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This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts

for publication in the IEEE ICC 2011 proceedings

Space Shift Keying (SSK) Modulation: On the

TransmitDiversity / Multiplexing TradeOff
Marco Di Renzo Harald Haas
L2S, UMR 8506 CNRS SUPELEC Univ ParisSud The University of Edinburgh
Laboratory of Signals and Systems (L2S) College of Science and Engineering
French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) School of Engineering
Ecole Superieure dElectricite (SUPELEC) Institute for Digital Communications (IDCOM)
University of ParisSud XI (UPS) Alexander Graham Bell Building, Kings Buildings
3 rue JoliotCurie, 91192 GifsurYvette (Paris), France Mayfield Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JL, UK
EMail: EMail:

Abstract Space Shift Keying (SSK) is a lowcomplexity most research is focused on a low complexity implementa-
modulation scheme for multipleantenna wireless systems. In tion of SM, which is known as Space Shift Keying (SSK)
this paper, we analyze the transmitdiversity/multiplexing trade modulation [9]. Unlike SM, in SSK modulation only the
off of SSK modulation with the main objective of developing
practical solutions to achieve transmitdiversity. More specif- spatialconstellation diagram is used for data modulation,
ically, the contributions of this paper are as follows: i) we thus tradingoff transmitter and receiver complexity for the
propose a practical scheme that achieves transmitdiversity equal achievable data rate [5]. In [9] and [10], it is shown that SSK
to two for any number of antennas at the transmitter. The modulation can achieve a receivediversity gain that increases
solution is based on the socalled TimeOrthogonalSignal linearly with the number of antennas at the receiver. In [2], it is
Design (TOSD) principle introduced in [1], and adopts time
orthogonal shaping filters at the transmitter; ii) we show that the shown that, regardless of the number of simultaneouslyactive
TOSD principle with orthogonal shaping filters can be applied antennas at the transmitter, SSK modulation is unable to pro-
to the socalled Generalized SSK (GSSK) modulation scheme vide transmitdiversity gains. In [1], a simple method is intro-
in [2], and that a transmitdiversity equal to two can still be duced to overcome that limitation. The solution is applicable
obtained while increasing the data rate with respect to SSK to a transceiver with two transmitantenna and one receive
modulation; and iii) we propose a general encoding scheme that
allows us to get transmitdiversity greater than two. The solution antenna, and it neither results in a loss of spectral efficiency,
combines TOSD and GSSK principles in a unique fashion, and is nor does it require multiple simultaneouslyactive antennas
flexible enough to accommodate various transmitdiversity gains at the transmitter. In [11], transmitdiversity is achieved by
by tradingoff the number of transmitantenna, the number sending redundant information in nonoverlapping timeslots,
of simultaneouslyactive transmitantenna, and the achievable and thus resulting in a spectral efficiency loss. In [12], it
data rate. Furthermore, proposed methods and findings are
substantiated via analysis and numerical simulations. is proved that the method in [1] is unable to provide full
diversity for an arbitrary number of antennas at the transmitter
I. I NTRODUCTION and, in general, it allows us to achieve transmitdiversity only
equal to two. Finally, in [13] the authors have studied the
Spatial Modulation (SM) is a recently proposed modula- achievable transmitdiversity of SM and have pointed out that
tion scheme for multipleantenna wireless systems, which SM cannot achieve transmitdiversity. However, no solutions
increases the data rate of singleantenna systems (multiplex- are provided to cope with this issue and it is shown that the
ing gain) without the need of multiplexing multiple data absence of transmitdiversity may result, especially for high
streams at the transmitter and, thus, avoiding multistream correlated fading channels, in a substantial performance loss.
detectors at the receiver [3][6]. The fundamental benefit The design of transmitdiversity for SM is investigated in [14],
introduced by SM for multipleantenna wireless systems can and a simple solution to achieve transmitdiversity equal to
be readily understood by regarding this technology as a high two is proposed. Another solution can be found in [15].
rate coding mechanism [7, Eq. (1)]. SM uses the spatial From all the above, it is apparent that while receive
domain as an additional dimension (the socalled spatial diversity is well understood for SM and SSK modulation,
constellation diagram), on top of the conventional signal transmitdiversity is an open research issue, which deserves
constellation diagram [5], to convey part of the information further investigation for the successful application of this
bits. This is realized by exploiting the spatial decorrelation technology especially in the downlink of wireless communi-
property of the wireless medium for data modulation, which cation systems. In fact, in this scenario it is more economical
allows the encoder to establish a onetoone mapping between to add complexity to a single central entity rather than at
the information messages and the channel impulse responses multiple remote and primarily lowcost devices. Motivated by
on the available transmittoreceive wireless links [6]. these considerations, this paper aims at shedding light on the
However, it is wellknown that the performance of a given design of transmitdiversity for SSK modulation. The specific
transmission technology is only in part determined by the contributions of this paper are as follows. 1) We move from
multiplexing gain, and that another important component to the TimeOrthogonalSignalDesign (TOSD) principle in [1],
be analyzed is the socalled diversity gain [8]. Furthermore, a and propose a practical method to design a SSK modulation
large multiplexing gain can be easily offset by a small diversity scheme with transmitdiversity equal to two for any number of
gain. Thus, it is very important to study the diversity offered antennas at the transmitter. The method uses timeorthogonal
by SM and to understand the multiplexing/diversity trade waveforms to shape the signals emitted by the antennaarray
off provided by this technology. This problem has recently at the transmitter. 2) In order to increase the data rate of SSK
attracted the interest of some researchers. More specifically, modulation without reducing the performance too much, we

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This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the IEEE ICC 2011 proceedings

show that the method in 1) can be applied to Generalized a complex vector, respectively; ii) Na is the number of
SSK (GSSK) modulation [2], which allows multiple transmit simultaneouslyactive antennas at the transmitter, with 1
antenna to be simultaneously active for data transmission. Na Nt ; iii) Em is the average total energy transmitted
This additional degree of freedom comes at the expenses of by the Na active antennas that emit a nonzero signal. Em
increasing both transmitter and receiver complexity. However, is equally distributed among the active antennas, i.e. each
singlestream detection can still be used at the receiver. 3) active antenna emits a signal with energy Em /Na ; iv) N0
Finally, we propose an advanced transmitdiversity scheme is the power spectral density per dimension of the Additive
which combines TOSD and GSSK modulation in a unique White Gaussian Noise (AWGN)  at the receiver input;
  +   v)
fashion, and allows us to achieve transmitdiversity gains =Em /(4N0 ); vi) Q (x) = 1 2 x exp t2 2 dt
greater than two by adequately choosing the number of is the Qfunction; vii) {i }i=1 is the complex channel gain
transmitantenna and active transmitantenna. The price to be on the wireless link from the ith transmitantenna to the
paid for this flexibility is twofold [6]: i) multiple antennas at receiveantenna; viii) {wi ()}i=1 is the pulse shape used at
the transmitter have to transmit data at the same time, and the ith transmitantenna. Unless otherwise
 +  +stated, we assume:
ii) a reduction in the achievable data rate with respect to the
w i (t) wj (t) dt = 0 if i =
 j and
wi (t) wj (t) dt =
maximum rate achieved by GSSK modulation. This results in 1 if i = j; ix) R denotes  the rate in bits/s/Hz; x)  is the
a transmitdiversity/multiplexing tradeoff that is accurately floor function; and xi) is the binomial coefficient.
investigated in this paper. Furthermore, we emphasize that our
solutions still retain a singlestream receiver for data detection B. SSK Modulation
regardless of the number of simultaneouslyactive antennas SSK modulation works as follows [6], [9]: i) the transmitter
at the transmitter. Finally, we note that the results described encodes blocks of log2 (Nt ) data bits into the index of a single
in this paper are novel in different ways: i) with respect transmitantenna (i.e., Na = 1), which is switched on for
to [1], we provide a practical scheme to achieve transmit data transmission while all the other antennas are kept silent,
diversity and do not limit ourselves to merely identifying the and ii) the receiver solves a Nt hypothesis testing problem to
general conditions that the transmitted pulses should satisfy estimate the transmitantenna that is not idle, which results
for performance improvement, ii) for the first time, we report in the estimation of the unique sequence of bits emitted by
a transmitdiversity method for GSSK modulation, and iii) each encoder [10, Sec. III]. The block of bits encoded into
we document, for the first time for SSK modulation, a coding the index of the ith transmitantenna is called message,
scheme with transmitdiversity greater than two, which does and the Nt messages are equiprobable. Furthermore, in SSK
not exploit spectrally inefficient repetition coding. modulation the shaping filters used by the transmitantenna
The reminder of this paper is organized as follows. In are the same, i.e., wi (t) = w0 (t) for i = 1, 2, . . . , Nt , and
Section II, we review SSK and GSSK modulation schemes
w0 (t) w0 (t) dt = 1.
in order to highlight their limits in achieving transmit In [6], we have shown that the Bit Error Probability (BEP)
diversity. In Section III, we propose a general method to of SSK modulation can be tightly upperbounded as follow:
design SSK and GSSK modulation schemes with transmit Nt Nt 
diversity equal to two. In Section IV, we extend the analysis in BEPSSK Q |t2 t1 |2 (1)
Nt 1 t =1 t =t +1
Section III to design SSK modulation schemes with transmit 1 2 1

diversity greater than two. In Section V, we provide some We emphasize that (1) is conditioned upon fading channel
general guidelines to designing SSK modulation schemes with statistics. The Average Bit Error Probability (ABEP) can be
arbitrary transmitdiversity and study the related transmit computed either numerically or analytically [6], [10].
diversity/multiplexing tradeoff. In Section VI, we analyze From (1), we conclude that SSK modulation has transmit
differences and similarities of our proposed transmitdiversity diversity equal to one. In fact, each term in the twofold
schemes with respect to conventional methods. In Section VII, summation depends on the difference of two complex channel
our claims are substantiated through Monte Carlo simulations. gains, which turns out to be equivalent to a SingleInput
Finally, Section VIII concludes the paper. SingleOutput (SISO) system with an equivalent channel gain
II. BACKGROUND : SSK M ODULATION WITH given by the difference of them. From [8], it can be concluded
T RANSMITD IVERSITY 1 that SSK achieves no transmitdiversity gain.
A. System Model C. GSSK Modulation
We consider a general MultipleInputSingleOutput In [2], the authors have introduced GSSK modulation, which
(MISO) communication system with Nt antennas at the trans- is a generalized version of SSK modulation that does not
mitter and Nr = 1 antennas at the receiver. The assumption restrict the number of simultaneouslyactive antennas to Na =
Nr = 1 does not limit the generality of the results derived 1. With respect to [2], in this paper we have a different view
in this paper since we are mainly interested in studying of the usefulness of GSSK modulation for multipleantenna
transmitdiversity. From [10], it can be readily proved that the wireless systems. In [2], the GSSK concept is proposed as
solutions described in this paper can be extended to multiple a modulation scheme that exploits CSI at the transmitter
receiveantenna and that the overall diversity achieved by the for optimizing the spatialconstellation diagram. Numerical
resulting system is simply multiplied by Nr . We assume that results have shown some performance improvements with
the receiver uses a MaximumLikelihood (ML) detector with respect to SM, but at the cost of requiring a feedback channel.
Full Channel State Information (FCSI) [16]. In this paper, we use GSSK modulation without CSI at the
Notation. The following notation is used throughout this transmitter. In our opinion, the main flexibility introduced by
2 2
paper: i) || and  denote the square absolute value the GSSK concept is not in the optimization of the spatial
of a complex number and the square Euclidean norm of constellation diagram for performance improvement, but in the
This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the IEEE ICC 2011 proceedings

inherent possibility of switching on multiple antennas at the to conclude that no transmitdiversity is achieved by GSSK
transmitter for increasing the data rate. In fact, this flexibility, modulation. In fact, each term in the twofold summation
which comes at the expenses of transmitter complexity [9], in (2) depends on the linear combination of 2Na channel
allows GSSK modulation to enlarge the size of the spatial gains, which turns out to be equivalent to a SISO system with
constellation diagram, and, thus, to increase the achievable a channel gain equal to this linear combination. Thus, with
data rate. In particular, while the achievable rate of SSK respect to SSK modulation, GSSK modulation can increase
modulation is RSSK = log2 (Nt ),
GSSK modulation can the data rate, but it is still unable to provide transmitdiversity.
provide a data rate up to RGSSK = log2 Na , where the III. SSK M ODULATION WITH T RANSMITD IVERSITY 2
floor function stems form the fact that the constellation size is
The aim of this section is to propose improved schemes that
constrained to be a power of two to use the SSK principle. It
can overcome the limitations of SSK and GSSK modulation
can be shown that RGSSK achieves its maximum value when
to achieve transmitdiversity. More specifically, we propose
Na = Nt /2. So, in this paper we are mainly interested
a general method to achieve transmitdiversity equal to two
in studying transmitdiversity schemes for GSSK modulation
for arbitrary values of Nt and Na . The method is based on
that do not require any CSI at the transmitter.
the TOSD principle introduced in [1], where we have shown
The working principle of GSSK modulation used in this
that transmitdiversity can be achieved via adequate pulse
paper can be
summarized as follows: i) the transmitter encodes
 Nt  shaping at the transmitter. However, we significantly improve
blocks of log2 Na bits into one point of an enlarged the intuition in [1]. More precisely, in [1] the orthogonal
= 2log2 (Na ) ,
spatialconstellation diagram of size N H signal design exploits the different propagation delays on
which enables Na antennas to be switched on for data the transmittoreceive wireless links. However, this solution
transmission while all the other antennas are kept silent, and could require a signal with a very large transmission band-
ii) similar to SSK modulation, the receiver solves a NH width. In this paper, we propose a different way to exploit
hypothesis testing problem to estimate the Na antennas that are the TOSD principle, which foresees timeorthogonal shaping
not idle, which results in the estimation of the unique message filters across the transmitantenna. Furthermore, we show that
emitted by the encoder. Similar to SSK modulation, wi (t) = this approach can be used for any Nt , while in [1] only the
+ setup with Nt = 2 is considered. Finally, we show that the
w0 (t) for i = 1, 2, . . . , Nt , and w0 (t) w0 (t) dt = 1.
Under these assumptions, the performance of GSSK mod- proposed idea can be extended to GSSK modulation.
ulation can be estimated by using the result summarized in A. TOSDSSK Modulation
Theorem 1. We note that the BEP in (2) is much tighter than
By using a terminology similar to [1], the proposed mod-
the framework provided in [2] for the same reasons as those
ulation scheme is called TOSDSSK modulation. Its working
provided in [6] for SSK modulation.
principle is the same as SSK modulation in Section II-B, but
Theorem 1: Let Scomb be the set of Na combination of
with a fundamental difference: each antenna, when active for
the set of Nt antennas at the transmitter. The size of Scomb
Nt data transmission, radiates a different pulse waveform, and
is N . Let k denote the kth element of Scomb for k =
a  Nt  the waveforms across the antennas are timeorthogonal as
1, 2, . . . , N a
. k is a Na dimension vector whose elements described in Section II-A. We emphasize that in TOSDSSK
(k (q) for q = 1, 2, . . . , Na ) are the fading coefficients modulation a single antenna is active for data transmission, and
{i }i=1 . Then, the BEP can be upperbounded as follows: that the transmitted message is still encoded into the index of

  2 the transmitantenna and not into the impulse response of the
   Na  shaping filter. In other words, the proposed idea is different

 [t2 (q) t1 (q)]
NH 1 t1 =1 t2 =t1 +1 q=1  from conventional SISO schemes, which use Orthogonal Pulse
(2) Shape Modulation (OPSM) [17] and are unable to achieve
transmitdiversity, as only a single wireless link is exploited
 we have assumed that the first NH (with NH <
for communication.
Na ) elements of Scomb have been chosen to implement the
GSSK modulation scheme (no optimization on the spatial The performance of TOSDSSK modulation can be esti-
constellation diagram is considered). mated by using the result summarized in Theorem 2.
Proof: The result in (2) follows from the analytical devel- Theorem 2: The BEP of TOSDSSK modulation with
opment in [6], [10], and by taking into account that: i) the timeorthogonal shaping filters is upperbounded as follows:
equivalent transmitted message is given by the summation of 1
the signals emitted by the Na active transmitantenna, ii) the BEPTOSDSSK Q |t1 |2 + |t2 |2
Nt 1 t =1 t =t +1
1 2 1
spatialconstellation diagram has size NH , and iii) the energy (3)
emitted by each antenna is scaled by Na to keep constant the Proof: The result in (3) follows from [10] by taking into
total radiated energy per transmission.  account that: i) by exploiting the orthogonality of the shaping
To clarify the notation in Theorem 1, let us consider a filters, the crossproduct of the complex channel gains in [10,
simple example with (Nt , Na ) = (5, 2). In this case, we have: Eq. (9)] is always equal to zero, and ii) the noises at the output
1 = [1 , 2 ], 2 = [1 , 3 ], 3 = [1 , 4 ], 4 = [1 , 5 ], of the matched filters in [10, Eq. (11)] are uncorrelated due to
5 = [2 , 3 ], 6 = [2 , 4 ], 7 = [2 , 5 ], 8 = [3 , 4 ], the orthogonality of the shaping filters. 
9 = [3 , 5 ], 10 = [4 , 5 ]. In (2), only the first NH = By carefully analyzing (3), we observe that, unlike SSK
8 elements of Scomb , i.e., k for k = 1, 2, . . . , NH are modulation, each summand depends on the powersum of two
considered. Also, the ABEP can be computed either from (2) channel gains. According to [8], it can be shown that this sys-
by using the framework developed in [10] or numerically. tem offers a transmitdiversity equal to two. We notice that if
Finally, similar to SSK modulation, from (2) it is simple Nt = 2 the system achieve full transmitdiversity. The ABEP
This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the IEEE ICC 2011 proceedings

can be computed by using wellconsolidated frameworks for mapping by pairwise disjoint set partitioning. We emphasize
performance analysis of receivediversity systems [8]. that the choice of the spatialconstellation diagram is different
from [2], which is unable to provide transmitdiversity, and
B. TOSDGSSK Modulation requires no CSI at the transmitter.
Let us now generalize the GSSK modulation scheme for In this section, we introduce our idea with two examples.
transmitdiversity. The new modulation concept is called The general procedure is described in Section V along with
TOSDGSSK modulation, and exploits the same modulation the analysis of the transmitdiversity/multiplexing trade-off.
principle as GSSK in Section II-C but uses timeorthogonal
shaping filters at the transmitter. The performance of TOSD A. TransmitDiversity 4 An Example
GSSK modulation can be estimated from Theorem 3. Let us describe a simple scheme with Nt = 4, Na = 2,
Theorem 3: By adopting the same notation as in Theorem and R = 1, which provides transmitdiversity equal to four.
1, the BEP of TOSDGSSK modulation with timeorthogonal Similar to the TOSDGSSK modulation principle, we assume
shaping filters is upperbounded as follows: that the Nt antennas use timeorthogonal shaping filters.
  The working principle is as follows1 : i) if the encoder emits
 t t  2 (4)
BEPTOSDGSSK Q 1, 2 a 0 (1) bit, the SSK mapper encodes it into the pair of an-
NH 1 t =1 t =t +1 Na
1 2 1 tennas {TX1 , TX2 } ({TX3 , TX4 }), which are switched on for
where t1, t2 is a vector whose components are all the distinct transmission, while the antennas {TX3 , TX4 } ({TX1 , TX2 })
elements in t1 and t2 . are kept silent; and ii) the receiver uses a singlestream ML
Proof: The result in (4) follows immediately by taking into optimum detector similar to TOSDGSSK modulation.
account the comments in Theorem 1 and Theorem 2. Due to The BEP can be computed by using a methodology similar
space constraints, the details of the derivation are omitted.  to Theorem 3. The final result is given in Corollary 1.
To clarify the notation in (4) and to better understand the Corollary 1: The BEP of the (Nt , Na , R) = (4, 2, 1)
achievable performance, we consider again the example in scheme with TOSDGSSK modulation with mapping by pair-
Section II-C with (Nt , Na ) = (5, 2). We have, e.g.: 1,2 = wise disjoint set partitioning is as follows:
[2 , 3 ], 1,3 = [2 , 4 ], 1,8 = [1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ], etc. By 
carefully analyzing (4) and the example, we observe that, BEPDiv4 =Q  |t | 2
Na t=1
unlike GSSK modulation, each term in (4) depends on the
powersum of at least two channel gains. Similar to TOSD The formula in (5) confirms that the transmitdiversity
SSK modulation, we can conclude that the system can provide achieved by the proposed scheme is four, i.e., full transmit
a transmitdiversity equal to two. Two important observations diversity is obtained in this case.
are worth being made in this case: i) the fact that the power B. TransmitDiversity 6 An Example
sum of at least two channel gains is obtained is inherent in the
data bit to Na active transmitantenna index mapping of Let us describe a simple scheme with Nt = 12, Na = 3,
GSSK modulation. In other words, for each pair of transmitted and R = 2, which provides transmitdiversity equal to six.
messages, the two subsets of active antennas contain at least Also in this case, we assume that the Nt antennas use time
two different transmitantenna indexes; and ii) some terms in orthogonal shaping filters.
(4) have higher transmitdiversity. For example, the term cor- The working principle is as follows: i) If the en-
responding to 1,8 in the example above has transmitdiversity coder emits a 00 (01, 10, 11) pair of bits, the
equal to four. However, it is known that the overall transmit SSK mapper encodes them into the triple of antennas
diversity of the system depends on the worst summands in (2), {TX1 , TX2 , TX3 } ({TX4 , TX5 , TX6 }, {TX7 , TX8 , TX9 },
i.e., the terms with transmitdiversity two. Similar to TOSD {TX10 , TX11 , TX12 }), which are switched on for transmis-
SSK modulation, the ABEP can be easily computed [8]. sion, while all the other antennas are kept silent; and ii) the
receiver uses a singlestream MLoptimum detector similar to
G REATER THAN 2 The BEP can be computed by still using Theorem 3. The
The main drawback of the methods introduced in Section final result is given in Corollary 2.
III is their limitation to provide transmitdiversity greater than Corollary 2: The BEP of the (Nt , Na , R) = (12, 3, 2)
two, even when Nt > 2 and Na > 2. Basically, in TOSD scheme with TOSDGSSK modulation with mapping by pair-
SSK and TOSDGSSK modulation, Nt and Na can only be wise disjoint set partitioning is upperbounded as follows:
used to adjust the data rate, which is
equal to R =

log2 (Nt ) and RTOSDGSSK = log2 N a
, respectively. BEPDiv6
NH 1 t =1 t =t +1
SNRt1 ,t2 (6)
1 2 1
In this section, we describe a method that combines TOSD
2 2 2 2
and GSSK principles to achieve a higher transmitdiversity. where NH = 4, and SNR1,2 = |1 | + |2 | + |3 | + |4 | +
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
The main idea is based on the TOSDGSSK modulation |5 | +|6 | , SNR1,3 = |1 | +|2 | +|3 | +|7 | +|8 | +
2 2 2 2 2 2
scheme, but instead of allowing the transmitter to exploit the |9 | , SNR1,4 = |1 | + |2 | + |3 | + |10 | + |11 | +
whole spatialconstellation diagram (i.e., the NH messageto 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
|12 | , SNR2,3 = |4 | + |5 | + |6 | + |7 | + |8 | + |9 | ,
antenna mappings), we adequately choose a subset of points, 2 2 2 2 2 2
SNR2,4 = |4 | + |5 | + |6 | + |10 | + |11 | + |12 | ,
2 2 2 2 2 2
NH < NH , where to apply the SSK modulation principle. SNR3,4 = |7 | + |8 | + |9 | + |10 | + |11 | + |12 | .
This limits

 the achievable data rate, which reduces to R = From (6), we conclude that the proposed method achieves
log2 NH , but allows us to increase the transmitdiversity. a very high transmitdiversity equal to six. Furthermore, this
For reasons that will become apparent in the next subsections,
the proposed method is called: TOSDGSSK modulation with 1 We denote by TXi (i = 1, 2, . . . , Nt ) the Nt antennas at the transmitter.
This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the IEEE ICC 2011 proceedings

transmitdiversity gain is achieved with only three active transmitantenna. 2) The difference between our proposal and
antennas at the transmitter. the OTD scheme can be understood even better by consider-
ing the TOSDGSSK modulation with mapping by pairwise
V. T RANSMITD IVERSITY / M ULTIPLEXING T RADE O FF disjoint set partitioning in Section IV. In Theorem 5, it is
Let us now summarize in two general theorems the shown that the transmitdiversity provided by this scheme is
transmitdiversity methods illustrated through examples in Div = 2Na , which means that the transmitdiversity is twice
Section III and Section IV. These theorems provide a general the number of active transmitantenna. This is in net contrast
procedure to design SSK modulation schemes with the desired to the OTD concept where the achievable diversity is equal to
transmitdiversity/multiplexing tradeoff. Na . Again, this is due to the antennaindex coded modulation
Theorem 4: Let a (Nt , Na ) multipleantenna wireless sys- principle inherent in SSK modulation. This result tells us that
tem using SSK modulation. Let NH = 2log2 (Na ) be the
with the proposed approach we can achieve the same transmit
size of the spatialconstellation diagram. Then: i) the system diversity as the OTD scheme but we can halve the number
achieves transmitdiversity equal to Div = 1 and rate R = of active antenna elements, and, thus, the number of radio

log2 Na if the Nt antennas at the transmitter use the frequency chains at the transmitter, which is known to be a
same shaping filter. This scheme is called GSSK modulation very desirable feature to reduce the complexity and the power
and reduces to SSK modulation if Na = 1; and ii) the consumption of the transmitter [9]. 3) Theorem 4 states that
system achieves transmitdiversity equal to Div = 2 and for SSK modulation is not sufficient to use timeorthogonal

rate R = log2 Na if the Nt transmitantenna use time shaping filters at the transmitter to get transmitdiversity
of any order, but the way the mapping informationbit
orthogonal shaping filters. This scheme is called TOSDGSSK
to spatialconstellationpoint is performed plays a crucial
modulation and reduces to TOSDSSK modulation if Na = 1.
role to this end. More specifically, TOSDGSSK modulation
Proof: The proof follows immediately from Section III. 
requires timeorthogonal filters in all the antennas at the
Theorem 5: Let a (Nt , Na ) multipleantenna wireless sys-
transmitter, however it is unable to achieve transmitdiversity
tem using the SSK modulation principle. Let NH be the
2 greater than two if the mapping by pairwise disjoint set
size of the partition of the set of Nt antennas such that
partitioning is not used. In OTD, orthogonal pulse shaping
Nt = NH Na , i.e., each subset of the partition has Na distinct
is sufficient to achieve full transmitdiversity.
elements and the subsets are pairwise disjoint. Then, the
In conclusion, SSK modulation shares some features with
system achieves transmitdiversity
 equal to Div = 2Na and
OTD. However, it has some additional degrees of freedom to
rate R = log2 NH if the Nt transmitantenna use time
achieve transmitdiversity, which can be exploited by paying
orthogonal shaping filters. This scheme is called TOSDGSSK
attention to the way the SSK modulator maps messages to
modulation with mapping by pairwise disjoint set partitioning.
points in the spatialconstellation diagram.
Proof: The proof follows immediately from Section IV. 
In this section, numerical examples are shown to validate
the claims in the sections above. The setup is as follows: i)
In this section, we aim at providing some insights about we consider a frequencyflat Rayleigh channel model with
differences and similarities among the proposed transmit independent and identically distributed fading over all the
diversity schemes and those available in the literature for transmittoreceive wireless links; ii) we assume the mean
conventional modulation. By looking at some stateoftheart power of each fading gain to be normalized to 1; iii) to have
proposals for transmitdiversity [18], we can readily recog- a large set of orthogonal shaping filters, we use the family of
nize that the most similar solution to the transmitdiversity Hermite polynomials [17]; and iv) as a performance metric, we
concepts for SSK modulation proposed in Section III and consider the ABEP, which is obtained by averaging the BEP
Section IV is the socalled Orthogonal TransmitDiversity discussed in the sections above over fading channel statistics.
(OTD) method [18, Fig. 3]. In OTD, the signals emitted In Fig. 1, we compare Monte Carlo simulations and the
by multiple antennas at the transmitter are shaped by using analytical models developed in this paper4 . We can observe
timeorthogonal shaping filters3 , as the TOSD principle in a very good agreement between analysis and simulation,
our proposals foresees. However, TOSD for SSK modulation especially in the high Em /N0 region where our bounds are
and OTD are very different in the way transmitdiversity tighter. The slopes of the curves confirm our findings about
is achieved. The reason is threefold. 1) Let us consider the the transmitdiversity gain achieved by the proposed schemes.
TOSDSSK modulation scheme in Section III-A. In Theorem In particular, we can notice that the slope of the ABEP gets
4, it is shown that this scheme can achieve Div = 2 with a steeper for increasing values of the transmitdiversity, which
single active transmitantenna, i.e., Na = 1. This is a property agrees with our analytical findings.
that is not shared with OTD, which achieves a transmit In Fig. 2, we analyze the performance of various proposed
diversity equal to the number of active antennas. In other schemes for the same rate R. Numerical results confirm that
words, TOSDSSK modulation can achieve transmitdiversity the proposed schemes (Theorem 5) with transmitdiversity six
even though there is only one active antenna, and this peculiar and eight provide a substantial performance improvement with
property stems from the SSK modulation principle, i.e., in respect to already reported SSK modulation schemes with
conveying the information bits into the spatial positions of the transmitdiversity one and two [1]. The price to pay is the
2 A partition of a set X is a set P of nonempty subsets of X such that
need of increasing Nt and Na . However, this characteristic is
the union of the elements of P is equal to X, and the intersection of any two shared with other stateoftheart transmitdiversity schemes,
distinct subsets of P is empty. such as OTD and Space Time Block Codes (STBCs) [18].
3 In [18] the timeorthogonal shaping filters are Walsh codes typically used
in spread spectrum systems. 4 The framework for Div=8 is not shown here due to space constraints.
This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the IEEE ICC 2011 proceedings

Div = 1 and Div = 2 Div = 4, Div = 6, and Div = 8

setups for the same Nt and Na . We believe that this is an
important point to be addressed since some constraints might
be imposed on the total and active number of antennas at
10 the transmitter. The results show that, for the same hard-
ware constraints, we can support a broad range of quality
ofservice requirements and data rates. This highlights that

10 SSK modulation is a flexible scheme, which can be easily
implemented in an adaptive multipleantenna system design,
where we could switch among the SSK, GSSK, TOSDSSK,
4 4
10 10 TOSDGSSK, and the more general TOSDGSSK mapping
by pairwise disjoint set partitioning schemes to find the best
trade-off among complexity, performance, and data rate.
5 5
10 10
10 20 30 40 50 5 10 15 20 25
E /N [dB]
m 0
E /N [dB]
m 0
Fig. 1. ABEP against Em /N0 : comparison of analytical model and simulation. In this paper, we have studied the transmit
Solid lines show the analytical model and markers show Monte Carlo simulations. (left)
Diversity 1 and 2; Legend: () Div=1, Nt = 5, Na = 2, R = 3 (GSSK) () Div=1,
diversity/multiplexing tradeoff of SSK modulation. We
Nt = 6, Na = 3, R = 4 (GSSK) () Div=2, Nt = 5, Na = 2, R = 3 (TOSD have proposed a very flexible modulation scheme, which can
GSSK) () Div=2, Nt = 6, Na = 3, R = 4 (TOSDGSSK). (right) Diversity 4,
6, and 8 obtained with TOSDGSSK modulation with mapping by pairwise disjoint set
accommodate a broad range of data rates, transmitdiversity,
partitioning; Legend: () Div=4, Nt = 4, Na = 2, R = 1 () Div=6, Nt = 6, and performance requirements. It has been shown that the
Na = 3, R = 1 () Div=8, Nt = 5, Na = 4, R = 1.
proposed system achieves a transmitdiversity that is twice
R = 1bits/s/Hz
R = 2bits/s/Hz the number of active antennas at the transmitter, and a data
10 10
rate that increases logaritmically with the ratio of total and
active antennas at the transmitter. Higher transmission rates
1 1
10 10
can be achieved for systems with transmitdiversity one and
two. We believe that the proposed modulation schemes are
10 suitable for an adaptive multipleantenna wireless system
design, where the best quadruple (Nt , Na , R, Div) can be


tuned according to the specific needs of the enduser.
10 We gratefully acknowledge support from the EPSRC (EP/G011788/1) and
the European Union (PITNGA2010264759, GREENET project) for this
work. M. Di Renzo acknowledges support of the Laboratory of Signals and
Systems under the project Jeunes Chercheurs. H. Haas acknowledges the
0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 Scottish Funding Council support of his position within the ERPem between
Em/N0 [dB] Em/N0 [dB]
the University of Edinburgh and Heriot Watt University.
Fig. 2. ABEP against Em /N0 : performance comparison for the same rate. (left)
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