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DELA CRUZ, JOHN VAN RUSSEL R. GROUP 2

2015108536

E201: WORK, ENERGY, AND POWER Abstract

The objective of this experiment is to determine the force, work, and power of the fan cart and work by a force on a curved path. Based on the results, as the displacement is increased, the value of work will also increase. Also, power is directly proportional to the work done and inversely proportional to the time and change in potential energy is equal to the negative of the work done.

Introduction

Work

means

“A

Change

in

Energy”

in

Physics.

The

force

comes from the energy that causes

the object to

move at a distance.

Work happens when there is a displacement in the direction of the

force.

In

Math,

specifically

in

Calculus, it

 

is

defined

as

the

integral

of

the

force

over

the

displacement.

Though

force

and

displacement

are

both

vector

quantities, work has no direction.

The physical capacity of the system

to perform

a

lot

of

work is

called

Energy.

But

also,

keep

it

in mind

that

if

energy

exist,

it

doesn’t

always mean that we can do some

work.

In

this

experiment,

the

definition of work, shall be defined in a more precise manner and that work shall be computed for a curved path. Power, the time rate of doing work. Like work and

energy,

power

is

also

a

scalar

quantity. When the rate of work is

not

constant, the

power

may

be

computed instantaneously.

Methodology Figure 2.
Methodology
Figure 2.

Figure 1.

The image shows all the materials used in the experiment, these are:

  • 1. Dynamic Cart

  • 2. Fan Cart

  • 3. Two (2) Photogates

  • 4. Protractor

  • 5. Spring Balance

  • 6. Set of Weights

  • 7. Iron Stand

  • 8. Smart Timer; and

  • 9. Meter stick

The image in figure 2 shows how the force was determined. The weights are place on

The image in figure 2 shows

how the force was determined. The

weights are place on the pan until

it balances the force exerted by the

cart.

The image in figure 2 shows how the force was determined. The weights are place on

Figure 3.

Performing the second part of

the experiment: Work by a force on

a curved path.

After performing all parts of

the experiment, we made sure that

the values we gathered are

For the complete data in the

first part

of

the experiment, see

Table 1.

Table 1: Determining the Force,

Work and Power of the Fan cart

Force of the Fan Cart = weight of

pan + weight added = 0.294 N

Tri

Displacement

Time, t

al

, S

  • 1 0.3551 s

    • 0.2 m

  • 2 0.5075 s

    • 0.3 m

 
  • 3 0.6473 s

    • 0.4 m

  • 4 0.7756 s

    • 0.5 m

Work

Power

  • 0.0588 0.16558 Watts

J

  • 0.0882 0.17379 Watts

J

  • 0.1176 0.18167 Watts

J

  • 0.1470 0.18950 Watts

J

Based on the data gathered,

the Work done by the fan cart with

constant force varies dependently

in the value of its displacement.

accurate.

Then

after

that,

we

Meaning, as the displacement is

solved

all

the

data

needed

to

increased, the value of work will

successfully finish the experiment.

Results and Discussions

In

the

first

part

of

the

Experiment 201, the Work and the

Power was computed by using the

following equations:

Work=Force ×Displacement=Fd

Power= Work time =

W

t

also increase with constant force

acting on it. Otherwise, it will

decrease. See the trend in Graph 1

in Graphs Section.

On

the

other

hand,

power

which is the rate at which work is

done, the average power is the one

that was

computed and not the

power done

by

a

constant force (

P=Fvcos ).

Therefore,

the

average power done in four trials is

not

constant

but

it

is

also

Tri

Force

Final

increasing

associated

in

the

al

height

increase of

the

value of

work.

By

  • 1 N

    • 320 0.175 m

that, power can also be associated

  • 2 N

    • 420 0.225 m

with the increase in the

 
  • 3 N

    • 500 0.275 m

displacement, in which an increase

in displacement also results in an

  • 4 N

    • 820 0.415 m

increase in power. Otherwise, it will

decrease. See the trend in Graph 2

in Graphs Section.

 
 

In

the

second

part

of

the

Increase

Angl

Displaceme

experiment 201, The work done by

in height

e

nt

the

force

on

the

mass

was

computed and compared with the

value of its increase in gravitational

potential energy

by

using

the

  • 0.025 30˚

m

0.130 m

  • 0.075 45˚

m

0.195 m

  • 0.125 60˚

m

0.220 m

equations:

   
  • 0.265 90˚

m

0.260 m

W=wL(1cos θ)

Gravitatonal Potential Energy=U =mgh

Given

the

weight

of

the

mass, the length of the string, by

measuring the angle that subtends

the mass and by also measuring

the increase in height of the mass,

the Work done and the Increase in

gravitational potential energy was

computed.

For

complete

data

in

the

second part of the experiment, see

Table 2.

Table 2: Work by a Force on a

Curved Path

Length of

Weight of

String,

mass,

L=0.3 m

w=4.9 N

Initial

height,

h 0

=0.1

5 m

Based on the data gathered,

the Work done by the force on the

mass is almost equal to the

increase in Potential Energy of the

mass. It is evident that their values

are almost equal because of the fact that the change in potential energy of the system
are almost equal because of the
fact
that the
change in
potential
energy of the
system is
equal to
the negative work done by the
force. For comparison
of values,
see Graph 3 in Graphs Section.
Graph 1: Work and Displacement Relationship with Constant Force
0.2
0.15
0.1
Work (J)
0.05
0
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
Displacement (m)
Work and Displacement Relationship

Graphs

Based on

the

trend

of the

In each trial, the comparison

graph, the work done by a constant

of

data

has

a

very

small

percent

force is directly proportional to the

error

that

can

be

negligible.

displacement that the

fan

cart

Therefore,

the

theory

can

be

travelled.

proven that the work one by a

force

is

equal

to

the

change in

2 1.5 1 Work and G.P.E. (J) 0.5 0 Trials Work G.P.E.
2
1.5
1
Work and G.P.E. (J)
0.5
0
Trials
Work
G.P.E.

Graph 3: Comparison of Values of Work and Increase in Gravitational Potential Energ

Graph 2: Power 0.2 0.1 Work (J) 0 0.36 0.51 0.65 0.78 Time (s) Power
Graph 2: Power
0.2
0.1
Work (J)
0
0.36
0.51
0.65
0.78
Time (s)
Power

Since Average Power is

equal to

Work

divided

by

Time,

Average

Power is equal to the slope of the

graph

that

corresponds

to

each

value of time. Average power can

be

associated

with

the

displacement of the fan cart for as

the

displacement of the fan cart

increases, the average power also

increases.

 

potential energy of the object.

Conclusion

 
 

In

the

First

part

of the

experiment

in

which

the

force

acted by

the

fan

is

constant, the

Work done

by

 

the

fan

varies

dependently

and

directly

to

the

displacement it travelled. By the

data gathered,

it

can

be proven

that increase in displacement with

constant

force

results

to

an

increase in

work. Otherwise, the

work

will decrease. It

follows the

theory that work is equal to force

multiplied

by

its

displacement.

Also, based on the data gathered,

power is directly proportional to the

work done and inversely

proportional to the time. Since the

average

power

is

the

one that’s

computed, it

is

not

constant

throughout

the

experiment

that

follows that

an

increase in

work

results to an increase in power but

if the power with constant force is

the one that was computed, it will

be constant because the velocity of

the

fan

in

the horizontal track

is

constant, same as its force.

 

In

the

second

part

of the

experiment, the work done by the

force on the mass was compared to

the

increase

in

gravitational

potential energy. Therefore, it can

be proven that the theory that

change in potential energy is equal

to the negative of the work done is

true. Thus, the data gathered in the

experiment falls to the expected

range of values.