Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 10

Atri Goswami cont:9433326867/9748199126

2011.

1.Dene Baryon number & Lepton number.


The elementary particles can be devided in two types. i) hadrons , ii) leptons.
Hadrons can also be devided in two ways; a) baryons , b) mesons. these
baryons have merely greater mass than others and leptons are the light most

I
particles. These baryons and leptons are dened by an additional quantum

R M
number. Quantum number corresponding to baryons & leptons are called
baryon number and lepton number respectively. all baryons have baryon

E) A A
number one and lepton number zero(B = 1, L = 0). Similarly all leptons
have baryon number zero & lepton number one (B = 0, L = 1). There are six
W
leptons (e , , , e , , ) & their corrssponding anti leptons. According
to lepton classications lepton number are devided in 3 ways. Le , L &L .
Leptons Le L L
EG A S
e 1 0 0
0 1 0
O


0 0 1
G
e 1 0 0
LL A G

0 1 0
0 0 1
O Y I
S

2.Explain why you don't see i) a baryon with strangeness


C ID R

-2 & electric charge +1 , ii) a muon with strangeness +1


(V AT

& electric charge -1.


As per experimental observation it is cleared that elementary particles are
elements of SU(2) group and they maintain SU(2) group's symetry. So they
must satisfy the relation, Q = I3 + B+S2
(B = baryon no. , I3 = 3rd componant
of Isosspin , S =strangeness no.) Now,
i) Q = 1, B = 1, S = 2 gives I3 = 23 this is not a valid result because it's
only obtained for ++ particle, other wise it will break the symetry & for
++ particle Q = 2, S = 0. Thus nos such baryon has been observed having
Q = 1, S = 2.
ii) Muon itself is a basic constituent of matter a lepton. It's not a strange
particle & not consists any strange quark. So it's not possible.

Atri Goswami cont:9433326867/974819


Atri Goswami cont:9433326867/9748199126

3.Write down an equation feor muon decay. How is lep-

ton number conserved in this interaction.

The equation of muon decay,


e + + e

I
At L.H.S L = 1, Le = 0, L = 0 . And at R.H.S for e,L = 0, Le =

R M
1, L = 0 ; for , L = 1, Le = 0, L = 0 ; e , L = 0, Le = 1, L = 0
So, the total lepton number in R.H.S is L = 1, Le = 1 1 = 0, L = 0
remains same as L.H.S. & lepton number is conserved.
E) A A W
2010.
EG A S
1. Explain why a hyperon doesn't decay into a + &
mesons.
O

The particles in Hyperon category are, , , , . So if they decay into


G
+ & mesons are
LL A G

0 + +
0 + +
+ +
O Y I
S
C ID R

+ + +
0 + +
+ +
(V AT

+ +
Hyperons are all baryons, so they can't decay into two mesons, because
baryon number cannot be conserved & for some equations like (3),(4),(6),(7)
charge is also not conserved. So, this type of reactions are not possible.

Atri Goswami cont:9433326867/974819


Atri Goswami cont:9433326867/9748199126

2.A hadron has a quark content us. Find the baryon

number, charge,spin and strangeness of this hadron. Can

you identify this hadron?

Properties u s
1
B 3
13

I
u & s has properties, Q + 32 + 13 So, it's not a baryon.

R M
spin 1
2
1
2
S 0 +1
Then its obviously a meson because lepton doesn't content any quark. It's

E) A A charge is +1 & strangeness is +1 & spin is 12 . The meson is K + meson.


W
3. Neutrons take part only in weak interaction, elec-
EG A S
trons in both weak and e.m and quarks in weak, e.m and

strong. Discuss why.


O

A neutron is heavier than a proton (its sister nucleon), but it cannot decay
into a proton without changing the avor (type) of one of its two down quarks
G
LL A G

to up. Neither the strong interaction nor electromagnetism permit avour


changing, so this must proceed by weak decay; without weak decay, quark
properties such as strangeness and charm (associated with the quarks of the
O Y I

same name) would also be conserved across all interactions.


S
C ID R

Electrons belong to the group of subatomic particles called leptons, which


are believed to be fundamental or elementary particles. Leptons dier from
(V AT

the other basic constituent of matter, the quarks. The strong interaction
is the force (carried by gluons) that holds quarks together to form protons,
neutrons and other hadron particles. So as a lepton electron takes part both
in weak and e.m interaction & lack of strong interaction.
Quarks can interact by both W , Z bosons and gluons and photons. So,
they can take part in weak,e.m and strong interaction.

4. Explain why strangeness quantum number in intro-

duced?

During the middle age of 20th century,The existence some particles are are
proved. They behaved rather unexpectedly. They produced continuously
but decay relatively slowly. i.e., they are produced by the strong force and

Atri Goswami cont:9433326867/974819


Atri Goswami cont:9433326867/9748199126

decay by the weak force. Because of this strange behaviour, Gellmann &
Nishijima assigned a new property to these particles, called strange^ness
& these particles are called strange particle. Strangeness is assumed to be
conserved in strong interaction not in the weak. e.g, 0 is produced by strong
interation between & p. But 0 decays into & p via weak interaction.

I
5. Write down the quark content of the following parti-

R M
cles. n, 0 , + , .
+ = ud ; = sss

E) A A
n = udd ; 0 = udd ;
W
2009.

1. What are quarks?Outline the basic assumptions and


EG A S
properties of quarks.

In 1963 Murray Gellmann & George Zweig independently proposed that


O

the known hadrons have amore elemental sub-structure. According to their


G
model , all hadrons are composite systems of two or three fundumental con-
LL A G

stituents called quarks.


The original three quarks were called up(u), down(d) & strange/sideways(s).
Where as u, d quarks has a strangeness no: s = 0. the s quark has strangeness
O Y I
S

no: s = 1. As each baryon is made of three quarks, the baryon number


C ID R

of each quark is B = 31 . Antibaryons are made of antiquarks. So, they have


baryon number B = 1/3. A most unusual property of quark is fractional
(V AT

charges. The u, d&s quark has charge + 23 e, 13 e, 31 e respectively. Where e


is the charge of an electron. Each quark has spin 12 .

2008.

1.what is the intrinsic parity of pion? What are its spin


and isospin values?

The intrinsic parity of pion is odd. Its intrinsic spin is zero & its isospin is
one.

Atri Goswami cont:9433326867/974819


Atri Goswami cont:9433326867/9748199126

2.Indicate the fundamental interactions through which

the following processes occur. Justify your answer.

n p + e + e ; + + + ; e+ + e ; 0 0 + ; 0 +
; K + + + 0 +
1st: beta decay weak interaction. 2nd: decays into a lepton, weak in-
teraction. 3rd,4th,5th: contains photon e.m interaction. 6th: has leptons

I
strangeness is not conserved, weak interaction.

R M
E) A A
2007.
W
1.Name a reaction in which parity is not conserved. Which

class of interaction does this reaction belong to?


EG A S
In charged pion decay parity is not conserved. + + + . + has odd
intrinsic parity,but + & has no parity at all. This is an example of weak
O

interaction.
G
LL A G

2006.
O Y I

1.What is resonance?
S
C ID R

The most straightforward explanation of resonance particles, or resonances,


is that they are extremely short lived particles. The lifetime of these parti-
(V AT

cles is on the order of 1023 seconds. Traveling at the speed of light, these
particles could only travel about 10-15 meters, or about the diameter of a
proton, before decaying. Distances of this magnitude cannot be measured
in bubble chambers or any other device for detecting subatomic particles. If
we graph the results of our observations for the cross-section of the particles
versus the total energy of the particles, we can see that the graphs have peaks
and valleys. A resonance is the peak located around a certain energy found
in dierential cross sections of scattering experiments. These peaks are as-
sociated with subatomic particles (such as nucleons, delta baryons, upsilon
mesons) and their excitations. The width of the resonance () is related to
the lifetime ( ) of the particle (or its excited state) by the relation , = 2
h
.

Atri Goswami cont:9433326867/974819


Atri Goswami cont:9433326867/9748199126

2. Give an example of a reaction in which strangeness is


not conserved. What type of interaction does it involve?
Year 2008, Question no:3, last reaction

3. Why neutron doesn't decay into an electron and a

I
positron?

R M
Mass energy conservation law doesn't support the reaction.

E) A A 2005.
W
1. What is eightfold way? What is its importance in
classication of particle?
EG A S
In physics, the Eightfold Way is a term coined by Murray Gell-Mann for a
O

theory organizing subatomic baryons and mesons into octets (alluding to the
Noble Eightfold Path of Buddhism). The theory was independently proposed
G
LL A G

by Yuval Ne'eman and led to the subsequent development of the quark model.
In addition to organizing the mesons and spin-1/2 baryons into an octet, the
principles of the Eightfold Way also applied to the spin-3/2 baryons, forming
O Y I

a decuplet. However, one of the particles of this decuplet had never been pre-
S
C ID R

viously observed. Gell-Mann called this particle the O- and predicted in 1962
that it would have a strangeness -3, electric charge -1 and a mass near 1,680
(V AT

MeV/c2 . In 1964, a particle closely matching these predictions was discovered


by a particle accelerator group at Brookhaven. Gell-Mann received the 1969
Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the theory of elementary particles.
The Eightfold Way may be understood in modern terms as a consequence of
avor symmetries between various kinds of quarks. Since the strong nuclear
force aects quarks the same way regardless of their avor, replacing one a-
vor of quark with another in a hadron should not alter its mass very much.
Mathematically, this replacement may be described by elements of the SU(3)
group. The octets and other arrangements are representations of this group.

Atri Goswami cont:9433326867/974819


Atri Goswami cont:9433326867/9748199126

2000.

Interpret beta decay of neutron on quark model


A neutron (udd) decays to a proton (uud), an electron, and an antineutrino.

This is called neutron beta decay. The neutron (charge = 0) made of up,

down, down quarks.One of the down

I
R M
quarks is transformed into an up

quark. Since the down quark has a

charge of -1/3 and and the up quark

E) A A
has a charge of 2/3, it follows that

W this process is mediated by a virtual

W particle, which carries away a (-

1) charge (thus charge is conserved!).

Then the new up quark rebounds


EG A S
away from the emitted W . The
O

neutron now has become a proton.

An electron and antineutrino emerge from the virtual W- boson and the
G
proton, electron, and the antineutrino move away from one another.
LL A G

1999.
O Y I
S
C ID R

What is parity?
(V AT

The parity transformation is a discrete transformation unlike translation and

rotation. This is a symmetry transformation in the sense that the hamilto-

nian of a system is invariant under the transformation then we recognize

parity P as a conserved quantity. It is multiplicative rather than additive.

Parity of elementary particles are considered as intrinsic property.\ Since

parity is multiplicative the overall parity is given by 1L times of quark and

anti-quark. e.g., Pion has odd intrinsic parity. Pion has quark-anti quark

pair in a state of relative orbital angular momentum L = 0. The parity is

written as JP . Where J is total angular momentum and P is the Parity(even

or odd).

Atri Goswami cont:9433326867/974819


Atri Goswami cont:9433326867/9748199126

I
R M
E) A A W
EG A SO
G
LL A G
O Y I
S
C ID R
(V AT

Atri Goswami cont:9433326867/974819


Atri Goswami cont:9433326867/9748199126

I
R M
E) A A W
EG A SO
G
LL A G
O Y I
S
C ID R
(V AT

Atri Goswami cont:9433326867/974819


Atri Goswami cont:9433326867/9748199126

I
R M
E) A A W
EG A SO
G
LL A G
O Y I
S
C ID R
(V AT

Atri Goswami cont:9433326867/974819