -
- .

0
7. 138

, ,
.
90
, -
(, ),
. .
( )
, .
-
, . 7.12. .
. -
, .
, ..
:
2KClO3 => 2KCl + 3O2
, -
.
7.2.4.
, ,
, , - . -
.
- - ,
, -
. , -
. 5.1-5.9 /,
3800-6500 /, 16-22 , 410-460 3, -
1.4-1.58 /3. -
48:
1) . .. -
, : . 7.13. .
20 10 .
, , .. , -
;
2) . , -
.
( -
), .. , , ,
.
: 75% , 20% 5%
. , .
: 86% , 6% 8%
. - 700 3.
: 60% 40% . -
- 0.9; - 0.25 .
: 48% , 50% 2%
( ). , .. -
- .
, .., -
. (. 7.14 - . 7.19)
, .

48
-, . ,
. , , . -
- , ,
. !
, , -
. .
. - ? , , ,
, - .

0
7. 139

. 7.14. . . 7.15. "". . 7.16. .

. 7.17. . . 7.18. . . 7.19. .

.
7 3 ( ). -
. -
.
. . -
; -
.
- , -
. 61-97%
21-3% . 20% ( ).
, , .. -
.
15% , , ( ).
, , , , , ,
. 1
.
- 6. 79%
21% . 3600-4800 / 1.0-1.2 /3,
14-16 , 360-365 3, 16-32% ( 10
25 ), 895 /, 4.2 /.
( 8).
, -
3-7% . 1500-3800 /
4

0.85-0.9 /3, 270-285 3, 4-8% ( 10 25


). .
8.
(
).
.
, , ,
.. . , -
, , -
1.0-1.3 /3. , ,
. .
. -
: 79% 21% .
4

0
7. 140

,
, .
:
1) - 88%, - 5.5%, - 4.4%, -
- 2.1%. 3200 / .=1.0 /3, 14 , 350 3.
.
2) - 84.8%, - 11.5%, - 2%, -
1.5%, - 2.1%. 3500 / .=1.0 /3, 360
3. .
3) - 30%, - 35%, - 15%, -
20%. , .
4) - 88%, - 12%. .
5) - 82%, - 18%. .
6) - 50%, - 12.5%, - 37.5%.
.
7) - 72%, - 28%.
, .. "". - ( -
) .
(.) - , 30-80% 70-20% .
. , 80/20 -
4.0 /, 4000 / 1.0 /3; 60/40 -
6500 / 1.5 /3.
, 30% ,
, .
-
- - -
, , -
. -
.
; (-
),
.
(. ) - -
88:12 80:20. 4.1 /, - 340 3. -
.. , - ( ).
- , -
. - , -
(), .
, 3-5% -
. 50C, , , -
, .
3.43-5.68 /, 4000-5000 /, 320-470 3,
1.5-1.65 /3. , -
- , .
- , , , -
. , ,
, , , . -
, . -
, .
-
( ): , , ,
49, ;
, , . , ,
, ,
. 3.0-4.2 /, 2500-4500 /.

49
, , -
.

0
7. 141

,
, , , -
( ).
(
), .
.
(, )
. -
-
. -
, -
-
.
, -
. -
- -
, , .

(, ..), -
. , + ,
3% , , 30
; ~6% ,
, 40 .
; -
- ( -
- 50 ).
- 5-10% ( , ,
); ANFOS 50. -
, , , ,
, . -
( -
)
.
94% 6% (). -
5

3.7 /, 1.1 /3, 2200-2800 / -


1.0 /3, 320-330 3. -
; 3-5%
.
, , -
. ! , -
. 6% - "" 0.5 .
3-4% - .
2 - 150 -
, 200 , 250 , 200 , 300 .
, . ,
( 10 ). , -
. (1-4 )
, , . ( 30 )
, , .
- . ( 100 50
) ; - 1 .
, (
) : 50 1 . -
( ), .
( -
, ).
.

50
Ammonium Nitrate - Fuel Oil Solution (.) - - .

0
7. 142

- ,
. -
. :
1) -4 : - 92%, - 4%,
- 4%. 0.85-0.95 /3, 2600-3500 /, - 350-410
3, 100-120 , 4-16%,
4.2 /. .
2) : - 94.1%, - 4%,
- 1.9%. - 20 .
3) - 89%, - 3%, - 7%, -
- 1%. 4.2 /, 3600 / .=0.82 /3.
.
4) - 88-90%, - 5-7%,
5

- 2-3%, - 1%. 3.79 /, 3600 /


.=1.0 /3. .
5) - 72%, - 25%, - 3%.
5

; .
6) - 80%, - 18%, ( ) - 2%.
5

3800 /c 110 ~1.05 /3. -


.
.
80/20 ,
. -
, 12 ,
,
.
, - 0.8, -
- 0.9 - 1.2. , , "
" -
, . ,
() , ,
( ). -
.
3-5 , ~30,
~60 . !
: , -
. ,
, , , -
. , . 1.0
, .
, :
) (, );
) ;
) -2;
) .
.

. .., 1 1
, , ,
. - 15-25 , 12
, , , .
, .. , -,
0.8, -, ,
. , .
, , -
( ). -
; -2 , -
-1. - .
, , -

0
7. 143

. -
, . ,
, ,
"" - .
0.5.
0.7-0.8, ( ).
-2 (70-
100 , ). -2
-1 . ,
-1
100 . -
-
20-30 . , -
.
: 20 /,
, , ?
330 , .
, "" .
( ) 16-18 . , , . -
" , ".
, -
( , ), -
( ) .
. : 3-5%
.
( -
).
, , ,
. , , - .. -
, -
. ,
.
, , , -
, ( , , .),
. ,
( ) - .
, , , -,
( , ), - - .
7.2.5. (2,2',4,4',6,6'-, )
439, t.=245C (
), .=1.78 /3, , -
.
4200 /, 7145 /,
675 /. , -
. - ,
, , .
: , , , ,
(40%).
78 250 , 70C
10 :
6H6 + HCl => C6H5Cl + H2
(~110 ) 702 20
80. 10 -
:
C6H5Cl + 2HNO3 => C6H3(Cl)(NO2)2 + 2H2O
203 93 .
30 50 :
C6H3(Cl)(NO2)2 + C6H5NH2 => C6H3(NO2)2(NH)C6H5 + HCl

0
7. 144

1404
130:
C6H3(NO2)2(NH)C6H5 + 4HNO3 => C6H2(NO2)3(NH)C6H2(NO2)3 + 4H2O
, .
, -
.
7.2.6. (, )

452.16, t.=112-113, .=1.80 /, t.=175.
, , -
, .

. -
( .); -
75 43 0.4%.
390 /, 7000 / .=1.50
/, 8260 / .=1.75 /, 490 , -
. D- .
: (70%), , ,
, (98%), .
6 27 14 ;
. 5 , 5 -
. , , 30 ;
, 10C.
, , 200
- .
10 100 ; 40C -
10 . 5 10 . -
10.
.
7.2.7. ( )
, ;
. ,
. , -
( ) .
: (70%), ,
(90%), , .
5 35 5 -
. , , 70 ;
, 10C.
, , 200
. 40C -
. , , 10 -
100 ; 40C 10 . 5
10 .
10.
7.2.8. (, )
, .=1.8 /3,
t.=205 ( ), t.=230C. , ,
, , , - (12.7 100
25, 27 100 97). .
. . , -
. -
; .
. ,

0
7. 145

, -
, . 8360 /, 470 3, -
908 /, 1370 /, 5.45
/. 51;
RDX (Research and Development of Explosives).

- - , -
.
,
, .. ,
("") , -
.
, , -
. ,
60%, -
. , -
.
,
.
,
( -). :
(CH2)6N43CH3COOH + 4HNO3 + 2NH4NO3 +6(CH3CO)2O => (CH2NNO2)3 + 15CH3COOH
, , 79% , 6%
15% .
, " " (,
) .
.
: , ,
(99%), , .
5-15 9.2 .. 15 ..
17.2 .. 13.6 .. . 70-75 -
45 .. , (
P2O5). , -
75.
15-20 , . -
, -, ( -
) .
400 1 .
.
: , .
20-30 120 -
, 70 ( , -
20-30). ,
50 10 , 20:
(CH2)6N4 + 3HNO3 => (CH2)3N3(NO2)3 + 3H2CO + NH4
750 : ,
. 2-3 ,
( -
).

51
1999 "" , -
"". ""
,
. , , ,
, , , -
. , ,
, -
. . - -
. ,
.

0
7. 146

0.7-0.8 , -
CO2, H2O, N2 .. ( ).
(1 . 7 .
) 15 30 .
.
: , ,
, .

( ). -
, -
. ( ),
[ /
: 1 / 1], ( , ). -
, .
.
: , , .

-
.
860 480 480-500 -
. 2 . 15:
(CH2)6N4 + 4HNO3 => (CH2NNO2)3 + 2CH2O + 2H2O
70-80, :
3NH4NO3 + 3CH2O => (CH2NNO2)3 + 6H2O
30 20 ( 90% ), -
( ), , 5%- -
. -12 (
.. ) . : 700 .
, -
, , .
. - .
(50% , 45% , 5% ), -
(90% , 2% , 2% , 4% , 2% ).
: (
, , : 60% , 40% ) HBX (, -
, , ). -
: 66.5% , 30% -
, 3.5% ( ); 55% , 40% , 5% ( ).
-, ,
( , -
, ).
7.2.9. ( )
, - C 6 H(NO 2 ) 2 (OH)COOH * HN(CH 2 NNO 2 ) 2 CH2
; ,
<2 ( ) ; -
, , ,
. .
: (), ,
.
1.6 0.5 ; 0.2
1.6 .
-
- .
, ,
55 , , - . 20
, , .
. : 0.9-1.1 .

0
7. 147

7.2.10. ()
-
, t.=1,5, t.=113,5, 2250 /. -
, (
), . -
( ).
.
: 1887
, . 1894 .
, . . -
56 [86]. ,
, ,
. , -
.
1.
: , , .
( !); -
, -
:
NaOCl + CO(NH2)2 => N2H4 + NaCl + CO2
( -
!). -
, .
2.
: , , .
( , )
, :
ClNH2 + NH3 => N2H4 + HCl
, ..
, . , ,
.
, , -
, . -
, , .
7.2.11. ()
240.13, t.=51.5-
52.5; .=1.675 /3; ; -
(15-25), -
, (, -
), , .
15-
25. 1942 .
5376 / (1284 /), 402 /,
7780 / 1.60 /3, 480 3. -
: ( 10 , 25 ) - 44% (-
), 80-88% ( ). -
. 1% 20 - 2.17105 ; 50 - 1.7102
; 100 10 5% ; -
.

.
: , (10%- ),
, , .
48 170 ,
80 20 . 30 :
22H5OH + NH3 => CH3CH2(NH)CH2CH3 + 2H2O

0
7. 148

4 .. , 2 .. 1 .. , -
10 . :
,NaCl
CH 3 CH 2 (NH)CH 2 CH 3 + 3HNO 3
2

CH 2 NO 2 CH 2 NNO 2 CH 2 CH 2 NO 2 + 3H 2 O
, .
. -

. -
, .
7.2.12.
. 52 -
1867 , .
- . , -
- -
(, , , , ). -

.
. , -
, ; ,
. .
- , -
.
, -
,
. , -
. , ,
, -
.
(, , , , , ) -
; . -
, , -
.
, . , -
, . , .
,
1.4-1.5 /3, , .
: 6650-6800 / 1.5 /3,
15-18 ( - 13), 360-400 3 ( - 300). 10
, 25 - 100%; .
, . -
.
-
( +10C +22C, -
, , ,
- 1 ). +8C -
. +30C , -
. ( -
30-32 150-200 ).
35 62%.
: , -
62% -20C, 35% -

52
, , , , -
. , -
, ?!
, , , ,
; 50 "" , -
" ".
"" ...

0
7. 149

- +8C. ,
: 71% , 23% , 4% , 2% .
.
- .
7.2. .


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
52 53 60 61 66 73 78 83 - - - -
16 19 - - - - - - - - - -
6 - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - 2 4 1 - -
- - - 4 - - - - - - - -
- - - - - 5 - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - 5 5
21 - - - - 2.8 5 7 30.5 34 - -
- - 21 20.5 22 15 8 - - - - -
- - - - - - - - 40 1 - -
- - - - - - - - 0.5 0.5 - -
- 12 5 3 - - - - - - 30.5 24.5
5 5 4 4 4 3.2 4 4 25 25 25 30
- - 6 1 - - - - - - - -
- 6 - - - - - 2 - - - -
- - - - 4 - - - - - - -
- 4 4 7.5 2 1 5 2 - 38.5 39.5 40.5
7.3. I.


15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% 55% 60%
20 19 18 17 16 15 14 14 15 16
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
64 60 56 52 48 44 40 35 29 23
15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
7.4. II.


30% 35% 40% 50% 60% 30% 35% 40% 50% 60%
- - - - - 3 4 4 5 6
15 15 20 25 30 15 15 20 25 30
18 16 15 11 10 15 14 13 12 9
51 48 42 36 24 53 49 45 36 27
15 20 22 27 35 13 17 17 21 27
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

. .. .
. -

. . ,
, , ,
. , , ,
. - - -
.

0
7. 150

, / . ,
, ,
" -
, ". ! , , -
, ? ... , -
, , . ,
, " ": "...
".
7.2.13. ( , )
, (CH2 ) 6 N4 * 2HNO 3
266.2, t.=165 ( ), t.=190, , -
, .
, 20% , .
( )
- ; ( )
( ).
: 2650 / ( - ) 2483 / ( - ),
1000 /, ~6000-7000 /, 220
3 (.. 73% ), 31.6%. -
.
1.
: (35%), .
10 100 50 -
200 .
. , . : 11 .
2.
: , (15%), .
105 700 5. -
53 (. 7.20). -
(. 7.21), 150 (. 7.22) -
, (. 7.23). : 32 .

. 7.20. . . 7.21. .

. 7.22. . . 7.23. .

0
7. 151

3.
: , (36%, -
), (40-42%- ).
360 180 -15-20. -
300 180 -
. 10,
( ,
10!); .
, 5-15 , -
-15-20. -
- 53.
100 ,
[ -
( -20-30) , -
( -1/3 ) ( )]. -

(5-10) .
( 10-20 ) -5-20.
: ~230-245 ( 90% ).
, -
, .
.
, (, ).
,
, .
7.2.14. ()
- t.=51;
: 1,3- (-)
90-91%, 1,2- (-) - 8-9%, 1,4-
(-) - 1-2%; : 89.7,
116.5 172.1 .
, , , -
, - , , , -
, . , ,
, ; -
, .
1,2- 1,4- . , ,
, , -
. 1,3- -
, . -
1,3- 1,4- . 1,3-
, .
6100 / .=1.5 /3, 3430 / (820 /),
255 3, 670 /.
- .
: , , , -
.
15 20 (
). -
, , 10 . 5 -
. () , 25
80-90:
C6H5NO2 + HNO3 => C6H4(NO2)2 + H2O

53
90-100 ( -10, -
- )
100 .

0
7. 152

12.5 -
( 130!) - ,
.
. 70 120
- . , -
50-100 .
50 , ( )
; , .
, ; -
( ).
, ;
. -
: 12-12.5 . , .
,
.
(87% -
, 10% 3% ) -
. : 56%
, 32% 12% -
.
,
.
, , . -
- -
. -, -,
-.
. .
7.2.15. ()
0.25 /3, t.=260.
; .
: , , .
15-20 , 2 -
4.5 , .
5 , 50-55 2-
, . 25 ,
,
. : ~33%.
, .. -
(1510 /). (: 7.2% , 10.8%
82% ), , ( -
- 7520 /), .
7.2.16. (, )
, C 6 H3 (NO 2 ) 2 CH3
182.06; (
75% - 2,4-, 20% - 2,6-, - 4,3-, 2,3- 2,5-), -
. , -
, - () (). , -
, , , -
. ( -
), 30-65,
.
~190 3
(.. 63% ) 3850 / 1.1 /3. -
-
.

0
7. 153

, ,
, -
, - .
- -
. , 500 2400
900 1.48 /3. -
( 4-8 ) , -
50, 30 80-90.
~50, 15% ( ) -
. - - . :
900 50;
35.
() 2000 (.. 100%-
) 920 1350 98%- , -
70; 480 . : 1800 .
( -
) "", "" (-
) , .. ""
( ).
: , (98%), .
150 , 60
85 ( "" ) 120 "-
" .
10% (
) 10% , -
- ,
. -
( 3%, ) ;
( ),
.
-
( 30-40!), -
-
() .
( ) -
, , , 10 ( -
"" ). -, -
, () -
( , , , -
) ~50; 1-2 .
60C ( ) 5-10 ( -
, -
). ( 10,
) 100 2-3 .
 .. -
( .. ),
.
50-60
(0.5-1 ), .
"" - -
; "" - -
, , .
250-300 70-80. -
, 3-5 ,
, 10-15 -
.
 !
!

0
7. 154

250-300 1-3%-
( !), 3-5
, , ,
. 2-3 , , -
" " .
85-90 (85-90% ) ,
. ( ) -
(- -
), , , (
, .. ,
); ( -
) .
"" .
.. " -
" - . , -
( 220 ) 100 ,
( 2-3 ) -
80-90 . 70 -
(15-40 ); -
.
200-300 , 10-15 ,
. 200-300 2-3%- ,
10-15 , .
, 250 -
: , 90, -
-
( - ). ,
( ).
100 -
( -
); 100-150 , ,
- " " .
: 50-100 .

: 15 " " ( /) 15 ""
6 (, "").
60-70 -
.
15 " " 15 "" ,
. , -
( 30-100% ), -
. -

/ .

. ( -
), .
( 2-4 ) , , -
.
( -
!) 1 1 (0.05-0.2 ) "",
(, , ). "-
", , (
) 100 ( ) . -
( -
!) , -
. , .
( ) -
, - ( -

0
7. 155

). -2/3
( - ).
-
(90-100%) . ,
, , -
, ( ) -
.
, 45-70% ( 94%- )
1.3 ; , (55-
60% ) . -
12 - 25 80% (20). 94%- -
+ 2,4- ( ) : 5880 /,
6990 /.
-
,
. ,
- 0.01 ( 0.5 ).
7.2.17. ( )
, ,
, , t.=1.2 /3,
1106 /, 1075 /, -
370 3, 6300 /.
, - ; -
. , -
.
: ( > 90%),
, ( > 90%).
, 24 .. 16.5 .. ,
13.5 .. ,
. , -
, , ..
, , .
, -
- .
1 1. -
, .
- .
7.2.18. ()
- HN(CH 2 CH2 ) 2 NH * HClO 3
170.5, . -
( !) -
.
. , -
, ,
.
-
. ( -
), , -
( ). -
.
: , .
3 20 (
,
).
, , ( -
, , - ..) - -

0
7. 156

,
( - , - -).
"" , , -
,
.
, , ,
(,
, -
). - - 4.5-5 .
7.2.19. (, )
, t.=3, t.=244.
, (0.4 100 20),
t.=~215, 1655 /,
737 /, 600 3, 6600 / .=1.38
/3. . 1870 .
, , -
( -
);
; . -
, ,
, , -
, , -
. , , -
, ( ).
1.
: , (98%),
.
 - ,
. !
( !).
50 100
- . -
- , 5-
10. , , 15 .
, .
 , -
, . ,
( , ).
20 -
- .
. , ,
, ... : 10 .
2.
: , , .
 , !
100 580 : 55% ,
40% , 5% ( ):
CH2(OH)CH2(OH) + 2HNO3 => CH2(ONO2)CH2(ONO2) + 2H2O
, ..
; 5 (
). 21.5%.
.
, ,
. , ,
, ;
, . , , -
.

0
7. 157


, , -
.
. -
.
, -
( ,
).
- , -
"". :
. :
.
-
:
) ( ) - .
) (, ) - - . 7.24. .
.
) - "" .
) , , , - ,
.
) - .
) , - ,
.
, .
" " : 63% , 11.5% {
(7 1)}, 19.3% , 6.2% .
, -
.
(2 1 1 1)
. , -
. , ,
. - , 2
.
 , , , ,
!
( -
40 60) ( -
).
7.2.20. (, )
, ,
, , , - , . 6300
/, t=200, 713 /,
550 3, 7650 / (
2000 /), 2.1 .
20 1.596 /3; -
, - ( 13.5) -
( 2.8). ,
-
. -
(, , .).
(
, );
- ,
. -
,
. ,
. ( ) -
.

0
7. 158

, , , , , -
; , , -
, , . (, Carte
Noire). , -
. -
, , . .
- , , -
. . 1846 .
1.
: , , .
 : -
, , ,
, ?..
 ,

, , , -
, ,
. ,
, ,
.
.., , -
, , ,
, !
10C ( -
- ), , 2 .. 3 .. -
, , , 1 .. :
C3H5(OH)3 + 3HNO3 => C3H5(ONO2)3 + 3H2O
, -
. ; -
, . , -
, . -
( ,
, ).
 20C ( -
,
0C). 30C,
. , , -
, -
.
,
( ). ,
,
.
,
10C. ,
( , -
); , ,
, .
5%- .
,
. , ,
.
, . -

. - ,
, ; -
.

0
7. 159

2.
: , , (98%).
150 ( )
-10 (- ). 70 -
3-4 ( ).
(10-15) -
20 ; -

(. 7.25), (
,
).
20-25 ( , -
, -
).
, -
5-7 ( ), -
(-
) -
- (
,
54).
- , -
-
,
. 7.25. .
60 -
.
,
300-400 ;

(. 7.26). 10-15
, ( )
50-70 ;
.
1-2 ,
, 100-
150 2-3%- . -
,
.
. 7.26. , 21.
.
5-7
, - (-
10-15 )
- , -
.
,
2-3 . -
( , -
) -
. -
,
. . 7.27. .

( ).
(. 7.27) -
, 0.1-0.2 (- -

54
, -
5-6 - 20-25%-
. , .

0
7. 160

!). : 16-20 55
.
3.
: , , .
400 155 -
100 . , -
. -
, 200 .
4.
: , , .
100 500
400 , ( ,
).
- 220
10% ( , ..
); 100 500 50 -
140 .
, -
. .
(. ), , ..
, , , -
, . , -
. - .
 , -
( ),
- ; - 0.01%.
, , -
, ;
. , -
, - .
.
7.2.21. ()
105.1, .=1.68
/3, t.=159 ( ),
( ) . -
, , , - ,
, , .
. -
(, );

, -
. ,
, .
,
, . 4700 / ( .=1.00 /3),
3865 /, 310 3, 853 /, -
40%. , .. -
( - 1.00 /3).
(, ).
, -
-
. .
: - ( , -
4500 /), - .

55
, - 20-24 20%- .

0
7. 161

: (70%), , ,
, .
1: .
30 40 ,
( , -
, ). -
, 35 5. , -
20. , , 100 .
.
2: .
90 -5, , -
0, 60 ( ,
- ). 5 ,
300 . 50 , -
, , , -
. 0, ( 1.5-2 )
. ( -
). ,
.
-
. , (-
, ), ( -
, ), ,
.
.
, ,
. , , -.
7.2.22.
, , -
-, -, - (, , , );
.
[C10H7NO2].
173, .
(1- 2-), 54-
58 304. , , -
.
, 100
80 ( 1.40 /3) 100 -
( 1.84 /3) 50. -
70 ( ), , (-
) ;
- . : 130 ( 135 ).
1.
: (30%), ( ,
, , , -
), (98%).
30 50 ,
( ). 80 ,
40 , , 30.
75 , ,
50 . 60 3 , -
. ,
.
2.
: , .
3 .. 0.5 .. ,
70-80C 5-15 . -

0
7. 162

-
.
,
5%- 75.
(
-), ,
.
[C10H6(NO2)2].
218, .=~1.5 /3; - a b - -
. - -
, ( 1,8- 1,5-) 125-
155, 318 . ,
, - . - -
; .
1150 / .=1.0 /3, .
, 400
3-4 45, , 1150 , 51%
, 26.5% 22.5% ; ,
55. , -, ;
. . : 91% .
1.
: (30%), ,
(98%).
30-40C , 190 .. 250 .. -
173 .. -
. 120-150C , -
.
, - , -
. -
150C, .
2.
: (70% 90%), .
30C 3 .. 70%- 1 .. -
. , , 45C, 1.19
.. 90%- ( -
, ):
C10H8 +2HNO3 => C10H6(NO2)2 + 2H2O
, , -
20C .
, , , -
(, ) (,
48.5 51.5 - " "), -
, . -
. 1,5-
.
[C10H5(NO2)3].
263. - -
(, 1,3,8- 1,2,5-) 125-160, -
. , - . -
( 83% ), 1.4 /3
6000 / (.. " ").
: , , (98%).
25
14 11 . -
- - .
, -
(-
25-30, -

0
7. 163

, !).
- 15-25 -
- "", .
, 14 -
- ,
; ; ,
. 15-20 ,
( ) 12 .
, -
30-60 , . -
, , -
. 200-300 -
( -
) ; 10-15
, .
1-3 , , , - -
, -
.
,
. -
50-60, , -
40-60. : 18-20 - ( -
- - ) ,
.
, ( )
( , ..).
[C10H4(NO2)4].
308, ;
190, 220 (). -
- 101% 7000
/ 1.6 /3.
: , ,
(98%).
520 , , 15 , , 450
, 30. 100 -
, 40.
, 2 20-30. -
, , 70 ( -
). 65 75 ,
. 20 -
, .
40 2 5%-
. , , 2
. .
- -
( ).
7.2.23. (, HMX)
, , , - -
, , t.=278.5-280 (c ), .=1.92 /c3
(b-), t.=337. 9124 / .=1.9 /3,
782 /, 5526 /,
220.
: a, b, g, d. -
- b - -
, , , , (2.1 100 22,
4.0 100 50). ( -
, ). ( 15-20%) , -
. .

0
7. 164

, ,
( 40-50%); -
, . -
b-, - a.
1.
: , ,
, (99%), , .
785 , 17 13
41 15 . 101
, 165 , 320 180
, 840 900 -
. 15 , 320 , 271
150
( !).
, 350 -
20. , 90% 10% , -
.
2.
: , (20%- ),
, (5%- ), , (37%).
10.5 60 , 45 -
. 25-30 2-3
( ).
, 65 2. -
6-7 .
( 40 ) - ,
( 30 ). -
; ( 4-
, , , -
). .
( 6 10 ), -
10-11.5 ( 10.5 ).
, , , .
15 70 240 (3 ) 300 (7 )
218 (1 ) ; 60
20 . 25 10 ,
(). 100-150 -
. (
, , - ,
; ).
: 180-190 (, 1
0.93-0.98 , .. "" 18$/).
.
, .
- ; -
(, ) b- . -
- -
, ( , -
). - b-.
1. .
1 , -
(40-50)
( ).
, .
- b-.
-
. ,
.

0
7. 165

2. .
( ) -
3-4- ; -
(, - ), (35-40, -
, ) 10 ( -
). ( )
! , -
, , ( 65!) ,
, , .
-
. ,
98% b-, , , , -
. ,
98.3%- b- , ,
, .
( ),
, , .., , ,
() ~20% ;
. .
7.2.24.
, -
- -
. ; , -
, -
.
, . -
, -
, ( )
, - ( ,
).
() [C6H12N43HClO4].
, ( -
) - . , -
. -
1.5 ( );
, . ,
, (, ),
. ( 10 ) -

( ) .
: , (36%, -
), (40-42%- ).
105 100
500 - . -
( ) ( -
!) 100 . -
, 1/3- ( -
)
.
; -
( ) 1/3-
. -
- -, -
- -
.
, , -
-; ,
.

0
7. 166

, "" -
. : 128.5 - -
, ( -
7 ).
- ().
, , , -
;
. , -
- -
. , ,
, . , -
, .
: , (36%, -
), (40-42%- ).
130 100
400 - . -
155 ; -
, -
. (
) . : ~162 .
7.2.25. (2,4,6-, )
, .=1.763 /3, t.=122.5, t.=00-310, -
(1.4 100 20, 8 100 100;
), - . 4397
/, 730 /, 350 3, -
16 , 7480 / .=1.75 /3.
, ; - 4 (-
). ( ), -
- (. ),
. , , , =0.1 /3.
1.
: (44%), , .
500 20 100 -
100 ( 100):
C6H5(OH) + H2SO4 => C6H3(OH)(HSO3)2 + 2H2O
40 920
, :
- 300 . -
40 60. 45 :
C6H3(OH)(HSO3)2 + HNO3 => C6H2(OH)(HSO3)2(NO2) + H2O
- 300 . -
60 80. 45 ;
- 320 . -
80 100. 1 :
C6H2(OH)(HSO3)2(NO2) + 2HNO3 => C6H2(NO2)3OH + H2SO4
100C .
125 . ;
70.
2.
: ,
, .
45 40 150 -
, , 58 77 -
. (. 7.28), -
, , , -
.

0
7. 167

. 7.28. . 7.29. - . 7.30. -


. . .

, 30-40,
. (. 7.29) -
.
(. 7.30).
3.
: (65%), .
9.5 , , , ,
, 21 . , -
, .
, .
. 1771 -
, , , , -
. , XX , , , ,
: (, ), (), -88
().
,
. -
, ,
- . , -
, .
( ).
, -
.
- ,
( 7.5).
7.5. .
56

? 290
7 300
7 310
80 360
5 260
5 ?
60 315

.
, .=1.7 /3, t.=265,
, . , "
D" - 7150 /,
. , ,
, .. .
: (10%- ), .
(~200 ) 10 .. , -
8 .. 10-15 ( !).

56
(.) 2 .

0
7. 168

. ,
20-30 40-50.
.
, . -
, .
: , ,
.
1 .. , 1 .. 2 ..
. .
.
.
: , .
20 (. 7.31).
, . -
- , , -
(. 7.33). , ,
(. 7.32)! (. 7.34).

. 7.31. . . 7.32. .

. 7.33. . . 7.34. .

.
: , .
20 ,
. 70-75, 25.
.
, ,
( 7.5).
, -
, .
.
7.2.26.
() - , -
. (, , , )
, .. ( 10-20%).
, -
, ..

0
7. 169

57 (-
, .). 75
90, : 88 .. 122 .. 78 .. -
22 .. -
. : -
, .., .
,
.=1.44 /3; -
, - - , - .
, , , -
; 30 , 210
( -
).
910 /, 7000 /, 21
, 280 3. -,
10 . , ,
, , , . (-
, , , , ..), (), -
, (20-30 ) , ,
.
.
:
) 3: - 77%, - 3%, - 4%, - 1%,
- 5%, - 10%.
) 4: - 91%, - 2.1%, - 5.3%, -
(SAE-10) - 1.6%. 7900-8050 /, ~
25.7 , 1.59-1.64 /3, - 48 2 . 3
: , -
, -50. -
4 .
) : - 38.9%, - 40.1%, - - 10.2%, -
- - 9.1%, --2- () - 1%, 4 (-
) - 0.7%. 355 3, 23.5 , 7280-7490 /, -
1.48 /3, 4.98 /, 950 /.
) 1A: - 76%, - 4.6%, - - 9.4%, -
- 9.4%, --2- 4 - 1%. 328 3,
26.1 , 7280-7487 /, 1.45 /3, 4.98
/, 950 /, 3 .
) ISD: - 76%,
5

- 8.3%, - 4.6%, - 8.4%; :


- 2.5%, - 0.7%. 1.44 /3, 7500
/, 3.4 ( 8), -40 +50.
, , ,
.
, - "" ,
, , -
.
, . , -
. , -
, , . , -
, , , -
. , -

57
- . ,
, , , -
.. - ,
, . , "-
": " ,
", ", , , 200-
". !

0
7. 170

10-20% , .. .
, , -
, , .. !
, - .
58 - -
. (, .), (
) . : , ,
.. ( 50-150%),
1-2 -60 +150. :
) LX-13 (EXTEX): - 80%, (Sylgard 182) - 20%.
) SX-2: - 88.2%, - 8.2%, -(2-) - 2.2%,
- 1.4%. 1.63 /3, 8000-8150 /,
27.2 . "Demex 200" "Prima Sheet 2000".
) -24: - 83.2%, - 5.5%,
- 4.5%, - 1.9%, - 0.1%, - 0.1%, -
5

2.7%, - 2.0%. 7500 /, 1.57 /3, -


3.5-4.0 .
) -1: - 85%, - 6.5%, -
- 6.5%, - 1.5%, - 0.5%. 7500 /,
1.57 /3, 400 3, 16 , 0.5-0.7
, -55 +80.
) -2: - 85%, - 6.5%, -
- 6.5%, - 1.4%, - 0.5%, - 0.1%. -
7600 /, 1.59 /3, 380 3, 18 ,
3.0-3.5 , -55 +160.
) 6413 ( Fe2O3): - 34.4%,
1.4%, - (1:1) - 4%, - 26%,
- 1%, - 33.2%. ; -
.
, -
, , , -
, .. .
- .. . -

. .
, , (). -
, RX-06-HD : 74% , 20% 5.2%
; RX-08-EL: 73% , 25% -(2--2,2-), 2% -
; EL-506L3: 73.5% , 17.6% , 6.9% -
, 2% 4.
, -
( ). -

: -(2--2,2-), -
..
: -
-, : ( -
) (

).

58
! ,
, ( -
, , , ). , . -
. ( ),
, " , , " -
. ( )
. . - ! , ,
. - , ,
.

0
7. 171

7.2.27.
, .=0.3-1.5 /3 ( -
). 2030 / .=0.3 /c3 6560 / .=1.5 /3.
1927 . H. -
.
: , .
5 , , -
100 . (
) , -8. ,
. ,
, . : ~96%.
,
.
7.2.28. (, )
- 245.05, .=1.829 /3,
t.=175.5, , ,
, - , -
, . , : -
284 3 (95% ), 17.15%.
, -
, .
- , -
, .. - ( ).
: , , .
11 , , -
, 6 . -
, ( ).
-
- -
( ).
0 -
, 12 9 - -
( ) ,
(
, .. ).
, -
, 30-35 - 50-70 (
). (
).
60-70 (
). , -
50 ,
. - . : ~10.5-11 .
7.2.29. ( , )
, .=1.77 /3, (58.8
100 50), , t.=141.3, t.=200 ( -
), t.=215, 8350 /, 5756 /.
,
, ( -
2 30 ).
1.
: (93-96%),
.
, 3
, 600 ,

0
7. 172

5. , , -
. , :
C(CH2OH)4 + 4HNO3 => C(CH2ONO2)4 + 4H2O
0.5% , -
, , ,
, , - 1%- -
, 90, (
- 2).

- , -
, - . 7.35. .
, ;
. 15-20% ,
40-45C 12 .
 , ,
, , ..
( ).
, -
, , -
( -
- , - ).
2.
: , .
100 150 .
, -
. : ,
( ). , -
40.
- (
, ),
(, "") - -
, .
7.2.30. (N-[2,4,6-])
, , .=1.73 /3, -
(0.008 100 20), - (36.7 100 ) -
(10.2 100 ), t.=129.45 ( ), t.=~190,
4598 /, 7500 / .=1.63 /3, -
765 /, 19 , 340 3.
, , .
.
: , , .
, 1 .. 8 .. , -
, , -
:
H SO
C6H3 (CH3 )2 (NH2 ) + 4HNO3 2
4
C6 (NO2 ) 4 (NH2 )(CH3 ) + 4H2O
 , .. -
( 150C) .
, , , -
, , 1%- .
- ( )
, .

0
7. 173

7.2.31. (1,3,5-, )
, ( ,
), .=1.688 /3, t.=123-123.5, t.=315.
, - , -
, , ( -
0.028 100 15 0.448 100C),
, , , ,
. , -
- , . -
, - -
.
7300 / .=1.65 /3, 4600 / (1104 /),
326 3, 711 /. -
: - 280 (2%- 6 ). -
( - 24%), ,
. , ,
, =572 /.
-
; -
: , -
- , , ,
.. ( ):
C6H2(NO2)3Cl + Cu + H2O => C6H3(NO2)3 + CuCl + CuO
: , , .
1 .. 20, , 3 .. , 28%
, 56% 16% . 30 40,
- ()
40 , 32% , 61% 7% .
, , 90 - -
. , , 72 , -
20% 80% . 140
. 10% - :
C6H6 + 3HNO3 => C6H3(NO2)3 + 3H2O
, -
. -
, -
1,3,5- 1,3,5- -
.
7.2.32. (1,3--2,4,6-, )
241.2, .=1.604 /3 (19),
t.=182-183 ( 100 ), t.=330, t.=2730, -
971.643 /, 6600 / .=1.58 /3.
( -
) ; , , , -
, -
. ; -
. - - .
: , , .
, -
.
1402 , 3 .. 1 .. , 106
, 140 20 :
C6H4(CH3)2 + 3HNO3 => 6(3)2(NO2)3 + 3H2O
, , .
(, ) -
,
; .

0
7. 174

( ), , -, - -
,
.
7.2.33. (2,4,6-, , , )
, - , .=1.663
/3, t.=80.85C, , (109 100
20, 346 100 50), (0.015 100
25, 0.15 100 100). 310C ,
; -
(, ).
7000 / .=1.64 /3, 1000
/, 4190 /, 16 , 285 3,
730 /, 100 260 -
. : 10 25
4-8% ; , , ,
, .
; - .
59, ,
, . . 1863 .
1.
: , , .
:
1) 650 1580 (28% HNO3 + 56% H2SO4 + 16% H2O).
t=40C , , 60C, .
- , - :
C6H5CH3 + HNO3 => C6H4(NO2)CH3 + H2O
2) (32% HNO3 + 61%
H2SO4 + 7% H2O) 40C, , 90C, . -
- :
6H4(NO2)CH3 + HNO3 => C6H3(NO2)2CH3 + H2O
3) , , (20% HNO3 + 80% H2SO4) -
72C. 98C ( , .. 140C ) -
. , ,
:
C6H3(NO2)2CH3 + HNO3 => C6H2(NO2)3CH3 + H2O
: ,
, 50
250-300 96%- . (
), ( )
. , ,
40-50. (
), -
, - .
2.
: , , .
10 1580 650 , -
. 700
- - 700 .
: ,
30, ( -
, .. ).

59
, -
. -
, , .

0
7. 175

- . -
, , -
, 10 , . 20.
, 5 - -
, . ( ,
- !).
, -
65 -. ,
2-2.5 - ; -
. - -
, , , . , -
, , .
-
, - ( -
, , , ..),
, (
).
, (
). , , , ,
, - , -
. , ,
, , . -
, , , .
7.2.34. (-[]-, )
, -
: (a, .=1.92 /3) (b,
.=1.96 /3), t.=95 ( ), t.=190. -
( 0.01% 25), , , ,
. , ,
, - 80 ( 1% 1300 ). : 50% -
2 10 () 10 2.5 ();
10 25 - 88-98%; .
5.74 / .=1.51 /3 (), 7950 /,
8800 / .=1.95 /3, 23 , 496 3.
: , -(), -
.
-() (13%
HNO3, 76% H2SO4 11% ) 25.
, . : 80-85%.
(- -
) ( ). ,
81% 19% - 7600 /, -
42 , 400 3, : 50% 2 40 .
7.2.35. ()
, t.=105, , -
; , -
, ( -

). ,
- . 7800 /, -
853 /. .
1.
: (35%- ),
(10%), .
 - , -
!

0
7. 176

( !) , -
( 5 ) (-
2.75-3 ), (1 ):
C6H12N4 + 2NaNO2 => 2(CH2)3N3(NO)3 + NaO
:
, (
).
, /
. (
, , -
). : ~65%.
2.
: , , .

.
-
.
7.2.36. (, )
, .=1.75 /3, t.=178,
, , , , -
. 5360 /, 7750 /,
908 /,
- 0.2 . 5
24 .
. , -
, . , .
: , , .
3-3.5 1 , 180
3-3.5 ( NH3 CO2), 240, . -
(1:5).
, ( -
) ,
. .
,
, , -
.

0
8. 177

8.
, !

() - () ,
. ,
, .. -
.
( ),
( , -
), - ( ), (,
, ) -
(, ..) -
(.. ).
, - (-
: -, , ), - (), -
(, ), ( , ), ,
(, ), , ,
(, , ), -
(-3-) (). -
, -
, , ,
(.. , , 1--1,3,5-) -
( ).
- (,
-, , ), (
),
( ), ( ).
.
(, ),
( ).
(, -),
-
( ).
: ,
, , (), , ,
,
(, , , .).
-
(-, , ), ( , , -
, ) - () , -
, -
.
( , -
, ), -
, ,
.., ,
.
, .
. , -
, 0.02 /;
- - 8-10 /;
- 0.0004 /.
, -
, , -
.

1
8. 178

, (, ,
, ) ( );
(, )
, , ; , (-
, ) , -
- () ( ) ; -
-
() ; ,
, () -
(- ).
-
, .. -
( , , - .)
. -
, ,
.

( ) () .
, ( 100 2)
.
( )
. -
(, -
) , -

, , , ,
- - .
. -
, -3- -

. .
(, ), .
, -
Na+ (, ),
. - -
, -
.
, .
,
.
, , -, -
- .
. . -
,
.
.
, , ,
., ; .
12.07.1917 . , -
, , . -
-
().
, -
, ,
, . -
, ,
.

1
8. 179

8.1.

- , , , -
, , , , -
.
.
8.1.1. (DM)
-
195, 410 . , -
. .
, -
- 0.0001 /, -
0.0004 / ( 60 ). -
.
8.1.2. ( , CR)
, t.=72. -
, ,
, . , -
, -
, -
- 0.0002 / ( ). -
:
CH O -HOCH (H PO )
NC 6H4 OC 6H5 3
2 - OCHNHC H OC H
- H2NC 6H4 OC 6H5 6 4 6 5
4n CR

8.1.3.
, t.=~31.5.
, , ,
. , -
, -
,
- , ,
, , .
- 2.510-4 /.
8.1.4.
, t.=~38. -
, , -
, . , -
,
,
. - 0.001 /.
8.1.5. (, CN)
, t.=~59, 245 -
, .
, , , -
. , -
, -
( !), - 0.005
/ ( ).
:
AlCl
3 C H COCH Cl + HCl
6H6 + ClCH2 COCl
6 5 2

60
.. .

1
8. 180

8.1.6. (S)
, t.=95, , -
, . ( 10-30 )
: , ,
, .
0.002 /; -
0.005 / ; -
0.27 / ,
6.1 / .
:
-OH
C 6 H 4 (CHO)(Cl) + CH2 (CN) 2 CS

8.1.7. ()
, .=1.6539 /3, t.=112.3.

; - 0.05 / ( ).
1.
: ( ), .
1
1. , ,
85 (-
). . : 75% .
2.
: , .
.
(. 7.1), - :
C6H2OH(NO2)3 + 11Cl2 + 5H2O => 3CCl3NO2 + 13HCl + 3CO2
3.
: , .
- :
CH3COCH3 + 2NO2Cl + 5Cl2 => CCl3NO2 + CO + 6HCL
. -
, .

8.2.
. -
, , , ,
, , .
. , -
- . -
, .
8.2.1. ( )
, t.=-13.3,
t.=25.7. , -
; -
( ) (
) "" . , , -
, , , , -
, . () , -
, , , .
: (20%- ), ,
, , .
: 106 12
170 .

1
8. 181

, . -
, , ,
:
t
Na2 CO3 + C + 2NH3
NaCN + 3H2 O

:
2NaCN + H2SO4 => Na2SO4 + 2HCN
; -
-
, ; -
, , ., .
, , .. -
, ,
( ) ( ..). -
, (!) -
-
10-20 .
8.2.2.
, t.=12.6. - 0.4 / (
10 ). :
C2N2 + 2Cl => 2ClCN

8.3. -
- . -
, -
, - .
, ,
, .
,
.
8.3.1. ( )
, t.=217 ( ). -
- 70 /; -
, - ( -
24 ); 2-3
. -
, , , ;
.
- , , ,
.
- ( -
, - 4 ). -
; ;
.
8.3.2.
, t.=196.6.
.
- 0.02 /; -
25 /; - 0.25 / ( -
15 ).
.

1
8. 182

8.4.
. -
, , , , . -
- () ,
, 4-6 -
, . -
, , ,
, , , , , .
. -
, ,
. !
8.4.1.
, t.=128. (. )
, . -
, , , , .
6-8 .
- 0.5-0.7 / ( 15 ). -
.
8.4.2.
, t.=8.2.
, , , , . -
- 0.1-0.3 / ( 15 ).
:
p, t
CO + Cl 2 COCl 2

8.5. -
- - ,
. , ( -
- ), -
, .. . -
, - ;
. ! : , -
, , , , , .
,
.
- .
, -
.
8.5.1. - (VX)
, t.>300. -
- :
0.0001 / ;
- 0.001 / (
; 5-10 );
- 0.1 / (-
1-24 ). - -
, . -
, , .

1
8. 183

8.5.2.
, t.=151.5.
, .
0.0005 / (-
, ); -
0.07 / ( ); -
- 0.12 /. , , . -
:
2(CH3(P=O)CL2) + 2CH3(CH-OH)CH3 + CH3(P=O)F2 + NaF =>
8.5.3.
, t.=~168.
, -
, .
0.0005
/ ( , ); -
- 0.003 / ( );
- 2 /. -
:
CH3(P=O)CL2 + CH3(P=O)F2 + 2CH3(C-OH)C(CH3)3 =>
8.5.4.
, t.=~230. 0.01 / -
;
- 0.4 / ( );
- 5 /. -
:
2(CH3 ) 2 NH C H OH, 2NaCN
POCL 3 (CH3 ) 2 NP(O)CL 2 2 5
(3 ) 2 NH HCL 2NaCl,HCl

8.6.
.
, - .
,
.
8.6.1. -3- (BZ)
, t.=165.
0.11 / -
, .
- 2 /,
( 30-60 -
): , , , -
, ,
,
, ,
.
BZ :
50%
11 / . -
3-.

1
9. 184

9.
, !
.


. 90% -
. !
,
" , !" , -
. , ,
, .
.

9.1.
- -
61 (. 9.1) - -
.
, -
. -
, , , .. " ",

, .
,

. - . 9.1. .
,
, .
" ", .
.
1) (,
) ;
2) . -
, 10 , -
.
, , .. , . , -
10 8 , : 10 / 8 = 1.25 / (12.5 /);
3) , - -
. , , 20
, : 12.5 / 20 = 25 (250 ). ;
, , 2 ( 2 -
!);
4) "" .
, . -
, , -
;
5) , .
, . ,
, ;
6) ,
. ,
; .

61
(, ) -
" ". , " " -
- .
, - , - .
" " " " ,
- - ,
.


9. 185

, , ,
, , .. (
) , "", .
-
. ( ).
, ,
3-5 . -
. ,
.
,
, ~4 /.
40%- ( , ..
), 20%- 30%-
1:1. ,
, 65-70.
-
, , .
""
. ,
99% . ,
- , .. -
- , .
. -
-
10% ( ), , ..,
, , . ,
, , -
, ( ,
). , -
, . -
. ~3.5-6 /; / .
,
, . -
- - -
( -). , -
, , -
. , , ,
.
. -
( -
). , ,
"" , "-
", . -
. -
. ,
, ,
, .

, -
(. 9.2).
A,
. ,
C. . 9.2. .
D, E. B
. F, -
G. H, I. ""
, , , , E
B G, I. BG -
, B ( , ).


9. 186

9.2.
( -
), . , ,
. , ,
, , .
,
: , -
( ) .
, , , "" -
, . , -
.
(, - ,
) , , -
(, , , )
. :
1) -
;
2) (-, -, ) -
, , 1:1
( ).
: -
. (
), . -
, - , (
) . , ,
. .

9.3.
- . -
, -
. 100-200 -
"" ,
.
-
, ,
. , -
:
) ;
) ( ) ;
) - .
, , . , -
, .
, , - -
- , .
: , ,
, .
: , , ( -
). , , (
, , , , , .. , -
"" ); , , -
, . :
V = A Om ,
(V) - ,
() - ,
() - , .. 1 = 1 / 1 .
(
). ,


9. 187

, , -
. , -
.
. , -
2.5 , 12 12 ,
12
..
26.5 (. 9.3). - 12
, 2,5
: . 9.3. .
, .
, (. 9.3) 24 ,
, , 9 - ( 1 , , ,
20 , ). - - (
, , ).
.
: (. 9.4) (. 9.5).

+ +
_

V1+V2+V3 = _ + _ + _ +
_ + _ + _ + 9V 9V 9V
=9+9+9 =27 V 9V 9V 9V _
. 9.4. . . 9.5. .

, ,
:
V=V1+V2+V3
, :
=1+2+3
.
( ) :
(. 9.6) (. 9.7).

R7
R
R6 R3 R4

3 R1

R
2,5 2,5 2,5 2,9 R2 R 1,1

2,8 R3

R1 R2 R3
R=R1+R2+R3+R4(.)=2.5+2.5+2.5+50=57.5
1/R=1/R1+1/R2+1/R3
R=R1+R2+R3+R4+R5+R6+R7=2.5+2.5+2.5+50=57.5
1/R=1/3+1/2.9+1/2.8=1.1
R=R1+R2+R3+R(.)=3+2.9+2.8+R(.)=8.1
. 9.6. . . 9.7. .

, ,
, , .
 :
1) ;
2) ( ) -
;
3) , ;
4) ( -
) .


9. 188

a) ) ) )
. 9.8. .

 (. 9.8):
) , .
) , .
) .
.
) !
: , , -
.
.

_ + 0 1 _ + 0 1
) )
. 9.9. .

"" : - -
.

***

, .
-
- . ,
( , - )
() .
110 .
,
, ( -
, -), 9 .

) ) ) ) ) )
. 9.10. "" .

(. 9.10-; . 9.10-).
0.7-0.9 , 5-8 ,
/ ( ).
, , -


9. 189

, . (. 9.10-).
, , (. 9.10-).
(. 9.10-).
(. 9.10-).
- ,
.

) ) ) ) ) )
. 9.11. .

(, -
) 20-30 (. 9.11-).
15-25 (. 9.11-).
2-3 , (. 9.11-).
,
, , (. 9.11-).
(. 9.11-)
(. 9.11-).
- , (-
, 5-10 ). : -
!

. 9.12. "- . 9.13. ().


" . .

. 9.14. . . 9.15. .
. .


9. 190

. 9.16. - . 9.17. ().


. - ,
- -
.

-. , -
. , 1 .. 0.35 .. -
. -
. , , -
.
. -
( -
- , )
- ( )
( ). ,
, ,
!
, .
, .
,
, . -
( ) -
- , . -
, ( -747, -
PAN-AM) ,
, . -
, .
(+ )

, - (-)
, (. 9.18). (-) (+)
-
, , -
.
. 9.18. (). . 9.19. ().
, -
, -
, (+ )
(. 9.19).
(+ )

(-) (-)
-
, -
-
, , - . 9.20. (). . 9.21. ().
, . , -
- , .
.
,
, .


9. 191

, (. 9.20). ,
, .
(. 9.21) - , -
.
, :
, -
, . ,
.
"" - (+ )
. (. 9.22) -
- -
(-)
. ,
( ). (.
9.23) - . 9.22. .
. !
, ,
. , -
, , , -
: (+)
, , -
, , , , -
62.
, -
(. " ").
(-)
,
. 9.23. .
- .
-, ( ; , -
; , )
. -, -
. -, - " (+)
" , -
, . -, (-)
, ,
, -
. . 9.24. .
, ,
: , , .
, .
, , . -
- , , ..
, (. ).
, , , -
, . ,
( ), , . -
, .
(. 9.24).
.
, - .
.
, -
. ,
, ,
. (
: -

62
, , , ,
, , . , -
( ,
).


9. 192

, , , , ; -
- , ),
- - -
, , .
, ,
, -
. , " -
", .. , "" .
1) - " " .
, . , -
, . -
( "").
2) .
3) , , ( - ),
.
4) , , , -
, . , ,
, , .
5) , , -
- "" ,
.., .
"" . -
"" , .
, ( ),
( ,
). , "-
" "", . "" -
, , , . ,
, ,
.
, .
, : ,
, ,
. - .
, .
-
.
. -
, ,
.

(+) (+)
(-)
(+ )


(-)
. 9.25. . . 9.26. .

(+ )
(-)
(+)
(-) (-)
. 9.27. . . 9.28. . . 9.29. .

(. 9.25) ,
. ( ),


9. 193

( ). , -
- .
(. 9.26) ,
-
.
, -
. - . 9.30. .
.
(. 9.27) -
, .
,
, ,
.
(. 9.28) -
- , -
, , . -
, , ,
,
. 9.31. .
.
, ,
. (-) (+)
(. 9.29) . -
, ,
,
.

. , ,
() - . 9.32. .

(, C " -
").
, -
(. ),
.
"" -
. -

: -
, , -
(, ) -
. -
,
( -
), (. 9.30, . . 9.33. .
9.31). -
(. 9.32): , .
, "-" " "
, , . -
, ,
, , - , ,
?..
, , ,
. :
, , (. 9.33).
, -
, . -
, , "", , -
, , "" . ,
.


9. 194

, ,
, ,
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226

1. .., .. " : . "; .1. .:


. . . . . .., 1960 .
2. ., " "; 11. .: 1975 .
3. ., ". ". .: 1930 .
4. .., " ". .: , 1956 .
5. .., " "; 2 . .: 1966 .
6. .., " ".
, 1962 .
7. .., .., " ". .: 1960 .
8. .., .., .., " ". .: , 1936 .
9. .., " ,
". .: 1967 .
10. .., .., " ". .: ,
1968 . - . - . .
11. .., .., .., " ". .: 1959 .
12. .., .., " ". .: 1967 .
13. .., ", ". .: , 1968 .
14. .., " ". .: 1941 .
15. . .: 1992 .
16. .., .., " ". .: , 1945 .
17. .., .. ., " ". .: , 1955 .
18. ., " ". .: 1711 .
19. .., " ". .-., 1950 .
20. .., " ". .-., 1951 .
21. .., " ". .: , 1940 .
22. .., " ". .: 1960 .
23. .., .., " ". .: , 1947 .
24. ., " ". .: 1831 .
25. .., ". ". .: 1998 .
26. .., " ", 9 . .: 1969 .
27. , : .
.-. .-. . .: .. , .. . : , 2001 .
28. - . .. .: "", 1970.
29. ., " ". : "mihailru2000@yahoo.com", 2000 .
30. .., " ". .: , 1976 . - . - -
.
31. .. .., " ". .: 1947 .
32. .., " . ". .: 1893 .
33. .., " ", 3 . .: "", 1974 .
34. .; .., " ". .: 1979 .
35. .., " -
". .: 1762 .
36. .., " ,
". .: 1779, 1782, 1822 .
37. .., " ". .: , 1939 .
38. .., " ,
". .: 1820 .
39. .., " ,
". .: 1820 .
40. .., ". ". .: 1881, 1884 .
41. .., " ". .: 1880 .
42. .; .; .., " ." .: 1979 .
43. . .: 1953 .
44. .., " ". .: 1939 .


227

45. .. " . ". .: 1888


.
46. : " " (1809-1903 .), " " (1853-1877 .), "
" (1927-1940 .).
47. .., " . : , , ". .: .
.., "", 2000 .
48. .. .., " ". .: ,
1961 .
49. .., .., " ". .: 1976 .
50. .., " . -
". .: 2002 .
51. .., " ". .: 1980 .
52. .., " ". .: 1993 .
53. .., " ". .: , 1956 .
54. ., "". --.: 1992 .
55. ., "
". .: 1891 .
56. .., ", -
". .: 1880 .
57. .., " ". .: 1972 .
58. : .-. .-. . . .. -
, .. . , 2000 .
59. : .-.
. [15-18 1994 . . . ..], [19-22 1996 . . . ..
], 1995, 1996 .
60. ., " " . . .: 1953 .
61. .., " ". .: 1879 .
62. .., C.., "". .: , 2001 .
63. .., " ". .: , 2000 .
64. . .., 2- ., ., .: 1999 .
65. . ., " ". .: 1996 .
66. .., " ". .: 1997 .
67. ., " ". .: 1884 .
68. ., ". -
". .: 1907 .
69. ., " . ". .: 1914 .
70. .., " ", 2 . .: , 1963 .
71. . . .. . . IV.
.-., 1960 .
72. .., " ", " " 6. 1971 .
73. .., "
XIX ". .V. .: , 1961 .
74. .., .., " ". .: ,
1984 .
75. .., .., .., .., " -
". .: , 2001 .
76. ., " . ". .: ,
1958 .
77. .., .., .., .., "
". , - . (. ). .: , 1996 .
78. ., " ". .: 1820 .
79. .., " ". .: 1861 .
80. .., .. " ". .: , 1964 .
81. .., "", . . .. .-., , 1949 .
82. ., " , , ", .2. .:
1781 .
83. .., " , -
". .: 1845 .
84. ., "-". .: 1899 .


228

85. .., " . ".


.: 1910 .
86. ., ., " " . .: 1954 .
87. ., " ". .: 1897 .
88. .., " ". .: , 1981 .
89. . ". . . ",
78, " , , , -
, , ". .: 1967-1970 .
90. .., " ". .: 1962 .
91. , " ". .: 1902 .
92. .., " ". .: 1904, 1912 .
93. , . . ., , .-., 1933 .
94. .., " ". .: 1994 .
95. , . .: 1809 .
96. .., 1994 .
97. . . (. . ) ., " , , -
: , , ". .-.: , 2001 .
98. .., " XI-XVIII ". .: , 1940 .
99. "", " . . -
". .: 1953-1993 .
100. .., " ". .: 1903 .
101. ., " ". .:
1852 .
102. ., " ". . . .: 1969 .
103. .., .., " " 2 . .:
1966 .
104. .., " ". .-., 1927 .
105. ., "-". , 1905 .
106. .., " " 2 . .: 1969 .
107. .., " ". .: 1893, 1898 .
108. .., " , -
". .: 1894 .
109. .., " ". .: 1909 .
110. .., " ". .: , 1940 .
111. .., " ". .: 1939 .
112. . .: 1990 .
113. .., " ". .: , 1963 .
114. .., ". ". .-.: 1958 .
115. . .1. - . .-., 1947 .
116. .., ". ". .: 1894 .
117. .., " ". .: , 1932 .
118. ., " ". .: 1891 .
119. ., " / ", 5, 1959 .
120. .., .. " ". .: ,
1997 .
121. .., ": ". .: 1993 .
122. . .: 1907, 1918 .
123. . - .. . .: ,
1988 .
124. .., " ". .: , 1968 .
125. .., "-". .: 1902, 1904, 1908, 1911 .
126. XVIII . . . 1978. .
.: , 1978 .
127. ., " - ", . .: 1972 .
128. ., " . ". .: 1885 .
129. .., " ". .: , 1940 .
130. .., " ". .: 1894 .
131. .., " -
". .: 1824 . "-


229

, ".
.: 1824 .
132. .., "", . . .. .., .
46, .: 1898 .
133. .., "
". .: 1868 .
134. .., " : ", 2 ., .: 2003 .
135. .., " : ", 2 ., .: 2003 .
136. .., .., .., .., " -

. - ". -
: , 1999 .
137. .., .., .., " ". .: 1978 .
138. .., .., .., " ", " "
6, 1957 .
139. .., " ". .: , 1973 .
140. .., " ". .: , 1946 .
141. ., " ". .-., 1934 .
142. ( 8-11 ). --., 1990 .
143. . ., " ", -
. .. , . 13, . 6, 1968 .
144. .., .., " ". .: 1957 .

145. Bockler G.A. Manuale Architeckture militaris oder Handbuchlein ber die Fortification und
Festugsbaukunst, 1645-1660.
146. Buchwald W. Feuerzauber. - Kurt Viebranz, 247 Seiten; Schwarzenbek, 1996.
147. Clark F.P. Special effects in motion pictures. N.Y., 1966.
148. Devis T. The chemistry of powder and explosives. N.Y., 1944.
149. Ellern H. Military & Civilian Pyrotechnics. N.Y., 1968.
150. Ellern H. Modern pyrotechnics. N.Y., 1961.
151. Engraving. A Perfect Description of the Firework in Covent Garden. Sept. 10, 1690. London: John Tho-
mas Smith, 1809.
152. Engraving. This Perspective View of Illuminations and Fireworks to be Exhibited at St. Stephen's Green
at Dublin, 1748. London, 1749.
153. Feuerwerksftude. Der Grosse Brockhaus. Leipzig, Germany, 1930.
154. Fireworks in The Encyclopedia Britannica. Vol. X. Cambridge. Univ. Press, 1910.
155. Fronsperger L. Kriegsbush. Th.1. Von Kayserlichen Kriegsrechten Malefitz und Schuldhandeln. Ordnung
und Regiment. Frankfurt am Main, 1571.
156. Izzo A. Pirotechnia e fuochi artificiali. Milano, 1950.
157. John Babington. Pyrotechnia or A discourse of Artificial Fireworks. London, 1635.
158. John Bate. The Mysteries of Nature and Art. In four several parts. Part II. The composing of all Manner
of Fire-Works For Triumph and Recreation. London, 1654.
159. John White. A Rich Cabinet with Variety of Inventions. Variety of Receptive Fire-works both for Land,
Air, and Water. London, 1668.
160. Joseph Furttenbach. Halinitro-Pyrobolia. Ulm, 1627.
161. Joseph H., Pyrotechnics from the Viewpoint of Solid State Chemistry, The Franklin Institute Press,
Philadelphia, PA, 1980.
162. Kazimierz Siemienowicz. Artis Magnae Artilleriae pars prima. Amsterdam, 1650.
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166. Mortimer. Manual of Pyrotechnic. London, 1856.
167. Ofca B. Technique in fire. Vol.1-9, 1992-1996.
168. Plimpton, George, Fireworks: A History & Celebration, Doubleday & Co., N.Y., 1989.
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230

170. Praktisk handbok i Lustfyrverkerikonsten (A Practical Handbook in Entertaining Fireworks Art). Carl
Linder, 1871.
171. Schmidlapp J. Kunstliche und rechtschaffene Feuerwerk. Nrnberg, 1590.
172. Stoevesandt J. C. Deutliche Anweisung zur Feuerwerkerey. Leipzig, 1757.
173. Tessier. Chemie pyrotechnique on traite pratique des feux colores. Paris, 1858.
174. Thomas Kentish. Complete Art of Firework-Making. London, 1878.
175. Thomas Kentish. The pyrotechnist's Treasury. London, 1878.
176. Watkins T.F et. al. Chemical warfare, pyrotechnics & fireworks industry. London, 1968.
177. Websky. Luftfeuerwerkkunst. Leipzig, 1878.
178. Weingart G. Pyrotechnics. N.Y., 1947.
179. Weingart G. Pyrotechnics. N.Y., 1968.

180. Suncharion, " ". : 2003 .


181. ., " : ?". " ", 19(730),
05.05.2005 .
182. ., " ". .: 2001 .
183. - .., " ".
184. .., " ".
185. ., " ?". " ", 9, 2005 .

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1. 231


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2. 234

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, ,


2. 236

, . (., %):
70-75, 12-18, 8-12, (. 100%) 2%.
0.95 , 0.24 , . 1500 /.
, .
237040
; .. , .. , .. , .. ,
.. .
1) ,
, -
, ,
, ,
; ,
, , -
, , , 63-69% , 32-36% -
0.9-1.1% (. 100%) .
2) .1. , -
, 58-64% , 27-33% -1 8.5-9.5% -
.
237041
; .. , .. , .. , .. ,
.. , .. , .. .
, (., %): 60-75,
20-30, 2-8.
. 1 , -
0.2 , . 1700 /.
237042
; .. , .. , .. , .. -
, .. , .. , .. , .. , .. , .. , .. -
, .. , .. , .. , .. , .. .
1) , -
- , ,
, ,
, -
-
, 53-63% , 32-38 ( -
1 .) 5-9% .
2) .1. , ,
, 10-30% 70-90% -
, , "", .
241269
; .. , .. , .. , .. ,
.. , .. .
, , -
, -
, : 70-80%,
20-25%, (. 100%) - 2%.
247828
; .. , .. , .. , .. -
, .. , .. , .. , .. , .. .
,
~0.65 . (.,
%): 78-84, (-2) 11-15, (-3) 5-7, -
(. 100%) 1.5-2.5. . 5%
. 1.4 , 0.13 , .
1500 /.
267407
; .. , .. , .. , .. -
, .. , .. , .. , .. .


2. 237

, , -
, , ,
(), , ,
(., %): 663,
102, 102, -
92, 51, () 5.
278493
- ; .. , .. , .. , .. -
, .. .
- , ,
, ,
, : 4-8%, 40-
54%, 40-54%, (.100%) 2-4%.
327142
; .. , .. , .. , ..
.
, (., %): 54-63 -
, 17-13 , 13-11 , 9-7 4-6 ,
313 ./. -
, , . , ,
.


3. 238

3.
.1. .
, ,

/ /
Al 26.97 0 5.817
Al2O3 101.94 3.5-3.97 399.09
NH4ClO4 117.5 1.95 -
NH4NO3 80.05 87.27 43.5
Ba(ClO3)2 336.27 192.8 -
BaCl2 208.27 205.56 18.00
BaCrO4 253.37 341.3 -
Ba(NO3)2 261.38 237.06 36.1
BaO 153.36 133.4 11.34
BaO2 169.36 150.5 -
B 10.82 0 2.86
B2O3 69.64 302.0 14.88
H2 2.016 0 6.892
HCl 36.47 22.063 6.96
H2O 18.02 68.317 17.999
Fe 55.85 10 6.03
Fe2O3 159.70 196.5 25.0
Fe3O4 231.55 267.0 -
KClO3 122.55 93.5 23.96
KClO4 138.55 103.6 26.33
KCl 74.55 104.175 12.31
K2CrO4 194.2 330.49 -
K2Cr2O7 294.21 485.9 -
KMnO4 158.03 194.4 28.5
KNO3 101.1 117.76 23.01
K2O 94.19 86.4 -
Si 28.06 0 4.75
SiO2 60.06 202.5 10.6
Mg 24.32 0 5.71
MgO 40.32 143.84 8.94
Mn 54.93 0 6.29
MnO 70.93 9.0 10.27
MnO2 86.94 124.5 12.91
Cu 63.54 0 5.848
CuO 79.54 37.10 10.5
Cu2O 143.08 39.84 16.7
NaClO3 105.45 85.73 -
NaClO4 122.45 92.18 24.1
NaCl 58.45 98.232 11.88
NaNO3 85.01 111.54 22.24
Na2O 61.99 99.4 16.3
PbCl2 287.12 85.85 18.40
PbCrO4 323.22 - -
Pb(NO3)2 331.23 107.35 -
Pb(N3)2 291.26 -104.3 -


3. 239

PbO 223.21 52.07 11.6


PbO2 239.21 66.12 15.4
Pb3O4 685.63 175.6 35.14
S8 256.53 0 5.4
SO2 64.07 70.96 9.51
Sr(NO3)2 211.65 233.25 38.3
SrO 103.63 141.1 10.76
Sb 121.76 0 6.08
Sb2O3 291.52 - -
Sb2S3 339.72 43.5 -
Ti 47.90 0 6.01
TiO2 79.90 218.00 13.16
C () 12.01 0 2.066
CO 28.01 26.42 6.965
CO2 44.01 94.26 8.874
P4 (.) 123.92 17.6 -
P4O10 283.92 734.00 -
P2S5 222.29 - -
P4S7 348.39 - -
Cr 52.01 0 5.58
Cr2O3 152.02 269.7 28.38
Zn 65.38 0 5.99
ZnO 81.38 83.17 9.62
Zr 91.22 0 -
ZrO2 123.22 258.2 -
.2. .
, /
-32
285
90
46
94
149
282
342
271
227
267
110
107
53
143
32
669
758
88
315
322
136


3. 240

-16
75
656
226
651
290
91
288
342
198
-30
.3. (760 . .).

H2SO4, . % , H2SO4, . % , H2SO4, . % ,
1 100.2 35 110.5 69 165.9
2 100.4 36 111.1 70 169.2
3 100.6 37 111.7 71 172.6
4 100.8 38 112.4 72 176.2
5 101.0 39 113.1 73 179.9
6 101.2 40 113.9 74 183.8
7 101.4 41 114.7 75 187.8
8 101.6 42 115.6 76 191.2
9 101.8 43 116.5 77 196.2
10 102.0 44 117.4 78 200.7
11 102.2 45 118.4 79 205.4
12 102.4 46 119.5 80 210.2
13 102.7 47 120.6 81 215.2
14 102.9 48 121.8 82 220.4
15 103.1 49 123.1 83 225.7
16 103.4 50 124.4 84 231.3
17 103.6 51 125.8 85 237.1
18 103.8 52 127.2 86 243.0
19 104.1 53 128.7 87 249.2
20 104.4 54 130.4 88 255.5
21 104.6 55 132.0 89 262.1
22 104.9 56 133.8 90 268.9
23 105.2 57 135.7 91 275.9
24 105.5 58 137.6 92 283.2
25 105.9 59 139.6 93 290.6
26 106.3 60 141.8 94 298.4
27 106.6 61 144.0 95 306.3
28 107.0 62 146.4 96. 314.5
29 107.4 63 148.8 97 323.0
30 107.9 64 151.4 98 332.4
31 108.3 65 154.1 98.3 336.5
32 108.8 66 156.8 99 318.0
33 109.0 67 159.7 100 296.2
34 109.9 68 162.8 - -


3. 241

.4. .
HNO3, . % HNO3, . %
, ,
24.2 2.16 106.5 70.1 84.0 121.5
33.0 5.19 112.0 76.5 92.0 118.0
49.8 19.85 118.5 80.0 97.0 112.0
61.0 41.0 121.5 85.2 98.0 99.0
65.21 65.10 121.8 90.2 99.7 90.5
68.4 68.4 121.9 96.0 99.9 85.5
.5. .
HF, . % HF, . %
, ,
4.95 0.78 101.6 44.39 63.3 108.7
9.21 1.83 102.8 46.59 - 106.8
18.94 6.40 106.8 50.28 81.04 101.7
22.8 10.59 108.4 52.19 86.20 98.9
27.94 17.81 110.3 56.04 92.18 90.9
33.82 30.53 111.7 58.17 95.81 86.6
34.4 32.08 112.0 61.66 98.89 79.0
35.18 34.03 112.1 63.82 98.56 74.6
35.78 35.71 112.3 69.84 98.67 61.6
35.83 35.82 112.4 79.76 99.22 45.1
36.62 38.59 112.1 87.93 99.45 33.5
39.67 47.48 111.4 - - -
.6. HCl, r HNO3.
l r HNO3 78 HNO3
. % . . . % . . . % . . . % .
0 100.0 0 100.0 0 80.5 0 100.0
2.0 101.8 2 114.7 10 86.5 10 106.0
4.0 103.3 6 122.4 20 92.3 20 114.6
6.0 105.3 15 126.0 30 98.2 30 120.4
8.0 108.0 25 124.3 39 100.2 37 121.9
10.5 109.7 70 104.3 50 96.6 45 120.4
12.0 109.0 80 92.0 60 89.6 55 114.9
14.0 105.2 90 36 99 63.5 70 103.4
17.0 92.0 95 26 - - 86 95.2
18.5 82.7 - - - - - -
26.3 19.0 - - - - - -
.7. .
SO3 SO3
. . % , . % ,
5 255.1 55 75.4
10 220.9 60 69.8
15 191.6 65 65.2
20 166.6 70 61.3
25 145.5 75 58.0

78
360 . .


3. 242

30 127.7 80 55.0
35 112.9 85 52.3
40 100.6 90 49.7
45 90.5 95 47.2
50 82.2 100 44.7
.8. H2SO4/HNO3.
H2SO4 - H2SO4 -
, . % , , . % ,
33.3 84.5 80 108
60 93 84 -
75 103.5 96 185
.9. HNO3 (15).
% / /
1.000 0.10 0.016 1.0
005 1.00 0.159 10.0
010 1.90 0.305 19.2
015 2.80 0.452 28.5
020 3.70 0.599 37.8
025 4.60 0.749 47.2
030 5.50 0.899 56.7
035 6.38 1.048 66.0
040 7.26 1.197 75.4
045 8.13 1.347 84.9
050 8.99 1.497 94.3
055 9.84 1.647 106.2
060 10.68 1.796 113.2
065 11.50 1.944 122.5
070 12.32 2.092 131.8
075 13.14 2.241 141.2
080 13.94 2.389 150.5
085 14.73 2.537 159.9
090 15.52 2.685 169.2
095 16.31 2.835 178.5
100 17.10 2.985 188.1
105 17.88 3.136 197.6
110 18.66 3.287 207.1
115 19.44 3.441 216.8
120 20.22 3.594 226.5
125 20.99 3.748 236.2
130 21.76 3.902 245.9
135 22.53 4.059 255.8
140 23.30 4.215 265.6
145 24.07 4.373 275.5
150 24.83 4.531 285.6
155 25.59 4.691 295.6
160 26.35 4.850 305.7
165 27.11 5.012 315.8
170 27.87 5.174 326.9
175 28.62 5.337 336.3


3. 243

180 29.37 5.499 346.5


185 30.12 5.664 356.9
190 30.87 5.828 367.3
195 31.60 5.954 377.7
200 32.34 6.159 388.1
205 33.07 6.325 398.6
210 33.80 6.490 409.0
215 34.53 6.659 419.6
220 35.26 6.827 430.2
225 36.01 7.001 441.2
230 36.76 7.175 452.1
235 37.51 7.353 463.3
240 38.27 7.531 474.6
245 39.03 7.713 486.0
250 39.80 7.894 497.5
255 40.56 8.078 509.0
260 41.32 8.261 520.6
265 42.08 8.448 532.4
270 42.85 8.635 544.1
275 43.62 8.826 556.2
280 44.39 9.016 568.2
285 45.16 9.209 580.3
290 45.93 9.401 592.4
295 46.70 9.597 604.8
300 47.48 9.795 617.2
305 48.27 9.996 629.9
310 49.07 10.20 642.8
315 49.89 10.41 656.1
320 50.71 10.62 669.4
325 51.53 10.83 682.8
330 52.37 11.05 696.5
335 53.22 11.27 710.5
340 54.07 11.49 724.5
345 54.93 11.72 738.8
350 55.79 11.95 753.2
355 56.66 12.18 767.8
360 57.57 12.42 783.0
365 58.48 12.67 798.3
370 59.39 12.91 813.6
375 60.30 13.16 829.1
380 61.27 13.42 845.5
385 62.24 13.68 862.0
390 63.23 13.95 878.9
395 64.25 14.22 896.3
400 65.30 14.51 914;2
405 66.40 14.80 932.9
410 67.50 15.10 951.7
415 68.63 15.41 971.1
420 69.80 15.73 991.3
425 70.98 16.04 1011


3. 244

430 72.17 16.38 1032


435 73.39 16.71 1053
440 74.68 17.06 1075
445 75.98 17.42 1098
450 77.28 17.79 1121
455 78.60 18.15 1144
460 79.98 18.53 1168
465 81.42 18.93 1193
470 82.90 19.34 1219
475 84.45 19.77 1246
480 86.02 20.21 1274
485 87.70 20.66 1302
490 89.60 21.19 1335
495 91.60 21.72 1369
500 94.09 22.39 1411
501 94.60 22.53 1420
502 95.08 22.66 1428
503 95.55 22.77 1436
504 96.00 22.91 1444
505 96.39 23.03 1451
506 96.76 23.12 1457
507 97.13 23.23 1464
508 97.50 23.33 1470
509 97.84 23.42 1476
510 98.10 23.50 1481
511 98.32 23.58 1486
512 98.53 23.64 1490
513 98.73 23.71 1494
514 98.90 23.77 1497
515 99.07 23.82 1501
516 99.21 23.87 1504
517 99.34 23.91 1507
518 99.46 23.96 1510
519 99.57 24.00 1512
520 99.67 24.04 1515
522 100.00 24.16 1522
.10. HNO3 (20).
% / /
1.000 0.3296 0.0523 3.295
005 1.255 0.2001 12.61
010 2.164 0.3468 21.85
015 3.073 0.4950 31.19
020 3.982 0.6445 40.61
025 4.883 0.7943 50.05
030 5.784 0.9454 59.57
035 6.661 1.094 68.93
040 7.530 1.243 78.32
045 8.398 1.393 87.77
050 9.259 1.543 97.22


3. 245

055 10.12 1.694 106.7


060 10.97 1.845 116.3
065 11.81 1.997 125.8
070 12.65 2.148 135.3
075 13.48 2.301 145.0
080 14.31 2.453 154.6
085 15.13 2.605 164.1
090 15.95 2.759 173.8
095 16.76 2.913 183.5
100 17.58 3.068 193.3
105 18.39 3.224 203.1
11 19.19 3.381 213.0
115 20.00 3.539 223.0
120 20.79 3.696 232.9
125 21.59 3.854 242.8
130 22.38 4.012 252.8
135 23.16 4.171 262.8
140 23.94 4.330 272.8
145 24.71 4.489 282.9
150 25.48 4.649 292.9
155 26.24 4.810 303.1
160 27.00 4.970 313.2
165 27.76 5.132 323.4
170 28.51 5.293 333.5
175 29.25 5.455 343.7
180 30.00 5.618 354.0
185 30.74 5.780 364.2
190 31.47 5.943 374.5
195 32.21 6.110 385.0
200 32.94 6.273 395.3
205 33.68 6.440 405.8
210 34.41 6.607 416.3
215 35.16 6.778 427.1
220 35.93 6.956 438.3
225 36.70 7.135 449.6
230 37.48 7.315 460.9
235 38.25 7.497 472.4
240 39.02 7.679 483.8
250 40.58 8.049 507.2
255 41.36 8.237 519.0
260 42.14 8.426 530.9
265 42.92 8.616 542.9
270 43.70 8.808 555.0
275 44.48 9.001 567.2
280 45.27 9.195 579.4
285 46.06 9.394 591.9
290 46.85 9.590 604.3
295 47.63 9.789 616.8
300 48.42 9.990 629.5
305 49.21 10.19 642.1


3. 246

310 50.00 10.39 654.7


315 50.85 10.61 668.5
320 51.71 10.83 682.4
325 52.56 11.05 696.3
330 53.41 11.27 710.1
335 54.27 11.49 724.0
340 55.13 11.72 738.5
345 56.04 11.96 753.6
350 56.95 12.20 768.7
355 57.87 12.44 783.8
360 58.78 12.68 799.0
365 59.69 12.93 814.7
370 60.67 13.19 .831.1
375 61.69 13.46 848.1
380 62.70 13.73 865.1
385 63.72 14.01 882.8
390 64.74 14.29 900.4
395 65.84 14.57 918.1
400 66.97 14.88 937.6
405 68.10 15.18 956.5
410 69.23 15.49 976.0
415 70.34 15.81 996.2
420 71.63 16.14 1017
425 72.86 16.47 1038
430 74.09 16.81 1059
435 75.35 17.16 1081
440 76.71 17.53 1105
445 78.07 17.90 1128
450 79.43 18.28 1152
455 80.88 18.68 1177
460 82.39 19.09 1203
465 83.91 19.51 1229
470 85.50 19.95 1257
475 87.29 20.43 1287
480 89.07 20.92 1318
485 91.13 21.48 1353
490 93.49 22.11 1393
495 95.46 22.65 1427
500 96.73 23.02 1450
501 96.98 23.10 1456
502 97.23 23.18 1461
503 97.49 23.25 1465
504 97.74 23.33 1470
505 97.99 23.40 1474
506 98.25 23.48 1479
507 98.50 23.56 1485
508 98.76 23.63 1678
509 99.01 23.71 1494
510 99.26 23.79 1499
511 99.52 23.86 1503


3. 247

512 99.77 23.94 1508


513 100.00 24.01 1513
.11. .
p p
NO2, % NO2, %
0 12.5 25 0 12.5 25
0 1.5472 1.5245 1.5018 28 1.6550 1.6340 1.6106
2 1.5549 1.5323 1.5105 30 1.6601 1.6393 1.6160
4 1.5626 1.5402 1.5193 32 1.6643 1.6433 1.6200
6 1.5707 1.5482 1.5276 34 1.6675 1.6464 1.6232
8 1.5787 1.5564 1.5361 36 1.6702 1.6486 1.6253
10 1.5867 1.646 1.5443 38 1.6718 1.6500 1.6268
12 1.5947 1.5725 1.5525 40 1.6725 1.6505 1.6273
14 1.6027 1.5806 1.5606 42 1.6727 1.6503 1.6265
16 1.6109 1.5887 1.5683 44 1.6722 1.6492 1.6249
18 1.6190 1.5970 1.5760 46 1.6707 1.6477 1.6225
20 1.6274 1.6054 1.5838 48 1.6687 1.6454 1.6196
22 1.6353 1.6132 1.5910 50 1.6662 1.6430 1.6160
24 1.6425 1.6207 1.5982 52 1.6662 1.6430 1.6160
26 1.6494 1.6278 1.6047 54 1.6597 1.6354 1.6080
.12. .
(16% HNO3) (19% HNO3)
NO2, %
0 12.5 25 0 12.5 25
1 1.4491 1.4294 1.4105 1.4940 1.4735 1.4549
2 1.4498 1.4302 1.4115 1.4962 1.4759 1.4570
3 1.4504 1.4311 1.4126 1.4987 1.4784 1.4592
4 1.4514 1.4322 1.4137 1.5014 1.4809 1.4615
5 1.4526 1.4334 1.4152 1.5041 1.4835 1.4640
6 1.4539 1.4348 1.4168 1.5070 1.4861 1.4664
7 1.4556 1.4363 1.4186 1.5098 1.4836 1.4687
8 1.4574 1.4383 1.4204 1.5124 1.4913 1.4712
9 1.4591 1.4402 1.4222 1.5149 1.4938 1.4735
10 1.4611 1.4421 1.4238 1.5172 1.4961 1.4757
11 1.4629 1.4440 1.4255 1.5193 1.4983 1.4777
13 1.4668 1.4476 1.4288 1.5227 1.5023 1.4814
15 1.4703 1.4512 1.4323 1.5279 1.5061 1.4850
.13. H2O2 (18).
% / /
1 10.02 0.2946 1002.2
2 20.11 0.8860 1005.8
4 40.52 1.193 1013.1
6 61.22 1.799 1020.4
8 82.21 2.417 1027.7
10 103.5 3.043 1035.1
12 125.1 3.677 1042.5
14 146.9 4.321 1049.9
16 169.1 4.973 1057.4
18 191.6 5.635 1064.9
20 214.5 6.305 1072.5


3. 248

22 237.6 6.98 1080.2


24 260.1 6.353 1088.0
26 284.9 8.376 1095.9
28 309.1 9.087 1104.0
30 333.6 9.809 1112.2
35 396.4 11.654 1132.7
40 461.4 13.565 1153.6
45 528.7 14.543 1179.9
50 598.3 17.589 1196.6
55 670.3 19.706 1218.8
60 744.9 21.900 1241.6
65 822.3 24.176 1265.2
70 902.7 26.540 1289.7
75 986.1 28.991 1314.9
80 1072.4 31.529 1340.6
85 1161.6 34.153 1366.7
90 1253.7 36.853 1393.1
95 1348.7 39.649 1419.7
.14. .
34
25, %
% / (20) / (20) 10 20
1 10.03 0.1024 0.726 1005.4 1003.8
2 20.18 0.2059 1.452 1010.9 1009.2
4 40.80 0.1162 2.904 1021.9 1020.0
6 61.85 0.6309 4.356 1033.0 1030.9
8 83.36 0.8503 5.808 1044.2 1042.0
10 105.3 1.0743 7.260 1055.7 1053.2
12 127.7 1.3032 8.712 1067.3 1064.7
14 150.6 1.537 10.160 1079.2 1076.4
16 174.1 1.776 11.620 1091.4 -1088.4
18 198.0 2.019 13.070 1103.9 1100.8
20 222.6 2.271 14.520 1116.7 1113.4
24 273.4 2.789 17.420 1143.1 1139.5
28 326.6 3.331 20.330 1170.5 1166.5
30 354.1 3.612 21.780 1184.6 1180.5
35 425.6 4.341 25.41 1221.0 1216.0
40 501.6 5.116 29.040 1259.0 1254.0
45 581.8 5.934 32.670 1299.0 1293.0
50 667.5 6.809 36.300 1341.0 1335.0
55 758.5 7.737 39.930 1385.0 1379.0
60 855.6 8.727 43.560 1432.0 1426.0
.15. H2SO4 (15).
H2SO4 SO3
/
/ % % /
1.000 0 0.009 0.09 0.88 0.07 0.72
005 0.7 0.097 0.95 9.51 0.77 7.76
010 1.4 0.162 1.57 15.9 1.28 13.0
015 2.4 0.239 2.30 23.4 1.88 19.1
020 2.7 0.317 3.03 31.1 2.47 25.4


3. 249

025 3.4 0.397 3.76 38.9 3.07 31.8


030 4.1 0.476 4.49 46.6 3.67 38.1
035 4.7 0.554 5.23 54.3 4.27 44.4
040 5.4 0.632 5.96 62.0 4.87 50.6
045 6.0 0.711 6.67 69.7 5.45 56.9
050 6.7 0.789 7.37 77.4 6.02 63.2
055 7.4 0.869 8.07 85.2 6.59 69.6
060 8.0 0.948 8.77 93.0 7.16 75.9
065 8.7 1.030 9.47 101 7.73 82.5
070 9.4 1.112 10.19 109 8.32 89.0
075 10.0 1.195 10.90 117 8.90 95.7
080 10.6 1.278 11.60 125 9.47 102
085 11.2 1.361 12.30 133 10.64 109
090 11.9 1.444 12.99 142 10.60 116
095 12.4 1.527 13.67 150 11.16 122
100 13.0 1.161 14.35 158 11.71 129
105 13.6 1.694 15.03 166 12.27 136
110 14.2 1.778 15.71 174 12.82 143
115 14.9 1.861 16.36 183 13.36 149
120 15.4 1.943 17.07 191 13:89 156
125 16.0 2.026 17.66 199 14.42 162
130 16.5 2.100 18.31 207 14.95 169
135 17.1 2.194 18.96 215 15.48 176
140 17.7 2.280 19.61 224 16.01 183
145 18.3 2.366 20.26 232 16.54 189
150 18.8 2.454 20.91 241 17.07 196
155 19.3 2.538 21.55 249 17.59 203
160 19.8 2.625 22.19 257 18.11 210
165 20.3 2.713 22.83 266 18.64 217
170 20.9 2.800 23.47 275 19.16 224
175 21.4 2.890 24.12 283 19.69 231
180 22.0 2.979 24.76 292 20.21 238
185 22.5 3.069 25.40 301 20.73 246
190 23.0 3.160 26.04 310 21.26 253
195 23.5 3.251 26.68 319 21.78 260
200 24.0 3.343 27.32 328 22.30 268
205 24.5 3.434 27.95 337 22.82 275
210 25.0 3.526 28.58 346 23.33 282
215 25.5 3.619 29.21 355 23.84 290
220 26.0 3.712 29.84 364 24.36 297
225 26.4 3.807 30.48 373 24.88 305
230 269 3.902 31.11 383 25.39 312
235 27.4 3.991 31.70 391 25.88 320
240 27.9 4.081 32.28 400 26.35 327
245 28.4 4.171 32.86 409 26.83 334
250 28.8 4.261 33.43 418 27.29 341
255 29.3 4.351 34.00 427 27.76 348
260 29.7 4.441 34.57 436 28.22 356
265 30.2 4.533 35.14 444 28.69 363
270 30.6 4.624 35.71 454 29.15 370


3. 250

275 31.1 4.718 36.29 463 29.62 377


280 31.5 4.812 36.87 472 30.10 385
285 32.0 4.956 37.45 481 30.57 393
290 32.4 5.00 38.03 490 31.04 400
295 32.8 5.10 38.61 500 31.52 408
300 33.3 5.20 39.19 510 31.99 416
305 33.7 5.30 39.77 519 32.46 424
310 34.2 5.39 40.35 529 32.94 432
315 34.6 5.49 40.93 538 33.41 439
320 35.0 5.59 41.50 548 33.88 447
325 35.4 5.69 42.08 557 34.35 455
330 35.8 5.79 42.66 567 34.80 462
335 36.2 5.88 43.20 577 35.27 471
340 36.6 5.98 43.74 586 35.71 479
345 37.0 6.08 44.28 596 36.14 486
350 37.4 6.17 44.82 605 36.58 494
355 37.8 6.27 45.35 615 37.02 502
360 38.2 6.36 45.88 624 37.45 509
365 38.6 6.46 46.41 633 37.89 517
370 39.0 6.56 46.94 643 38.32 525
375 39.4 6.66 47.47 653 38.75 533
380 39.8 6.76 48.00 662 39.18 541
385 40.1 6.86 48.53 672 39.62 549
390 40.5 6.96 49.06 682 40.05 557
395 40.8 7.06 49.59 692 40.48 564
400 41.2 7.16 50.11 702 40.91 573
405 41.6 7.26 50.63 711 41.33 581
410 42.0 7.36 51.15 721 41.76 589
415 42.3 7.46 51.66 731 42.17 597
420 42.7 7.55 52.15 740 42.57 604
425 43.1 7.65 52.63 750 42.96 612
430 43.4 7.75 53.11 759 43.36 620
435 43.8 7.84 53.59 769 43.75 628
440 44.1 7.94 54.07 779 44.14 636
445 44.4 8.04 54.55 788 44.53 643
450 44.8 8.14 55.03 798 44.92 651
455 45.1 8.24 55.50 808 45.31 659
460 45.4 8.33 55.97 817 45.69 667
465 45.8 8.43 56.43 827 46.07 675
470 46.1 8.53 56.90 837 46.45 683
475 46.4 8.63 57.37 846 46.83 691
480 46.8 8.73 57.83 856 47.21 699
485 47.1 8.83 58.28 865 47.57 707
490 47.4 8.93 58.74 875 47.95 715
495 47.8 9.03 59.22 885 48.34 723
500 48.1 9.13 59.70 896 48.73 731
505 48.4 9.24 60.18 906 49.12 739
510 48.7 9.34 60.65 916 49.51 748
515 49.0 9.44 61.12 926 49.89 756
520 49.4 9.55 61.59 936 50.28 764


3. 251

525 49.7 9.65 62.06 946 50.66 773


530 50.0 9.76 62.53 957 51.04 781
535 50.3 9.86 63.00 967 51.43 789
540 50.6 9.96 63.43 977 51.78 797
545 50.9 10.06 63.85 987 52.12 805
550 51.2 10.16 64.26 996 52.46 813
555 51.5 10.26 64.67 1006 52.79 821
560 51.8 10.37 65.20 1017 53.22 830
565 52.1 10.47 65.65 1027 53.59 839
570 52.4 10.59 66.09 1038 53.95 847
575 52.7 10.69 66.53 1048 54.32 856
580 53.0 10.79 66.95 1058 54.65 864
585 53.3 10.89 67.40 1068 55.03 872
590 53.6 10.99 67.83 1078 55.37 880
595 53.9 11.11 68.26 1089 55.73 889
600 54.1 11.21 68.70 1099 56.09 897
605 54.4 11.32 69.13 1110 56.44 906
610 54.7 11.42 69.56 1120 56.79 914
615 55.0 11.53 70.00 1131 57.15 923
620 55.2 11.64 70.42 1141 57.49 931
625 55.5 11.73 70.85 1151 57.84 940
630 55.8 11.83 71.27 1162 58.14 948
635 56.0 11.94 71.70 1172 58.53 957
640 56.3 12.05 72.12 1182 58.88 966
645 56.6 12.17 72.55 1193 59.22 975
650 56.9 12.28 72.96 1204 59.57 983
655 57.1 12.39 73.40 1215 59.92 992
660 57.4 12.49 73.81 1225 60.26 1000
665 57.7 12.61 74.24 1236 60.61 1009
670 57.9 12.71 74.66 1246 60.95 1017
675 58.2 12.82 75.08 1257 61.29 1027
680 58.4 12.93 75.50 1268 61.63 1035
685 58.7 13.03 75.94 1278 61.93 1043
690 58.9 13.14 76.38 1289 62.29 1053
695 59.2 13.27 76.76 1301 62.64 1062
700 59.5 13.38 77.17 1312 63.00 1071
705 59.7 13.49 77.60 1323 63.35 1083
710 60.0 13.60 78.64 1334 63.70 1089
715 60.2 13.73 78.48 1346 64.07 1099
720 60.4 13.84 78.92 1357 64.43 1108
725 60.6 13.96 79.36 1369 64.78 1118
730 60.9 14.08 79.80 1381 65.14 1127
735 61.1 14.20 80.24 1392 65.50 1136
740 61.4 14.32 80.68 1404 65.86 1145
745 61.6 14.44 81.12 1416 66.22 1156
750 61.8 14.55 81.56 1427 66.58 1165
755 62.1 14.68 82.00 1439 66.94 1175
760 62.3 14.80 82.44 1451 67.30 1185
765 62.5 14.94 83.01 1465 67.76 1196
770 62.8 15.07 83.51 1478 68.17 1207


3. 252

775 63.0 15.20 84.02 1491 68.60 1218


780 63.2 15.35 84.50 1505 68.98 1228
785 63.5 15.49 85.10 1519 69.47 1240
790 63.7 15.64 85.70 1534 69.96 1252
795 64.0 15.80 86.30 1549 70.45 1265
800 64.2 15.95 86.92 1564 70.96 1277
805 64.4 16.12 87.60 1581 71.50 1291
810 64.6 16.30 88.30 1598 72.08 1305
815 64.8 16.50 89.16 1618 72.96 1322
820 65.0 16.71 90.05 1639 73.51 1338
821 - 16.75 90.20 1643 73.63 1341
822 - 16.79 90.40 1647 73.80 1345
823 65.1 16.84 90.60 1651 73.96 1348
824 65.2 16.89 90.80 1656 74.12 1352
825 65.3 16.94 91.00 1661 74.29 1356
826 65.4 16.99 91.25 1666 74.49 1360
827 65.5 17.04 91.50 1671 74.69 1364
828 65.6 17.09 91.70 1676 74.86 1368
829 65.7 17.14 91.90 1681 75.03 1372
830 65.8 17.20 92.10 1686 75.19 1376
831 65.9 17.25 92.43 1692 75.46 1382
832 65.8 17.31 92.70 1698 75.69 1386
833 65.8 17.38 92.97 1704 75.89 1391
834 65.8 17.44 93.25 1710 76.12 1396
835 - 17.50 93.56 1716 76.38 1402
836 - 17.56 93.80 1722 76.57 1405
837 - 17.64 94.25 1730 76.90 1412
838 - 17.73 94.60 1739 77.23 1419
839 - 17.82 95.00 1748 77.55 1426
840 - 17.94 95.60 1759 78.04 1436
8384 - 18.83 100.0 1847 81.63 1500
8385 - 18.62 99.31 1826 81.08 1490
8390 - 18.59 99.12 1823 80.93 1488
8395 - 18.53 98.77 1817 80.63 1484
8400 - 18.52 98.72 1816 80.59 1483
8405 - 18.00 95.95 1765 78.33 1441
8405 - 18.50 98.52 1814 80.43 1481
8410 - 18.09 96.38 1774 78.69 1448
8410 - 18.44 98.20 1808 80.16 1476
8415 - 18.27 97.35 1792 79.47 1463
.16. H2SO4 (20)
p % / /
1.000 0.261 0.0266 2.608
005 0.986 0.1010 9.906
010 1.731 0.1783 17.49
015 2.485 0.2595 25.45
020 3.242 0.3372 33.07
025 4.000 0.4180 41.99
030 4.746 0.4983 48.87


3. 253

035 5.493 0.5796 56.85


040 6.237 0.6613 64.86
045 6.956 0.7411 72.69
050 7.704 0.8250 80.92
055 8.415 0.9054 88.80
060 9.129 0.9856 96.67
065 9.843 1.066 104.6
070 10.56 1.152 113.0
075 11.26 1.235 121.1
080 11.96 1.317 129.2
085 12.66 1.401 137.4
090 13.36 1.484 145.6
095 14.04 1.567 153.7
100 14.73 1.652 162.0
105 15.41 1.735 170.2
110 16.08 1.820 178.5
115 16.76 1.905 186.8
120 17.43 1.990 195.2
125 18.09 2.075 203.5
130 18.76 2.161 211.9
135 19.42 2.247 220.4
170 23.95 2.857 280.2
175 24.58 2.945 288.8
180 25.21 3.033 297.5
185 25.84 3.122 306.2
190 26.47 3.211 314.9
195 27.10 3.302 323.9
200 27.72 3.391 332.6
205 28.33 3.481 341.4
210 28.95 3.572 350.3
215 29.57 3.663 359.3
220 30.18 3.754 368.2
225 30.79 3.846 377.2
230 31.40 3.938 386.2
235 32.01 4.031 395.4
240 32.61 4.123 404.4
245 33.22 4.216 413.5
250 33.82 4.310 422.7
255 34.42 4.404 431.9
260 35.01 4.498 441.2
265 35.60 4.592 450.4
270 36.19 4.686 459.6
275 36.78 4.781 468.9
280 37.36 4.876 478.2
285 37.95 4.972 487.6
290 38.53 5.068 497.1
295 39.10 5.163 506.4
300 39.68 5.259 515.8
305 40.25 5.356 525.3
310 40.82 5.452 534.7


3. 254

315 41.39 5.549 544.2


320 41.95 5.646 553.8
325 42.51 5.743 563.3
330 43.07 5.840 572.8
335 49.62 5.938 582.4
340 44.17 6.035 591.9
345 44.72 6.132 6014
350 45.26 6.229 6109
355 45.80 6.327 620.6
360 46.33 6.424 6301
365 46.86 6.522 639.7
370 47.39 6.620 649.3
375 47.92 6.718 658.9
380 48.45 6.817 668.6
385 48.97 6.915 678 2
49.48 7.012 687.7
395 49.99 7.110 697.3
400 50.50 7.208 707.0
405 51.01 7.307 716.7
410 51.52 7.406 726.4
415 52.02 7.505 736.1
420 52.51 7.603 745.7
425 53.01 7.702 755.4
430 53.50 7.801 765.1
435 54.00 7.901 774.9
440 54.49 8.000 784.6
445 54.97 8.099 794.3
450 55.45 8.198 804.1
455 55.93 8.297 813.8
460 56.41 8.397 823.6
465 56.89 8.497 833.4
470 57.36 8.598 843.3
475 57.84 8.699 853.2
480 58.31 8.799 863.0
485 58.78 8.899 872.8
490 59.24 9.000 882.7
495 59.70 9.100 892.5
500 60.17 9.202 902.5
505 60.62 9.303 912.4
510 61.08 9.404 922.3
515 61.54 9.506 932.3
520 62.00 9.608 942.4
525 62.45 9.711 952.5
530 62.91 9.813 962.5
535 63.36 9.916 972.6
540 63.81 10.02 9828
545 64.26 10.12 992.6
550 64.71 10.23 1003
555 65.15 10.33 1013
560 65.59 10.43 1023


3. 255

565 66.03 10.54 1034


570 66.47 10.64 1044
575 66.91 10.74 1053
580 67.35 10.85 1064
585 67.79 10.96 1075
590 68.23 11.06 1085
595 68.66 11.16 1095
600 69.09 11.27 1105
605 69.53 11.38 1116
610 69.96 11.48 1126
615 70.39 11.59 1136
620 70.82 11.70 1148
625 71.25 11.80 1157
630 71.76 11.91 1168
635 72.09 12.02 1179
640 72.52 12.13 1190
645 72.95 12.24 1200
650 73.37 12.34 1210
655 73.80 12.45 1221
660 74.22 12.56 1232
665 74.64 12.67 1243
670 75.07 12.78 1253
675 75.49 12.89 1264
680 75.92 13.00 1275
685 76.34 13.12 1287
690 76.77 13.23 1298
695 77.20 13.34 1308
700 77.63 13.46 1320
705 78.06 13.57 1331
710 78.49 13.69 1343
715 78.93 13.80 1354
720 79.37 13.92 1365
725 79.81 14.04 1377
730 80.25 14.16 1389
735 80.70 14.28 1401
740 81.16 14.40 1412
745 81.62 14.52 1424
750 82.09 14.65 1437
755 82.57 14.78 1450
760 83.06 14.90 1461
765 83.57 14.98 1469
770 84.08 15.17 1488
775 84.61 15.31 1502
780 85.16 15.46 1516
785 85.74 15.61 1531
790 86.35 15.76 1546
795 86.99 15.92 1561
800 87.69 16.09 1578
805 88.43 16.27 1596
810 89.23 16.47 1615


3. 256

815 90.12 16.68 1636


820 91.11 16.91 1659
821 91.33 16.96 1663
822 91.56 17.01 1668
823 91.78 17.06 1673
824 92.00 17.11 1678
825 92.25 17.17 1684
826 92.51 17.22 1689
827 92.77 17.28 1695
828 93.03 17.34 1701
829 93.33 17.40 1707
830 93.64 17.47 1713
831 93.94 17.54 1720
832 94.32 17.62 1728
833 94.72 17.70 1736
834 95.12 17.79 1745
835 95.72 17.91 1757
.17. .
p SO3 ., % p SO3 ., % p SO3 ., % p SO3 ., %
15
1.870 10 1.890 16 1.910 20 1.930 29
875 12 895 17 915 23 935 31
880 14 900 18 920 25 940 32
885 15 905 19 925 27 - -
35
1.8186 0.0 1.8352 3.8 1.8484 7.6 1.8609 11.4
8196 0.2 8360 4.0 8491 7.8 8615 11.6
8205 0.4 8368 4.2 8498 8.0 8621 11.8
8214 0.6 8376 4.4 8505 8.2 8627 12.0
8222 0.8 8383 4.6 8511 8.4 8633 12.2
8230 1.0 8389 4.8 8518 8.6 8640 12.4
8238 1.2 8395 5.0 8525 8.8 8646 12.6
8246 1.4 8401 5.2 8532 9.0 8653 12.8
8254 1.6 8407 5.4 8538 9.2 8660 13.0
8262 1.8 8413 5.6 8584 9.4 8666 13.2
8270 2.0 8419 5.8 8551 9.6 8673 13.4
8280 2.2 8425 6.0 8558 9.8 8679 13.6
8290 2.4 8432 6.2 8565 10.0 8686 13.8
8300 2.6 8439 6.4 8571 10.2 8692 14.0
8310 2.8 8447 6.6 8578 10.4 8698 14.2
8320 3.0 8454 6.8 8584 10.6 8705 14.4
8328 3.2 8462 7.0 8590 10.8 8711 14.6
8336 3.4 8469 7.2 8596 11.0 8718 14.8
8344 3.6 8476 7.4 8602 11.2 8724 15.0
35
1.8730 15.2 1.8875 19.0 1.9049 22.8 1.9177 26.6
8737 15.4 8884 19.2 9056 23.0 9183 26.8
8743 15.6 8893 19.4 9063 23.2 9189 27.0
8750 15.8 8901 19.6 9070 23.4 9196 27.2


3. 257

8756 16.0 8910 19.8 9078 23.6 9202 27.4


8763 16.2 8919 20.0 9084 23.8 9208 27.6
8771 16.4 8929 20.2 9092 24.0 9214 27.8
8779 16.6 8939 20.4 9098 24.2 9220 28.0
8786 16.8 8950 20.6 9105 24.4 9226 28.2
8793 17.0 8960 20.8 9112 24.6 9232 28.4
8800 17.2 8970 21.0 9118 24.8 9238 28.6
8808 17.4 8980 21.2 9125 25.0 9244 28.8
8816 17.6 8990 21.4 9132 25.2 9250 29.0
8823 17.8 9000 21.6 9139 25.4 9256 29.2
8830 18.0 9010 21.8 9145 25.6 9262 29.4
8839 18.2 9020 22.0 9152 25.8 9268 29.6
8848 18.4 9027 22.2 9158 26.0 9274 29.8
8857 18.6 9034 22.4 9165 26.2 9280 30.0
8866 18.8 9042 22.6 9171 26.4 - -
.18. 79.
SO3 . SO3 . H2SO4 SO3 . SO3 . H2SO4 SO3 . SO3 . H2SO4
0 81.63 100.30 21 85.49 104.73 41 89.16 109.23
1 81.82 100.33 22 85.67 101.95 42 89.35 109.45
2 82.00 100.45 23 85.86 105.18 43 89.53 109.68
3 82.18 100.68 24 86.04 105.40 44 89.71 109.90
4 82.37 100.90 25 86.22 105.63 45 89.90 110.13
5 82.55 101.13 26 86.41 105.85 46 90.08 110.35
6 82.73 101.35 27 86.59 106.08 47 90.27 110.58
7 82.92 101.58 28 86.78 106.30 48 90.45 110.80
8 83.10 101.30 29 86.96 106.53 49 90.63 111.03
9 83.29 102.03 30 87.14 106.75 50 90.82 111.25
10 83.47 102.25 31 87.33 106.98 55 91.73 112.38
11 83.65 102.48 32 87.51 107.20 60 9265 113.50
12 83.84 102.70 33 87.69 167.43 65 93.57 114.63
13 84.02 102.93 34 87 38 107.65 70 94.49 115.75
14 84.20 103.15 35 88.05 107.88 75 95.41 116.88
15 84.39 103.38 36 88.25 108.10 80 96.33 118.00
16 84.57 103.60 37 88.43 108.33 85 97.24 119.13
17 84.76 103.84 38 88.61 108.55 90 98.16 120.25
18 84.94 104.05 39 88.80 108.78 95 99.08 121.38
19 85.12 104.28 40 88.98 109.00 100 100.00 122.50
20 85.31 104.50 - - - - - -

79
, :
80
PSO3 = PH SO = 0.816PH2SO 4
98 2 4
98
PH2SO 4 = 100 P'SO3 + PSO3 = 100 + 0.225PSO3
80

PSO3 , PH2SO 4 , P'SO3
, , SO3, H2SO4 SO3 .


3. 258

.19. 80.
, %
C3H6O 2.0 2.1 - 13
C6H6 2.8 1.2 - 8.8
C4H10 2.0 1.8 - 8.4
C4H9OH 2.6 1.4 - 12
H2 0.07 4 - 75
C6H14 3.0 1.2 - 7.4
C7H16 3.5 1.0 - 6.7
C10H22 4.9 0.7 - 5.6
C8H10 3.7 1.0 - 7.2
CH4 0.6 5 - 15
CH3OH 1.1 5.5 - 37
CH2Cl2 2.9 13 - 22
CH3OCH3 1.6 3.4 - 18
C8H18 3.9 0.9 - 6.5
C5H12 2.5 1.4 - 7.8
C3H8 1.6 2.1 - 9.5
C3H7OH 2.1 2 - 14
C7H8 3.1 1.2 - 7.1
CO 1.0 12.5 - 74
C2H4 1 3 - 12.4
C2H5OH 1.6 3.3 - 19
C4H8O2 3.0 2.1 - 11.5
. 20. 81.
10% KOH 10% NH4OH
1,3,5- - -
1,3- -, - -
1,4- -
1--2,4- , -
1--3,5- -
2,3,4- - ,
2,3,5- - -
2,4,5 3,4,6- - -,
2,4,6- - -
2,4,6- - -
2,4,6- -
2,4- -
2,4- -
2,6- -
- - -
-, - -
, - -
- -

80
, 18 2 ~80 . , -
~10 .
81
.. , -
.
: 3 10 5 10%- .


3. 259

( )
- - -
- - -
- -
-
.21. .
, %
.
. - 66, - - 34.
. 1 - - 50, - 50 ( ).
. 2 - ().
. 3 ( , - ).
-1 - 50, - 50.
-2 - 5, - 95.
, .
16 - 90, - 8, - 2.
465 - 30, - 25, - 45.
646 - 5,8; - 11,7; - 15;
- 17,5; - 50.
647 ( ..) - 29,8; - 21,2; - 77, - 41,7.
648 - 50, - 10, - 20, - 20.
650 50, 20, - 30.
651 - - 90, - 10.
,
.
-1 - 20, - 20, - 35, - 15, -
- 21.
-2 - 20, - 45, - 14, - 21.
, .
-36 .
( - ).
-219 - 33, - 33, - 34.
-4 - 62, - 12, - 26.
-40 - 20, - 30, - 50.
-7 - 50, () - 50.
- 18, - 9, - 3, -
- 10, - 10, - 50.
-1 , .
-2 - .
, , .
, .


3. 260

.22. .
-

m H
-



82 -
- CM CH
m= m= [2]
- T - M M
p CM pn CH
, - 1000 1000
1000 -
.
-
83
- - 1000pm CH
C CM = CM=CM CM =
- mM + 1000 n
, -
1 .
-
-
- 1000pmn
CH CH = H = n H=H
- mM + 1000
, -
1 .
( -
) -
- m CM CH
N= N= N=
- N 1000 1000p C MM 1000p CHE
m+ CM + CH +
, - Mp Mp Mp
1 -
.
- -
p
T= C MM C HE
, - 1000 T= T=
+1 1000 1000
1 mM
.
-
-
- 100mM C MM C HE
P= P= P=
, - mM + 1000 10p 10p
100 -
.

- C MM C HE
mM A= [6] A= [7]
, - A= C M C E
10 10 p M 10 p H
100 1000 1000
.

82
.
83
.


3. 261

N T
1000N 1000 T 1000P 10 A
m= m= [4] m= [5] m=
(1 N)Mp M(p T ) M(100 P) M
1000pN 1000 T 10pP 1000 Ap
CM = CM = CM = CM =
MN + Mp (1 N) M M M( A + 100)
1000pnN 1000 T 10pP 1000 Ap
CH = CH = CH = CH =
MN + Mp (1 N) E E E( A + 100)
T P A
N= N= N=
N=N (p T )M (100 P)M 100M
T+ P+ A+
Mp Mp Mp
N
T= pP Ap
Mp - T= T=
N + (1 N) 100 100 + A
M
100N
P= 100 T 100 A
Mp P= = P=
N + (1 N) p 100 + A
M
100MN 100 T 100P
A= [8] A= [9] A= [10] =
(1 N)Mp pT 100 P

, -
, x/1-x. -
, -
:

[1] [2] [3] [4 ] [5]


1000 x 1000 x 1000 N 1000 x 1000 x
m= , m = , m = m= , m= ,
M 1 x M 1x Mp 1N M 1x M 1 x
C M C HE T P
x= M x= x= x=
1000p 1000p p 100
[6] [7] [8] [9] [10]
x x 100M N x x
A = 100 , A = 100 , A= A = 100 , A = 100 ,
1 x 1x Mp 1N 1x 1x
C M C HE T P
x= M x= x= x=
1000p 1000p p 100

: E - ; -
1 ; - ; m - ;
- ; n - - .


4. 262

4.
/

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MvM.14/88.DRT