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WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING

PARAMETERS IN DESIGNING
POTABLE WATER SYSTEM
Module 4

DANILO B. PULMA
Dean, College of Engineering
Eastern Visayas State University
Tacloban City
DESIGN PARAMETERS

Water Source Transmission Lines


Identification Distribution Lines
Water Source Validation Filtration Gallery
Intake Boxes Chlorinators
Wells Appurtenances
Pump House
Tanks/Reservoirs
WATER SOURCE IDENTIFICATION

Are water sources adequate to meet


projected water demand?

Are the sources correctly measured?


- Duration of records
- Time of the year should be driest
(wettest for water quality)
- Method of measurement

Is the water demand correctly


projected?
- Population projection
- Unit consumptions
- Maximum day demand
WATER SOURCE IDENTIFICATION

Spring
Quantity
Quality
Well
Conduct of Geo-resistivity study
Hydro-geologic studies
Surface Water
Hydrologic Study
Quantity
Quality /Treatment
(usually surface water contains organic and inorganic
materials, treatment is expensive)
WATER SOURCE VALIDATION

Spring Surface Water


Dependable yield (lps) Topographical, Geological,
Distance to service area (km) Geographical features of
Elevation (mAmsl) the Catchment Area
Environmental/ROW Quality and Treatment of
Well Water Source
Preliminary Well Design
Capacity (lps)
Environmental/ROW
Water Quality
Do the water quality characteristics of the
water sources pass the PNSDW standards?
What tests were conducted to verify water
quality?
o Physical and chemical analysis
o Bacteriological test
If not, would the treatment facilities be able to
address the water quality problems?
What treatment method will be employed?
o Disinfection
o Conventional water treatment plant
o Specialized methods
INTAKE BOXES

Intake Boxes
Environmental
Capacity
Type
SPRING BOX DESIGN:

The appropriate type of intake box suitable for the


spring is selected from the Standard Type of
Springs, depending upon the actual condition in the
field.

Spring box should be provided with adequate


overflow pipe so as not to damage the spring box in
times where the spring discharge increases due to
excessive rains or where the aquifer level is
fluctuating.
COMPONENT PARTS OF A SPRING BOX

1. Inlet structure defines the entry of spring


water from the water source to the intake
structure and these could be concrete
openings properly screen and perforated pipes
directly from the spring eye.

2. Outlet pipe the outlet pipe connects to the


transmission or distribution pipes and usually
provided with a gate valve to be regulated
during maintenance and disinfection period. It
must be elevated above the finish floor level
(0.2 to 0.3 meters) to prevent settled silt
materials from entering the transmission or
distribution pipe.
COMPONENT PARTS OF A SPRING BOX

2. Drain pipe it functions as a drain outlet


during maintenance and disinfection
activities. It should be constructed where the
tip of the drain pipe is lowered from the finish
floor line to ef fectively drain accumulated
materials and residue of disinfection agents
during flushing. Usually attached with a gate
valve or end cap.
COMPONENT PARTS OF A SPRING BOX

3. Overflow pipe it functions as the tank air


vent and exit of excess water. It is constructed
about 0.3 meters below the bottom of the slab
or top cover to prevent the occurrence of a
vacuum. It must have a bend or installed with
a 90 degree elbow and a short nipple from the
outside to prevent entry of rodents, birds,
insects and possible insertions of objects
from playing children.
COMPONENT PARTS OF A SPRING BOX

4. Manhole it functions as opening or access


to for the repair and maintenance of the inner
chamber. It should be raised slightly above
roof level with a lip and overlaying cover. If
the cover is made of light materials, it must
be provided with a lock.

5. Fence it functions as deterrence from


astray animals from possible waste
contamination and from children playing with
the component parts of the intake structure.
TYPE A INTAKE STRUCTURE:

PLAN SECTION A-A

Adaptable where the spring is located on a downhill slope


TYPE B INTAKE STRUCTURE:

PLAN SECTION A-A

Adaptable where the spring is gushing out on a level ground


TYPE C INTAKE STRUCTURE:

PLAN SECTION A-A

Adaptable where the spring is located inside a cavern


TYPE D INTAKE STRUCTURE:

PLAN SECTION A-A

Adaptable where the scattered springs requires large intake


TYPE E INTAKE STRUCTURE:

PLAN SECTION A-A

Adaptable where the spring is located below an overhanging rock


WELLS

Wells
Depth
Casing
Capacity
Screens
Continuous Slot Screen
Slotted Plastic Type
SELECTION OF CASING DIAMETER:

Maximum discharge rate for certain diameters


There are several methods of well construction. No single
method is applicable throughout the country. In any case,
well drilling must be contracted to an experienced and
competent well drilling contractor.

Drilled wells can be constructed practically in all types of


ground formations.

They are usually 100 to 600 millimeters in diameter and can


be installed to depths of 300 meters or more.

Drilled wells are generally constructed by using rigs designed


and manufactured for the purpose.
The well screen is the water intake of the well. The
screen allows water to flow into the well from the
aquifer, but keeps out sand and gravel
PUMP FACILIT Y

Pump Facility
Area
Pump Capacity/ size should be
determined by:
Well Yield
Number of Operating Hours
Fill and Draw or Float System
Hydraulic Zones
Delivery Pressures
1. Centrifugal Pumps

normally used in shallow wells


when the pumping water
level is less than six (6) meters.
2. Vertical Turbine or Submersible
Pump

normally installed in deep wells with


pumping water levels of more than
twenty (20) meters. These pumps are
designed and installed so that the
pump motor and bowl (impellers) are
set below the well at approximately 5 to
8 meters below the pumping water
level.
3. Jet Pumps

employed in low-yield wells


where the pumping water level
is not more than twenty (20)
meters.
Determination of Pump Discharge:

If the pump is used directly to supply water


to the distribution system, the capacity
must be equal to PHD

If the water distribution system has a


reservoir, the pump capacity must be equal
to MDD
DISTRIBUTION RESERVOIRS...

Distribution reservoirs, also called


service reservoirs, are the storage
reservoirs, which store the treated
water for supplying water during
emergencies (such as during fires,
repairs, etc.) and also to help in
absorbing the hourly fluctuations in the
normal water demand.
Functions of Distribution Reservoirs
to absorb the hourly variations in demand.
to maintain constant pressure in the
distribution mains.
water stored can be supplied during
emergencies.

Location and Height of Distribution


Reservoirs
should be located as close as possible to the
centre of demand.
water level in the reservoir must be at a
suf ficient elevation to permit gravity flow at an
adequate pressure.
SURFACE RESERVOIRS

These also called ground reservoir.


Mostly circular or rectangular tank.
Under ground reservoirs are preferred
especially when the size is large.
These reservoirs are constructed on high
natural grounds and are usually made of
stones, bricks, plain or reinforced cement
concrete.
The side walls are designed to take up
the pressure of the water, when the
reservoir is full and the earth pressure
when it is empty.

The position of ground water table is


also considered while designing these
reservoirs.

The floors of these reservoirs may


constructed with R.C.C slab or square
stone blocks resting on columns.
To obtain water tightness bitumen
compounds are used at all construction
joints.

At the top of roof about 60cm thick earth


layer is deposited and maintained green
lawns to protect the reservoir from cold
and heat.

For aeration of water and inspection,


ventilation pipes and stairs are provided.
Under Ground Reservoir
TYPES OF TANKS

R.C.C TANKS :
R.C.C tanks are very popular
because
1) They have long life
2) Very little maintenance
3) decent appearance
G.I. TANKS :

G.I. tanks are generally in rectangular


or square in shape. Now a days G.I.
tanks are not preferred because
1) Life of the tank is short
2) Corrosion of metal
3) maintenance cost may be more
HDPE TANKS: Now a days HDPE tanks
are very popular for storing less
quantity of water and hence useful for
residential purpose.
The following are the advantages of
HDPE tanks
1) Handling is easy because of light
weight
2) Cheap in cost
3) Maintenance cost is low
4) Cleaning of tanks are easy
TRANSMISSION LINES

Is transmission line adequately


sized for projected water
demand?
What are the bases for sizing
transmission mains?
-Maximum day demand
-Not to exceed maximum pressure
-Profile of transmission line
-Air release/vacuum valves and
blow-off valves
-Hydraulic analysis
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

Are distribution pipelines adequately sized for peak


hour demand?

What are the bases for sizing distribution


mains?
-Peak hour demand
-Non-revenue water
-Maximum and minimum pressures
-Maximum and minimum velocities
-Valves and hydrants
-Hydraulic analysis
PIPELINE DESIGN:

In applying the design minimum requirements for the design of pipeline,


the following should be considered:
It must be designed to handle the PHD of the service area
The minimum Pressure at the remotest end of the system (tap stand
or communal faucet) shall not be less than 2.0 meters
The pipeline must be designed considering that the Maximum
Velocity in the pipe is 3m/s for main pipes and distribution pipes.
Ensure that there is no negative hydraulic gradient or negative
pressure in the pipelines.
Pipeline Design Procedure:

Calculate the flows in the laterals and main pipes using the
PHD
Calculate pipe diameters corresponding to the pipe flow using
the Hazen-Williams Equation Formula
Check Maximum Velocity in pipe should not be 3 m/s
Check Headloss due to friction
Choose appropriate route to the storage reservoir or to the
distribution system and add the losses of all sections along
the route to get the total head loss.
Pipeline Design Procedure:

Compute losses such that the pressures at the reservoir and at the
distribution system meet the design criteria. If pressure are to high
reduce the size of the pipe.
If losses are too large, the reservoir may be too high or the pump
required may be large, redesign the pipelines using larger diameters
until the losses are reasonable.
Determine the location of the valves, fittings, etc. Normally air release
valves are located at the peak and sag portion along the pipeline.
Blow-offs should be located at end points or lowest point. If possible
blow-offs should be near the drainage outfall.
Hazens William Formula:

hL= 10.667 x Q^
1.852 x L

C^
1.852 x D^4.87
Recommended Pipe C Values
Where: (New Pipes)
Q = flow in cms Recommended
Pipe Material
L = Length in m Diameter C-Values
C = Friction Coefficient
D = Diameter in meters > 300 mm 150
Plastic
< 300 mm 140
> 300 mm 140
Iron
< 300 mm 130
FILTRATION

Slow sand
Gravity filters
filters Rapid sand
Filters
Pressure filters
filters
COMPARISON OF RAPID &
SLOW SAND FILTERS

Properties Rapid Sand filter Slow Sand filter

Area Small area Large area


Rate of 4000-7500 100-400
filtration(L/m2/hr)
Sand size (diameter) 0.4-0.7 mm 0.2-0.3 mm
Pretreatment Coagulation and Sedimentation
sedimentation
Filter cleaning Backwashing Scraping
Operation More skilled Less skilled
Removal of colour Good Better
Removal of bacteria 98-99% 99.9%-99.99%
Prior water storage Storage needed No need
CHLORINATORS

THE CHOICE OF METHOD DEPENDS UPON:


o LENGTH OF MAIN PIPE
o DIAMETER OF MAIN PIPE
o TYPES OF JOINT PRESENT
o AVAILABILITY OF MATERIALS
REQUIRED FOR DISINFECTION
o AVAILABILITY OF EQUIPMENT
REQUIRED FOR DISINFECTION
o TRAINING OF PERSONNEL
PERFORMING THE TASK
o SAFETY CONCERNS
CHLORINATORS
APPURTENANCES

A. Valves
o Isolation Valves (gate valves, etc)
o Directional Valves or check valves
o Altitude Valves
o Air Release Valves and Vacuum Breaking Valves
o Pressure Reducing Valves
B. Fittings
a. To connect the same type and size of pipe:
Union; Coupling
b. To connect two pipes of different sizes:
Reducers , reducing elbows, tees and crosses.
c. To change the direction of flow:
Elbow: To change flow direction.
Tee: To divide the flow into two.
Cross: To divide the flow into three.
d. To stop the flow:
caps, plugs and blind flanges.
GALVANISED IRON (G. I .
PIPES)
PVC PIPES
JOINTS
JOINTS
GATE VALVE
GLOBE VALVE
RELIEF AND FLOAT
VALVE
STOP COCK
STOP TAP
VARIOUS VALVES , TUBES AND PIPES

Copper Pipe Copper Tube Micro bore Pegler Ball


Clips 22mm 15mm 20m Copper Tube Valve Red
10mm 25m 15mm

Pegler Double Pegler Gate Pegler Washing PTFE Tape 12m


Check Valve Valve 22mm Machine Tap Pk of 10
15mm 15mm x ""
OTHER TECHNICAL AND OPERATIONAL
THINGS TO CONSIDER
SYSTEM CONFIGURATION

Is proposed system layout/configuration clear?


Is it a single system or several detached
systems?
Example: [yield of water sources > projected
demand] for each detached system

Is it a pumped system or by gravity?

What is the system operation?

What levels of service are provided?


Level 3 individual house connections
Level 2 communal faucets (four to six households within a radius of 25 meters)
Level 1 point sources (15 to 20 households within a radius of 250 meters)
LEVELS OF SERVICE
TECHNICAL STANDARDS
LEVEL 3 (Waterworks System or Individual House Connections)
o Minimum pressure = 10 psi (7m)
o Maximum pressure = 100 psi (70 meters) for Class 100 pipe
o Minimum velocity = 0.3 m/s
o Maximum velocity = 3 m/s
o Head losses < 10 m/km
LEVELS OF SERVICE

LEVEL 2 (Communal Faucet System or Stand Posts)


o Minimum pressure = as low as 3 psi (2 meters)
o Maximum pressure = 100 psi for Class 100 pipe; lower for lower class
pipe
o Minimum velocity = 0.3 m/s
o Maximum velocity = 3 m/s
o Head losses < 10 m/km
TECHNICAL STANDARD

Storage Tanks / Reservoirs Treatment Facility

For well and spring


Rule of thumb:
sources, water
extracted normally
Volume of Storage = requires conventional
20-30% of Average Day chlorine treatment.
Demand
All parameters
exceeding PNSDW
standard should have
corresponding
treatment
ECONOMICAL DESIGN

Previous items involve


meeting the minimum design
requirements. On second
thought, are the facilities
over-designed?
What are the things to keep in
mind?
Carry out design close to minimum
requirements. Use of more precise
data rather than assumed values.
[ex. Water source yield, elevations,
distances, house mapping, etc.]
HOUSE MAPPING

Is distribution system layout


consistent with house mapping
and proposed development
plans?
What maps can be used to check
the above?
o Google Earth
o Available House Mapping
o Actual House Mapping
o Land Use Map
o Spot Checking
FIRE FIGHTING WATER

Is fire-fighting part of the


requirements?
Things to consider when fire-fighting is
included:
o Types of fire hydrants [residential,
commercial]
o Minimum pipe size of distribution
main where hydrants will be
installed
o Hydraulic analysis during maximum
day demand condition
TOPOGRAPHY

Is topography a problem?
Possible scenarios:
o High service areas not reached by
water; requiring booster pumping
o Humps along transmission line,
disabling flow of water
o Area too flat, requiring bigger sizes of
pipes
o Very big difference in elevations;
possibility of bursting of main pipes and
/or service lines, internal plumbing
POWER SUPPLY

Is power supply available at


points where it is needed?
Facilities requiring power supply:
o Deepwell pumping station
o Booster pumping station
o Water treatment plant
o Waterworks office, warehouse
Is back-up power to be provided?
o Generator sets
o Diesel engine drive
MOST ECONOMICAL SOLUTION

Is proposed system the


most economical technical
solution?
General considerations:
Were all possible water sources
investigated?
o Source alternatives
o Source-storage alternatives
o Fill-and-draw vs floating
o reservoir alternatives
o Capital cost estimates
o O&M cost estimates
COST ESTIMATE

Are all items covered by the cost estimates?


Capital costs:
o Source facilities
o Transmission mains/distribution pipes/service connection
o Storage and pumping facilities
o Land acquisition
o Engineering costs
O&M costs:
o Salaries
o Power/fuel/chemicals
o Maintenance
o Miscellaneous costs
TECHNICAL AND OPERATIONAL
SOUNDNESS
Is proposed system layout/configuration clear?
Are water sources adequate to meet projected water demand?
Do the water quality characteristics of the water sources pass the
PNSDW standards? If not, would the treatment facilities be able to
address the water quality problems?
Is transmission line adequately sized for projected water demand?
Is reservoir capacity adequate to meet peak hour demand?
Are distribution pipelines adequately sized for peak hour demand?
On the other end, are the facilities over-designed?
Is distribution system layout consistent with house mapping and
proposed development plans?
Is fire-fighting part of the requirements?
Is topography a problem?
Is power supply available at points where it is needed?
Is proposed system the most economical technical solution?
Are all items covered by the cost estimates?
END OF PRESENTATION

Thank You . . . .