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MEMB123

SEM 2 16/17

WALKWAY TRUSS DESIGN

LECTURER: A.K.M PARVEZ IQBAL Dr.

NO STUDENT NAME STUDENT ID


1 DARWISH AKMAL BIN KAMAL ARIS EP0100848
2 LEE MUN WAI EE099133
3 NUR AIMAN BIN ZAINUDDIN EP0100064
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5

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CONTENTS

ABSTRACT 3

INTRODUCTION 4-5

OBJECTIVES 6

IDEAS AND CONCEPT DESIGN 8-14

DATA TABULATION 15

COST CALCULATION 16

DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION 17

REFERENCES 18

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ABSTRACT
The purpose of this project is to design our own truss needed to support a walkway connecting
two buildings per instructed by that question. For that purpose, this report will give a detailed and
thorough analysis comprising of multiple analysis regarding the truss itself, the costs needed according
to the table included by the question and the diameter of the complete truss system. Mainly, the
decisive factor of our truss design is based on the force analysis on the force distribution on each
member of the truss.

The analysis of the design section provides the analysis for both the trusses in terms of
calculation and cost estimation. The forces are calculated to ensure that the bridge is strong and sturdy
enough to support the load given by the question. The findings obtained are discussed in the discussion
section.

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INTRODUCTION
Truss bridges are characterized by the joining of numerous relatively small
structural members into a series of interconnected triangles. They were first built of
wood, then iron, then steel or, occasionally, a combination of the materials. Many
wooden truss bridges served North Carolinas roads in the 19th and early 20th
centuries. Only one still survives largely intact, the 1895 Bunker Hill Bridge near
Claremont in Catawba County, which no longer carries traffic and is not part of the
highway system. All of the states other truss bridges are metal structures, which
partook of an explosion of design and technological innovations that began in the mid-
19th century.

A truss bridge can be characterized by the location of its traffic deck. At a pony
truss, the travel surface passes along the bottom chords of trusses standing to either
side that are not connected to each other at the top. These trusses are designed for
lighter loads. At a through truss bridge, the deck again is carried along the bottom
chord, but the trusses to either side are generally higher and are connected by cross-
bracing at their tops. Designed for heavier loads and longer spans, this truss is the
most common in North Carolina. The least common truss in the state is the deck truss,
which carries its deck and traffic entirely on top of the truss structure.

Metal trusses may also be differentiated by how their structural members are
connected. The earliest examples in the state were connected with pins. The pin
connection was subsequently replaced by bolted and then welded connections.
There are numerous wood and metal truss types. The wooden Bunker Hill Bridge is a
Haupt truss, a type invented in 1839. North Carolinas metal truss bridges utilize only
about five of the many types or subtypes of metal truss bridgesthe Pratt, the Warren,
the Parker, the Camelback, and the Pennsylvania.

The Pratt truss is identified by a simple web arrangement of diagonals in tension


and verticals in compression. Patented in 1844 by engineer Thomas Pratt and his
architect father, Caleb, the Pratt offered ease of design and fabrication by using
economical, standard, rolled-angle and channel sections, plates, bars, rods, and I
beams. Pratt trusses were dominant during the last quarter of the 19th century and
continued in use well into the 20th. Most of the later examples of the truss used
riveted or bolted rather than pinned connections. A larger number of intact Pratt
trusses survived in North Carolina into the beginning of the 21st century than any
other type.

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The Warren truss design is distinguished by equal-sized members and the ability of
some of the diagonals to act in both tension and compression. The type is generally
characterized by thick, prominent, diagonal members, although verticals could be
added for increased stiffness. Warren truss bridges gained popularity after 1900, as
American engineers began to see the structural advantages of riveted or bolted
connections over those that were pinned. The design was well suited to a variety of
highway bridge applications and was very popular in North Carolina and nationally
from about 1900 to 1930.

A Parker truss is a Pratt truss that has a polygonal top chord. It is named after
engineer C. H. Parker, who is associated with the development of the design in the
mid-19th century. Polygonal top chords offer savings in material and place the
greatest depth of the truss at the center of the span where it is most needed. The
riveted Parker truss was admirably suited for relatively long spans and it remained
popular through the early decades of the 20th century.

A Camelback truss is a variation of the Parker truss that has a polygonal upper
chord of exactly five slopes. This provides some saving of material with the greatest
depth of truss where it is most required, at the center of the span. The State Highway
Commissionwhich made only limited use of the type and then only at long
crossingsused the Camelback variant as the center span of Nash County Bridge 271,
which it erected over the Tar River just east of Spring Hope in 1921.

The Pennsylvania truss is named after the Pennsylvania Railroad, whose engineers
developed the design in 1875. It is yet another variant of the Pratt truss with polygonal
top chords and panels that are additionally subdivided by ties and struts. The sloping
of the top chords saves materials and best places the depths of the truss at the center
of the span, while the subdivided panels distribute the loads uniformly and handle
secondary stresses well. The Pennsylvania truss was well-suited to long spans and
remained popular through the early decades of the 20th century. The state utilized it
at a few crossings in the mid-1950s, reflecting a conservative application of truss
technology by the Highway Commission.

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EXAMPLE OF TRUSS BRIDGE

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OBJECTIVES
The goals of this project are as follows:

Learning the designing process


View the practical applications for trigonometry, physics and statics
Improve skills associated with collecting data and drawing meaningful conclusions.
Recognize the necessity of good communication skills for engineers by completing memos,
reports, and drawings.

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PROBLEM STATEMENT

From the problem given, it is given two buildings with a length 16m between these two
buildings and we need to design a truss to support the walkway connecting two buildings. We also knew
the walkway must be built for pedestrians only. Thus, there are vertical 5kN loads at G, H, I, J. We are
also given a table of type of welded steel pipe of given diameter. The table also provided the load
analysis for each type of welded steel.

The cost of each type of welded steel pipe are also provided by the table. The problem
mentioned that the welding cost RM20/joint. Thus, we need to include these costs into our problem
analysis.

The specification given in term of 16m length and 4m height. Thus, we must not exceed the limit
of the specification given.

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IDEAS AND CONCEPT DESIGN

For this project, we will design the truss design similar to the Pratt truss design and Howe truss
design. This design is chosen based on its simplicity, the sturdiness and the strength to support the
walkway with the vertical loads of 5kN at G, H, I, J.

How we obtain the ideas? Firstly, we tried to build the truss design by using the simulation truss
from the internet. By using the information provided, we tried to build many types of truss with the
vertical loads of 5kN applied to the truss. Thus, we used the results of each simulation from many types
of design truss to compare which one uses the less members and less tension load and compressive
load.

We found out that our design of truss is the most suitable for our project since it uses less
members which are 17 members only (costs lesser) and lesser joints for welding (save the costs of
welding for each joint). We also compare the forces on every member of all design trusses. We also
found out that the forces on each member of our design is comparatively less than other design. Thus,
we can save the cost by using cheaper type of welded steel pipe for the members in our design.

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ANALYSIS OF SECTION PORTION

Ay

MD=0

-Ay(9.6)+5k(4.8)+FEG (2)=0

2FEG=10k(9.6)-5k(4.8)

=36kN (T)

MG=0

-10k(14.4)+5k(9.6)+5k(4.8)+FDF(2)=0

FDF=36kN (C)

Fy=0

-FDG sin 22.6 -5k-5k+Ay=0

FDG=0

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ANALYSIS OF INTERNAL FORCE

5KN 5KN 5KN 5KN

B D F H

2m

A 4.8m C 4.8m E 4.8m G 4.8m J 4.8m I

Force Analysis

Entire Truss Ma=0

Fx=0 -5k(4.8)-5k(9.6)-5k(14.4)-5k(19.2) +Iy(24)=0

Ax=0 Iy=10kN

Fy=0 Hence,Ay=20kN-10kN=10kN

Ay+Iy-5k(4)=0

Ay+Iy=20kN

Tan A=2/4.8

=22.6

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Point D(FBD)

Fx=0

-FDF+FBD=0

F BD=F DF

=36kN(C)

Fy=0

FED-5k=0

FED=5kN(C)
Point E(FBD)

Fx=0

FEG-FCE-FEB cos 22.6 =0

FCE=24kN(T)

Fy=0

-FED+FEB sin 22.6=0

FEB=FED/sin 22.6

=13kN(T)

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Point C(FBD)

Fx=0

-FAC+FCE=0

F AC=F CE

=24kN(T)

Fy=0

FBC=0

Point A(FBD)

Fx=0

FAC-FABX =0

FAC-FAB cos 22.6 =0

FAB= 24kN/cos 22.6

=26kN(C)

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Point F(FBD)

Fx=0

FDF-FFH=0

FDF=FFH

FFH=36kN(C)

Fy=0

FGF-5kN=0

FGF=5kN(C)

Point G(FBD)

Fx=0 Fy=0

FGHX-FEG+ FGJ =0 FGHY -5k=0

FGH cos 22.6 -36k +FGJ =0 FGH sin 22.6=5kN

FGJ= 36kN- 13k cos 22.6 FGH=13kN(T)

=24kN(T)

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Point J(FBD)

Fx=0

FJI-FGJ=0

F JI=F GJ

=24kN(T)

Fy=0

FHJ=0

Point I(FBD)

Iy=10kN

Fx=0

FHIX-FJI =0

FHI cos 22.6 -24kN =0

FHI= 24kN/cos 22.6

=26kN(C)

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DATA TABULATION
FORCE MEMBERS INTERNAL FORCE (N) TENSILE/COMPRESSIVE
EG 36k Tensile
DF 36k Compressive
DG - -
BD 36k Compressive
ED 5k Compressive
CE 24k Tensile
EB 13k Tensile
BC - -
AC 24k Tensile
AB 26k Compressive
FH 36k Compressive
GF 5k Compressive
GI 24k Tensile
GH 13k Tensile
HJ - -
HI 26k Compressive
JI 24k Tensile

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COST CALCULATION
MEMBERS LENGTH(m) X PRICE(RM) COST (RM)
AB 5.2 X 30 156
AC 4.8 X 30 144
BC 2.0 X 30 60
BE 5.2 X 30 156
CE 4.8 X 30 144
BD 4.8 X 30 144
DE 2.0 X 30 60
DG 5.2 X 30 156
DF 4.8 X 30 144
EG 4.8 X 30 144
FG 2.0 X 30 60
GH 5.2 X 30 156
GJ 4.8 X 30 144
HJ 2.0 X 30 60
HI 5.2 X 30 156
FH 4.8 X 30 144
JI 4.8 X 30 144
TOTAL(RM) 2172

Number of joint(s): 10 joints

Price for joints: 10 x RM20=RM 200

OVERALL TOTAL: (2172 + 200)= RM 2372

P/S: As per given by the question, we are using the 25mm diameter nominal inner diameter truss design
since our compressive and tensile load nominal value is between 20kN and 40kN.

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DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION

Based on our design which is Pratt truss design, force analysis was done in the members
of the design. There are 17 members present in the design. Each forces acting upon a member
was calculated and the total cumulative force was calculated and recorded in cost calculation.

In addition, length of the truss plays an essential part in choosing the best truss design.
Economically, the shortest length of pipe needed to create a design is the cheapest. The best
design usually comprises of the least length of pipe used. The concept was applied in our project
in order to determine which of the designs require the least length of pipe needed to create the
truss. Therefore, the lengths of pipes in our design were calculated by means of trigonometry
principle (i.e. Pythagoras theorem). As a result, our design necessitates the least length of pipe.

Furthermore, the amount of force in each member determines the type of pipe used for
that particular member. In economic-sense, small diameter pipes are cheaper compared to large
diameter pipes. But in our project the diameter was already set to 25mm so there is nothing we
can change about it.

As a conclusion, Pratt truss is the best design because it can be used to design a cost
effective structure due to more efficient members. It also reduces the self-weight and eases the
constructability of the structure. Plus it has a simple design.

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REFERENCES
1. http://apecsec.org/truss-bridge-pros-and-cons/
2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Truss_bridge#Pratt_truss
3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Truss_bridge
4. http://www.instructables.com/id/Teach-Engineering-Truss-Bridges/
5. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Truss
6. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bridge

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