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A

Major Project Report


On
Utilisation of Construction & Demolition Waste

Submitted for
In partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of
Bachelor of Technology
In
Civil engineering
By
Mohammed Ahmed (A12415813001)
Rishabh Kapoor(A12415813014)

Under the guidance of


Mr.Ujjwal Bhardwaj

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING


AMITY SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING
AMITY UNIVERSITY
NOIDA(U.P.)

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
A work without the blessing and the guidance of elder is always half done and unsatisfactory.
The task of completing the project needs cooperation and guidance of technical persons in the
field.

My abundant and most sincere thanks to my Faculty guide MR. UJJWAL BHARDWAJ SIR
for providing me with the necessary facilities to carry out the project successfully.

MR. UJJWAL BHARDWAJ SIR who have not only readily accepted to be a supporter but also
sincerely helped me the most and saw that the project was completed. I would thank Almighty
lord without whose grace and blessings I would not have been able to complete my project.

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CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Mohammed Ahmed (A12415813001), Rishabh Kapoor(A12415813014),


student of 4th year have accomplished their minor project under my guidance .1 hereby certify
their work to the best of my knowledge. All of the student's findings are their original work.

MR. UJJWAL BHARDWAJ

HEAD OF DEPARTMENT

Department of Civil Engineering

ASE, Noida

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ABSTRACT

This review paper collates and compiles the available published literature on reuse and recycle
of construction and demolition waste materials. Construction and demolition waste is generated
whenever any construction/demolition activity takes place such as residential buildings, roads,
bridges, flyover, subway, remodelling etc. The production of construction materials involves
utilization of natural resources. Added to this, various toxic substances are emitted into the
atmosphere during the manufacturing process of construction materials. Rapid industrialization
and urbanization has led to generation of these wastes, and are being dumped in open and low-
lying areas. These activities pose serious problems to human beings and the environment.
Recycling construction and demolition materials can be a best alternative to open dumping and
also in conservation of the natural resources.

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Description Page No:


Numbers

4.1 Collection of Waste 23


4.2 Aggregate 24
4.3 Los Angeles Apparatus 26
4.4 Types of Slump 29
4.5 Slump Test 32
4.6 Compaction Factor Test 35
4.7 USPV Test 43
4.8 Compression Test 51
4.9 Preparation of Bricks for Test 56
4.10 Compression Test on Bricks 56
4.11 Efflorescence of Bricks 58
5.1 Management of Waste 59

LIST OF TABLES

Table Description Page No:

Number
3.1 Waste from Demolition Sites 23
32 Advantages and Disadvantages of Source 23
Separation
4.1 Waste Materials from Demolition Sites 23
4.2 Aggregate 24
4.3 M35 Mix 27
4.4 Slump Values 31
4.5 Values for Workability 34
4.6 Concrete Quality 38
4.7 Recommended Values 39
4.8 Test Results 42
4.9 Observation for Fresh Aggregate Concrete 46
4.10 Observation for Waste Aggregate Concrete 47
4.11 Strength 49
4.12 Strength at 7&28 Days 49
4.13 Observation Table 53
4.14 Sizes of Bricks 54
4.15 Class Designation 54

6.1 Mix Design 78

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INDEX
CHAPTER TOPICS PAGE NO:
l. INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 GENERAL 1
1.2 CLASSIFICATION OF C&D WASTE 2
MATERIALS
1.3 CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION 3
WASTEMANAGEMENT BACKGROUND
1.4 SCENARIO IN INDIA AND OTHER 4
COUNTRIES
1.5 ANALYSIS OF WASTE MATERIALS 6
1.6 TESTS TO BE PERFORMED ON THE 6
MATERIALS
1.7 COMPARISON BETWEEN FRESH 7
MATERIAL AND WASTE MATERIAL

2. LITERATURE REVIEW 9-12

3. RECYCLING OF C&D WASTE 13-19

3.1 INTRODUCTION 13
3.2 NECESSITY OF RECYCLING DEMOLITION 13
WASTE
4. METHODOLOGY 20-58

4.1 PRE-DEMOLITION ACTIVITIES 20


4.2 MATERIALS FROM C&D WASTE 22
4.3 COLLECTION OF MATERIALS & THEIR 23
SEPARATION
5. MANAGEMENT OF C&D WASTE 59-76
ASSESSMENT

6. RECYLING RATE 77-80


ESTIMATE&COST/BENEFIT ASSESSMENT

7. BENEFITS AND FUTURE SCOPE 81-86

8. CONCLUSION 87

REFERENCES 88

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CHAPTER-I
INTRODUCTION
1.1) General
With the rapid economic growth after development and redevelopment projects in the
country and subsequent increase in the urbanization in the cities has made construction
sector to increase drastically, but also environmental impacts from construction and
demolition (C & D) waste are increasingly becoming a major issue in urban solid waste
management.
Environmental issues such as increase in the flood levels due to the illegal dumping of
construction and demolition waste into the rivers, resource depletion, shortage of landfill
and illegal dumping on hill slopes are evident in the metro cities.
For the purpose of management of C&D Wastes in India, Construction and demolition
waste has been defined as 'waste which arises from construction, renovation and demolition
activities. Also, included within the definition are surplus and damaged products and
materials arising in the course of construction work or used temporarily during the course
of on-site activities.
Due to the increase in the economic growth after development and redevelopment projects
in the country and subsequent increase in the urbanization in the cities has made
construction sector to increase drastically, but also environmental impacts from
construction and demolition waste are increasingly becoming a major issue in urban solid
waste management.
The primary method is adopted in waste handling is carried through by interviewing
professionals like project managers, architects, civil engineers, contractors and government
officials like city engineers, solid waste management officials.
Secondary information is gathered by compiled data from secondary source like various
research papers, various international journals, various international reports on construction
and demolition waste management. And also, proceedings of waste management
organizations and also some reports of surveys did by various agencies and institution.
Some information is collected thorough waste management and national authoritys
websites in construction waste and demolition management.

1.2) Classification of C&D waste materials


The various streams of wastes to be considered will include;

Excavated material
Concrete
Tiles, brick, ceramics, asphalt concrete,

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Plaster,
Glass,
Metal and steel,
Plastics,
Wood, asphalt, and
Concrete rubbles, etc.

1.3) Construction and Demolition Waste Management Background


The purpose of these Guidelines is to promote an integrated approach to construction and
demolition (C&D) waste management, throughout the duration of a project. They are
designed to promote sustainable development, environmental protection and optimum use
of resources. The Guidelines provide guidance on the preparation of Detailed Project
report on Construction and Demolition Waste management.
Management Plans for certain classes of project, which exceed specified threshold limits.
The requirement for such Plans extends equally to both public and private sector
developments. They provide clients, developers, designers, practitioners, contractors, sub-
contractors and competent authorities with an agreed basis for determining the adequacy
of C&D Waste Management Plans.
Construction and demolition waste is defined as waste which arises from construction,
renovation and demolition activities etc. Also, included within the definition are surplus
and damaged products and materials arising in the course of construction work or used
temporarily during the course of on-site activities.
Landfill has been the traditional disposal mechanism for C&D waste, but in accordance
with the waste management hierarchy and having regard to the resource value of the
discarded materials and the current exhaustive pressures on landfill space, recycling must
take over as the main management route for this waste stream. The recycling of C&D
waste has been recommended in all of the Regional Waste Management Plans, which the
local authorities are now implementing, with many setting a target of about 80% recycling
of C&D waste. Further it is likely that there could be remarkable increase in the quantity
of C&D due to increased infrastructure and housing development and improved reporting.

This latest estimate is based on compilations of local authority collection permit reports.
In relation to C&D waste which excludes soil and stones, it is estimated that only 69%
undergoes recovery/disposal.

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There is every need for an Agency to carry out detailed research accurately assess
construction and demolition. Prudent and proper management of this waste stream will be
required in order to significantly improve the recycling rates of core construction and
demolition waste materials other than soil and stones.
This pattern of higher C&D waste arising is reflected throughout the world. The recycling
of C&D waste is essential in order to reduce our dependency on finite natural resources such
as geological and energy reserves. While recycling of such material has the added benefit of
controlling the extent of waste disposal and reducing overall transportation costs, prevention
is the most desirable approach to waste management, since the elimination of waste removes
the. need for subsequent handling, transportation and treatment of discarded materials.
While good progress has been made in pursuit of the Government targets for the recycling
of construction and demolition waste, progress has been largely achieved through the use of
C&D waste for engineering works at landfill sites and in land reclamation activities. The
performance achieved in the prevention of waste on site developments as well as the
preparation and use of suitable C&D waste derived aggregates in construction works has
been limited to date. Many permitted facilities are conditioned to accept only soil and stones
in the land reclamation activity and it is essential to ensure that other categories of C&D
waste materials which are unsuitable for the purposes of land reclamation are not deposited
at these sites in contravention of permit conditions. Furthermore, it should be an objective
to ensure that the resource of C&D waste is employed in the most beneficial manner
practicable through optimal reuse and recycling activities. Construction projects, even with
good prevention practices, will generate significant quantities of waste on a once-off basis.
The identification and provision of facilities for the reception of such waste raisings should
be integrated into the project planning and design processes. The preparation of a Project
C&D Waste Management Plan should begin in the early stages of project development to
facilitate suitable arrangements for the proper and orderly management of the wastes and
surpluses that are liable to arise in the course of the development works.

1.4) C&D scenario in India and other countries


IN INDIA

Presence of waste and other inert material (e.g. drain silt, dust and grit from road
sweeping) is significant.
About a third of the total municipal solid waste generated.

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C&D waste needs to be focused upon in view of
(i) The potential to save natural resources (stone, river sand, soil etc.) and energy,
(ii) Its bulk which is carried over long distances for just dumping,
(iii) Its occupying significant space at landfill sites and
(iv) Its presence spoils processing of bio-degradable as well recyclable waste.
C&D waste has potential use after processing and grading.
Utilization of C&D waste is quite common in industrialized countries but in India so
far, no organized effort has been made.
In Other Countries

Selected international experience has been outlined here which have relevance for the Indian
situation:

Scotland - About 63% was recycled in 2000, remaining37% being disposed in landfill and
exempt sites.
The Government is working out specifications and code of practice.
Attempts are being made for establishing links with the planning system, computerizing
transfer note system to facilitate data analysis and facilitating dialogue between agencies
for adoption of secondary aggregates by consultants and contractors.

Denmark - According to the Danish Environmental Protection Agency (DEPA), in 2003,


30% of the total waste generated was C&D waste.
According to DEPA around 70-75% waste is generated from demolition activity, 2025%
from renovation and the remaining 5-10% from new building developments.
Because of constraints of landfill site, recycling is a key issue for the country. Statutory
orders, action plan and voluntary agreement shave been carried out, e.g., reuse of asphalt
(1985), sorting of C&D waste (1995) etc.

Netherlands - More than 40 million C&D waste is being generated of which 80% is brick
and concrete.
A number of initiatives taken since1993, such as prevention of waste, stimulate recycling,
promoting building material which have a longer life, products which can be easily
disassembled, separation at source and prohibition of C&D waste at landfills.

Factors which led to high recycling rates are:

o Separation at source
o Good market for recycled products

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o Ban on landfills
o Guidelines for using C&D waste in place of fresh aggregates

USA -C&D waste accounts for about 22% of the total waste generated in the USA Reuse
and recycling of C&D waste is one component of a larger holistic practice called
sustainable or green building practice.
Green building construction practices may include Salvaging dimensional lumber, using
reclaimed aggregates from crushed concrete, grinding dry wall scraps for use as soil
amendmentatthe site. Promoting 'deconstruction' in place of 'demolition'. Deconstruction
means planned breaking of a building with reuse being the main motive.

Japan - Much of the R&D in Japan is focused on materials which can withstand earthquake
and prefabrication.
85 million tons of C&D waste was generated in 2000, of which 95% of concrete was
crushed and reused as roadbed and backfilling material, 98% of asphalt + concrete and 35%
sludge was recycled.

Singapore - C&D waste sis separately collected and recycled. A private company
(Sembwaste) has built an automated facility with 3,00,000 ton per annum capacity.

Hong Kong - Concrete bricks and paving blocks have been successfully produced,
impregnation of photo catalyst for controlling Nix in ambient air.

1.5) Analysis of waste materials

Waste materials are taken separately and their analysis has been done of some factors and
their use, how they can be recycled and reused. Common Waste materials that are taken
into considerations are: -

Concrete- In concrete we have to take aggregate as a main part and rest is separated by
some means for other uses.
Bricks- Different sizes of bricks are found are demolition of buildings and they are
separated and reused, like fresh bricks are cleaned and reused after operation of some tests
on them. Half and quarter bricks are taken for other uses like landfills. Wood-Wood is
also a material which can be reused as in new construction big logs are used after

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demolition these big parts are broken and these small parts are reused by application of
nails and screws.
Asphalt-Asphalt from concrete asphalt can be separated by heating, aggregates and
asphalt can be separated and used.
Reinforcement-Bend reinforcement bars can be reused.
They can be straightened by some action of force and then they can be used at the places
where low strength is required.
Plastics-Plastics can also be reused.

1.6) Tests to be performed on the materials

TESTS ON CONCRETE:
I. Slump Cone Test-Slump cone test is performed on the fresh concrete to check the
workability of the concrete.
II. Compaction Factor Test-Compaction Factor Test is also performed on the fresh
concrete to test the workability of concrete.
III. Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Test(USPV)-This test is performed on concrete blocks, it
is a non-destructive test which is used to check the quality of concrete.
IV. Compression Test-This test is performed on concrete blocks by Compressive Testing
Machine(CTM) to check the strength of concrete.

TESTS ON BRICKS:

I. Compression Test-This test is performed on the bricks which are reused to check
the strength of bricks.
II. Efflorescence Test-To check the efflorescent (migration of salt to the surface of
porous material where it forms coating) on the brick, it is for the aesthetic or
appearance of the buildings.

1.7) Comparison between fresh material and waste material


Comparison of various things like strength, workability, quality etc. of materials is very
important when we reuse and recycle the materials. New materials and materials obtained
from waste have different properties as well as different strength and quality as well.

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As we know that new materials have high quality, high strength but we have to compare
how much there is decrease in strength and quality of the material which is obtained from
the waste.
Like for concrete first we take concrete block or section which is already used than from
that we will separate the materials which are of our use in which main and important
material is aggregate. Then we sieve the aggregate by sieves of
10mm,12.5mm,16mm,20mm and separate them and we make concrete from that aggregate
then perform several tests on that concrete. On the other hand, we will take fresh aggregate
than make a mix design of same grade as used earlier, then we perform several tests which
are performed earlier and then check it. Calculate how much difference is obtained and then
we give our analysis on that.
Same is for brick we take fresh and used brick separately and then perform tests and check
their strengths and then use according to the requirements.
These materials are also economically compare that how much difference is in the cost. It is
also checked that use of materials obtained from the waste is economical or not, it is also
analysed by their comparison.

CHAPTER-2

LITERATURE REVIEW

Asian institute of technology, Thailand had conducted a survey in various Asian countries
and published report onreduce, reuse and recycle (3r) practices in construction and
demolition waste management in Asia in May 2013. The study included the countries like
Bhutan, Japan, Hong Kong SAR, PR Chin, Thailand and others including India.The study
reveals the current status on C & D waste management in terms of Technologies relative to
3R and Information base regarding C & D waste is poor in India, whereas reusing facilities
and recycling facilities have moderateexistence and management practices, technologies,

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stakeholder's participation in C & D Management is relatively low and the status of
sorting/.segregation, storage and monitoring facilities is unknown.

Presently, C & D waste generation in India accounts upto 23.75 million tons annually and
these figures arelikely todouble fold upto 2016. C&D waste and specifically concrete has
been seen as a resource in developed countries.Sadhan Ghosh, president of the
International Society of Waste Management, India reports that estimated waste generation
during construction is 40 to 60 Kg. per sq. m. Similarly, waste generation during
renovation/ repair work is estimated to be 40 to 50 kg/sq.m.
The highest contribution to waste generation is due to demolition of buildings.Demolition
of Pucca and Semi-Pucca buildings, on an average generates 500 & 300 kg/ sq.m. of
waste respectively.

In India nearly 50% of Construction & Demolition waste is being re-used and recycled,
while the remainder ismostly landfilled. At present, private contractors remove this waste
to privately owned, low-lying land for a price, or more commonly, dump it in an un-
authorized manner along roads or other public land. The common practice for large
Construction and Demolition (C&D) projects to pile waste in the road, results into the
traffic congestion.
Although, the responsibility of removing the waste is primarily of the builder or theowner,
it is usually assigned to the demolition contractor. Items, that cannot be re-used, are
disposed off tolandfill site. Disposalof C & D wasteinto Municipal Solid Wasteland filling
site degrades the quality of bio-degradable waste for treatments such as compostingor
energy recovery.

To address the problem of waste management in the country the Ministry of Environment
and forests, Governmentof India constituted a committee toevolve a road map for the
management of waste in India and to suggest a policy and strategy for achieving the same.
The scopeof the committee was toexamine theexisting administrative and regulatory
mechanism in waste management. Working Groups appointed by this committee interacted
with various stakeholders strategy for waste management. The Committee has made
number of recommendations for C & D management.
Recycling of waste from Construction Industry is carried out in U.K, France, Denmark,
Germany, U.S.A, Japan, etc. The proportion of different constituents varies from country
to country depending upon the material used for construction and the building
technology.
The salient features of recycling operations in different countries can be summarized as
follows:

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The Regulatory framework in Denmark has significantly helped it to improve recycling of
waste from Construction Industry. Before demolition of the building, the owner of the
structure has to apply for permission by filling in detailed form in which he has to identify
each constituent and estimate the quantity likely to arise. Simultaneously, he has to define
the disposal strategy. He has to also identify the waste carrier and environmental problems
anticipated during waste disposal along with methodology to control it. After demolition
takes place, different materials have to be transported separately. Otherwise it attracts a
price penalty or even refusal for movement of material. The disposal of waste to landfill is
taxed at high rates, while there is no tax on material sent to recycling. Netherlands has
developed specifications covering recycled material to be used as aggregate in concrete.
Dutch Government has imposed stiff charge on disposal of waste to landfill sites. This
charge has risen by seven times since1988.The technology adopted in Denmark is simple
and labour intensive, while the plants in Germany incorporate number of machines.

Anantha Rama V, Lokeshwari M (2012) Waste materials are common problem in


modern living. Waste accumulates from number of sources including domestic, industrial,
commercial, construction and demolition activity. A significant portion of municipality
waste is construction related. Proper management of construction and demolition waste is
important or else it will get mixed with municipal waste.

This type of mixing leads to cutting off the recycling options for C and D waste and also
reduces the efficiency of further municipal waste processing. Land disposal of C and D
waste presents a threat of ground water contamination because of trace amount of
hazardous constituents, which are some times encountered. In this article possibilities of C
and D waste recycling options are discussed, which includes recycling of concrete
aggregate; their properties and constrains in reusing of C and D waste concrete. This also
highlights the possible use of recycled aggregate in which further research is necessary.

Job Thomas, Wilson P. M. (2013) The management of construction waste is important


today. The scarcity in the availability of aggregate for the production of concrete is one of
the important problems facing by the construction industry. Appropriate use of the
construction waste is a solution to the fast degradation of virgin raw materials in the
construction industry. This paper enlightens the importance of reduce, reuse and recycle
(3R) concept for managing the construction waste in India.

Mansi Jain (2013) The excessive wastage of materials, improper management on site and
low awareness of the need for waste reduction are common in the local construction sites
in India. Today, in most European countries, it is economically feasible to recycle up to
8090% of the total amount of construction waste and most demolition and recycling

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technologies are generally easy to implement and control (Lauritzen, 1998). Considering
enormous increase in amount of waste generation owing to the growth in construction
industry can lead to wastage of materials which has its economic value.Currently,
existence of regional and national policies, laws and regulations governing reuse and
recycle principles for C & D waste is minimal in India. Thus the paper aims to focus on
the economic feasibility of waste minimisation of construction waste materials in terms of
cost savings in India.

Hariprasad N, V, Dayananda H. S (2014) This review paper collates and compiles the
available published literature on reuse and recycle of construction and demolition waste
materials. Construction and demolition waste is generated whenever any
construction/demolition activity takes place such as residential buildings, roads, bridges,
flyover, subway, remodeling etc. The production of construction materials involves
utilization of natural resources. Added to this, various toxic substances are emitted into
the atmosphere during the manufacturing process of construction materials. Rapid
industrialization and urbanization has led to generation of these wastes, and are being
dumped in open and low-lying areas.
These activities pose serious problems to human beings and the environment. Recycling
construction and demolition materials can be a best alternative to open dumping and also
in conservation of the natural resources.
Harish. P. Gayakwad, Neha. B. Sasane (2015) The construction industry has , gained
very fast growth in recent decades due to the increase in the population, increase in the IT
sector and increase in the industrialization and also introduction of new infrastructure
projects resulted in the increase of construction industry drastically. Due to which the
demand for construction materials is huge for the construction activities which results in
the generation of huge amount of construction waste. Construction material wastage
resulted in the huge financial setbacks to builders, contractors, regionals authorities and
also to the country. The production of waste due to the demolition of structures is more
than the wastage which occurs during construction of structures, so there is need of
management of Construction and Demolition (C&D) wastes, as distinct from Municipal
Solid wastes, is a relatively new subject in India [l] . To begin with the issue there is no
proper estimate regarding the quantity of waste occurs in India [l]. The primary reason is
being in disciplinary and less focused in this issue. In this problem there is absence of
regulatory framework and strict enforcement. Specific recommendations has made in this
paper to overcome the loop holes in the issue. In this paper current global status of
construction and demolition waste management is overviewed and also the sustainable
waste management hierarchy is studied so to overcome the waste problem.

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Hemalatha B.R, Nagendra Prasad(2008) Construction and demolition ( C and D)
waste is defined as the solid waste generatedby the construction, remodeling,
renovation, repair, alteration or demolition of residential, commercial, government or
institutional buildings, industrial, commercial facilities andinfrastructures such as
roads, bridges, dams, tunnels, railways and airports. Constructionand demolition waste
is considered as high volume, low risk. It is commonly understoodthat this waste can
be considered a resource, either for reuse in its original form or forrecycling or energy
recovery. Because of increasing waste production and public concernsabout the
environment, it is desirable to recycle materials from building demolition. If
suitablyselected, ground, cleaned and sievedin appropriate industrial crushing plants,
these materialscan be profitably used in concrete. Despite this, most Construction and
Demolition wasteends up in landfills. This paper highlights the composition of
Construction and Demolitionwaste, the need for its recycling and options that can be
implemented for its efficient use in the field of concrete technology in general.

Nuria Calvo, Laura Varela-Candamio(2014) According to the recent Spanish


legislation, the amount of non-hazardous construction and demolition waste (C&D
waste) by weight must be reduced by at least 70% by 2020. However, the current
behavior of the stakeholders involved in the waste management process make this goal
difficult to achieve. In order to boost changes in their strategies, we firstly describe an
Environmental Management System (EMS) based on regulation measures and
economic incentives which incorporate universities as a key new actor in order to
create a 3Rs model (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) in the C&D waste management with
costs savings. The target areas are focused mainly on producer responsibility,
promotion of low-waste building technologies and creation of green jobs to fulfill three
main objectives: valorization of inert wastes, elimination of illegal landfills and
stimulation of demand for recycled C&D wastes. To achieve this latter goal, we have
also designed a simulation modelusing the Systems Dynamic methodologyto
assess the potential impact of two policies (incentives and tax penalties) in order to
evaluate how the government can influence the behavior of the firms in the recycling
system of C&D waste aggregates. This paper finds a broader understanding of the
socioeconomic implications of waste management over time and the positive effects of
these policies in the recycled aggregates market in order to achieve the goal of 30%
C&D waste aggregates in 12 years or less.

Snehal Anilkumar Kumbhar(2014) As we are living in 21st century,


newTechnologiesare being invented in almost every sector to make human life fast and
easier. Beside this we are still finding the solutions to problems related to our

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environment, energy and natural resources.Construction industry produces large amount
of waste throughout the year. Most of the time construction and demolition waste ends up
in landfills disturbing environmental, economical and social life cycle. Construction and
demolition waste is the waste materials that are produced in the process of construction,
renovation or demolition of residential or nonresidential structures. Components of
construction and demolition waste typically include concrete, asphalt, wood, metals,
gypsum wallboard, roofing, paper, plastic, drywall and glass.

Sustainable development is a development that meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs; and can be
considered as one of the solution to solve construction and demolition waste problem.
Sustainable development in construction will help a lot to reduce the problems related to
environment and natural resources as construction industry is a major user of world's
resources. Sustainable design, proper use and reuse of the resources/construction
materialswill make construction industry more economical andgreen.

Concrete is the second most consumed material after water, so recycling of concrete can
save construction costs also it will help to keep environment healthy. Concrete collected
from sites is put through crushing machine, usually uncontaminated concrete i.e. free
from wood, plastic, paper and other unwanted materials. Metals such as rebar are removed
with the help of magnets and other sorting devices. In many countries like Japan, United
States, United Kingdom various recycling techniques are being used and returning good
results. Process of recycling construction and demolitin waste includes storage, sorting,
collection, transportation, recycling and disposing. Recycling methods used in japan are
heating and rubbing methods.

Recycling of Construction and demolition waste has many benefits such as reduction in
transportation cost, it keeps environment clean and reduces natural resource exploitation.
To promote recycling andreuse of waste, awareness about its effects and benefits
should be communicated with people, contractors, engineers and architects. More
numbers of recycling plants should be installed and allowing the use of recycled
aggregate instead of natural aggregate for some purpose.

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CHAPTER-3
RECYCLING CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTES
3.1) Introduction
Architects, engineers, specification writers, and contractors have an interest in and
understand the goals of job site recycling of Demolition waste but are not familiar with its
practicalities. Without this familiarity, it's difficult to piece together how recycling works
into overall project management, or to counter the concerns of those who object to job site
recycling on the basis of cost, complexity, unreliability, or other factors. This chapter is
intended to provide the information to understand and address those objections, and lay the
foundation for successful recycling from any new construction, renovation or demolition
project.

3.2) Necessity of Recycling Demolition Waste


"Sustainable building" has become a global catchphrase. In architects' offices and on
construction sites around the world there is increasing emphasis on reducing the
environmental impacts of renovation and new construction. C&D recycling is among the
most visible commitments a developer can make to sustainable building, visible to every
worker on the site and to every passer-by. In providing materials to local vendors and
processors, job site recycling creates employment and economic activity that help sustain
local economies. And perhaps most important, on a lifecycle basis, recycling produces
usable materials at much less environmental cost than materials from primary sources. That
is, in addition to conserving raw materials, recycling conserves energy and water, and
reduces the production of greenhouse emissions and other pollutants.
Job site, recycling is one of the most significant commitments that can be made to
sustainable building. So for many reasons - environmental, economic, practical and
environmental compliance - job site recycling is, and should be, at the centre of sustainable
building. Further, recycling is only one of several ways to conserve resources and materials
in construction and renovation. For every material that can be re-used in a job, recycling
isn't even necessary. This is true for source reduction using less material in the first place,
using less packaging, or using materials more efficiently (thereby eliminating waste). And
finally, use recycled or recycled content products. Recycling falls apart if there are no
markets for the materials that are diverted from the waste stream and the best way to assure
strong markets is to specify the use of recycled products wherever possible.

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Basics of Construction and Demolition Recycling
The reasons to recycle construction and demolition (C&D) wastes are simple but
compelling:

1. Construction and demolition wastes are one of the largest waste streams in the country.
2. Almost all job site wastes are recyclable.
3. It costs less - usually much less - to recycle job site wastes than to throw them away.

Almost all Job Site Wastes Are Recyclable. This waste stream is also very large. Waste
that's generated during construction of a new building is more than that produced by
occupants of that building during one to two years of occupancy. There is hardly a single
waste material from a job site that cannot be recycled: Some of the waste materials from
demolition site that can be recycled are as follows.

Table3.1(Waste materials from demolition site)

Architectural salvage Non-Ferrous Metals Land clearing residuals


Doors and door frames Wiring conduit Trees, stumps, blush
Windows and frames Plumbing (pipes, fixtures) Soil
Millwork HVAC (ductwork, Motors) Ferrous Metals
Asphalt Structural steel
Furniture and Furnishings
Aggregate Steel framing members
Office furniture
Partition systems Concrete (with & without Porcelain fixtures
rebar)
Brick Ceiling tiles
Medical lab equipment
Concrete block Gypsum Wallboard
Reception casual furniture
Wood Roofing
Lockers athletic equipment
Dimensional lumber Shingles
Carpeting
Broadloom Panels (plywood, OSB, Commercial membrane
NIDF)
Carpet tiles Engineered beams (glu-lam, etc.) Wood. metal, slate

20
In total, from almost any job site, 90% to 95% of all waste materials can be recycled.
There are some materials that aren't on this list, because markets remain undeveloped or
contamination makes them difficult to recycle - for example, fibreglass and foam insulation.
painted or papered gypsum wallboard. And some renovation or demolition job sites contain
hazardous or special waste materials that need to be managed as such (lead-painted wood or
plaster, asbestos floor tiles or siding). In almost all cases, the cost of recycling is lower than
the cost of throwing materials away. However, day in and day out, for the architect, owner,
and contractor, recycling makes economic sense. This is a critical point. If recycling costs more
than disposal, then there will always be a very good reason NOT to recycle. But if recycling is
cost-competitive or less expensive than disposal, then recycling should be considered as part
of every job. In the worst case, the cost to recycle is not much more than half the cost of
disposal. When you sum these costs across almost any construction project, the savings often
amount to tens of Lakhs of Rupees. Even if materials cannot be separated for recycling,
recycling still costs no more than disposal.
A rough comparison of cost for recycling of mixed debris and the cost of disposal reveals that
there is great advantage, on the side of recycling. 75% to 90% of the mixed debris gets sorted
out, recovered, and used again. The economic benefits of recycling are highest if waste
materials can be separated from each other and recycled individually. This is called "Source
separation." Source separation means separating different recyclable materials at the job site.
That is, workers keep metals separate from wood and wood separate from concrete, and so on,
and place each material into a different container. These containers are then transported to
different markets. Commingled recycling is the alternative to source separation. Commingled
recycling means placing all recyclable materials into a single container, which is then
transported to a processing facility, where different materials are separated by hand or by
automated equipment. Source separation and commingled recycling have distinct advantages
and disadvantages.

21
Table3. 2(Advantages and Disadvantages of Source Separation Vs Commingled Recycling)

Recycling Method Advantages Disadvantages


Higher recycling rates Multiple containers at site.
Lower recycling rates Workers must separate the
Source Separation Often working at site is materials.
safer Complex logistics.
More information to Manage

Commingled Recycling Only one or two containers Lower recycling rates.


at site. Higher recycling costs
No need of workers at site.
Easier logistics.
Less information to manage

The biggest trade-off between source separation and commingled recycling is complexity vs.
economics.
Source separation is more complex because workers must separate waste materials before they
throw them away, there are more containers on site, and there are more markets and haulers to
work with and keep track of.
But in most cases, source separation is economically more advantageous than commingled
recycling:

Source separation produces materials that are ready to go directly to market; there is no
need to pay a processor to sort materials.
Source separated materials are generally of higher quality, with fewer contaminants, so
they're worth more in recycling markets.

There are some jobs where commingled recycling is the only option possible, because of site
limitations, job size, or schedule. In these cases, the goal is to identify the commingled
processor who can achieve the best combination of price and recycling rate. But where it's
feasible, source separation should be considered the best recycling option.
The basics of source separation are easy: each recyclable material should be segregated as
it is generated, and placed in the appropriate container. A few additional rules make source
separation work smoothly:
Keep as few containers as possible on site at any time. Containers take up space, and having
too many containers increases the possibility of confusion and contamination. In general,
aim to have one container on site for mixed debris, and one or two additional containers for
the specific wastes generated during each phase of the job.

22
Match containers to the material. A wood container, for example, will typically hold 30 or
40 cubic yards. But scrap metal from wiring and plumbing may need only a 2or 4-yard
container. For something like concrete, you may have a lot of material, but container size
may be limited by the weight that can be hauled over the road. Site layout and access also
play a role in container selection. Place containers close to work locations. An advantage of
source separation is that it doesn't rely on one big central container for all wastes. Smaller
containers can often be placed close to the work. Also look for opportunities to use
intermediate containers like hampers or rolling hoppers that can be placed right next to the
work, and then wheeled to a larger waste container at the end of the shift. Again, there may
be surprising savings in labour and convenience.
What makes source separation work is the fact that it's matched to the phase of the job. You
only have on site the containers needed at a particular time for the specific wastes being
generated. You collect, haul, and market these materials. When the job moves on, you recycle
different materials, in different containers, and generally to different markets. It takes a little
energy and thought to do this, but in most cases the financial savings and the advantage in
recycling rates are more than worth it.
Good planning is the single most important part of construction waste management. Like
anything else in construction, recycling is straightforward if you have a good blueprint, but
becomes much more difficult and expensive if it's an add-on. Good planning allows you to
identify all recyclable materials and know how you're going to manage them before the job
starts. Good planning addresses how each waste material will be handled, what containers
will be used and when they'll be on site, and where each material will be marketed. Good
planning allows you to assess the costs and benefits of recycling and decide which materials
to source separate, which to recycle as commingled debris, and which to discard as trash.
Good planning covers communications, training, and troubleshooting, and lays out tracking
and reporting procedures for documentation. The Waste Management Plan is the document
that lays out the start-to- finish strategy for job site recycling. It is prepared directly from
the drawings and specifications for the job, and a good plan will closely follow these
documents.

23
The Waste Management Plan should

Estimate types and quantities of wastes generated during each phase of the Job;
Identify how each waste will be managed and marketed;
Provide an estimate of the overall job recycling rate;
Lay out plans for training, meetings, and other communications related to job-site
waste management;
Provide troubleshooting instructions and contact information.

All of this can (and should) be done before you break ground, so that recycling is
incorporated seamlessly into overall performance of the job. It's best if the Management
Plan is written and signed off on by all parties (owner, architect, and contractor) a month
or more before ground breaking or the first day of demolition.

Demolition and Renovation


Demolition and renovation projects are different from new construction, and often need
some extra planning. For example, compared to new construction, demolition and
renovation projects often involve

Much larger quantities of waste (often the entire building);


Many high-value wastes, for example, furniture and furnishings, architectural salvage
and valuable commodities such as nonferrous metals;
Wastes that are difficult to separate and recycle (like painted gypsum wallboard,
insulation, and shingles), and wastes that may be contaminated with hazardous
materials.
Automated demolition equipment like cranes and grapples, which don't lend
themselves to the separation of one material from another.
Tight and inflexible schedules; project value is in the new construction, while
demolition is perceived simply as a cost, with the goal to finish as quickly and cheaply
as possible.

In addition, some amount of recycling is already ingrained in the demolition industry.


Demolition contractors have been segregating wastes for many years, either to capture
revenue (e.g., wiring, structural steel), or to reduce disposal costs (e.g., concrete, brick). This
is both good and bad. It's good because demolition contractors are already aware of and

24
practice some recycling. It can be bad when a demolition contractor thinks he knows all there
is to know about recycling, and balks at suggestions to go beyond customary procedures.
Contractors who are generating revenues from recycling may also be reluctant to relinquish
this income, as they may if a Waste Management Plan clearly identifies these materials and
revenue streams. Given these considerations, an on-site audit before work begins is a critical
part of recycling from demolition or renovation. This is not necessary in new construction,
where recycling can be planned entirely from drawings and specifications. A team that
includes the architect, contractor, and recycler should get on site to confirm what materials
will be removed and how they will be handled (hand disassembly, removal by crane, etc.).
Often it will be good to bring along a salvage specialist, who can identify opportunities to
remove architectural materials such as flooring, doors and windows. High-value
commodities like wiring, nonferrous metals, suspended ceilings and the like should also be
catalogued, and plans made for their recovery separate from other wastes. The on-site audit
also provides an opportunity to identify and resolve any conflicts between recycling and
operations - and more specifically, any potential conflicts between the owner, architect, and
contractor, whose goals and priorities at this stage may not be completely in alignment.

25
CHAPTER-4

METHODOLOGY

4.1) Pre-Demolition Activities

Complete Site Check for Hazardous Materials


Obtain proper permits and approvals Materials found after demolition begins can slow or
completely halt demolition work while removal takes place. Hazards may include; lead based
paint, asbestos, PCB light ballasts, mercury in switch gears and thermostats, oil tanks,
contaminated soils, etc. Offering a single source solution Robinette has an environmental
division that can address these issues prior to the onset of demolition activities.
Project permits can be complex including local, state and EPA oversight. General building
permits may allow for demolition without additional demolition permits. EPA and local
Government permits should have a mandatory 10-day notification period. You cannot start a
total building/structural removal job without waiting 10 days from initial notification! The
contractor should have a strong working relationship with these authorities and should be
able to obtain permits with a minimum of delay.

Things to do before Demolition Begins


Demolition and construction site preparation, are critical elements of any successful project.
Unexpected delays and costs associated with encountering unexpected factors can be critical.
Uncovering hazardous materials or utility obstructions can risk project timelines and overall
success. Surprises can also mean the difference between project profit and loss.
With any demolition project, there are many issues to resolve before demolition can actually
begin. Robinette, with more than thirty years of demolition management, understands what
needs to be done and does it. We will work with your project team to pre-plan actions
necessary to eliminate problems.
Explore asset and resource recovery of items normally left for demolition disposal. Prepare a
clear and complete scope of work and discuss it in detail with the demolition contractor prior
to starting work. Ensure that you receive guaranteed legal disposal of all demolition materials.
Mark, cut and cap all utilities communication lines to demolition area this action can result
in double savings by reducing the cost of demolition service and bringing in cash for salvaged
items. There are many companies that will pay you to remove your unwanted items but who
don't do demolition work. This is an excellent way to productively fill a ten-day waiting
period in total or structural demolition. Coordination and communication between your
demolition contractor and with his on-site supervisor is critical. We recommend that a final
review of the project plan be completed on the first day of the job. Demand that your

26
demolition contractor work in coordination with local landfills or recycling centres to dispose
of onsite materials properly. Verify that your contractor complies with mandated resource
recovery provisions for disposed project materials.
Failure to adequately prepare at this stage can slow or halt demolition and can result in damage
to existing property and service disruptions. It is critical to notify all utility companies. Our
field personnel work closely with on-site management to ensure that existing utilities remain
operational and free of damage.
Insist that the demolition contractor you hire has a comprehensive safety program in place and
uses it!
Many contractors have beautiful manuals but provide little or no training to their employees.
While the services of a safe company can be slightly more expensive on the surface, the
potential costs to you from even one incident, or work stoppage far outweighs this apparent
expense.
Project coordination, communication, and planning will ensure success. The contractor
should have the experience, resources and partnerships in place to provide an effective
demolition solution. Offering the close single source coordination of four operating divisions,
he should allow you to hold one organization responsible. Our commitment to success
eliminates the finger pointing so often encountered with competitors.

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4.2) Materials from C&D waste
Waste is generated at different stages of construction process. Waste during construction
activity relates to excessive cement mix or concrete left after work is over, rejection/ demolition
caused due to change in design a wrong workmanship etc.
Estimated waste generation during construction is 40 to 60 Kg. per sq. m. Similarly, waste
generation during renovation/ repair work is estimated to be 40 to 50 kg/sq.
The highest contribution to waste generation is due to demolition of buildings. Demolition of
Pucca and Semi-Pucca buildings, on an average generates 500 & 300 kg/ sq.m. of waste
respectively.
Concrete appears in two forms in the waste. Structural elements of building have reinforced
concrete, while foundations have mass non-reinforced concrete. Excavations produce topsoil,
clay, sand, and gravel. This may be either re-used as filler at the same site after completion of
excavation work or moved to another site.
Large quantum of bricks and masonry arise as waste during demolition. These are generally
mixed with cement, mortar or lime. Stone arises during excavations or by demolition of old
buildings.
Metal waste is generated during demolition in the form of pipes, conduits, and light sheet
material used in ventilation system, wires, and sanitary fittings and as reinforcement in the
concrete. Metals are recovered and recycled by re-melting. Timber recovered in good condition
from beams, window frames, doors, partitions and other fittings is reused. However, wood used
in construction is often treated with chemicals to prevent Termite infestation and warrants
special care during disposal. Other problems associated to wood waste are inclusion of jointing,
nails, screws and fixings.
Bituminous material arises from Road planning, water proofing compounds, Breaking and
digging of Roads for services and utilities. Other miscellaneous materials that arise as waste
include glass, plastic material, paper, etc.
The total quantum of waste from construction industry is estimated to be12 to 14.7 million tons
per annum. Quantity of different constituents of waste that arise from Construction Industry in
India are estimated as follows:

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Table4. I (Waste Materials obtained from demolition sites)
Constituent Quantity generated in million tons
p.a.(range)
Soil, Sand and Gravel 4.20-5.14
Bricks and Masonry 3.6-4.4
Concrete 2.4-3.67
Metals 0.60-0.73
Bitumen 0.25-0.30
Wood 0.25-0.30
Others 0.10-0.15

4.3) Collection of Materials and their Separation


CONCRETE:
First, we collect concrete boulders from demolition site and transport them to the site where
concrete is broken by some mechanical means to break into small parts, from which
Aggregate are obtained and waste is rust.
We collect about 200 kg waste of concrete, this is just as a waste material and other
materials are taken separately.

AGGREGATE:
We collect fresh aggregate in which two sizes are there:

10 mm size aggregate
20 mm size aggregate

Then we obtained aggregate from the concrete waste which is broken in Los
Angeles Apparatus, then that mixture is sieved by 10 mm and 20 mm sieve
From 200 kg of concrete we obtained about 31 kg of aggregate.
Concrete is broken by Los Angeles Apparatus in which these concrete boulders are put
inside Los Angeles Apparatus along with 10 iron balls and machine is started for a
particular period of time.

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Table4. 2(Aggregates)
Fresh Aggregate Aggregate obtained from waste concrete

10mm(kg) 20mm(kg) 10mm(kg) 20mm(kg)

15 17 13.43 16.95

CEMENT:
We bought a 50-kg bag of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) for the use of making
concrete from fresh aggregate as well as aggregate obtained from waste concrete.

SAND:
We bought around 100 kg of sand or fine aggregate for the mix design.

BRICKS:
Bricks are also collected for testing in which we will check old bricks and new bricks
strengths and their efflorescence,3 new bricks and 3 old bricks are collected for the tests.

PLASTICIZERS
Plasticizers or water reducers, and superplasticizer or high range water reducers, are
chemical admixtures that can be added to concrete mixtures to improve workability.
Unless the mix is "starved" of water, the strength of concrete is inversely proportional to
the amount of water added or water-cement (w/c) ratio.
In the situation such as in concrete pumping, ready-made concrete industry, tremie
concreting, concreting in deep beams etc., high degree of workability in grading or use of
high percentage can be increased by the improvement in grading or use of high percentage
of fine aggregates or increasing cement content or others but it is very difficult to apply in
the field. Extra water can be used to increase workability but it causes harm to the strength
and durability of concrete. Hence, nowadays, it is very popular to use admixtures named
plasticizers and super-plasticizers (available in various brand names) to reduce water
requirement and to make concrete strong and workable.
Plasticizers are the organic or combination of organic and inorganic substances which
reduces water content for certain degree of workability, when added in mix. The basic
products consisting plasticizers are anionic surfactants (such as lignosulphonates, salts of
sulphonates hydrocarbon) nonionic surfactants (such as polyglycol esters, hydroxylated
carboxylic acid products) and others such as carbohydrates, etc. among them calcium,
sodium and ammonium lignosulphonates are commonly used. Plasticizers are mixed from

30
0.1% to 0.4% by weight of cement used and it reduces 5% to 15% of water with the
increment of workability from 3 to 8cm slump. In the mix, the cement grains absorb the
plasticizers molecules and results change in the surface charge of the same sign which
causes repulsive forces and makes the dispersion which increases plasticity and
workability. Some plasticizer also entrails the air but a good plasticizer is that which
entrains air less than 2% only. The plasticizers are available in market in various brands
with specifications for composition, dosages etc.
However, the super-plasticizers are the improvement of plasticizers. It increases
workability at same water cement ratio (w/c) and decreases w/c ratio at the same
workability level. The fluidizing property remains longer due to the retarding property on
cement hydration. Hence it is possible to obtain so called "flowing concrete" or "self
levelling concrete", which is pumpable or requires very little effort in the compaction. In
the concrete with super-plasticizer segregation and bleeding are nearly absent. In other
words, use of super-plasticizers reduces much more segregations and bleedings than any
normal plasticizers. Hence, super-plasticizers are most effective mix ingredient for
concrete. The super-plasticizers are normally grouped as sulphonated melamine,
Naphthalene sulphonate, modified sulphonates and others. The super-plasticizers are also
available in market in various brands with specifications for composition, dosages etc.

Types of Admixtures

Chemical admixtures - Accelerators, Retarders, Water-reducing agents, Super


plasticizers, Air entraining agents etc.(pce) polycarboxylate plasticizers
Mineral admixtures - Fly-ash, Blast-furnace slag, Silica fume and Rice husk Ash etc.

31
4.4) Tests performed on various materials
CONCRETE
LOS ANGELES APPARATUS:
With the help of this apparatus we broke the concrete boulders and small parts and then sieve the
aggregates, in our project this apparatus is just used for the breaking of concrete to obtain
aggregates of different on which we have to perform several tests.
Los Angeles Apparatus consists following parameters:
Apparatus:

i. Los Angeles Machine: It consists of a hollow steel cylinder, closed at both the ends with
an internal diameter of 700 mm and length 500 mm and capable of rotating about its
horizontal axis. A removable steel shaft projecting radially 88 mm into cylinder and
extending full length (i.e.500 mm) is mounted firmly on the interior of cylinder. The shelf
is placed at a distance1250 mm minimum from the opening in the direction of rotation.
ii. Abrasive charge: Cast iron or steel balls, approximately 48mm in diameter and each
weighing between 390 to 445g; six to twelve balls are required.
iii. Sieve: 1.70, 2.36,4.75,6.3,10,12.5,20,25,40,50,63,80 mm IS Sieves.
iv. Balance of capacity 5kg or 10kg
v. Drying oven
vi. Miscellaneous like tray

Theory-
The aggregate used in surface course of the highway pavements are subjected to wearing due to
movement of traffic. When vehicles move on the road, the soil particles present between the
pneumatic tyres and road surface cause abrasion of road aggregates. The steel reamed wheels of
animal driven vehicles also cause considerable abrasion of the road surface. Therefore, the road
aggregates should be hard enough to resist abrasion. Resistance to abrasion of aggregate is
determined in laboratory by Los Angeles test machine. The principle of Los Angeles abrasion
test is to produce abrasive action by use of standard steel balls which when mixed with aggregates
and rotated in a drum for specific number of revolutions also causes impact on aggregates. The
percentage wear of the aggregates due to rubbing with steel balls is determined and is known as
Los Angeles Abrasion Value.

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MIX DESIGN: M35
RATIO: -1:1.6:2.907
Table4.3(M35 Mix)

Sand(kg) Cement(kg) Aggregate{20mm} Aggregate{10mm} Water


(kg) (kg) (kg)

16.86 11.34 16.60 13.5 6.5

SLUMP CONE TEST


Definition

Slump is a measurement of concrete's workability, or fluidity.


It's an indirect measurement of concrete consistency or stiffness.

A slump test is a method used to determine the consistency of concrete. The consistency, or
stiffness, indicates how much water has been used in the mix. The stiffness of the concrete
mix should be matched to the requirements for the finished product quality.

Concrete Slump Test


The concrete slump test is used for the measurement of a property of fresh concrete. The test
is an empirical test that measures the workability of fresh concrete. More specifically. it
measures consistency between batches. The test is popular due to the simplicity of apparatus
used and simple procedure.

Principle
The slump test result is a measure of the behaviour of a compacted inverted cone of concrete
under the action of gravity. It measures the consistency or the wetness of concrete.

Apparatus

Slump cone,
Scale for measurement,
Temping rod (steel)

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Procedure

1. The mould for the slump test is a frustum of a cone, 300 mm (12 in) of height. The
base is 200 mm (8in) in diameter and it has a smaller opening at the top of 100 mm (4
in).
2. The base is placed on a smooth surface and the container is filled with concrete in
three layers, whose workability is to be tested.
3. Each layer is temped 25 times with a standard 16 mm (5/8 in) diameter steel rod,
rounded at the end.
4. When the mould is completely filled with concrete, the top surface is struck off
(levelled with mould top opening) by means of screening and rolling motion of the
temping rod.
5. The mould must be firmly held against its base during the entire operation so that it
could not move due to the pouring of concrete and this can be done by means of
handles or foot - rests brazed to the mould.
6. Immediately after filling is completed and the concrete is levelled, the cone is slowly
and carefully lifted vertically, an unsupported concrete will now slump.
7. The decrease in the height of the center of the slumped concrete is called slump.
8. The slump is measured by placing the cone just besides the slump concrete and the
temping rod is placed over the cone so that it should also come over the area of
slumped concrete.
9. The decrease in height of concrete to that of mould is noted with scare. (Usually
measured to the nearest 5 mm.

Precautions
In order to reduce the influence on slump of the variation in the surface friction, the inside of
the mould and its base should be moistened at the beginning of every test, and prior to lifting
of the mould the area immediately around the base of the cone should be cleaned from
concrete which may have dropped accidentally.

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Types of Slump
The slumped concrete takes various shapes, and according to the profile of slumped concrete,
the slump is termed as;

1. Collapse Slump
2. Shear Slump
3. True Slump

Figure4.4(Types of Slumps)

1.1.1 Collapse Slump


In a collapse slump the concrete collapses completely. A collapse slump will generally mean
that the mix is too wet or that it is a high workability mix, for which slump test is not
appropriate.

1.1.2 Shear Slump

In a shear slump the top portion of the concrete shears off and slips sideways. Or If one-half
of the cone slides down an inclined plane, the slump is said to be a shear slump.

1. If a shear or collapse slump is achieved, a fresh sample should be taken and the test is
repeated.
2. If the shear slump persists, as may the case with harsh mixes, this is an indication of
lack of cohesion of the mix.

1.1.3 True Slump

In a true slump the concrete simply subsides, keeping more or less to shape

1. This is the only slump which is used in various tests.

35
2. Mixes of stiff consistence have a Zero slump, so that in the rather dry range no variation
can be detected between mixes of different workability.

However, in a lean mix with a tendency to harshness, a true slump can easily change to the
shear slump type or even to collapse, and widely different values of slump can be obtained in
different samples from the same mix; thus, the slump test is unreliable for lean mixes.

Applications of Slump Test

1. The slump test is used to ensure uniformity for different batches of similar concrete
under field conditions and to ascertain the effects of plasticizers on their introduction.
2. This test is very useful on site as a check on the day-to-day or hour- to-hour variation
in the materials being fed into the mixer. An increase in slump may mean, for instance,
that the moisture content of aggregate has unexpectedly increases.
3. Other cause would be a change in the grading of the aggregate, such as a deficiency
of sand.
4. Too high or too, low a slump gives immediate warning and enables the mixer operator
to remedy the situation.
5. This application of slump test as well as its simplicity, is responsible for its
widespread use.

Tabled 4.4(Slump Values)


Degree of Slump Compacting Use for which concrete is suitable
workability Factor
Mm In
Very low 0-25 0-1 0.78 Very dry mixes; used in road making.
Roads vibrated by power operated
machines.
Low 25-50 1-2 0.85 Low workability mixes; used for
foundations with light reinforcement.
Roads vibrated by hand operated
Machines.
Medium 50-100 2-4 0.92 Medium workability mixes; manually
compacted flat slabs using crushed
aggregates. Normal reinforced
concrete manually compacted and

36
heavily reinforced sections with
vibrations.
High 100- 4-7 0.95 High workability concrete; for sections
175 with congested reinforcement. Not
normally suitable for vibration

RESULTS:
Slump for fresh aggregate concrete = 68mm
Slump for concrete mix of aggregate obtained from waste concrete = 51mm

Comparison

Slump (mm)

fresh aggregate concrete

waste aggregate concrete

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

37
COMPACTION FACTOR TEST
COMPACTING FACTOR
Compacting factor of flesh concrete is done to determine the workability of fresh concrete by
compacting factor test as per IS: 1199 -- 1959. The apparatus used is Compacting factor
apparatus.
Apparatus
Compaction factor apparatus' trowels, hand scoop (15.2 cm long), a rod of steel or other
suitable material (1.6 cm diameter, 61 cm long rounded at one end ) and a balance.
Procedure

i. The sample of concrete is placed in the upper hopper up to the brim.


ii. The trap-door is opened so that the concrete falls into the lower hopper.
iii. The trap-door of the lower hopper is opened and the concrete is allowed to fall into the
cylinder.
iv. The excess concrete remaining above the top level of the cylinder is then cut of with
the help of plane blades.
v. The concrete in the cylinder is weighed. This is known as weight of partially compacted
concrete.
vi. The cylinder is filled with a fresh sample of concrete and vibrated to obtain full
compaction. The concrete in the cylinder is weighed again. This weight is known as the
weight of fully compacted concrete.

Observations
For Fresh Concrete:
Weight of Partially Compacted Concrete = 12.39kg
Weight of Fully Compacted Concrete = 13.7kg
Weight of Empty Cylinder =12.76kg
For concrete mix of aggregate obtained from waste concrete:
Weight of Partially Compacted Concrete = 12.17kg
Weight of Fully Compacted Concrete =13.9kg
Weight of Empty Cylinder = 12.76kg

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Calculation
Compacting factor = (Weight of partially compacted concrete)/(Weight of fully compacted
concrete)

For Fresh Concrete = 12.39/13.70 =0.94


For concrete mix of aggregate obtained from waste concrete 12.17/13.90 = 0.87

Recommended Values Of Workability For Various Placing Conditions

Table4. 5(Values for Workability)


Conditions Degree Values of Workability
Concreting of shallow sections with Very low 20 - 10 seconds Vee-Bee time or 0.75
vibrations to 0.80 compacting factor
Low 10 - 5 seconds Vee-Bee time or
Concreting of lightly reinforced
0.80 to 0.85 compacting factor
sections with vibrations

5-2 seconds Vee-Bee time or 0.85 to


Concreting of lightly reinforced 0.92 compacting factor or 25 - 75 mm
sections without vibrations or heavily Medium slumps for 20 mm aggregates
reinforced sections with Vibrations
Concreting of heavily reinforced High Above 0.92 compacting factor or 75
sections without vibrations 125 mm slump for 20 mm aggregates.

Result:
For Fresh Concrete = 0.94
For concrete mix of aggregate obtained from waste concrete = 0.87

39
Comparison

Compaction Factor

waste aggregate concrete

fresh aggregate concrete

0.82 0.84 0.86 0.88 0.9 0.92 0.94 0.96

Concrete Cube Preparation

Preparation of mix- First we prepare mix for both types of aggregate fresh and
aggregate obtained from waste concrete. We design a mix ofM35 Grade
(1:1.6:2.907). Mix it in mixer accordingly.
Perform test- perform slump cone test and compaction test to check the
workability of concrete, both the concretes are taken separately.
Put the mixed concrete in the moulds then vibrate them on the vibrator so that
concrete settles properly in the mould so lack chances of defects on the cube.
After 24 hours open the moulds of concrete and put them in the curing tank at
1000 C cure them for 24 hours.
1hen take them out from the curing tank and weight them separately and then
perform the desired tests on the concrete blocks.

40
Ultra Sonic Pulse Velocity (USPV) Test

Ultrasonic test on concrete is a recognized non-destructive test to assess the homogeneity and
integrity of concrete. With this ultrasonic test on concrete, following can be assessed:

1. Qualitative assessment of strength of concrete, its gradation in different locations of structural


members and plotting the same.
2. Any discontinuity in cross section like cracks, cover delamination etc.
3. Depth of surface cracks.

This test essentially consists of measuring travel time, T of ultrasonic pulse of 50 to 54 kHz,
produced by an electro-acoustical transducer, held in contact with surface of the concrete member
under test and receiving the same by a similar transducer in contact with the surface at the other
end. With the path length L, (i.e. the distance between the two probes) and time of travel T, the
(V=LID is calculated (fig.2). Higher the elastic modulus, density and integrity of the concrete,
higher is the pulse velocity. The ultrasonic pulse velocity depends on the density and elastic
properties of the material being tested.
Though pulse velocity is related with crushing strength of concrete, yet no statistical correlation
can be applied.

The pulse velocity in concrete may be influenced by:

a. Path length
b. Lateral dimension of the specimen tested
c. Presence of reinforcement steel
d. Moisture content of the concrete

The influence of path length will be negligible provided it is not less than 100mm when 20mm
size aggregate is used or less than 150mm for 40mm size aggregate. Pulse velocity will not be
influenced by the shape of the specimen, provided its least lateral dimension (i.e. its dimension
measured at right angles to the pulse path) is not less than the wavelength of the pulse vibrations.
For pulse of 50Hz frequency, this corresponds to a least lateral dimension of about 80mm. the
velocity of pulses in steel bar is generally higher than they are in concrete. For this reason pulse
velocity measurements made in the vicinity of reinforcing steel may high and not representative
the concrete, influence of the reinforcement is generally small if the bars runs in a direction at
right angles to the pulse path and the quantity of steel is small in relation to the path length. The
moisture content of the concrete can have a small but significant influence on the pulse velocity.
In general, the velocity is increased with increased moisture content, the influence being more
marked for lower quality concrete.

41
Measurement of pulse velocities at points on a regular grid on the surface of a concrete structure
provides a reliable method of assessing the homogeneity of the concrete. The size of the grid chosen
will depend on the size of the structure and the amount of variability encountered.
Table 1:-General Guidelines for Concrete Quality based on UPV
Table 1 shows the guidelines for qualitative assessment of concrete based on UPV test results. To
make a more realistic assessment of the condition of surface of a structural member, the pulse
velocity can be combined with rebound number. Table 2 shows the guidelines for identification of
corrosion prone locations by combining the results of pulse velocity and rebound number.

Table4. 6(Concrete Quality)

PULSE VELOCITY CONCRETE QUALITY

km/s Very good to excellent

3.5 -4.0 km/s Good to very good, slight porosity


may exist

3.0-3.5 Satisfactory but loss of integrity is


suspected

<3.0 km/s Poor and loss of integrity exist.

42
Identification of Corrosion Prone Location based on Pulse Velocity and Hammer Readings
Table4. 7(Recommended Values)
No. Test Results Interpretations
I High UPV values, high rebound Not corrosion prone
number
2 Medium range UPV values, low Surface delamination, low quality of
rebound numbers surface concrete, corrosion prone

3 Low UPV. high rebound numbers Not corrosion prone, however to be


Confirmed by chemical tests,
carbonation, pH
4 Low UPV, low rebound numbers Corrosion prone, requires chemical and
electrochemical tests.

Detection of Defects
When ultrasonic pulse travelling through concrete meets a concrete-air interface, there is a
negligible transmission of energy across this interface so that any air filled crack or void lying
directly between the transducers will obstruct the direct beam of ultrasonic when the void has a
projected area larger than the area of transducer faces. The first pulse to arrive at the receiving
transducer will have been directed around the periphery of the defect and the time will be longer
than in similar concrete with no defect.

Estimating the depth of cracks


An estimate of the depth of a crack visible at the surface can be obtained by the transit times across
the crack for two different arrangements of the transducers placed on the surface. One suitable
arrangement is one in which the transmitting and receiving transducers are placed on opposite
sides of the crack and distant from it. Two values of X are chosen, one being twice that of the
other, and the transmit times corresponding to these are measured. An equation may be derived by
assuming that the plane of the crack is perpendicular to the concrete surface and that the concrete
in the vicinity of the crack is of reasonably uniform quality. It is important that the distance X be
measured accurately and that very good coupling is developed between the transducers and the
concrete surface. The method is valid provided the crack is not filled with water.

43
This test is done as per IS: 13311(Part I)-1992
Procedure for Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity.

i. Preparing for use: Before switching on the 'V' meter, the transducers should be connected
to the sockets marked ''TRAN" and" REC".
The 'V' meter may be operated with either:
a. The internal battery,
b. An external battery or
c. The A.C line.
ii. Set reference: A reference bar is provided to check the instrument zero. The pulse time for
the bar is engraved on it. Apply a smear of grease to the transducer faces before placing it
on the opposite ends of the bar. Adjust the 'SET REF' control until the reference bar transit
time is obtained on the instrument read-out.
iii. Range selection: For maximum accuracy, it is recommended that the 0.1 microsecond
range be selected for path length up to 400mm.
iv. Pulse velocity: Having determined the most suitable test points on the material to be tested,
make careful measurement of the path length 'L'. Apply couplant to the surfaces of the
transducers and press it hard onto the surface of the material. Do not move the transducers
while reading is being taken, as this can generate noise signals and errors in measurements.
Continue holding the transducers onto the surface of the material until a consistent reading
appears on the display, which is the time in microsecond for the ultrasonic pulse to travel
the distance 'L'. The mean value of the display readings should be taken when the unit digit
hunts between two values.
v. Pulse velocity=(Path length/Travel time) : Separation of transducer leads: It is advisable to
prevent the two transducer leads from coming into close contact with each other when the
transit time measurements are being taken. If this is not done, the receiver lead might pick-
up unwanted signals from the transmitter lead and this would result in an incorrect display
of the transit time.

44
Table4. 8(Test Results)
Fresh Aggregate Concrete Waste Aggregate Concrete
Path Travel Pulse Path Travel Pulse
Length(mm) Time Velocity Length(mm) Time Velocity
150 33.9 4.42 150 34.5 4.34
150 33.7 4.45 150 33 4.50
150 32.5 4.60 150 36 4.10

Pulse velocity

waste aggregate concrete 4.31

fresh aggregate concrete 4.49

4.2 4.25 4.3 4.35 4.4 4.45 4.5 4.55

45
COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TEST

Compressive strength of concrete:


Out of many test applied to the concrete, this is the utmost important which gives an idea about all
the characteristics of concrete. By this single test one judge that whether Concreting has been done
properly or not.
For cube test two types of specimens either cubes of 15 cm X 15 cm X 15 cm or 10cm X 10 cm x
10 cm depending upon the size of aggregate are used. For most of the works cubical moulds of size
15 cm x 15cm x 15 cm are commonly used.
This concrete is poured in the mould and tempered properly so as not to have any voids. After 24
hours these moulds are removed and test specimens are put in water for curing. The top surface of
these specimen should be made even and smooth. This is done by putting cement paste and
spreading smoothly on whole area of specimen. These specimens are tested by compression testing
machine after 7 days curing or 28 days curing. Load should be applied gradually at the rate of 140
kg/cm2 per minute till the Specimens fails. Load at the failure divided by area of specimen gives
the compressive strength of concrete.

Apparatus
Compression testing machine

Preparation of cube specimens


The proportion and material for making these test specimens are from the same concrete used in
the field.

Specimen
6 cubes of 15 cm size Mix. M15 or above

Mixing
Mix the concrete either by hand or in a laboratory batch mixer

Hand mixing

i. Mix the cement and fine aggregate on a water tight none-absorbent platform until the mixture
is thoroughly blended and is of uniform colour
ii. Add the coarse aggregate and mix with cement and fine aggregate until the coarse aggregate
is uniformly distributed throughout the batch
iii. Add water and mix it until the concrete appears to be homogeneous and of the desired
consistency

46
Sampling

i. Clean the mounds and apply oil


ii. Fill the concrete in the moulds in layers approximately 5cm thick
iii. Compact each layer with not less than 35strokes per layer using a tamping rod (steel bar
16mm diameter and 60cm long, bullet pointed at lower end)
iv. Level the top surface and smoothen it with a trowel

Curing
The test specimens are stored in moist air for 24hours and after this period the specimens are marked
and removed from the moulds and kept submerged in clear fresh water until taken out prior to test.

Precautions
The water for curing should be tested every 7days and the temperature of water must be at 27+-20C

Procedure
I. Remove the specimen from water after specified curing time and wipe out excess water from
the surface.
II. Take the dimension of the specimen to the nearest 0.2m
III. Clean the bearing surface of the testing machine
IV. Place the specimen in the machine in such a manner that the load shall be applied to the
opposite sides of the cube cast.
V. Align the specimen centrally on the base plate of the machine.
VI. Record the maximum load and note any unusual features in the type of failure.

Note
Minimum three specimens should be tested at each selected age. If strength of any specimen varies
by more than 15 per cent of average strength, results of such specimen should be rejected. Average
of their specimens gives the crushing strength of concrete. The strength requirements of concrete.

47
Observations

Fresh Aggregate Concrete


Table4.9(Observations for Fresh Aggregate Concrete)
Sr. No. Load(KN) Size(m) Compressive Strength Compressive Strength
(7Days) (N/mm2) (28 Days)(N/mm2)
1 50 22 34.5 53.15
2 35 225 24.79 38.15
3 37 225 26.1 40.15
4 43 225 30 46.15
5 34 225 24.15 37.15
6 35 225 24,80 38.15

For Waste Aggregate concrete


Table4.10(Observations for Waste Aggregate Concrete
Sr. No. Load(KN) Size(m) Compressive Strength Compressive Strength
(7Days) (N/mm2) (28 Days)(N/mm2)

1 39 225 27.40 42.15


2 40 225 28 43.15
3 39 225 27.40 42.15
4 38 225 26.75 41.15
5 36 225 25.45 39.15
6 37 225 26.10 40.15

48
CALCULATIONS

For Fresh aggregate concrete


Size of the cube =15cm x15cm x15cm
Area of the specimen (calculated from the mean size of the specimen) =225cm2
Characteristic compressive strength(fck)at 7 days = 27.40N/mm2
Expected maximum load =fck x area x f.s
Similar calculation should be done for 28-day compressive strength
Compressive strength = (Load in N/ Area in mm2) =42.15N/mm2

For Waste Aggregate concrete


Size of the cube =15cm x15cm x15cm
Area of the specimen (calculated from the mean size of the specimen)=225cm2
Characteristic compressive strength(fck)at 7 days =26.85 N/mm2
Expected maximum load =fck x area x f.s
Similar calculation should be done for 28-day compressive strength
Compressive strength = (Load in N/ Area in mm2) =41.32N/mm2

Report

a. Identification mark
b. Date of test
c. Age of specimen
d. Curing conditions, including date of manufacture of specimen
e. Appearance of fractured faces of concrete and the type of fracture if they are unusual

Result

For Fresh Aggregate Concrete


Average compressive strength of the concrete cube = 27.40N/ mm2 (at 7 days)
Average compressive strength of the concrete cube =42.15 N/mm2 (at 28 days)

49
For Waste Aggregate concrete
Average compressive strength of the concrete cube = 26.85N/ mm2 (at 7 days)
Average compressive strength of the concrete cube =41.32N/mm2 (at 28 days)
Percentage strength of concrete at various ages:
The strength of concrete increases with age. Table shows the strength of concrete at
different ages in comparison with the strength at 28 days after casting.

Table4.11(Strength)
Age Strength per cent
1 day 16%
3 days 40%

7 days 65%
14 days 90%
28 days 99%

Table4. 12(Strength at Days and 28 Days)


Grade of Minimum compressive Specified characteristic compressive
Concrete strength N/mm2 at 7 days strength (N/mm2) at 28 days
M15 10 15
M20 13.5 20
M25 17 25
M30 20 30
MSS 23.5 35
M40 27 40
M45 30 45

50
Comparison

Compressive Strength achieved after 7 days

Compressive Strength(N/mm2)

waste aggregate concrete

fresh aggregate concrete

40.8 41 41.2 41.4 41.6 41.8 42 42.2 42.4

Compressive Strength achieved after 28 days

Compressive Strength(N/mm2)

waste aggregate concrete

fresh aggregate concrete

40.8 41 41.2 41.4 41.6 41.8 42 42.2 42.4

51
BRICKS
Compressive Strength Test

Aim
To determine the compressive strength of bricks.

Apparatus
Compression testing machine, the compression plate of which shall have ball seating in
the form of portion of a sphere center of which coincides with the center of the plate.

Specimens
Three numbers of whole bricks from sample collected should be taken. the dimensions
should be measured to the nearest 1mm.

Sampling
Remove unevenness observed the bed faces to provide two smooth parallel faces by
grinding. Immerse in water at room temperature for 24 hours. Remove the specimen and
drain out any surplus moisture at room temperature. Fill the frog and all voids in the bed
faces flush with cement mortar (l cement, l clean coarse sand of grade 3mm and down).
Store it under the damp jute bags for 24 hours filled by immersion in clean water for 3
days. Remove and wipe out any traces of moisture.

Procedure

I. Place the specimen with flat face s horizontal and mortar filled face facing upwards
between plates of the testing machine.
II. Apply load axially at a uniform rate of 14 N/mm2 (140kg/cm2) per minute till
failure occurs and note maximum load at failure.
III. The load at failure is maximum load at which the specimen fails to produce any
further increase in the indicator reading on the testing machine.

52
Observations

Table 4.13(Observation Table)

Sr. No. Compressive Strength Compressive


(N/mm2) Strength(N/mm2)
New Brick Old Brick
1 13 18
2 12 17
3 13 15

Calculation

Compressive strength = Maximum load at failure (N) / Average area of bed face (mm2)

The average of result shall be reported.

Result
For New Brick
Average compressive strength of the given bricks =12.67N/mm2

For Old and Used Bricks


Average compressive strength of the given bricks =16.67N/mm2

IS SPECICATIONS
Speciation of Common Clay Building Bricks
Dimensions: The standard size of clay bricks shall be as follows

53
Table4. 14(Sizes of Bricks)
Length (mm) Width (mm) Height (mm)

190 90 90

190 90 40

Classification: The common burnt clay shall be classified on the basis of average
compressive strength as given in table.

Table4. 15(Class Designation)


Class Designation Average compressive
strength

Not less than Less than


(N/mm2) (N/mm2)

350 35 40
300 30 35
250 25 30
200 20 25
175 17.5 20
150 15 17.5
125 12.5 15
100 10 12.5
75 7.5 10
50 5 7.5
35 3.5 5

54
Comparison

Compressive Strength

New Brick

Old Brick

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18

55
EFFLORESCENCE OF BRICKS
Objective
For determination of efflorescence of bricks

Reference Standards
IS: 3495 Part(3)-1992

Equipment & Apparatus


Oven (3000c)

Procedure

1. A shallow flat bottom dish containing sufficient distilled water to completely saturate
the specimens is used for the test. The ends of the bricks are placed in the dish, the depth
of immersion in water being 25 mm.
2. The whole arrangement is placed in a warm (between 200C and 300C) well ventilated
room until all the water in the dish is absorbed by the specimens and the surplus water
evaporates.
3. The dish containing the brick is covered with a suitable glass cylinder so that excessive
evaporation from the dish may not occur.
4. When the water has been absorbed and brick appears to be dry, a similar quantity of
water is placed in the dish and it is allowed to evaporate as before. Examine the bricks
for efflorescence after the second evaporation and the results are reported.

Reports

The liability to efflorescence shall be reported as 'Nil', 'Slight', 'Moderate', 'Heavy' or 'Serious'
in accordance with the following definitions
(a) Nil: When there is no perceptible deposit of efflorescence
(b) Slight: When not more than 10 percent of the exposed area of brick is covered with a thin
deposit of salts

56
(c) Moderate: When there is a heavier deposit than under 'Slight' and covering up to 50
percent of the exposed area of the brick surface but unaccompanied by powdering or

flaking of the surface.


(d) Heavy: When there is a heavy deposit of salts covering 50 percent or more of the
exposed area of the brick surface but unaccompanied by powdering or flaking of the
surface.
(e) Serious: When there is a heavy deposit of salts accompanied by powdering and/or
flaking of the exposed surfaces.

Safety & Precautions


Use hand gloves while removing containers from oven after switching off the oven.
Thoroughly clean & dry the container before testing. Use apron & safety shoes at the
time of testing.

57
CHAPTER-5

Management of C&D Waste Materials

Reduce

Reuse

Recycle

Landfill

58
Figure5.1(Management of C&D Waste)

RECYCLING OF C&D
C and D waste management may be defined as the discipline associated with the proper
storage, collection and transportation, recovery and recycling, processing, reusing and
disposal of C and D wastes in a manner that is in accord with the best principles of human
health, economic, engineering, aesthetics and other environmental considerations. The
management approaches are different from one country to another, as are the levels of
environmental protection Most of the C and D management systems reviewed on the
following basis: C and D waste management includes following steps:

C & D WASTE MANAGEMNET MODEl

Storage and Segregation


C and D wastes are best stored at source i.e. at the point of generation. If they
are scattered around or thrown on the road, they not only cause obstruction to
traffic but also add to the work load of the local body. Segregation at source
is most efficient in terms of energy utilization.

Collection and Transportation


If the C and D debris is stored in skips, then skip lifters fitted with hydraulic
hoist system should be used for efficient and prompt removal. In case, trailers
are used, then tractors may remove these. For handling very large volumes,
front-end loaders in combination with sturdy tipper trucks may be used so that
the time taken for loading and unloading is kept to the minimum.

Recycling and Reuse


C and D waste is bulky and heavy and is mostly unsuitable for the disposal by
incineration/ composting. The growing population and requirement of land for
other uses has reduced the availability of land for waste disposal. Reutilization
or recycling is an important strategy for management of such waste. Apart

59
from mounting problems of waste management, other reasons which support
adoption of reuse/recycling strategy are reduce dextraction of raw materials,
reduced transportation cost, improved profits and reduced environmental
impact. Above all, the fast depleting reserves of conventional natural
aggregate has necessitated the use of recycling reuse technology, in order to
be able to conserve the conventional natural aggregate for other important
works.
In the present context of increasing waste production and growing public awareness of
environmental problems, recycled materials from demolished concrete or masonry can
be profitably used in different ways within the building industry. The study survey
indicates the major components of the C and D waste stream are excavation material,
concrete, bricks and tiles, wood and metal.

Disposal
Being predominantly inert in nature, C and D waste does not create chemical or Bio-
chemical pollution. Hence maximum effort should make to reuse and recycle them as
explained above. The material can be used for filling/levelling of low-lying areas. In the
industrialized countries, special landfills are sometimes created for - inert waste, which
are normally located in abandoned mines and quarries.

Management of Materials
Aggregates
The term "aggregate" is used broadly by the construction industry to refer to natural
mineral. materials used for various types of construction. Robinson, Menzie& Hyun
(2004) describe the term aggregate as "an industrial commodity term for sand, gravel, and
crushed rock materials, in their natural or processed state, that are used to provide bulk,
strength, and wear resistance in construction applications" (Barkdale, 2000, as cited in
Robinson, Menzie& Hyun, 2004, p. 276) In the U.S., aggregates are primarily used in
the production of Portland cement concrete, asphalt pavement, and as structural fill in the
construction and maintenance of roads and buildings (Tepordei, 1999). In Europe, the
word "aggregate" is also used to describe recycled concrete, bricks and ceramics which

60
are often crushed and used as fill for civil engineering projects. More recently, these
recycled aggregates have begun to be used in Europe for the production of new concrete
(Weil, Jeske & Schebek, 2006).
Aggregates often represent a large proportion of a region's C&D waste stream due to their
weight and predominance in modern construction techniques. If used asphalt pavement
torn up during the repaving of roads is included, the total volume of waste aggregates
produced is much larger. While individual houses are often constructed of wood in
Canada and other northern regions such as Scandinavia, house foundations, larger public
buildings and transportation infrastructure are often constructed using aggregates. In
other parts of Europe and North America, aggregates are more commonly used for all
types of construction and represent an even higher proportion of total C&D waste
produced. For example, a Spanish national plan for C&D waste from 2001 demonstrates
that aggregates made up 75% of Spain's C&D waste at the time (Merino et al., 2010).
Aggregates have often been targeted by recycling strategies due to their abundance in
C&D waste streams. In Europe and North America, recycled aggregates have most
commonly been used as loose fill in the construction of roads and other infrastructure.
Recently, however, there has been increased interest in substituting recycled aggregates
for natural aggregates in concrete production (Weil et al., 2006). In Germany, research
into this possibility has been prompted by concerns over ground water contamination
from recycled aggregates used as fill. However, using recycled aggregates in the
production of new cement can also reduce the use of primary mineral resources by more
than 40% (Weil et al., 2006).
An important question that must be asked when conducting research on using recycled
aggregates in new concrete is whether the concrete produced will have the same strength
and durability as concrete made with natural aggregates. Many construction materials are
made using a particular specification which is adhered to in order to ensure that the
manufactured product will perform optimally. The use of recycled materials often
requires an alteration in the manufacturing process which in turn requires the
development of a new specification (or "spec"). While research in Germany has
demonstrated that certain types of concrete can be reliably produced using recycled
aggregates, Weil et al. (2006) describe several conditions that must be adhered to in order
for the process to be successful. For instance, the authors state that recycled aggregates
from civil engineering projects must not be used for structural engineering applications

61
as they can contain chloride which can affect the durability of structural concrete. Weil et
al. (2006) also note that increased amounts of binding material such as cement, fly ash,
or concrete plasticizers must often be used due to the rougher surface and more angular
shape of recycled aggregates. If cement is chosen, the total energy consumed and air
emissions produced in the manufacture of concrete can be close to 40% higher than that
of concrete with primary aggregates. However, if fly ash or concrete plasticizers are used
to prevent an increased use of cement, total energy use and air emissions can remain very
similar to that of traditional concrete (Weil et al., 2006). It appears that only recycled
concrete and brick can be used in the production of new concrete and these aggregates
must be carefully sorted from other materials in order to ensure that they are free of
contaminants. Weil et al. (2006) state that current technologies for the sorting of C&D
waste are unable to separate different aggregate types and that pending the development
of new waste sorting technology, aggregate sorting must take place at the demolition site
through selective demolition or deconstruction procedures.

Current Practices in HRM:


While recycled aggregates are used as loose fill at the Otter Lake Landfill in HRM and
other landfills in Nova Scotia, they are not often used for other applications in the
province. (A. Way, personal communication, August 24, 2011; Dillon Consulting Ltd,
2006). It appears that the major obstacles to recycling a greater percentage of aggregate
waste in Nova Scotia are the abundant sources of aggregates in the province and
inexpensive transportation costs (Dillon Consulting Ltd, 2006).

Asphalt Shingles
Due to their prevalent use as a roofing material in North America, asphalt shingles are a
significant waste stream in both the United States and Canada. It is estimated that up to
1.25 million tonnes of asphalt shingle waste is currently produced in Canada each year,
primarily from reroofing projects (Hannah, 2010). Fortunately, within Canada and the
United States there is growing interest in recycling asphalt shingles in order to reuse the
asphalt cement and mineral aggregate they contain for the production of hot-mix asphalt
(HMA) pavement. The recent rise in cost of petroleum products has made virgin asphalt

62
cement increasingly expensive and research has confirmed that used asphalt shingles can
be incorporated into the production of I-IMA pavement. This decreases the cost of asphalt
paving and makes use of a significant waste stream (Krivit, 2007).
According to Owens Corning Fiberglass Technology Inc. (2000), standard asphalt
shingles are currently made up of the following materials. Limestone or fly ash is used
as a coating filler and constitutes 32 42% of the product. Granules, which are small,
painted pieces of rock or coal slag normally make up 28 42% of the product. Asphalt
cement constitutes 16 25% while "back dust" made from limestone or silica sand is
usually 3 -- 6%. The base of the shingle is 2 15% Of the total and is normally made
from fiberglass, paper or cotton rags. Finally, adhesives make up 0.2 2% of the shingle.
Asphalt shingle recycling has benefited from more than 25 years of research and
development (Krivit, 2007). The majority of this research has focused on the recycling
of asphalt shingle scrap from the manufacturing process. Recycled asphalt shingle
(RAS) scrap produced from manufacturing has enjoyed greater acceptance from
government regulators and engineers for the creation of construction materials
specifications than used "tear-off' shingles from roofing projects (Krivit, 2007). This
may well be because manufacturing shingle scrap is more uniform, has fewer
contaminants and consists of essentially unused materials. However, overburdened
landfills and rising petroleum prices are increasing the attractiveness of using tear off
RAS for road construction applications including HMA.
Specifications for the production of HMA are influenced by climate and traffic
conditions and therefore vary by region (Krivit, 2007). Due to this variation,
"departments of transportation [in the United States] have opted to independently test
the effect that adding RAS has on pavement performance"(Krivit, 2007, p. 28). Tests of
HMA mixes in the United States have found that incorporating up to 5% RAS in hot-
mix asphalt does not degrade the performance of the asphalt. In fact it can create certain
advantages such as increased resistance to rutting if the paper backing is included
(Hanson, Foo & Lynn, 1997). However, the use of RAS at a higher Percentage can affect'
the asphalt's performance since the asphalt cement found in shingles is harder than that
used for asphalt pavement. This problem may be resolved by using a softer grade of
virgin asphalt cement in the hot-mix. Several recent research projects have focused on
solving this issue (Krivit, 2007). In the Halifax Regional Municipality of Nova Scotia,
Halifax C&D Recycling has developed a process for separating paper shingle backing

63
from the other ingredients which has allowed them to offer two different products from
RAS. The paper backing is sold to a local cement kiln for use as a fuel while the granules
and asphalt cement are used in HMA applications. RDM Recycling also collects asphalt
shingles for recycling. The shingles are sent to Halifax for processing. It appears that
this procedure of separating asphalt shingles into two different products is unique in
North America. Halifax C&D recycling sells RAS without the paper backing to Ocean
Contractors Ltd. for use in PIMA. Ocean Contractors Ltd. currently uses less than 2.5%
RAS in its hot-mix asphalt, or approximately 200 to 400 tons of RAS per year (E.
Henneberry, personal communication, June16, 2011).
In North America, energy recovery is the only other current high value recycling option
for manufacturer or tear-off shingle scrap. Within Canada, cement kilns often utilize
shingles for this purpose. Asphalt shingle scrap diverted for fuel might need less sorting
than shingle scrap used for HMA since higher rates of contamination could possibly be
supported in this context. Krivit (2007) writes that cement kilns can also make use of
the inorganic components of the asphalt shingles used for fuel including the surface
granules, mineral filler aggregates, fiberglass, talc dust and any nails remaining in the
shingles. According to Krivit (2007), these components can provide ingredients useful
to the cement making process including calcium, magnesium, limestone, dolomite and
silica as well as aluminium and iron from metal contamination. The value of the
inorganic fraction as a mineral supplement, the organic fraction as a fuel source and the
avoided landfill costs can together assign a relatively high value to RAS used for this
purpose. In Europe, RAS is also being used for energy production. While this practice
has seen limited development in the United States, it is currently unusual in North
America (Krivit, 2007).
There are several additional uses for RAS in road construction besides HMA. While the
value of RAS is often lower for these applications, there is the potential to use higher
quantities of the material. Higher percentages of RAS have been used successfully in
lightweight pavements for low volume applications such as driveways and parking lots
(Krivit, 2007). The blending ratios used for these pavements have typically consisted of
between 25% and 50% RAS (Krivit, 2007). Recycled asphalt shingles have also been
used successfully as a component of road base fill. While much less controlled research
has been done on using RAS as part of an asphalt road base, the practice has been used
successfully by contractors in Maine and Minnesota (Krivit, 2007). In the United States,

64
RAS is generally permitted in a road base as long as the total bitumen content stays below
levels specified by each state. A Canadian study on the use of RAS in road bases found
that RAS levels of 5% increased the stability of many aggregate mixtures without
compromising precipitation drainage 2008). RAS has also shown promise when added
to gravel aggregates for the maintenance of rural roads. Multiple tests in the US have
demonstrated that the addition of RAS can minimize dust and vehicle noise, prevent
gravel from falling into drainage ditches and increase the life of the road surface while
reducing maintenance needs (Krivit,2007).
The use of RAS for road patching has proven to offer several advantages over traditional
materials and has been used for several years in parts of the United States (Krivit, 2007).
RAS is being used for the production of road patching products that can be applied cold,
or "cold patches". According to Krivit (2007), Home Depot offers cold patch product'
in the US containing RAS. Many of the reported advantages of cold patches made with
RAS are due to the paper or fiberglass fibers from the shingle backing. These advantages
include a longer life than traditional patch materials, a lighter weight and less "clumping"
during storage. It is alSo reported that these cold patches areeasier to apply since a hole
can simply be filled one inch over grade and compacted by vehicular traffic (Krivit,
2007).

Current practices in HRM:


Within the Halifax Regional Municipality of Nova Scotia, asphalt shingles that arrive at
C&D processing centres are sorted from other materials and collected at Halifax C&D
Recycling where the paper backing is removed from the asphalt covered aggregate
through a unique processing method. The paper backing is sold to Lefarge for use in
their cement kiln in Nova Scotia while the asphalt and aggregate are reused by Ocean
Contractors Limited in the production of new asphalt pavement.

65
Wood
Clean and contaminated wood normally constitutes a large percentage of the total
C&D waste produced in North America (Dillon Consulting Ltd, 2006; Recycling
Council of Ontario, 2006). As such, it is often an area of focus in C&D waste diversion
strategies. When examining wood waste, it is important to distinguish between clean
and contaminated wood. The term "clean wood" refers to sawn lumber to which glues,
resins, plastics or other materials have not been added. "Contaminated wood", also
known as "dirty wood", includes engineered wood products to which glues and resins
have been added as well as wood products with paints or stains applied to them.
Examples of engineered wood include plywood, particle board and laminated wood
products. Certain additives such as formaldehyde-based resins and lead paints are
highly toxic and their presence can limit the options available for recycling
contaminated wood.
Treated wood products also make up a significant percentage of contaminated wood
waste. Treated wood is normally infused with metals or chemicals to preserve the
wood against mould and rot. The infused metals and chemicals in treated wood make
it often unsuitable for recycling or reuse in other applications. Coal tar creosote and
chromated copper arsenate (CCA) are the most commonly used wood preservatives
in North America. Coal tar creosote is a distillate derived from coal tar which .is
created from the combustion of bituminous coal. Creosote treated wood is primarily
used for civil infrastructure such as wharves and bridges while CCA treated wood is
used most frequently for insect and rot resistance in buildings. The preservative CCA
is composed of copper, chromium and arsenic. While CCA and creosote treated,
timbers have traditionally been disposed of in landfills, the metals and chemicals they
contain can contaminate groundwater supplies. There is currently much research
being done to develop a viable process for removing the toxins from this wood in
order to allow for safe disposal or recycling of the materials to take place. For
example, low-temperature pyrolysis has been used successfully in a semi industrial
scale prototype in France (Helsen,Van den Bulck & Hery, 1998).
Opportunities for Reuse:

66
Wood is a versatile material and can often be reused in new building projects if the
dimensions of the timber are appropriate (Winkler, 2010). Framing lumber is often the
most easily reused since the dimensions of this timber have changed little over the past
century (Winkler, 2010). Timber of this sort that has remained dry and undamaged can
be reused again for the same purpose. Heavy timbers are often especially valuable due
to their aesthetic appeal and the work of carefully disassembling them is usually well
rewarded. Solid board sheathing is reused less frequently due to the current preference
for plywood or oriented strandboard siding which can be installed more quickly. Lastly,
architectural woodwork is often valued for its character and beauty making it a prime
candidate for salvage and reuse. The value of such woodwork is heightened by the cost
of reproducing it today, which is often prohibitive. Therefore, the cost of salvaging
architectural woodwork is one of the easiest to justify during the demolition process.
This is also true of well-constructed interior woodwork such as cabinetry and doors.
Energy Generation and Recovery:
The use of clean waste wood as a fuel source for heat or electricity production is a well
established practice in many countries including Canada, The United States and
Australia (Warnkin, 2004). As the price of fossil fuels has risen, the cost
competitiveness of wood has increased and a demand for clean C&D waste wood as a
fuel source has arisen. Contaminated wood, however, is used less frequently or in
smaller quantities due to widespread concern over its potential. to produce air
contaminants. Soiled wood is also of concern to fuel purchasers since dirt and grit can
cause slagging in furnaces (Warnkin, 2004). In many regions, selling waste wood for
fuel can be more economically viable than producing mulch or compost because of the
additional processing expenses involved with the latter products. In Sydney, Australia
and Halifax, Nova Scotia, waste wood used for fuel is tested to ensure that contaminant
levels are kept at required levels (Warnkin, 2004; D. Chassie personal communication,
June 29, 2011).
Mulch and Compost
Much research has been done on using waste wood from construction and demolition
projects as a mulch or ingredient in compost mixes (McMahon et al.2008). The primary

67
concern with these applications is the degree to which the wood used is contaminated
with toxins, plastic or metal. Due to this concern, it seems that the use of contaminated
wood for the production of mulch or compost has been largely limited to pilot studies
(McMahon et al., 2008, Biocycie, 2007). The use of clean waste wood for mulch
production is common across North America, although construction and demolition
waste appears to be a less common source than land clearing, landscaping and
manufacturing (Townsend, Solo-Gabriele Tlaymatv&St00k, 2003). However, tests of
mulch products have indicated that despite producers' demand for clean wood,
significant percentages of contaminated wood end up in mulch products. This has been
attributed to a low awareness of the adverse health and environmental effects of using
contaminated wood for mulch as well as difficulties with identifying contaminated and
treated wood (Townsend et al. 2003).
Recent research has demonstrated that the composting process can assist with the
degradation of heavy metals and pesticides found in treated wood products. Barker and
Bryson (2002) found that composting may also convert metallic pollutants into less
bioavailable species and concluded that composting has the potential to remediate
contaminated materials. McMahon et al. (2008) tested the ability of a contained
composting process to reduce toxins in contaminated wood products in the U.K. The
toxins consisted of isococyanates and phenolorurea formaldehydes used as synthetic
binding agents. McMahon et al. (2008) identified significant reductions in toxicity
levels during a 14 week composting process.
Other Recycling Options:
There are several other value-added uses for clean waste wood that have been
developed to some extent. A significant demand for wood flour is emerging in parts
of the United States. This is due to the use of wood flour as an inexpensive filler in
woodfiber plastic composite lumber, a product whose popularity is 'increasing.
However, the production of wood flour requires a very clean wood supply and
engineered wood products cannot be used for this purpose. In addition, certain tree
species can be unsuitable for the production of wood flour for composite lumber
(Buehlmann, 2002).

68
Current Practices in HRM:
In the Halifax Regional Municipality of Nova Scotia, Halifax C&D Recycling mixes
clean and contaminated waste wood together to be sold as fuel. This is possible since
the Nova Scotia Department of Environment allows a contamination rate in the fuel
mix of up to 10% (D. Chassie personal communication, June 29, 2011). RDM
Recycling currently recycles clean wood as fuel and grinds contaminated and treated
wood for use as a landfill cover (A. Way, personal communication, August 24, 2011).
RDM may send a larger percentage of its contaminated wood to the otter Lake landfill
for use as landfill cover in order to meet the landfill's demand since both facilities are
operated by Dexter Construction Company Ltd.

69
Gypsum Board
Along with aggregates and wood, gypsum board constitutes a significant percentage of
C&D waste in North America. In the United States, the National Association of Home
Builders Research Centre has estimated that gypsum waste makes up 27% of all
residential construction waste (Recycling Council of Ontario, 2005). In addition, the
Waste& Resources Action Program (WRAP, n.d.) estimates that 15% of Canada's
yearly production of gypsum board is disposed of as manufacturer and construction
waste. Gypsum board has traditionally been disposed of in landfills in Canada.
However, it has been found that under certain conditions, gypsum board co-disposed
with biodegradable waste can produce hydrogen sulphide gas (H2S) as well as sulphide
leachates (WRAP, n.d.). Hydrogen sulphide gas is flammable and toxic to humans. In
British Columbia, limiting gypsum board to 5% of mixed waste was found to be
ineffective in preventing the production of hydrogen sulphide gas which led to a ban in
1984 on the landfilling of gypsum board within the Greater Vancouver Regional
District. This ban encouraged Canadian companies such as New West Gypsum
Recycling Inc. to develop efficient processes for recycling gypsum (WRAP, n.d.).
Within the last decade, it has become common for gypsum board to be segregated from
organic waste when deposited at landfills in Europe in order to prevent the production
of hydrogen sulphide gas (WRAP, 2006).
During the past three decades, several important uses have been identified for recycled
gypsum. In many regions, the largest demand for recycled gypsum has been created
through its reuse in the production of new gypsum board (James,Pell,Sweeney,&St
John-Cox, 2006). This demand can vary though depending on the percentage of recycled
gypsum manufacturers are willing to incorporate into new products and the price of
virgin gypsum in each region. The integration of at least 20% recycled gypsum into new
gypsum board is common in British Columbia, Ontario and Denmark, with percentages
as high as 40% tested successfully (WRAP, 2006). In contrast, the Yoshino Gypsum
Company in Japan limits the use of recycled gypsum to 10% in new products (Saotome,
2007).

70
Recycled gypsum is also used successfully as a substitute for virgin gypsum in cement
production (D. Chassie, personal communication, June 29, 2011). Finally, there is some
demand for recycled gypsum as a soil additive in agriculture and composting operations.
However, land applications create a smaller demand for recycled gypsum than cement
and gypsum board production.
This literature review identified several circumstances that encourage gypsum board
recycling within a region. WRAP (2006) indicates that ensuring landfill fees are
significantly higher than recycling fees can help guarantee recyclers a steady supply of
waste material. In North America, where tipping fees themselves have rarely been
designed to encourage recycling, the regions best suited for gypsum recycling have
been those with significant construction activity and a lack of local gypsum
(WRAP, n.d.). The high demand for new gypsum board and subsequent large amounts
of construction waste combined with a premium price on virgin gypsum in these regions
offers several advantages to gypsum recycling operations.
In order to recycle gypsum board, the gypsum must be separated from the paper facing;
various processes have been developed by recyclers to accomplish this (WRAP, n.d.).
This separation process is particularly important when using recycled gypsum for
cement production, as the paper content must normally be kept below 1% in this case
(D. Chassie, personal communication, June 29, 2011).

Current Practices in HRM:


Gypsum board that is brought to C&D processing centres as separated material or that
is easily recoverable from mixed loads is processed by Halifax C&D Recycling to
remove contaminants and the paper backing from the gypsum. There are currently two
companies interested in buying recycled gypsum in Atlantic Canada: Certain Teed in
New Brunswick which manufactures Gypsum Board and Lafarge Canada Incorporated,
which uses the material during the production of new cement at its plant in Brookfield,
Nova Scotia. Certain Teed requires that the recycled gypsum it purchases is completely
free of screws and nails while Lafarge has a stricter tolerance on paper contamination.

71
Metals
Post-consumer metals have some of the highest values of recycled building product and
the Canadian metal recycling industry is well established across the country (Fothergill,
2004). Because of this, Canadian contractors and recycling centres rarely have a
problem finding buyers for well sorted metal waste. Nonferrous metals such as copper
and aluminium are particularly valuable and buyers often provide containers and
hauling free of charge for these materials. Metal waste from construction projects is
usually quite limited due to the high cost of metal products. Common sources of
nonferrous metal construction waste include copper pipe cut-offs, aluminium gutter and
flashing trimmings and electric cable cut-offs (Winkler, 2010). Structural steel sections
are usually created to architectural design specifications in order to minimize waste.
Because of this, ferrous metal construction waste usually accumulates through cut-offs
from steel studs, rebar, strapping and other framing pieces (Winkler, 2010).

Current Practices in HRM:


It appears that all metal C&D waste sent to C&D processing centres is being recycled
within the Halifax Regional Municipality. The value of this material has contributed to
the development of a robust recycling industry across North America which facilitates
recycling processes. At RDM Recycling for example, even small pieces of metal are
sorted from mixed C&D waste by hand or with magnets. The damage that metal pieces
can do to processing machinery is an added incentive for thorough sorting at this facility
(A. Way, personal communication, August, 24,2011).

Glass
While glass has been used in windows for centuries, it is now commonly used to
construct exterior wall panels, tiles and photovoltaic panels as well. This
diversification of glass building materials has greatly increased the percentage of
glass used in commercial buildings in particular. It appears that glass waste from
construction projects is limited since glass windows, tiles and panelling are available
in a variety of sizes. Glass is often a small percentage of current demolition waste as

72
well since it was only frequently used in windows, mirrors and insulation products in
older structures. While window glass represents the largest percentage of demolition
glass waste, there is currently little demand for single-pane windows since they do
not insulate as well as newer designs. It is unclear whether the difficulty in separating
window materials discourages recycling of these products as well. Glass block
salvaged from deconstruction activities is reused in HRM and elsewhere (R. Rhyno,
personal communication, August 23, 2011).
Large demands for recycled glass are being created through its use as a substitute for
sand in cement production and as a replacement for gravel in hot-mix asphalt where it
can make up 40% of the aggregate mix. Recycled glass is used to a lesser extent for
water filtration systems, as a replacement for sand on golf courses and playing fields,
in the production of fibreglass insulation and as a fluxing agent in the manufacture of
tile and brick. More valuable uses of recycled glass are also being developed. In the
United States, Vetrazzo Inc. produces glass composite counter tops made with up to
100% recycled glass (Winkler, 2010).
Current Practices in HRM:
Unsorted glass waste is currently being used in the creation of daily landfill cover at the
recycling centres in HRM. Halifax C&D Recycling will recycle glass waste such as
street light covers and window glass if it arrives sorted. The C&D glass
waste is used to manufacture a certified aggregate used in septic systems (D. Chassie,
personal communication, September 9, 2011).

73
Plastics
Although plastics typically represent just 1% of total construction and demolition waste,
their environmental impact can be significant once they are disposed of (Assessing the
Potential of Plastics Recycling in the Construction and Demolition Activities
(APPRICOD), 2004). Plastics can take centuries to biodegrade, and the chemicals
contained within them are serious threats to air and water quality when plastic waste is
incinerated or landfilled. In addition, the use of plastics in the construction industry
continues to increase.
While a wide variety of plastics are manufactured worldwide, polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
is the most commonly used plastic in the construction industry today. According to
APPRICOD (2004), PVC accounted for 47% of all plastics used in the construction
industry in Western Europe in 2002. PVC is now commonly used for manufacturing
pipes and ducts, door and window frames and vinyl flooring (APPRICOD, 2004). High
density and low density polyethylene are used as well for the production of plastic
piping. The plastics EPS (expanded polystyrene), XPS (extruded polystyrene) and PU
(polyurethane) are also frequently used to manufacture insulation materials and made
up of the construction industry's plastics consumption in Western Europe in 2002
(APPRICOD, 2004). In Canada strategies for recycling plastic waste are only beginning
to be developed. The Canadian Plastics Industry Association (CPIA) has begun pilot
projects to collect plastic pipe cut-offs in Ontario and Alberta (M. Axemith, personal
communication, August 22, 2011). CPIA has also produced several reports on best
practices for recovering and recycling vinyl siding during demolition projects. In
Ontario, several recycling companies are currently collecting vinyl from construction
projects and vinyl manufacturing facilities. As well, the company Simplas has facilities
in Edmonton, AB and Mississauga, ON which accept PVC and polyethylene pipe
cutoffs and vinyl siding from construction and demolition sites for recycling. Simplas
claims to be the only Canadian company recycling plastic piping from construction and
demolition is dropped off at Simplas free of charge or collected for the company in
separate bins at landfills. It appears that C&D plastic waste recycling is not yet common
outside of Alberta and Ontario.

74
Current Practices in HRM:
There are no recycling processes currently in place for recycling plastic C&D waste
in the Halifax Regional Municipality. The municipality's distance from plastic
manufacturers may be a constraint to the development of a plastics recycling industry
as recycled plastic would need to be transported long distances. As well, it appears
that used vinyl siding must remain clean and uncontaminated in order to be recycled
(Dillon Consulting Ltd, 2006). In this case, traditional demolition practices would be
a constraint to the recycling of vinyl siding and selective demolition would be
required.

Carpeting / Ceiling- tiles/ Insulation


There are several building materials which despite their smaller volume are
important to consider when examining C&D waste diversion. The most significant of
these is carpeting, which makes up approximately 4% of Nova Scotia's C&D waste
(Dillon Consulting Ltd, 2006). Although carpet recycling efforts have been increasing
in the United Kingdom and the United States over the past decade, Canada has only
recently taken steps to promote carpet recycling with the establishment of the
Canadian Carpet Recovery Effort (CCRE) in 2010. In a similar manner to the Carpet
America Recovery Effort (CARE), CCRE seeks to facilitate industry led and market
driven solutions for the diversion of post-consumer carpet from landfills and the
advancement of secondary markets using recycled content (CCRE, 2010. slide 8).
There are currently several diversion opportunities for recycled carpets. Clean
carpets in good condition can often be reused if care is taken with their removal.
Depending on the carpet type and its condition, processing of post-consumer
carpeting can produce components for new carpeting or carpet padding or plastic
resins for the production of other recycled products. Alternatively, post-consumer
carpeting can be used as a fuel source for industrial processes such as cement making
(Bro-Tex Inc., n. Ceiling tiles are another building product for which recycling

75
procedures have recently been developed. In the United States, Armstrong World
Industries (Armstrong) was the first company in North America to begin an extensive
ceiling tile recycling program in 1999 to provide a supply of recycled material for their
new ceiling tile products. Since then, they have recycled over 50,000 tonnes of ceiling
tiles. Armstrong currently collects used ceiling tiles in the provinces of British
Columbia, Alberta and Ontario, grinds them into powder, and incorporates the
recycled mineral fibre into the production of new Ceiling tiles. It appears that closed-
loop recycling of ceiling tiles has not yet been developed in Canada (Recycling Council
of Ontario, 2005). In Nova Scotia, Thermo-Cell Industries Limited has suggested that
certain types of ceiling tile could be ground and used as blown-in insulation (B.
Kenney, personal communication, August 25, 2011).
A final subject which is worth our attention is insulation materials. Currently, several
different types of insulation material are commonly used. The most frequently used
products are polystyrene board, fiberglass and paper cellulose. Paper cellulose
insulation is often itself a recycled product with approximately 80% being made from
recycled newspaper (Winkler, 2010). According to Winkler (2010), old cellulose
insulation can be incorporated into new insulation. This practice, however, does not
appear to be widespread, perhaps due to the length of time needed to extract old
cellulose insulation from wall cavities.
While the process of recycling fiberglass batts into fiberglass board products has been
developed, it is not currently economically feasible. Therefore, while fiberglass batts
are occasionally salvaged for reuse, most are currently sent to the landfill in North
America (Winkler, 2010). Armstrong World Industries, however, does accept
commercial fiberglass batting that does not have a paper cover for recycling. They
also accept acoustical insulation. panels for recycling if they meet certain conditions.
For further information on Armstrong's conditions for accepting materials for
recycling, please call their recycling centre at 1877-276-7876.
Polystyrene boards (often known as Styrofoam) are becoming more as an insulation
material for exterior walls. Recycling opportunities for this material are unfortunately
very limited at the moment. Rastra Inc. (www.rastrmcom) is the only company in North

76
America currently accepting used polystyrene boards for recycling. Thecompany has
manufacturing plants in Columbus, Ohio, and Albuquerque, New Mexico, and uses the
recycled material for manufacturing insulated concrete form products (Winkler, 2010).
Current Practices in HRM:
Carpet recycling within the Halifax Regional Municipality is conducted on a limited
basis by InterfaceFLOR, an international manufacturer of carpet floor tiles based in
Georgia, United States. InterfaceFLOR currently recycles commercial carpeting, but is
unable to recycle household carpeting since it lacks central collection depots to stockpile
this product (J. MacNeill, personal communication, August 25, 2011). A general
constraint on carpet recycling is the additional cost of packing the carpet for shipment
to an InterfaceFLOR recycling facility. The current cost of recycling carpeting in HRM
is approximately $.25-.50 per square foot if new InterfaceFLOR carpet tiles are
installed, although the price can be higher if carpeting is removed inefficiently (J.
MacNeill, personal communication, August 25, 2011).
Ceiling tiles and fiberglass insulation are not currently collected on a large scale for
recycling in HRM. The reuse of these materials does occasionally occur, however, if
they remain in good condition during renovations or deconstruction.

77
CHAPTER-6

RECYCLING RATE ESTIMATE & COST BENEFIT ASSESSMENT


This calculation encapsulates your estimates of the total quantities of materials recycled and the
total disposed. The recycling rate is simply the total quantity recycled divided by the sum of the
quantity recycled plus the quantity thrown away. When the plan is first developed, this will be an
estimate, used to forecast an ultimate recycling rate and to assess changes in waste management
procedures that will affect this rate. As the project moves along, it becomes a living record used
to track progress toward recycling goals. If the rate runs below projections, use the results
documented in the plan to find out why, and (particularly if you need a certification) use the plan
to evaluate alternatives to increase the rate.
As noted elsewhere, it's a rare project where recycling is undertaken for strictly environmental
reasons. Recycling needs to be justified financially, as well as environmentally. This section of
the plan - typically a worksheet - is where you make this justification. As you develop the plan
and identify markets, you'll be able to estimate recycling costs, material by material, for
transportation (including containers) and management. You should simultaneously estimate the
cost to dispose of materials as wastes (transportation plus tipping fee), so that you can compare
the cost of recycling versus disposal. Once again, these are estimates that should be updated with
real information as the project moves ahead, so you can compare actual against budgeted waste
management costs, and keep a running track of the savings for recycling compared to disposal.
This is another good morale builder for workers on site, as well as a nice Good News item for
contractor management, architect, and owner.
Rate Analysis for fresh concrete cubes and cutes made of waste aggregate concrete
Cement Bag opc (50kg) =300Rs;6Rs/kg
Aggregate 20mm =40Rs/feet
Aggregate 10mm =38Rs/feet
Sand 33Rs/feet

Now for Fresh Aggregate Concrete


Mix Design M35
It requires;

78
Table6.1(M35 Mix Design)

Sand(kg) Cement(kg) Aggregate {20mm} (kg) Aggregate{10mm} (kg) Water (kg)

16.86 11.34 16.60 13.5 6.5

Cement = 11.34kg (6) =68Rs


Aggregate 20 mm; 1.2(40) =48Rs
Aggregate 10 mm; 1.1(38) = 42Rs
Sand;1.2(33) =40Rs
Total Cost in making 6 Concrete Cubes= Cost of cement + aggregate
20mm+aggregate10mm+Sand+water
Total Cost=200Rs

From Waste Concrete Aggregates are obtained; for this cost analysis we doesn't have cost of
aggregates, overall cost of obtaining aggregates from the waste concrete is considered.
Cost of obtaining aggregates from waste concrete will be approximately Rs87 in which we
consider:

Transportation of waste from demolished site to the desired site where recycling has been
done.
Labour required for the operation.
Machinery and electricity/fuel cost for separating aggregate from the waste concrete.

All other rates are same as above used for fresh concrete
Total cost for 6 cubes is approximately 197Rs

79
For 6 cubes, we have a difference of 3 rupees which is a good result for big structures.

Comparison of cost of 6 concrete cubes:

Price(Rs)

Fresh aggregate cubes

Waste Aggregate Cubes

195.5 196 196.5 197 197.5 198 198.5 199 199.5 200 200.5

BRICKS
As we know that new brick will cost us about 5Rs/brick. In which strength is
also less than old bricks because old bricks are burnt in coal which gives good
strength to thebricks.
So old bricks can also be a good, bricks are separated in different size which consists
of;

Full Brick

Half Brick

Quarter Brick
Full bricks can be cleaned by labour
used for landfills and pavements.
Cleaning of I brick costs less than I rupee which is very good for the reuse.

80
CHAPTER-7

BENEFITS AND FUTURE SCOPE

BENEFITS:
Recycling and reuse of buildings and materials can yield significant economic and
environmental benefits. Reuse promotes historic preservation, conserves both energy and
resources, and contributes to the local economy. Building-related activities (demolition,
remodelling and tenant improvement, new construction and land clearing) generate
construction, remodelling and demolition (CR&D) waste. Slightly more than half of the CR&D
material generated in Portland is disposed in the landfill. This means that more than 25 percent
of Portland's landfill space is construction and demolition debris. Half of this amount could have
been reused or recycled.

Environmental Benefits
Reducing Energy Use and Contribution to Climate Change

Keeping waste material out of the landfill reduces greenhouse gases that contribute to
climate change.
Diverting materials from the landfill puts less pressure on the need to extract and process
raw materials for building or other uses, thereby saving energy and reducing carbon
emissions.
Processing waste material into new products (i.e., recycling) uses significantly less energy
than processing raw materials into new products.

Preserving Embodied Energy

Reusing buildings or materials helps preserve embodied energy --- the energy associated with
the materials of a building throughout its life this includes energy consumed to extract raw
materials; process the materials; transport the materials to a job site; and ultimately dispose of
the materials.

81
Future scope:
In India, nearly 50% of Construction & Demolition waste is being re-used and recycled, while
the remainder is mostly landfilled. In India, it's common practice for large Construction and
Demolition (C&D) projects to pile waste in the road, resulting in traffic congestion. C&D waste
from individual households finds its way into nearby municipal bins and waste storage depots
making the municipal waste heavy, and degrading its quality for treatments such as composting
or energy recovery. The Indian construction industry is highly labour intensive and has
accounted for approximately 50% of the country's capital outlay in successive Five Year Plans,
and projected investment continues to show a growing trend. Out of 48 million tonnes of solid
waste generated in India, C&D waste makes up 25% annually. Rapid economic growth leading
to urbanisation and industrialisation is generating waste, which is adversely affecting the
environment. The percentage of India's population living in cities and urban areas increased
from 14% at the time of independence to 27.8%. Projections for building material requirement
by the housing sector indicate a shortage of aggregates to the extent of about 55,000 million m3.
An additional 750 million m3 of aggregates would be required to achieve the targets of the road
sector. There is also a huge demand for aggregates in the housing and road sectors, but there is
a significant gap in demand and supply. Estimated waste generation during construction is 40
kg per m2 to 60 kg per m2. Similarly, waste generation during renovation and repair work is
estimated to be 40 kg per m2 to 50 kg per m2. The highest contribution to waste generation
comes from the demolition of buildings. Demolition of pucca (permanent) and semi-pucca
buildings, on average generates between 300kg per m2 and 500 kg per m2 of waste, respectively.
The presence of C&D waste and other inert matters makes up almost one third of the total MSW
on an average, but so far no notable development has taken place for using this in an organised
manner. At present, private contractors remove this waste to privately owned, low-lying land
for a price, or more commonly, dump it in an unauthorised manner along roads or other public
land.
The fine dust like material (fines) from C&D waste is not currently being used and is thus
wasted. In more than 95% cases wastes such as bricks, metal, wood, plastics and glass have
some market value and there are contractors who focus solely on dealing in C&D wastes. The
use of these materials requires them to be sorted and separated, and is dependent on their
condition, although the majority of this material is durable and therefore has a high potential
for reuse. It would, however, be desirable to have quality standards for the recycled materials.
An investigation revealed that total waste from India's construction industry could reach 12-14
mt per year. ln view of the significant role of recycled construction material in the development

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of urban infrastructure, the Technology Information, Forecasting & Assessment Council
(TIFAC) has conducted a techno-market survey on 'Utilisation of Waste from Construction
Industry', targeting the house building and road construction industries. The total quantum of
waste from the construction industry is estimated to be between 12 million to 14.7 million
tonnes per annum, out of which seven to eight million tonnes are concrete and brick waste.
According to the surveys findings 70% of the respondents said they were "not aware of the
recycling techniques" as the reason for not recycling C&D waste, while the remaining 30%
have indicated that they are not even aware of recycling possibilities. Furthermore, the Bureau
of Indian Standards (BIS) and other codal provisions do not provide specifications for the use
of recycled products in construction activities.
In July this year, in West Bengal, a consultative committee comprising top level municipal
management and experts from the Centre for Quality Management System and Mechanical
Engineering of Jadavpur University and government departments was formed to address solid
waste management issues, including C&D Wastes.
Construction waste in Delhi Gurgaon Municipal Corporation near Delhi is planning a C&D
waste recycling plant on five acres of land. There is considerable construction activity taking
place in Gurgaon, but no place to dump the C&D wastes. The fast pace of the construction and
renovation work will continue for at least the next five years. Hence, there is need for a C&D
waste processor. With the three existing landfill sites having exhausted their capacity some
time ago, the Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) has given the go-ahead for the
establishment of a sanitary landfill facility at Narela-Bawana in northwest Delhi. The Rs 700
million ($15.5 million) integrated solid waste management facility is being developed to meet
Delhi's garbage disposal needs for the next 20 years. The site is being developed as the first
engineered landfill site in the city and is spread over 150 acres. Approximately 50 acres will
be kept aside for disposing of C&D wastes. The landfill site will take care of refuse from
Rohini and Civil Lines zones, and has an initial capacity to handle1000 tonnes per day, and is
planned to expand to handle 4000 tonnes per day. Around 6500 tonnes per day of MSW is
generated in Delhi. The Narela-Bawana landfill site has been notified under Master Plan 2021.
In addition, the MCD has also carried out a feasibility study on use of C&D waste in road and
embankment construction.
Recycled roads in Kolkata as in many other countries, in Kolkata the recycling of bituminous
material is carried out using hot or cold mixing techniques either on site, or at a central asphalt
mixing plant. It offers benefits including reduced use of asphalt, energy savings and a reduction
in aggregate requirements. Cold in-situ recycling is done by pulverising chunks of road material

83
to in cement, bitumen emulsion or foamed bitumen and compacting. This recycling process is
best suited to roads with light traffic. For hot in-situ recycling, the upper layer of the road is
pre-heated and the asphalt is loosened by milling devices. It is mixed together with a recycling
agent and the mixture is spread along the road and compacted. Both practices are widespread
in Kolkata.

Legislation
In India there has yet to be a concerted effort to waste management. There are however some
initiatives in the issue in isolation, or in tandem with the existing (Management and Handling)
Rules, 2000. One example of this is the state of Maharashtra, which has taken a pioneering step
to include a separate collection and disposal of debris and bulk waste in its Action Plan. Under
the plan each city is required to have a mechanism for the collection and disposal of waste and
construction debris from bulk producers. The Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai has
enacted the "Construction, Demolition and De-Silting Waste (Management and Disposal)
Rules".
Waste recycling plans should be developed for construction and demolition projects, prior to
beginning construction activity. The plans should identify the wastes that will be generated and
designate handling, recycling and disposal methods A minimum of of the total site area should
be allocated for storage and pretreatment of the waste. storage area should be covered and the
pollutants from the waste should not affect the surrounding. Demolition contractors specialise
in planned deconstruction that enables the recovery of good material for re-use to be maximised.
Recovery rates vary from 25% in old buildings to as high as 75% in new buildings. The
demolition of old buildings usually generates wastes such as brick, wood and steel. In India
most of the old buildings are mainly made up of good quality bricks. The foundation of the old
buildings is of load bearing type where a huge number of bricks were used. When an old building
is demolished, almost all the materials are sold at reasonable price. Table1 shows the quantity
and make up of waste per annum in India.
Analysis shows that reuse of construction waste can reduce the cost of low budget houses by
approximately 30% to 35% without compromising the durability of the structure.

84
Conclusion
Legislation needs to specifically address C&D waste management. In addition, the awareness
level and availability of technology for C&D waste re-use and recycling needs to be improved
to make a sustainable change in India. Quality standards for the recycled or re-used products
need to be developed and monitored by Bureau of Indian Standards.

Not much effort has been made in this sector and data on generation and characteristics is
scarcely available. There should be a proper institutional mechanism to take care of the
collection, transportation, intermediate storage (if necessary), utilisation and disposal of C&D
wastes. Appropriate rules should be framed and implemented. Separation of C&D waste
should be promoted at source and private enterprise can ' be gainfully employed for the
collection and transportation of the waste. Public-private-partnership schemes may be a
possible mechanism of implementation of C&D waste management in India.

85
CHAPTER-8

CONCLUSION

To optimize proper functioning and formulation of a project, C & D Waste Management Plan
must start at the earliest possible stage of the project. The management of construction and
demolition waste should be given due consideration throughout the duration of a project in order
to promote an integrated approach. The waste management system should be planned and
implemented which is holistic, integrated and sustainable. The plan should also target for waste
diversion and recycling through implementation of new policies, information technologies,
awareness and waste management facilities. Waste minimization, reuse and recycling should be
managed project wise by nominated C & D waste manager. It is necessary to have more accurate
and detailed data on C & D waste generation. Reduce, Reuse and Recycle [3R's] should be
adopted to minimize C & D waste highly useful in handling of construction and demolition
waste.

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