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*Notes from James Stewart’s Single Variable Calculus Early Transcendentals, 8th Ed.

11.6 Absolute Convergence and the Ratio and Root Tests

First, consider a series

n=1

a n and deﬁne the corresponding series

n=1

|a n |

n=1

|a n | = |a 1 | + |a 2 | + |a 3 | +

Deﬁnition 1 A series a n is called absolutely convergent if the series of absolute values |a n | is convergent.

(Note: If the series a n is a series with all positive terms, then |a n | = a n ans absolute convergence is the same thing as convergence in this case.)

Example 1 Show the series

n=1

(1) n1

n

2

is absolutely convergent.

Example 2

(a) First, show that the alternating harmonic series

(b) Is the series absolutely convergent?

n=1

(1) n1

n

is convergent.

Deﬁnition 2 A series a n is called conditionally convergent if it is convergnt but not absolutely convergent.

Theorem 3 If a series a n is absolutely convergent, then it is convergent.

Example 3 Determine whether the serise

n=1

cos n

n 2

is convergent or divergent.

The Ratio Test

 (i) If lim n→∞ (ii) If lim n→∞ (iii) If lim n→∞

a

n+1

a

a

n

n+1

a

a

n

n+1

a

n

= L < 1, then the series

n=1

a n is absolutely convergent (and therefore convergent).

= L > 1 or

lim

n→∞

a

n+1

a

n

= , then the series

= 1, the Ratio Test is inconclusive.

n=1

a n is divergent.

Example 4 Test the series

n=1

3

(1) n n n for absolute convergence.

3

Example 5 Test the convergence of the series

n=1

n n

n!

The Root Test

(i)

(ii)

If

If

(iii) If

lim

n→∞

lim

n→∞

lim

n→∞

|a n | = L < 1, then the series

n

n=1

a n is absolutely convergent (and therefore convergent).

|a n | = L > 1 or

n

lim

n→∞

n |a n | = , then the series

n |a n | = 1, the Root Test is inconclusive.

n=1

a n is divergent.

Example 6 Test the convergence of the series

n=1

2n + 3 3n + 2

n