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DELA CRUZ, JOHN VAN RUSSEL R. GROUP 2

2015108536

E201: WORK, ENERGY, AND POWER Abstract

The objective of this experiment is to determine the force, work, and power of the fan cart and work by a force on a curved path. Based on the results, as the displacement is increased, the value of work will also increase. Also, power is directly proportional to the work done and inversely proportional to the time and change in potential energy is equal to the negative of the work done.

Introduction

 Work means “A Change in Energy” in Physics. The force

comes from the energy that causes

the object to

move at a distance.

Work happens when there is a displacement in the direction of the

 force. In Math, specifically in Calculus, it is defined as the integral of the force over the displacement. Though force and displacement are both vector quantities, work has no direction. The physical capacity of the system to perform a lot of work is called Energy. But also, keep it in mind that if energy exist, it doesn’t always mean that we can do some work. In this experiment, the

definition of work, shall be defined in a more precise manner and that work shall be computed for a curved path. Power, the time rate of doing work. Like work and

energy,

power

is

also

a

scalar

quantity. When the rate of work is

not

constant, the

power

may

be

computed instantaneously.

Methodology
Figure 2.

Figure 1.

The image shows all the materials used in the experiment, these are:

• 1. Dynamic Cart

• 2. Fan Cart

• 3. Two (2) Photogates

• 4. Protractor

• 5. Spring Balance

• 6. Set of Weights

• 7. Iron Stand

• 8. Smart Timer; and

• 9. Meter stick

The image in figure 2 shows

how the force was determined. The

weights are place on the pan until

it balances the force exerted by the

cart.

Figure 3.

Performing the second part of

the experiment: Work by a force on

a curved path.

After performing all parts of

the experiment, we made sure that

the values we gathered are

For the complete data in the

 first part of the experiment, see Table 1.

Table 1: Determining the Force,

Work and Power of the Fan cart

Force of the Fan Cart = weight of

pan + weight added = 0.294 N

 Tri Displacement Time, t al , S 1 0.3551 s 0.2 m 2 0.5075 s 0.3 m 3 0.6473 s 0.4 m 4 0.7756 s 0.5 m
 Work Power 0.0588 0.16558 Watts J 0.0882 0.17379 Watts J 0.1176 0.18167 Watts J 0.1470 0.18950 Watts J

Based on the data gathered,

the Work done by the fan cart with

constant force varies dependently

in the value of its displacement.

 accurate. Then after that, we Meaning, as the displacement is solved all the data needed to increased, the value of work will

successfully finish the experiment.

Results and Discussions

In

the

first

part

of

the

Experiment 201, the Work and the

Power was computed by using the

following equations:

Work=Force ×Displacement=Fd

Power= Work time =

W

t

also increase with constant force

acting on it. Otherwise, it will

decrease. See the trend in Graph 1

in Graphs Section.

On

the

other

hand,

power

which is the rate at which work is

done, the average power is the one

that was

computed and not the

power done

by

a

constant force (

P=Fvcos ).

Therefore,

the

average power done in four trials is

 not constant but it is also Tri Force Final increasing associated in the al height increase of the value of work. By 1 N 320 0.175 m that, power can also be associated 2 N 420 0.225 m with the increase in the 3 N 500 0.275 m displacement, in which an increase in displacement also results in an 4 N 820 0.415 m increase in power. Otherwise, it will decrease. See the trend in Graph 2 in Graphs Section. In the second part of the Increase Angl Displaceme experiment 201, The work done by in height e nt the force on the mass was computed and compared with the value of its increase in gravitational potential energy by using the 0.025 30˚ m 0.130 m 0.075 45˚ m 0.195 m 0.125 60˚ m 0.220 m equations: 0.265 90˚ m 0.260 m

W=wL(1cos θ)

Gravitatonal Potential Energy=U =mgh

Given

the

weight

of

the

mass, the length of the string, by

measuring the angle that subtends

the mass and by also measuring

the increase in height of the mass,

the Work done and the Increase in

gravitational potential energy was

 computed. For complete data in the second part of the experiment, see Table 2.

Table 2: Work by a Force on a

Curved Path

 Length of Weight of String, mass, L=0.3 m w=4.9 N

Initial

height,

h 0

=0.1

5 m

Based on the data gathered,

the Work done by the force on the

mass is almost equal to the

increase in Potential Energy of the

mass. It is evident that their values

are almost equal because of the
fact
that the
change in
potential
energy of the
system is
equal to
the negative work done by the
force. For comparison
of values,
see Graph 3 in Graphs Section.
Graph 1: Work and Displacement Relationship with Constant Force
0.2
0.15
0.1
Work (J)
0.05
0
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
Displacement (m)
Work and Displacement Relationship

Graphs

 Based on the trend of the In each trial, the comparison graph, the work done by a constant of data has a very small percent force is directly proportional to the error that can be negligible. displacement that the fan cart Therefore, the theory can be travelled. proven that the work one by a force is equal to the change in
2
1.5
1
Work and G.P.E. (J)
0.5
0
Trials
Work
G.P.E.

Graph 3: Comparison of Values of Work and Increase in Gravitational Potential Energ

Graph 2: Power
0.2
0.1
Work (J)
0
0.36
0.51
0.65
0.78
Time (s)
Power
 Since Average Power is equal to Work divided by Time, Average Power is equal to the slope of the graph that corresponds to each value of time. Average power can be associated with the displacement of the fan cart for as the displacement of the fan cart increases, the average power also increases.

potential energy of the object.

 Conclusion In the First part of the experiment in which the force acted by the fan is constant, the Work done by the fan varies dependently and directly to the displacement it travelled. By the data gathered, it can be proven that increase in displacement with constant force results to an increase in work. Otherwise, the work will decrease. It follows the theory that work is equal to force multiplied by its displacement.

Also, based on the data gathered,

power is directly proportional to the

work done and inversely

proportional to the time. Since the

 average power is the one that’s computed, it is not constant throughout the experiment that follows that an increase in work

results to an increase in power but

if the power with constant force is

the one that was computed, it will

be constant because the velocity of

 the fan in the horizontal track is constant, same as its force. In the second part of the

experiment, the work done by the

force on the mass was compared to

the

increase

in

gravitational

potential energy. Therefore, it can

be proven that the theory that

change in potential energy is equal

to the negative of the work done is

true. Thus, the data gathered in the

experiment falls to the expected

range of values.