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Thermal insulation design.

Envelope Elements.

OUTER WALL
No. Material layer Layer thickness [m] Thermal conductivity ()[W/mK] d/
1 1/i - - 0,125
2 Lime plaster 0,03 0,87 0,034483
3 R.C. Wall 0,2 1,62 0,123457
Rigid mineral
4 wool 0,1 0,05 2
5 Cement plaster 0,015 0,93 0,016129
6 1/2 - - 0,042
Total thermal rezistance of the element R= 2,341069
R.M.W insulation board with basalt fibers type PB 160

No. Material layer Layer thickness [m] Thermal conductivity ()[W/mK] d/


1 1/i - - 0,125
2 Lime plaster 0,03 0,87 0,034483
3 Masonry wall(BCA) 0,2 0,30 0,666667
4 Rigid mineral wool 0,1 0,05 2
5 Cement plaster 0,015 0,93 0,016129
6 1/2 - - 0,042
Total thermal rezistance of the element R= 2,884278
Masonry wall(BCA) -- autoclaved concrete blocks with usual joints, type GBN 30

Floor over basement


cold flooring
No. Material layer Layer thickness [m] Thermal conductivity ()[W/mK] d/
1 1/i - - 0,167
2 Ceramic tiles 0,015 2,03 0,007389
3 Mortar bead 0,03 0,93 0,032258
4 R.C. Slab 0,15 1,62 0,092593
5 Rigid mineral wool 0,18 0,05 3,6
6 Ceiling plaster 0,015 0,18 0,083333
7 1/2 - - 0,084
Total thermal rezistance of the element R= 4,066573
warm flooring
No. Material layer Layer thickness [m] Thermal conductivity ()[W/mK] d/
1 1/i - - 0,167
2 Parquet 0,01 0,17 0,058824
3 Mortar bead 0,03 0,93 0,032258
4 R.C. Slab 0,15 1,62 0,092593
5 Rigid mineral wool 0,18 0,05 3,6
6 Ceiling plaster 0,015 0,18 0,083333
7 1/2 - - 0,084
Total thermal rezistance of the element R= 4,118008

Terrace roof
No. Material layer Layer thickness [m] Thermal conductivity ()[W/mK] d/
1 1/i - - 0,167
2 Ceiling plaster 0,015 0,18 0,083333
3 R.C. Slab 0,15 1,62 0,092593
4 Sloping layer 0,05 0,93 0,053763
5 Water vapour barrier 0,002 0,38 0,005263
6 Rigid mineral wool 0,3 0,05 6
7 Waterproof layer 0,003 0,38 0,007895
Protecting
8 layer(bitumen) 0,05 0,17 0,294118
9 1/2 - - 0,084
Total thermal rezistance of the element R= 6,787965
W.V.B and W.L. Are -- PVC carpet with =1800 kg/ m3
Floor over the basement

Outer wall

Terrace roof
Thermal Bridges
Determination Of "G"
Bridge detail

Thermal Corrected Temp.


Heat Thermal
Building bridge Area thermal corr. Ax/
No. loss xl resistance (xl) R'm
element length (A) resistance Factor R'm
() (R)
(l) (R'j) ()
W/mK m W/K m^2 m^2k/w W/K m^2k/w - m2/W W/K
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Outer
0,06 28 1,68
corner
Walls 0,04 56 2,24
North intersection 0,06 56 3,36
1. 210,06 2,88 27,772 2,0858012 1 1,917 109,558
faade Attic 0,14 18,8 2,632
Current 0,09 75,2 6,768
floor 0,11 75,2 8,272

Basement 0,15 18,8 2,82

Outer
0,06 28 1,68
corner
Walls 0,04 56 2,24
intersection 0,06 56 3,36
Attic 0,14 18,8 2,632
South
1. Current 0,09 44,8 4,032 177,86 2,88 32,636 1,884251 1 1,917 92,7639
faade
floor 0,11 44,8 4,928
Current 0,21 30,4 6,384
floor &
balcony 0,15 30,4 4,56

Basement 0,15 18,8 2,82


Outer
0,1 28 2,8
corner

Walls
0,14 28 3,92
East intersection
1. 191,86 2,34 21,684 1,8505827 1 1,917 100,066
faade
Attic 0,15 11,6 1,74
Current 0,11 46,4 5,104
floor 0,13 46,4 6,032

Basement 0,18 11,6 2,088

Outer
0,1 28 2,8
corner

Walls
0,14 28 3,92
West intersection
1. 191,86 2,34 21,684 1,8505827 1 1,917 100,066
faade
Attic 0,15 11,6 1,74
Current 0,11 46,4 5,104
floor 0,13 46,4 6,032

Basement 0,18 11,6 2,088

Floor 0,25 36,8 9,2


2. over the Basement 0,11 81,6 8,976 166,64 4,06 24,224 2,5531523 0,538 2,553 35,1144
basement 0,27 22,4 6,048
Terrace 0,18 36,8 6,624
3. Attic 166,64 6,84 10,88 4,7283721 1 4,728 35,2426
roof 0,19 22,4 4,256
Carpentry
1 Openings 0,27 122,6 33,1
N
Carpentry
2 Openings 0,27 102 27,54
S
97,362 0,5 1 0,5 194,724
Carpentry
3 Openings 0,27 68 18,36
E
Carpentry
4 Openings 0,27 68 18,36
V
= 667,534
Evaluation of the condensation risk

Datas for Braila, climatic zone IV: -Ti=+20 C;

- Te= -12 C;

- Te, med= +10.5 C;

- i= 50% ; e= 80%

1. Establishing of the temperature variation in the structure of the element:


(Ti Te )
Tsi = Ti R si [ C]
R
x
(Ti Te) 1 di
Tx = Ti ( + ) [ ]
R i i
1

a) reinforced concrete wall

No. Material layer Layer thickness [m] Thermal conductivity ()[W/mK] d/


1 1/i - - 0,125
2 Lime plaster 0,015 0,87 0,0172
3 R.C. Wall 0,2 1,74 0,1149
4 Rigid mineral wool 0,1 0,045 2
5 Cement plaster 0,015 0,93 0,016129
6 1/e - - 0,042
Total thermal rezistance of the element R= 3.5

Tsi= 19.66C

T2= 16.76C
T3= 16.4C
T4= -10.96C
T5=10.51C

b) masonry wall

No. Material layer Layer thickness [m] Thermal conductivity ()[W/mK] d/


1 1/i - - 0,125
2 Lime plaster 0,0.15 0,87 0,0172
3 Masonry wall(BCA) 0,2 0,8 0.25
4 Rigid mineral wool 0,1 0.045 2
5 Cement plaster 0,015 0,93 0,016129
6 1/2 - - 0,042
Total thermal rezistance of the element R= 3.37
Masonry wall(BCA) -- autoclaved concrete blocks with usual joints, type GBN 30

Tsi= 18,223 C
T2= 17,73 C
T3= 8,26 C
T4= -20,17 C
T5= -20,40 C
c) terrace roof

No. Material layer Layer thickness [m] Thermal conductivity ()[W/mK] d/


1 1/i - - 0,167
2 Ceiling plaster 0,015 0,7 0,0214
3 R.C. Slab 0,15 1,74 0,0821
4 Sloping layer 0,05 0,93 0,053763
5 Water vapour barrier 0,002 0,87 0,002298
6 Extruded polystyrene 0,3 0,05 6
7 Waterproof layer 0,003 0,17 0,0176
Protecting
8 layer(bitumen) 0,1 0,7 0,14285
9 1/2 - - 0,084
Total thermal rezistance of the element R= 6.5
Tsi= 19 C T5= 17,59 C
T2= 18,50 C T6= -18,69 C
T3= 17,94 C T7= -18,74 C
T4= 17,62 C T8= -20,49 C

2. The determination of the saturated vapour pressure of the inside and outside air
(pse,psi) and the saturated vapour pressure on each surface ( ps,si,ps1, ...ps,se).
psi=2340 [Pa]; pse= 93 [Pa].
a) Reinforced concrete wall
Tsi= 17,81 C ps,si= 2039 [Pa]

T2= 17,207 Cps2 = 1963 [Pa]


T3= 15,04 Cps3 = 1706 [Pa]
T4= -19,98 Cps4= 104 [Pa]
T5= -20,26 Cps5 = 101 [Pa]
b) Masonry wall
Tsi= 18,223 Cps,si= 2091 [Pa]
T2= 17,73 Cps2= 2027 [Pa]
T3= 8,26 C- ps3= 1088 [Pa]
T4= -20,17 Cps4= 102 [Pa]
T5= -20,40 Cps5= 99 [Pa]
Terrace roof

Tsi= 19 C ps,si= 2197 [Pa]; T5= 17,59 Cps5= 2001 [Pa];


T2= 18,50 C ps2= 2132 [Pa]; T6= -18,69 Cps6= 118 [Pa];
T3= 17,94 C ps3= 2052 [Pa]; T7= -18,74 Cps7= 117 [Pa];
T4= 17,62 C ps4= 2014 [Pa]; T8= -20,49 Cps8= 99 [Pa].

3. The determination of outside and inside air water vapours partial pressure: pve ,
pvi.
psi i pse e [Pa].
pvi = ; pve =
100 100

pvi= 1404 [Pa];

pve= 65.1 [Pa].

4. Computation of the vapour resistivity of each material.


m
R v = R v,1 + R v,2 + + R v,n = R v,j = dj Dj M [ ]
s

Mj= ; = .

a) Reinforced concrete wall

Material layer Thickness Mj 1/Kd Rv


Lime plaster 0,03 5400000000 5,3 858600000
R.C: wall 0,2 5400000000 21,3 2,3E+10
R.M.W. 0,1 5400000000 2,5 1,35E+09
Cement plaster 0,015 5400000000 7,1 575100000

2
Rv,2=22 = 8.58* 108 m/s
2
Rv,3= 2,3*1010 m/s;
Rv,4= 1,35*109 m/s;
Rv,5= 5,75*108 m/s.
b) Masonry wall

Material layer Thickness Mj 1/Kd Rv


Lime plaster 0,03 5400000000 5,3 858600000
Masonry 0,2 5400000000 4,3 4,644E+09
R.M.W. 0,1 5400000000 2,5 1,35E+09
Cement plaster 0,015 5400000000 7,1 575100000

Rv,2= 8,58*108 m/s;


Rv,3= 4,644* 109 m/s;
Rv,4= 1,35*109 m/s;
Rv,5= 5,75*108 m/s.
c) Plate over the unheated basement
Material layer Layer thickness [m] Mj 1/Kd Rv
Ceramic tiles 0,015 5400000000 17 1377000000
Mortar bead 0,03 5400000000 7,1 1150200000
R.C. Slab 0,15 5400000000 21,3 1,7253E+10
Rigid mineral wool 0,18 5400000000 2,5 2430000000
Ceiling plaster 0,015 5400000000 1,7 137700000

Rv,2= 13,77*108 m/s; Rv,5= 24,3*108 m/s;

Rv,3= 11,5 *108 m/s; Rv,6= 13,77 *107 m/s.

Rv,4= 1,73* 1010 m/s;

5. Graphical representation of the building element


6. Graphical representation of partial and saturated pressures diagrams.
Loads computations

Permanent Loads
- given by the self weight of the building elements
- constant value, calculated on the basis of nominal dimension and specific weight
The building elements that you need to consider are:
Shear outer walls
Non-load bearing outer walls
Terrace roof
Floor over the unheated basement
Current floors
Load bearing and partition walls
Stairs

Self weight of the outer wall(B.C.A)


No. Material layer Specific weight(Xg) Characteristic load(gk)
Layer thickness(d) F Design load(gd)
[m] [N/m3] [N/m2] [N/m2]
1 Lime plaster 0,03 17000 510 688,5
2 Masonry 0,2 8250 1650 2227,5
1,35
3 Rigid Mineral wool 0,1 1600 160 216
4 Cement plaster 0,015 18000 270 364,5
Self-weight on sq.m of element 2590 3496,5

Self weight of the outer wall(R.C)


No. Material layer Layer thickness(d) Specific weight(Xg) Characteristic load(gk) F Design load(gd)
[m] [N/m3] [N/m2] [N/m2]
1 Lime plaster 0,03 17000 510 688,5
2 R.C shear wall 0,2 24000 4800 6480
1,35
3 Rigid Mineral wool 0,1 1600 160 216
4 Cement plaster 0,015 18000 270 364,5
Self-weight on sq.m of element 5740 7749

Self weight of the inner wall (Masonry)


Specific Characteristic
No. Material layer Layer thickness(d) weight(Xg) load(gk) F Design load(gd)
[m] [N/m3] [N/m2] [N/m2]
1 Lime plaster 0,03 17000 510 688,5
2 Masonry 0,2 8250 1650 1,35 2227,5
3 Lime plaster 0,03 17000 510 688,5
Self-weight on sq.m of element 2670 3604,5
Self weight of the inner wall (R.C)
No. Material layer Layer thickness(d) Specific weight(Xg) Characteristic load(gk) F Design load(gd)
[m] [N/m3] [N/m2] [N/m2]
1 Lime plaster 0,03 17000 510 688,5
2 R.C Shear wall 0,2 24000 4800 1,35 6480
3 Lime plaster 0,03 24000 720 972

Self-weight on sq.m of element 6030 8140,5

Self weight of the terrace roof


No. Material layer Layer thickness(d) Specific weight(Xg) Characteristic load(gk) F Design load(gd)
[m] [N/m3] [N/m2] [N/m2]
1 Ceiling plaster 0,015 5000 75 101,25
2 R.C slab 0,15 24000 3600 4860
3 Sloping layer 0,05 18000 900 1215
4 W.V.B 0,02 9150 183 247,05
1,35
5 Diffusion layer 0 0
6 Extruded Polystyrene 0,2 9600 1920 2592
7 Water proof layer 0,003 9150 27,45 37,0575
8 Protecting layer 0,05 11000 550 742,5
Self-weight on sq.m of element 7255,45 9794,8575

Self weight of the


floor over the
basement(Cold)
Specific Characteristic
No. Material layer Layer thickness(d) weight(Xg) load(gk) F Design load(gd)
[m] [N/m3] [N/m2] [N/m2]
1 Ceramic tiles 0,015 24000 360 486
2 Mortar bead 0,03 18000 540 729
3 R.C Slab 0,15 24000 3600 1,35 4860
4 Rigid mineral wool 0,18 1600 288 388,8
5 Ceiling plaster 0,015 5000 75 101,25
Self-weight on sq.m of element 4788 6565,05
Self weight of the
floor over the
basement(warm)
Specific Characteristic
No. Material layer Layer thickness(d) weight(Xg) load(gk) F Design load(gd)
[m] [N/m3] [N/m2] [N/m2]
1 Parquete 0,01 6000 60 81
2 Mortar bead 0,03 18000 540 729
3 R.C Slab 0,15 24000 3600 1,35 4860
4 Rigid mineral wool 0,2 1600 320 432
5 Ceiling plaster 0,015 5000 75 101,25
Self-weight on sq.m of element 4595 6203,25

Self weight of the current floor with cold


finishing
Specific Characteristic
No. Material layer Layer thickness(d) weight(Xg) load(gk) F Design load(gd)
[m] [N/m3] [N/m2] [N/m2]
1 Ceramic tiles 0,1 24000 2400 3240
2 Mortar bead 0,03 18000 540 729
1,35
3 R.C. Slab 0,15 24000 3600 4860
4 Ceiling plaster 0,015 5000 75 101,25
Self-weight on sq.m of element 6615 8930,25

Self weight of the current floor with


warm finishing
Specific Characteristic
No. Material layer Layer thickness(d) weight(Xg) load(gk) F Design load(gd)
[m] [N/m3] [N/m2] [N/m2]
1 Parquet 0,1 6000 600 810
2 Wood board 0,024 5500 132 178,2
1,35
3 R.C. Slab 0,15 24000 3600 4860
4 Ceiling plaster 0,015 5000 75 101,25
Self-weight on sq.m of element 4407 5949,45
Self weight of the stairs
Specific Characteristic
No. Material layer Layer thickness(d) weight(Xg) load(gk) F Design load(gd)
[m] [N/m3] [N/m2] [N/m2]
1 Finishing 0,015 24000 360 486
2 Mortar bead 0,02 18000 360 486
1,35
3 R.C. Slab 0,2 24000 4800 6480
4 Ceiling plaster 0,015 5000 75 101,25
Self-weight on sq.m of element 5595 7553,25

Categories of
laoded areas qk [KN/sqm]
floors 1,5
stairs 3
balconies 2,5
not accessible
roofs 0,75
accesible roofs 1,5

Variable Loads

Specific Character Design


No. Material layer Layer thickness f
weight istic load load (gd)
0 - [m] [N/m^3] [N/m^2] [N/m^2]
1 Lime plaster 0,005 17000 85 114,75
2 Gypsum board 0,048 11000 528 712,8
1,35
3 Mineral wool 0,08 600 48 64,8
4 Lime plaster 0,005 17000 85 114,75
Self-weight on sq m of the element 746 1007,1
100,71 daN/m^2
Specific Character Design
No. Material layer Layer thickness f
weight istic load load (gd)
0 - [m] [N/m^3] [N/m^2] [N/m^2]
1 Lime plaster 0,005 17000 85 114,75
2 Masonry 0,15 8250 1237,5 1,35 1670,625
4 Lime plaster 0,005 17000 85 114,75
Self-weight on sq m of the element 1407,5 1900,125
the weight of the wall 190 daN/m^2
The equivalent uniform distributed load100 daN/m^2

Charact
Specific Design
eristic
No. Material layer Layer thickness (d) weight F load
load
(xg) (g d )
(g k )
[m] [N/m3] [N/m2] - [N/m2]
0 1 2 3 4=2x3 5 6=4x5
1 Lime plaster 0,02 17000 340 459
2 Brick wall 0,15 18000 2700 3645
1,35
3 Rigid mineral wool 0,1 1600 160 216
4 Cement plaster 0,02 18000 360 486

Snow loads:

sk=i*Ce*Ct*s0,k
Ce=1
Ct=1
(0, 30 ) = 0.8
Where sk=characteristic value of the snow load on the roof
i=shape coefficient
Ce=exposure coefficient, depending on the type of exposure
Ct=thermal factor
s0,k=characteristic value of the snow load on the ground, depending on the location of the
building

1= 0,8
Buildings in city
Ce= 1,2 centers
S0,k= 3 Zone 3 [kN/m^2]
Ct= 1

Sk= 2,88 [kN/m^2]


Live loads
a. Imposed loads on buildings, arising from occupancy
b. Given by
i. Normal use by people, furniture and other movable objects,
ii. Anticipating rare events, such as concentrations of persons or furniture,
stacking objects,etc
c. Considered as uniformly distributed loads, live loads or concentrated loads or a
combination of them
d. According to SR RN 1991-1-1 depending on the specific use of the areas
1. Category A- Areas for domestic and residential activities

PERMANENT LOADS FROM THE SELF WEIGHT OF THE SLABS


Loads Weight Weight
Surface Surface Loads Total of
on of the of the No. of
Type of Total with with on cold Total each
warm warm cold similar
floor surface warm cold flooring weight type of
flooring flooring flooring floors
flooring flooring solution floor
solution solution solution
Pi St Sw Sc gc gr Gw Gc G - Gt
- m^2 m^2 m^2 KN/m^2 KN/m^2 KN Kn Kn - KN
P1 39,5 32 7,5 5,949 8,93 190,368 66,975 257,343 1 257,343
P2 39,4 34,8 4,6 5,949 8,93 207,0252 41,078 248,1032 1 248,1032
P3 39 28,8 10,2 5,949 8,93 171,3312 91,086 262,4172 1 262,4172
P4 39,8 28,5 11,3 5,949 8,93 169,5465 100,909 270,4555 1 270,4555
P5 18,9 16,2 2,7 5,949 8,93 96,3738 24,111 120,4848 1 120,4848
P6 18,9 0 18,9 7,553 8,93 0 168,777 168,777 1 168,777
1327,581
Variable loads

Total of
Unitary No.of
Type of Total each
variable Variable similar
floor surface type of
loads load floors
floors

Pi St q Q - Qt
- m^2 KN/m^2 KN/m^2 - KN
1 2 3 4 5 6
P1 39,5 2,5 98,75 1 98,75
P2 39,4 2,5 98,5 1 98,5
P3 39 1,5 58,5 1 58,5
P4 39,8 1,5 59,7 1 59,7
P5 18,9 2,5 47,25 1 47,25
P6 18,9 3 56,7 1 56,7
425,4

Permanent loads from the self weight of the ext walls


Weight
The Walls Loads on Total Total of
Loads of the Weight of No.of
Type of Total surface surface wall weight each
from wall the similar
floor surface of the without without of the type of
carpentry without carpentry walls
openings openings openings wall floors
openings
Ei St So Sn gp go Gn Go G - Qt
- m^2 m^2 m^2 KN/m^2 KN/m^2 KN KN KN - KN
E1 6,6 3 3,6 7,749 0,5 27,8964 1,5 29,3964 2 58,7928
E2 3,3 1,6 1,7 7,749 0,5 13,1733 0,8 13,9733 2 27,9466
E3 6,6 3,6 3 7,749 0,5 23,247 1,8 25,047 1 25,047
E4 6,6 2,2 4,4 3,4965 0,5 15,3846 1,1 16,4846 2 32,9692
E5 6,6 1,6 5 3,4965 0,5 17,4825 0,8 18,2825 2 36,565
E6 6,6 3 3,6 7,749 0,5 27,8964 1,5 29,3964 1 29,3964
210,717
Permanent loads from the self weight of the int walls
Weight
The Walls Loads on Total Total of
Type Loads of the Weght of No.of
Total surface surface wall weight each
of from wall the similar
surface of the without without of the type of
floor carpentry without carpentry walls
openings openings openings wall floors
openings
Ii St So Sn gp go Gn Go G - Qt
- m^2 m^2 m^2 KN/m^2 KN/m^2 KN KN KN - KN
I1 6,4 1,6 4,8 7,857 0,5 37,7136 0,8 38,5136 2 77,0272
I2 6,4 1 5,4 7,857 0,5 42,4278 0,5 42,9278 2 85,8556
I3 6,4 0 6,4 7,857 0,5 50,2848 0 50,2848 1 50,2848
I4 6,4 1,3 5,1 7,857 0,5 40,0707 0,65 40,7207 1 40,7207
I5 6,4 1,8 4,6 7,857 0,5 36,1422 0,9 37,0422 1 37,0422
290,9305

Gwalls= 501,648

self-weight of the slab


loads evaluation on the terrace roof plan

Loads
Surface
Type of on the Total No.of similar Total
of the
floor terrace weight floors loads
floor
floor

Pi St gc Gterr - Qt
- m^2 KN/m^2 KN - KN
P1 217,8 9,572 2084,782 1 2084,782

Loads
Type of Attic from Total No.of Total
floor surface the weight similar walls load
attic
Pi St gc Gatt - Gt,att
- m^2 KN/m^2 KN - KN
E1,att 27,36 4,806 131,4922 1 131,4922
Variable
loads
Total of
Total Unitary No. of
Type of Variable each
surface of variable similar
floor load type of
the floor load floors
floors
Pterr St q Qterr - Qt,terr
2 2
- m KN/m Kn - KN
1 2 3 4=2X3 5 6=4X5
P1,terr 217,8 1,5 326,7 1 326,7

Loads evalution on the whole building

Loads evaluation on the whole building

G = G1 + G2 + G3 + G4 + G5

G1 = G2 = G3 = G4 = Gc

G=4xGc + G5=10215,5
Gc = Ge,walls + Gi,walls + Gslab + ndi(Qlive or
Gd,walls)=1999,39
G5 = Gt,terr + Gt,att + 0.5 Gwall + ndi (Sk or
Qk)=2217,93

Gc= 1999,388
G5= 2217,929

G= 10215,48
Assesment of vertical and horizontal loads for
the design of buildings with structural
sheal walls

The combination of actions for seismic design is done in the ULS according to
European Standard EN 1990:2002 and to Romanian CR 0-2005 using the following formula:

Gk,j+ 1*Aek + 2,i*Qk,i=13740,3392

Where: Gk,j=characteristic value of a permanent action


Qk,i=characteristic value of the accompanying
2,i=coefficient for determining cvasipermanent value of the variable action
Aek=characteristic value of seismic action
1=importance factor of the building

Basic seismic force


Tc- corner period
Tc=1,0 s
Gtot=Groof+4*Gfloor
Groof=0.5*Gwall+Gterr+Gattic+0.4*max(Qsnow or Qterrace)
=2215,965
Gfloor=Gwalls+Gslab+0.4*max(Qliveload or Qinternalwalls)
=1999,39 KN
=>Gtot=10213,52 KN
=>Fb=0.18*Gtot=1940,57 KN

Active sections to shear force

bh
, =

Am,t-active area of the wall
b,h-thickness and length of the web
k- correction coefficient

Seismic load distribution

-the level seismic force that are distributed to each shear wall (considered on the direction
of calculation) proportionally with the walls stiffness (ks)
-the seismic load has a linear variation on the height of the building
-the shear walls are connected to each level by rigid floor slabsand act together under
vertical or horizontal load
Element no 1

Am1 =2,008 m2
Im1=0,5049 m4
YG1 =2924,345
k = 1.0 for I and C sections
A 2
m,t=1,348 m
Element no 2

Im2 =3,4715m4
k = 1.1 for T and L sections
A 2
m,t=1,018 m
Am 2
2=1,20 m
YG2 =2926,2147
Element no 3

I m3 =1,9788m4
Am3=1,00 m2
YG3=2928,4031
k = 1.1 for T and L sections
A 2
t,m=0.866 m

Element no 4

I m4 =0,0208m4
k = 1.1 for T and L sections
A 2
t,m=0,14 m
2
Am4=0,68 m
YG4=2930,8290
Element no 5=Element 2

Im5 =3,4715m4
k = 1.1 for T and L sections
A 2
m,t=1,018 m
Am 2
5=1,20 m
YG5 =2926,2147
Coupling beam:
A,rt= b*hr/k
A,rt=0,12 m2
Ir=b*hr3/12
Ir=0,005716 m4
l=l0+2a
a=0,35*0,7=0,245
l=0,9+2*0,245=1,39

Corrected equivalent inertia moment

s I0
= s I0
1 + s
,

H- height of the building


I0-Inertia moment of the repacing structure
s-factor which depend on the number of floors
s-factor that depend on the number of storey, , coefficients
-factor that depend on the axial deformation of the stanchions
Wall no 1- Shear wall with one line of unsymetrical openings
-composed by element 1&2;

Im,i-sum of inertia moments of the composed stanchions cross-section


Am1,Amn-active area to eccentric compression of the first and last stanchion from the shear wall
Art-Active area of the coupling beam
L1,n-Distance between the centroids of the first and last stanchion
Ir-moment of inertia of the coupling beam
l- design length of the coupling beam l=l0+2a
Er-elastic modulus of the coupling beam
Er=0.25Em=0.25Econcrete Ec=30000MPa
he- height of the story

L=1,8692m
Er=7500*103
2
= + =0,0317
1 2
6 3
= ( )

1
= 30 = 2,02
1 + 2
Kr=675963,48
,1 +,2
= =21294107,13 Knm
2
,1 ,1
,1 = =5409642,857 Knm

,2 ,2
,2 = =37178571,42 Knm

1+2 1
=1+ ( ) =1,02
2 1 +2

2
I0= 1 1 =10,26 m4

1 2

= 0,02
= 10,86

I0 0,0210,26
Ies = I = 0,0210,26 =8,58 m4
1+ 2 0 1+10.86 2
, 14.6 (1,348+1,018)
Wall no 2 -Shear wall with two or more lines of openings
-composed by element 3, 4,5;
Im,i-sum of inertia moments of the composed stanchions cross-section
Am1,Amn-active area to eccentric compression of the first and last stanchion from the shear wall
Art-Active area of the coupling beam
L1,n-Distance between the centroids of the first and last stanchion
Ir-moment of inertia of the coupling beam
l- design length of the coupling beam l=l0+2a
Er-elastic modulus of the coupling beam
Er=0.25Em=0.25Econcrete Ec=27000MPa
he- height of the story

1
= , = 2,73 m4
2
=1

1
= ,
2
=1
,1 + ,2 + ,3
=
2
,1 ,1
,1 = =21201428,57 KNm

,2 = 222857,14
,3 = 37178571,42

= 29301428,565
1

= ,
=1
6 3
= ( )

1
= 30 = 2,02
1 + 2

Kr1=4837781,8 KNm
= 2,1
Kr=9675563,6 KNm
The ratio between the stiffness and the coupling beam to the one of the stanchion
2
= = 0,66

-reflects the axial deformation of the stanchions
=1 , 1
= 1+ 2 ( ) = 1.0063
1, 1 +
The overall inertia moment of the wall will be


0 = = 85,794
1
=1
I0 0.055241.9
Ies = I = 0,05585,79 =9,23 m4
1+ 2 0 1+10.86
, 14.62 1,98

= 0.055

Distribution factor Cd,i

Ies
, =
=1 ,

Fb,i-shear base seismic force taken by each shear wall


Fb,i=Cd,i*Fb

Wall1

8,58
,1 = = 0.48
17,81

Fb,1=1940,57*0.48=931,47 KN

Wall 2
9,23
,2 = = 0.51
17,81

Fb,2=1940,57*0.51=989,69 KN
Sectional efforts in the Shear Walls

Si=Fb,i*
=1

Fb,i-base shear force at the base of the shear wall "i"


mi-mass correspondin to "i"level
zi-height at"i"level from the ground

Fb,i=n(n+1)S1/2

S1=2Fb,i/n+1=2S/n+1

Fb,i2n
qs= (+1)
n=5+1
H=14 m
Fb1=931,47
qs=110.88 KN/m

n-number of storeys H2
H-total height of the shear wall
S=Fb,i

The N,V,M Diagrams

Mjk(ji)=ms*qs H2100

For wall No.1 -Shear walls with one line of unsymetrical openings

qsH2
Mme=ms* =217.32
100

1
Mm1= Mme*

2
Mm2= Mme*

Ime=Im1+Im2/2=1.98 m4
+
Qjk=

he-storey height=2.8 m

+
Qjj'=
0

l0-the span of the coupling beam


Mjj' and Mj'j-are the moments at the ends of the coupling beam

Shear force and bending moment in stanchions


Section ms Mme Mm1 Mm2 Vm1 Vm2
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0-1. 16,3 3542,316 903,2906 6207,998
-
1-0. 10,3 -2238,4 -570,791 -3922,85 699,4367 4806,982
1-2. 11 2390,52 609,5826 4189,447
-
2-1. 5,39 -1171,35 -298,695 -2052,83 502,9056 3456,294
2-3. 6,4 1390,848 354,6662 2437,496
-
3-2. 1,67 -362,924 -92,5457 -636,034 321,6142 2210,341
3-4. 2,94 638,9208 162,9248 1119,725
4-3. 0,66 143,4312 36,57496 251,3668 175,9873 1209,499
4-5. 0,68 147,7776 37,68329 258,984
5-4. 1,32 286,8624 73,14991 502,7336 63,80826 438,5317

Shear force and bending moment in coupling


beam
Section Mm1 Mm2 Mr1 Mr2 Vr
0 1 2 3 4 5
0-1. 903,29 6207,99
1-0. -570,791 -3992,85 -332,499 -2215,14 -2793,765667
1-2. 609,5826 4189,447
2-1. -298,69 -2052,83 -310,8926 -2136,617 -2684,911489
2-3. 354,66 2437,496
3-2. -92,54 -636,034 -262,12 -1801,462 -2263,744444
3-4. 162,9248 1119,725
4-3. 36,5749 251,3668 -199,4997 -1371,0918 -1722,935033
4-5. 37,6832 258,984
5-4. 73,14991 502,7336 -110,83311 -761,7176 -957,1859989

Shear force and bending moment in stanchions


M1 stanchion M2 stanchion
Axial load on
Section the shear Axial Shear Total axial Axial Shear Total axial load on the
load on the
wall [N] load force V stanchion load force V stanchion

0-1 2245455,697 2242662 - 2239868,177


-2793,76 699,4367 4806,982
1-0 2021076,992 2021077 2793,76 2021076,992
1-2 1765881,632 1763197 - 1760511,812
-2684,91 502,9056 3456,294
2-1 1541504,636 1541505 2684,91 1541504,636
2-3 1286309,276 1284046 - 1281781,796
-2263,74 321,9873 2210,341
3-2 1061932,279 1061932 2263,74 1061932,279
3-4 806736,9194 805014 - 803291,0594
-1722,93 175,9873 1209,499
4-3 582359,9231 582359,9 1722,93 582359,9231
4-5 327164,5631 326207,4 325250,2031
-957,18 63,8082 -957,18 438,5317
5-4 0 0 0