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TransmitDiversity / Multiplexing TradeOff

Marco Di Renzo Harald Haas

L2S, UMR 8506 CNRS SUPELEC Univ ParisSud The University of Edinburgh

Laboratory of Signals and Systems (L2S) College of Science and Engineering

French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) School of Engineering

Ecole Superieure dElectricite (SUPELEC) Institute for Digital Communications (IDCOM)

University of ParisSud XI (UPS) Alexander Graham Bell Building, Kings Buildings

3 rue JoliotCurie, 91192 GifsurYvette (Paris), France Mayfield Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JL, UK

EMail: marco.direnzo@lss.supelec.fr EMail: h.haas@ed.ac.uk

Abstract Space Shift Keying (SSK) is a lowcomplexity most research is focused on a low complexity implementa-

modulation scheme for multipleantenna wireless systems. In tion of SM, which is known as Space Shift Keying (SSK)

this paper, we analyze the transmitdiversity/multiplexing trade modulation [9]. Unlike SM, in SSK modulation only the

off of SSK modulation with the main objective of developing

practical solutions to achieve transmitdiversity. More specif- spatialconstellation diagram is used for data modulation,

ically, the contributions of this paper are as follows: i) we thus tradingoff transmitter and receiver complexity for the

propose a practical scheme that achieves transmitdiversity equal achievable data rate [5]. In [9] and [10], it is shown that SSK

to two for any number of antennas at the transmitter. The modulation can achieve a receivediversity gain that increases

solution is based on the socalled TimeOrthogonalSignal linearly with the number of antennas at the receiver. In [2], it is

Design (TOSD) principle introduced in [1], and adopts time

orthogonal shaping filters at the transmitter; ii) we show that the shown that, regardless of the number of simultaneouslyactive

TOSD principle with orthogonal shaping filters can be applied antennas at the transmitter, SSK modulation is unable to pro-

to the socalled Generalized SSK (GSSK) modulation scheme vide transmitdiversity gains. In [1], a simple method is intro-

in [2], and that a transmitdiversity equal to two can still be duced to overcome that limitation. The solution is applicable

obtained while increasing the data rate with respect to SSK to a transceiver with two transmitantenna and one receive

modulation; and iii) we propose a general encoding scheme that

allows us to get transmitdiversity greater than two. The solution antenna, and it neither results in a loss of spectral efficiency,

combines TOSD and GSSK principles in a unique fashion, and is nor does it require multiple simultaneouslyactive antennas

flexible enough to accommodate various transmitdiversity gains at the transmitter. In [11], transmitdiversity is achieved by

by tradingoff the number of transmitantenna, the number sending redundant information in nonoverlapping timeslots,

of simultaneouslyactive transmitantenna, and the achievable and thus resulting in a spectral efficiency loss. In [12], it

data rate. Furthermore, proposed methods and findings are

substantiated via analysis and numerical simulations. is proved that the method in [1] is unable to provide full

diversity for an arbitrary number of antennas at the transmitter

I. I NTRODUCTION and, in general, it allows us to achieve transmitdiversity only

equal to two. Finally, in [13] the authors have studied the

Spatial Modulation (SM) is a recently proposed modula- achievable transmitdiversity of SM and have pointed out that

tion scheme for multipleantenna wireless systems, which SM cannot achieve transmitdiversity. However, no solutions

increases the data rate of singleantenna systems (multiplex- are provided to cope with this issue and it is shown that the

ing gain) without the need of multiplexing multiple data absence of transmitdiversity may result, especially for high

streams at the transmitter and, thus, avoiding multistream correlated fading channels, in a substantial performance loss.

detectors at the receiver [3][6]. The fundamental benefit The design of transmitdiversity for SM is investigated in [14],

introduced by SM for multipleantenna wireless systems can and a simple solution to achieve transmitdiversity equal to

be readily understood by regarding this technology as a high two is proposed. Another solution can be found in [15].

rate coding mechanism [7, Eq. (1)]. SM uses the spatial From all the above, it is apparent that while receive

domain as an additional dimension (the socalled spatial diversity is well understood for SM and SSK modulation,

constellation diagram), on top of the conventional signal transmitdiversity is an open research issue, which deserves

constellation diagram [5], to convey part of the information further investigation for the successful application of this

bits. This is realized by exploiting the spatial decorrelation technology especially in the downlink of wireless communi-

property of the wireless medium for data modulation, which cation systems. In fact, in this scenario it is more economical

allows the encoder to establish a onetoone mapping between to add complexity to a single central entity rather than at

the information messages and the channel impulse responses multiple remote and primarily lowcost devices. Motivated by

on the available transmittoreceive wireless links [6]. these considerations, this paper aims at shedding light on the

However, it is wellknown that the performance of a given design of transmitdiversity for SSK modulation. The specific

transmission technology is only in part determined by the contributions of this paper are as follows. 1) We move from

multiplexing gain, and that another important component to the TimeOrthogonalSignalDesign (TOSD) principle in [1],

be analyzed is the socalled diversity gain [8]. Furthermore, a and propose a practical method to design a SSK modulation

large multiplexing gain can be easily offset by a small diversity scheme with transmitdiversity equal to two for any number of

gain. Thus, it is very important to study the diversity offered antennas at the transmitter. The method uses timeorthogonal

by SM and to understand the multiplexing/diversity trade waveforms to shape the signals emitted by the antennaarray

off provided by this technology. This problem has recently at the transmitter. 2) In order to increase the data rate of SSK

attracted the interest of some researchers. More specifically, modulation without reducing the performance too much, we

This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the IEEE ICC 2011 proceedings

show that the method in 1) can be applied to Generalized a complex vector, respectively; ii) Na is the number of

SSK (GSSK) modulation [2], which allows multiple transmit simultaneouslyactive antennas at the transmitter, with 1

antenna to be simultaneously active for data transmission. Na Nt ; iii) Em is the average total energy transmitted

This additional degree of freedom comes at the expenses of by the Na active antennas that emit a nonzero signal. Em

increasing both transmitter and receiver complexity. However, is equally distributed among the active antennas, i.e. each

singlestream detection can still be used at the receiver. 3) active antenna emits a signal with energy Em /Na ; iv) N0

Finally, we propose an advanced transmitdiversity scheme is the power spectral density per dimension of the Additive

which combines TOSD and GSSK modulation in a unique White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) at the receiver input;

+ v)

fashion, and allows us to achieve transmitdiversity gains =Em /(4N0 ); vi) Q (x) = 1 2 x exp t2 2 dt

Nt

greater than two by adequately choosing the number of is the Qfunction; vii) {i }i=1 is the complex channel gain

transmitantenna and active transmitantenna. The price to be on the wireless link from the ith transmitantenna to the

Nt

paid for this flexibility is twofold [6]: i) multiple antennas at receiveantenna; viii) {wi ()}i=1 is the pulse shape used at

the transmitter have to transmit data at the same time, and the ith transmitantenna. Unless otherwise

+ +stated, we assume:

ii) a reduction in the achievable data rate with respect to the

w i (t) wj (t) dt = 0 if i =

j and

wi (t) wj (t) dt =

maximum rate achieved by GSSK modulation. This results in 1 if i = j; ix) R denotes the rate in bits/s/Hz; x) is the

a transmitdiversity/multiplexing tradeoff that is accurately floor function; and xi) is the binomial coefficient.

investigated in this paper. Furthermore, we emphasize that our

solutions still retain a singlestream receiver for data detection B. SSK Modulation

regardless of the number of simultaneouslyactive antennas SSK modulation works as follows [6], [9]: i) the transmitter

at the transmitter. Finally, we note that the results described encodes blocks of log2 (Nt ) data bits into the index of a single

in this paper are novel in different ways: i) with respect transmitantenna (i.e., Na = 1), which is switched on for

to [1], we provide a practical scheme to achieve transmit data transmission while all the other antennas are kept silent,

diversity and do not limit ourselves to merely identifying the and ii) the receiver solves a Nt hypothesis testing problem to

general conditions that the transmitted pulses should satisfy estimate the transmitantenna that is not idle, which results

for performance improvement, ii) for the first time, we report in the estimation of the unique sequence of bits emitted by

a transmitdiversity method for GSSK modulation, and iii) each encoder [10, Sec. III]. The block of bits encoded into

we document, for the first time for SSK modulation, a coding the index of the ith transmitantenna is called message,

scheme with transmitdiversity greater than two, which does and the Nt messages are equiprobable. Furthermore, in SSK

not exploit spectrally inefficient repetition coding. modulation the shaping filters used by the transmitantenna

The reminder of this paper is organized as follows. In are the same, i.e., wi (t) = w0 (t) for i = 1, 2, . . . , Nt , and

+

Section II, we review SSK and GSSK modulation schemes

w0 (t) w0 (t) dt = 1.

in order to highlight their limits in achieving transmit In [6], we have shown that the Bit Error Probability (BEP)

diversity. In Section III, we propose a general method to of SSK modulation can be tightly upperbounded as follow:

design SSK and GSSK modulation schemes with transmit Nt Nt

1

diversity equal to two. In Section IV, we extend the analysis in BEPSSK Q |t2 t1 |2 (1)

Nt 1 t =1 t =t +1

Section III to design SSK modulation schemes with transmit 1 2 1

diversity greater than two. In Section V, we provide some We emphasize that (1) is conditioned upon fading channel

general guidelines to designing SSK modulation schemes with statistics. The Average Bit Error Probability (ABEP) can be

arbitrary transmitdiversity and study the related transmit computed either numerically or analytically [6], [10].

diversity/multiplexing tradeoff. In Section VI, we analyze From (1), we conclude that SSK modulation has transmit

differences and similarities of our proposed transmitdiversity diversity equal to one. In fact, each term in the twofold

schemes with respect to conventional methods. In Section VII, summation depends on the difference of two complex channel

our claims are substantiated through Monte Carlo simulations. gains, which turns out to be equivalent to a SingleInput

Finally, Section VIII concludes the paper. SingleOutput (SISO) system with an equivalent channel gain

II. BACKGROUND : SSK M ODULATION WITH given by the difference of them. From [8], it can be concluded

T RANSMITD IVERSITY 1 that SSK achieves no transmitdiversity gain.

A. System Model C. GSSK Modulation

We consider a general MultipleInputSingleOutput In [2], the authors have introduced GSSK modulation, which

(MISO) communication system with Nt antennas at the trans- is a generalized version of SSK modulation that does not

mitter and Nr = 1 antennas at the receiver. The assumption restrict the number of simultaneouslyactive antennas to Na =

Nr = 1 does not limit the generality of the results derived 1. With respect to [2], in this paper we have a different view

in this paper since we are mainly interested in studying of the usefulness of GSSK modulation for multipleantenna

transmitdiversity. From [10], it can be readily proved that the wireless systems. In [2], the GSSK concept is proposed as

solutions described in this paper can be extended to multiple a modulation scheme that exploits CSI at the transmitter

receiveantenna and that the overall diversity achieved by the for optimizing the spatialconstellation diagram. Numerical

resulting system is simply multiplied by Nr . We assume that results have shown some performance improvements with

the receiver uses a MaximumLikelihood (ML) detector with respect to SM, but at the cost of requiring a feedback channel.

Full Channel State Information (FCSI) [16]. In this paper, we use GSSK modulation without CSI at the

Notation. The following notation is used throughout this transmitter. In our opinion, the main flexibility introduced by

2 2

paper: i) || and denote the square absolute value the GSSK concept is not in the optimization of the spatial

of a complex number and the square Euclidean norm of constellation diagram for performance improvement, but in the

This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the IEEE ICC 2011 proceedings

inherent possibility of switching on multiple antennas at the to conclude that no transmitdiversity is achieved by GSSK

transmitter for increasing the data rate. In fact, this flexibility, modulation. In fact, each term in the twofold summation

which comes at the expenses of transmitter complexity [9], in (2) depends on the linear combination of 2Na channel

allows GSSK modulation to enlarge the size of the spatial gains, which turns out to be equivalent to a SISO system with

constellation diagram, and, thus, to increase the achievable a channel gain equal to this linear combination. Thus, with

data rate. In particular, while the achievable rate of SSK respect to SSK modulation, GSSK modulation can increase

modulation is RSSK = log2 (Nt ),

GSSK modulation can the data rate, but it is still unable to provide transmitdiversity.

Nt

provide a data rate up to RGSSK = log2 Na , where the III. SSK M ODULATION WITH T RANSMITD IVERSITY 2

floor function stems form the fact that the constellation size is

The aim of this section is to propose improved schemes that

constrained to be a power of two to use the SSK principle. It

can overcome the limitations of SSK and GSSK modulation

can be shown that RGSSK achieves its maximum value when

to achieve transmitdiversity. More specifically, we propose

Na = Nt /2. So, in this paper we are mainly interested

a general method to achieve transmitdiversity equal to two

in studying transmitdiversity schemes for GSSK modulation

for arbitrary values of Nt and Na . The method is based on

that do not require any CSI at the transmitter.

the TOSD principle introduced in [1], where we have shown

The working principle of GSSK modulation used in this

that transmitdiversity can be achieved via adequate pulse

paper can be

summarized as follows: i) the transmitter encodes

Nt shaping at the transmitter. However, we significantly improve

blocks of log2 Na bits into one point of an enlarged the intuition in [1]. More precisely, in [1] the orthogonal

= 2log2 (Na ) ,

Nt

spatialconstellation diagram of size N H signal design exploits the different propagation delays on

which enables Na antennas to be switched on for data the transmittoreceive wireless links. However, this solution

transmission while all the other antennas are kept silent, and could require a signal with a very large transmission band-

ii) similar to SSK modulation, the receiver solves a NH width. In this paper, we propose a different way to exploit

hypothesis testing problem to estimate the Na antennas that are the TOSD principle, which foresees timeorthogonal shaping

not idle, which results in the estimation of the unique message filters across the transmitantenna. Furthermore, we show that

emitted by the encoder. Similar to SSK modulation, wi (t) = this approach can be used for any Nt , while in [1] only the

+ setup with Nt = 2 is considered. Finally, we show that the

w0 (t) for i = 1, 2, . . . , Nt , and w0 (t) w0 (t) dt = 1.

Under these assumptions, the performance of GSSK mod- proposed idea can be extended to GSSK modulation.

ulation can be estimated by using the result summarized in A. TOSDSSK Modulation

Theorem 1. We note that the BEP in (2) is much tighter than

By using a terminology similar to [1], the proposed mod-

the framework provided in [2] for the same reasons as those

ulation scheme is called TOSDSSK modulation. Its working

provided in [6] for SSK modulation.

principle is the same as SSK modulation in Section II-B, but

Theorem 1: Let Scomb be the set of Na combination of

with a fundamental difference: each antenna, when active for

the set of Nt antennas at the transmitter. The size of Scomb

Nt data transmission, radiates a different pulse waveform, and

is N . Let k denote the kth element of Scomb for k =

a Nt the waveforms across the antennas are timeorthogonal as

1, 2, . . . , N a

. k is a Na dimension vector whose elements described in Section II-A. We emphasize that in TOSDSSK

(k (q) for q = 1, 2, . . . , Na ) are the fading coefficients modulation a single antenna is active for data transmission, and

Nt

{i }i=1 . Then, the BEP can be upperbounded as follows: that the transmitted message is still encoded into the index of

2 the transmitantenna and not into the impulse response of the

1

NH

NH

Na shaping filter. In other words, the proposed idea is different

BEPGSSK Q

Na

[t2 (q) t1 (q)]

NH 1 t1 =1 t2 =t1 +1 q=1 from conventional SISO schemes, which use Orthogonal Pulse

(2) Shape Modulation (OPSM) [17] and are unable to achieve

transmitdiversity, as only a single wireless link is exploited

where

Nt

we have assumed that the first NH (with NH <

for communication.

Na ) elements of Scomb have been chosen to implement the

GSSK modulation scheme (no optimization on the spatial The performance of TOSDSSK modulation can be esti-

constellation diagram is considered). mated by using the result summarized in Theorem 2.

Proof: The result in (2) follows from the analytical devel- Theorem 2: The BEP of TOSDSSK modulation with

opment in [6], [10], and by taking into account that: i) the timeorthogonal shaping filters is upperbounded as follows:

equivalent transmitted message is given by the summation of 1

Nt

Nt

the signals emitted by the Na active transmitantenna, ii) the BEPTOSDSSK Q |t1 |2 + |t2 |2

Nt 1 t =1 t =t +1

1 2 1

spatialconstellation diagram has size NH , and iii) the energy (3)

emitted by each antenna is scaled by Na to keep constant the Proof: The result in (3) follows from [10] by taking into

total radiated energy per transmission. account that: i) by exploiting the orthogonality of the shaping

To clarify the notation in Theorem 1, let us consider a filters, the crossproduct of the complex channel gains in [10,

simple example with (Nt , Na ) = (5, 2). In this case, we have: Eq. (9)] is always equal to zero, and ii) the noises at the output

1 = [1 , 2 ], 2 = [1 , 3 ], 3 = [1 , 4 ], 4 = [1 , 5 ], of the matched filters in [10, Eq. (11)] are uncorrelated due to

5 = [2 , 3 ], 6 = [2 , 4 ], 7 = [2 , 5 ], 8 = [3 , 4 ], the orthogonality of the shaping filters.

9 = [3 , 5 ], 10 = [4 , 5 ]. In (2), only the first NH = By carefully analyzing (3), we observe that, unlike SSK

8 elements of Scomb , i.e., k for k = 1, 2, . . . , NH are modulation, each summand depends on the powersum of two

considered. Also, the ABEP can be computed either from (2) channel gains. According to [8], it can be shown that this sys-

by using the framework developed in [10] or numerically. tem offers a transmitdiversity equal to two. We notice that if

Finally, similar to SSK modulation, from (2) it is simple Nt = 2 the system achieve full transmitdiversity. The ABEP

This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the IEEE ICC 2011 proceedings

can be computed by using wellconsolidated frameworks for mapping by pairwise disjoint set partitioning. We emphasize

performance analysis of receivediversity systems [8]. that the choice of the spatialconstellation diagram is different

from [2], which is unable to provide transmitdiversity, and

B. TOSDGSSK Modulation requires no CSI at the transmitter.

Let us now generalize the GSSK modulation scheme for In this section, we introduce our idea with two examples.

transmitdiversity. The new modulation concept is called The general procedure is described in Section V along with

TOSDGSSK modulation, and exploits the same modulation the analysis of the transmitdiversity/multiplexing trade-off.

principle as GSSK in Section II-C but uses timeorthogonal

shaping filters at the transmitter. The performance of TOSD A. TransmitDiversity 4 An Example

GSSK modulation can be estimated from Theorem 3. Let us describe a simple scheme with Nt = 4, Na = 2,

Theorem 3: By adopting the same notation as in Theorem and R = 1, which provides transmitdiversity equal to four.

1, the BEP of TOSDGSSK modulation with timeorthogonal Similar to the TOSDGSSK modulation principle, we assume

shaping filters is upperbounded as follows: that the Nt antennas use timeorthogonal shaping filters.

NH

NH

The working principle is as follows1 : i) if the encoder emits

1

t t 2 (4)

BEPTOSDGSSK Q 1, 2 a 0 (1) bit, the SSK mapper encodes it into the pair of an-

NH 1 t =1 t =t +1 Na

1 2 1 tennas {TX1 , TX2 } ({TX3 , TX4 }), which are switched on for

where t1, t2 is a vector whose components are all the distinct transmission, while the antennas {TX3 , TX4 } ({TX1 , TX2 })

elements in t1 and t2 . are kept silent; and ii) the receiver uses a singlestream ML

Proof: The result in (4) follows immediately by taking into optimum detector similar to TOSDGSSK modulation.

account the comments in Theorem 1 and Theorem 2. Due to The BEP can be computed by using a methodology similar

space constraints, the details of the derivation are omitted. to Theorem 3. The final result is given in Corollary 1.

To clarify the notation in (4) and to better understand the Corollary 1: The BEP of the (Nt , Na , R) = (4, 2, 1)

achievable performance, we consider again the example in scheme with TOSDGSSK modulation with mapping by pair-

Section II-C with (Nt , Na ) = (5, 2). We have, e.g.: 1,2 = wise disjoint set partitioning is as follows:

[2 , 3 ], 1,3 = [2 , 4 ], 1,8 = [1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ], etc. By

Nt

carefully analyzing (4) and the example, we observe that, BEPDiv4 =Q |t | 2

(5)

Na t=1

unlike GSSK modulation, each term in (4) depends on the

powersum of at least two channel gains. Similar to TOSD The formula in (5) confirms that the transmitdiversity

SSK modulation, we can conclude that the system can provide achieved by the proposed scheme is four, i.e., full transmit

a transmitdiversity equal to two. Two important observations diversity is obtained in this case.

are worth being made in this case: i) the fact that the power B. TransmitDiversity 6 An Example

sum of at least two channel gains is obtained is inherent in the

data bit to Na active transmitantenna index mapping of Let us describe a simple scheme with Nt = 12, Na = 3,

GSSK modulation. In other words, for each pair of transmitted and R = 2, which provides transmitdiversity equal to six.

messages, the two subsets of active antennas contain at least Also in this case, we assume that the Nt antennas use time

two different transmitantenna indexes; and ii) some terms in orthogonal shaping filters.

(4) have higher transmitdiversity. For example, the term cor- The working principle is as follows: i) If the en-

responding to 1,8 in the example above has transmitdiversity coder emits a 00 (01, 10, 11) pair of bits, the

equal to four. However, it is known that the overall transmit SSK mapper encodes them into the triple of antennas

diversity of the system depends on the worst summands in (2), {TX1 , TX2 , TX3 } ({TX4 , TX5 , TX6 }, {TX7 , TX8 , TX9 },

i.e., the terms with transmitdiversity two. Similar to TOSD {TX10 , TX11 , TX12 }), which are switched on for transmis-

SSK modulation, the ABEP can be easily computed [8]. sion, while all the other antennas are kept silent; and ii) the

receiver uses a singlestream MLoptimum detector similar to

IV. SSK M ODULATION WITH T RANSMITD IVERSITY TOSDGSSK modulation.

G REATER THAN 2 The BEP can be computed by still using Theorem 3. The

The main drawback of the methods introduced in Section final result is given in Corollary 2.

III is their limitation to provide transmitdiversity greater than Corollary 2: The BEP of the (Nt , Na , R) = (12, 3, 2)

two, even when Nt > 2 and Na > 2. Basically, in TOSD scheme with TOSDGSSK modulation with mapping by pair-

SSK and TOSDGSSK modulation, Nt and Na can only be wise disjoint set partitioning is upperbounded as follows:

used to adjust the data rate, which is

equal to R =

Nt TOSDSSK

NH NH

1

log2 (Nt ) and RTOSDGSSK = log2 N a

, respectively. BEPDiv6

NH 1 t =1 t =t +1

Q

Na

SNRt1 ,t2 (6)

1 2 1

In this section, we describe a method that combines TOSD

2 2 2 2

and GSSK principles to achieve a higher transmitdiversity. where NH = 4, and SNR1,2 = |1 | + |2 | + |3 | + |4 | +

2 2 2 2 2 2 2

The main idea is based on the TOSDGSSK modulation |5 | +|6 | , SNR1,3 = |1 | +|2 | +|3 | +|7 | +|8 | +

2 2 2 2 2 2

scheme, but instead of allowing the transmitter to exploit the |9 | , SNR1,4 = |1 | + |2 | + |3 | + |10 | + |11 | +

whole spatialconstellation diagram (i.e., the NH messageto 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

|12 | , SNR2,3 = |4 | + |5 | + |6 | + |7 | + |8 | + |9 | ,

antenna mappings), we adequately choose a subset of points, 2 2 2 2 2 2

SNR2,4 = |4 | + |5 | + |6 | + |10 | + |11 | + |12 | ,

2 2 2 2 2 2

NH < NH , where to apply the SSK modulation principle. SNR3,4 = |7 | + |8 | + |9 | + |10 | + |11 | + |12 | .

This limits

the achievable data rate, which reduces to R = From (6), we conclude that the proposed method achieves

log2 NH , but allows us to increase the transmitdiversity. a very high transmitdiversity equal to six. Furthermore, this

For reasons that will become apparent in the next subsections,

the proposed method is called: TOSDGSSK modulation with 1 We denote by TXi (i = 1, 2, . . . , Nt ) the Nt antennas at the transmitter.

This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the IEEE ICC 2011 proceedings

transmitdiversity gain is achieved with only three active transmitantenna. 2) The difference between our proposal and

antennas at the transmitter. the OTD scheme can be understood even better by consider-

ing the TOSDGSSK modulation with mapping by pairwise

V. T RANSMITD IVERSITY / M ULTIPLEXING T RADE O FF disjoint set partitioning in Section IV. In Theorem 5, it is

Let us now summarize in two general theorems the shown that the transmitdiversity provided by this scheme is

transmitdiversity methods illustrated through examples in Div = 2Na , which means that the transmitdiversity is twice

Section III and Section IV. These theorems provide a general the number of active transmitantenna. This is in net contrast

procedure to design SSK modulation schemes with the desired to the OTD concept where the achievable diversity is equal to

transmitdiversity/multiplexing tradeoff. Na . Again, this is due to the antennaindex coded modulation

Theorem 4: Let a (Nt , Na ) multipleantenna wireless sys- principle inherent in SSK modulation. This result tells us that

tem using SSK modulation. Let NH = 2log2 (Na ) be the

Nt

with the proposed approach we can achieve the same transmit

size of the spatialconstellation diagram. Then: i) the system diversity as the OTD scheme but we can halve the number

achieves transmitdiversity equal to Div = 1 and rate R = of active antenna elements, and, thus, the number of radio

Nt

log2 Na if the Nt antennas at the transmitter use the frequency chains at the transmitter, which is known to be a

same shaping filter. This scheme is called GSSK modulation very desirable feature to reduce the complexity and the power

and reduces to SSK modulation if Na = 1; and ii) the consumption of the transmitter [9]. 3) Theorem 4 states that

system achieves transmitdiversity equal to Div = 2 and for SSK modulation is not sufficient to use timeorthogonal

Nt

rate R = log2 Na if the Nt transmitantenna use time shaping filters at the transmitter to get transmitdiversity

of any order, but the way the mapping informationbit

orthogonal shaping filters. This scheme is called TOSDGSSK

to spatialconstellationpoint is performed plays a crucial

modulation and reduces to TOSDSSK modulation if Na = 1.

role to this end. More specifically, TOSDGSSK modulation

Proof: The proof follows immediately from Section III.

requires timeorthogonal filters in all the antennas at the

Theorem 5: Let a (Nt , Na ) multipleantenna wireless sys-

transmitter, however it is unable to achieve transmitdiversity

tem using the SSK modulation principle. Let NH be the

2 greater than two if the mapping by pairwise disjoint set

size of the partition of the set of Nt antennas such that

partitioning is not used. In OTD, orthogonal pulse shaping

Nt = NH Na , i.e., each subset of the partition has Na distinct

is sufficient to achieve full transmitdiversity.

elements and the subsets are pairwise disjoint. Then, the

In conclusion, SSK modulation shares some features with

system achieves transmitdiversity

equal to Div = 2Na and

OTD. However, it has some additional degrees of freedom to

rate R = log2 NH if the Nt transmitantenna use time

achieve transmitdiversity, which can be exploited by paying

orthogonal shaping filters. This scheme is called TOSDGSSK

attention to the way the SSK modulator maps messages to

modulation with mapping by pairwise disjoint set partitioning.

points in the spatialconstellation diagram.

Proof: The proof follows immediately from Section IV.

VII. N UMERICAL E XAMPLES

VI. D IFFERENCES AND S IMILARITIES WITH

In this section, numerical examples are shown to validate

C ONVENTIONAL T RANSMITD IVERSITY

the claims in the sections above. The setup is as follows: i)

In this section, we aim at providing some insights about we consider a frequencyflat Rayleigh channel model with

differences and similarities among the proposed transmit independent and identically distributed fading over all the

diversity schemes and those available in the literature for transmittoreceive wireless links; ii) we assume the mean

conventional modulation. By looking at some stateoftheart power of each fading gain to be normalized to 1; iii) to have

proposals for transmitdiversity [18], we can readily recog- a large set of orthogonal shaping filters, we use the family of

nize that the most similar solution to the transmitdiversity Hermite polynomials [17]; and iv) as a performance metric, we

concepts for SSK modulation proposed in Section III and consider the ABEP, which is obtained by averaging the BEP

Section IV is the socalled Orthogonal TransmitDiversity discussed in the sections above over fading channel statistics.

(OTD) method [18, Fig. 3]. In OTD, the signals emitted In Fig. 1, we compare Monte Carlo simulations and the

by multiple antennas at the transmitter are shaped by using analytical models developed in this paper4 . We can observe

timeorthogonal shaping filters3 , as the TOSD principle in a very good agreement between analysis and simulation,

our proposals foresees. However, TOSD for SSK modulation especially in the high Em /N0 region where our bounds are

and OTD are very different in the way transmitdiversity tighter. The slopes of the curves confirm our findings about

is achieved. The reason is threefold. 1) Let us consider the the transmitdiversity gain achieved by the proposed schemes.

TOSDSSK modulation scheme in Section III-A. In Theorem In particular, we can notice that the slope of the ABEP gets

4, it is shown that this scheme can achieve Div = 2 with a steeper for increasing values of the transmitdiversity, which

single active transmitantenna, i.e., Na = 1. This is a property agrees with our analytical findings.

that is not shared with OTD, which achieves a transmit In Fig. 2, we analyze the performance of various proposed

diversity equal to the number of active antennas. In other schemes for the same rate R. Numerical results confirm that

words, TOSDSSK modulation can achieve transmitdiversity the proposed schemes (Theorem 5) with transmitdiversity six

even though there is only one active antenna, and this peculiar and eight provide a substantial performance improvement with

property stems from the SSK modulation principle, i.e., in respect to already reported SSK modulation schemes with

conveying the information bits into the spatial positions of the transmitdiversity one and two [1]. The price to pay is the

2 A partition of a set X is a set P of nonempty subsets of X such that

need of increasing Nt and Na . However, this characteristic is

the union of the elements of P is equal to X, and the intersection of any two shared with other stateoftheart transmitdiversity schemes,

distinct subsets of P is empty. such as OTD and Space Time Block Codes (STBCs) [18].

3 In [18] the timeorthogonal shaping filters are Walsh codes typically used

in spread spectrum systems. 4 The framework for Div=8 is not shown here due to space constraints.

This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the IEEE ICC 2011 proceedings

1

10

1

10

setups for the same Nt and Na . We believe that this is an

important point to be addressed since some constraints might

be imposed on the total and active number of antennas at

2

10

2

10 the transmitter. The results show that, for the same hard-

ware constraints, we can support a broad range of quality

ofservice requirements and data rates. This highlights that

ABEP

ABEP

3

10

3

10 SSK modulation is a flexible scheme, which can be easily

implemented in an adaptive multipleantenna system design,

where we could switch among the SSK, GSSK, TOSDSSK,

4 4

10 10 TOSDGSSK, and the more general TOSDGSSK mapping

by pairwise disjoint set partitioning schemes to find the best

trade-off among complexity, performance, and data rate.

5 5

10 10

10 20 30 40 50 5 10 15 20 25

E /N [dB]

m 0

E /N [dB]

m 0

VIII. C ONCLUSION

Fig. 1. ABEP against Em /N0 : comparison of analytical model and simulation. In this paper, we have studied the transmit

Solid lines show the analytical model and markers show Monte Carlo simulations. (left)

Diversity 1 and 2; Legend: () Div=1, Nt = 5, Na = 2, R = 3 (GSSK) () Div=1,

diversity/multiplexing tradeoff of SSK modulation. We

Nt = 6, Na = 3, R = 4 (GSSK) () Div=2, Nt = 5, Na = 2, R = 3 (TOSD have proposed a very flexible modulation scheme, which can

GSSK) () Div=2, Nt = 6, Na = 3, R = 4 (TOSDGSSK). (right) Diversity 4,

6, and 8 obtained with TOSDGSSK modulation with mapping by pairwise disjoint set

accommodate a broad range of data rates, transmitdiversity,

partitioning; Legend: () Div=4, Nt = 4, Na = 2, R = 1 () Div=6, Nt = 6, and performance requirements. It has been shown that the

Na = 3, R = 1 () Div=8, Nt = 5, Na = 4, R = 1.

proposed system achieves a transmitdiversity that is twice

0

R = 1bits/s/Hz

0

R = 2bits/s/Hz the number of active antennas at the transmitter, and a data

10 10

rate that increases logaritmically with the ratio of total and

active antennas at the transmitter. Higher transmission rates

1 1

10 10

can be achieved for systems with transmitdiversity one and

two. We believe that the proposed modulation schemes are

2

10

2

10 suitable for an adaptive multipleantenna wireless system

design, where the best quadruple (Nt , Na , R, Div) can be

ABEP

ABEP

3

10

3

10

tuned according to the specific needs of the enduser.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

4

10

4

10 We gratefully acknowledge support from the EPSRC (EP/G011788/1) and

the European Union (PITNGA2010264759, GREENET project) for this

work. M. Di Renzo acknowledges support of the Laboratory of Signals and

5

10

5

10

Systems under the project Jeunes Chercheurs. H. Haas acknowledges the

0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 Scottish Funding Council support of his position within the ERPem between

Em/N0 [dB] Em/N0 [dB]

the University of Edinburgh and Heriot Watt University.

Fig. 2. ABEP against Em /N0 : performance comparison for the same rate. (left)

R = 1; Legend: () Div=1, Nt = 2, Na = 1 (SSK), () Div=2, Nt = 2, Na = 1 R EFERENCES

(TOSDSSK), () Div=4, Nt = 4, Na = 2 (TOSDGSSK with set partitioning), ()

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Nt = 4, Na = 1 (SSK), () Div=2, Nt = 4, Na = 1 (TOSDSSK), () Div=4, [2] J. Jeganathan, A. Ghrayeb, and L. Szczecinski, Generalized space shift keying

Nt = 8, Na = 2 (TOSDGSSK with set partitioning), () Div=6, Nt = 12, Na = 3 modulation for MIMO channels, IEEE PIMRC, pp. 15, Sep. 2008.

(TOSDGSSK with set partitioning). [3] Y. Yang and B. Jiao, Informationguided channelhopping for high data rate

wireless communication, IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 225227, Apr. 2008.

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0 0

10 10 IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 22282241, July 2008.

[5] M. Di Renzo and H. Haas, Performance analysis of spatial modulation, IEEE

ChinaCom, pp. 17, Aug. 2010 (invited paper).

1 1 [6] M. Di Renzo and H. Haas, A general framework for performance analysis of

10 10

space shift keying (SSK) modulation for MISO correlated Nakagamim fading

channels, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 58, no. 9, pp. 25902603, Sep. 2010.

[7] S. Song, et al., A channel hopping technique I: Theoretical studies on band

2 2

10 10 efficiency and capacity, IEEE ICCCS, pp. 229233, June 2004.

[8] Z. Wang et al., A simple and general parameterization quantifying performance

ABEP

ABEP

in fading channels, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 51, pp. 13891398, Aug. 2003.

3 3 [9] J. Jeganathan, et al., Space shift keying modulation for MIMO channels, IEEE

10 10

Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 36923703, July 2009.

[10] M. Di Renzo, H. Haas, On the performance of space shift keying MIMO systems

over correlated Rician fading channels, IEEE/ITG WSA, pp. 7279, Feb. 2010.

4 4

10 10 [11] S. Sugiura, S. Chen, L. Hanzo, A unified MIMO architecture subsuming space

shift keying, OSTBC, BLAST and LDC, IEEE VTCFall, pp. 15, Sep. 2010.

[12] M. Di Renzo and H. Haas, Space shift keying (SSK) MIMO over correlated

5

10

5

10

Rician fading channels: Performance analysis and a new method for transmit

0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 diversity, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 116129, Jan. 2011.

Em/N0 [dB] Em/N0 [dB] [13] T. Handte, A. Muller, J. Speidel, BER analysis and optimization of generalized

Fig. 3. ABEP against Em /N0 : performance for the same total and active transmit spatial modulation in correlated fading channels, IEEE VTCFall, Sep. 2009.

antenna. (left) Nt = 8; Legend: () Div=1, Na = 1, R = 3 (SSK), () Div=2, [14] M. Di Renzo and H. Haas, Transmitdiversity for spatial modulation (SM):

Na = 1, R = 3 (TOSDSSK), () Div=1, Na = 4, R = 6 (GSSK), () Div=2, Towards the design of highrate spatiallymodulated spacetime block codes,

Na = 4, R = 3 (TOSDGSSK), () Div=4, Na = 2, R = 2 (TOSDGSSK with set IEEE ICC, June 2011.

partitioning), (>) Div=8, Na = 4, R = 1 (TOSDGSSK with set partitioning). (right) [15] E. Basar, U. Aygolu, E. Panayirci, and H. V. Poor, Spacetime block coding for

Na = 3; Legend: () Div=1, Nt = 6, R = 4 (GSSK), () Div=1, Nt = 7, R = 5 spatial modulation, IEEE PIMRC, pp. 803808, Sep. 2010.

(GSSK), () Div=2, Nt = 6, R = 4 (TOSDGSSK), () Div=2, Nt = 7, R = 5 [16] J. Jeganathan, A. Ghrayeb, L. Szczecinski, Spatial modulation: Optimal detection

(TOSDGSSK), () Div=6, Nt = 6, R = 1 (TOSDGSSK with set partitioning), (>) and performance analysis, IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 545547, Aug. 2008.

Div=6, Nt = 12, R = 2 (TOSDGSSK with set partitioning). [17] J. Ney da Silva et al., Spectrally efficient UWB pulse shaping with application

in orthogonal PSM, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 55, pp. 313322, Feb. 2007.

[18] R. Derryberry, et al., Transmit diversity in 3G CDMA systems, IEEE Commun.

In Fig. 3, we compare the performance of various system Mag., vol. 40, vol. 4, pp. 6875, Apr. 2002.

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