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Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 19

SEM 2 16/17

1 DARWISH AKMAL BIN KAMAL ARIS EP0100848

2 LEE MUN WAI EE099133

3 NUR AIMAN BIN ZAINUDDIN EP0100064

4

5

1

CONTENTS

ABSTRACT 3

INTRODUCTION 4-5

OBJECTIVES 6

DATA TABULATION 15

COST CALCULATION 16

REFERENCES 18

2

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this project is to design our own truss needed to support a walkway connecting

two buildings per instructed by that question. For that purpose, this report will give a detailed and

thorough analysis comprising of multiple analysis regarding the truss itself, the costs needed according

to the table included by the question and the diameter of the complete truss system. Mainly, the

decisive factor of our truss design is based on the force analysis on the force distribution on each

member of the truss.

The analysis of the design section provides the analysis for both the trusses in terms of

calculation and cost estimation. The forces are calculated to ensure that the bridge is strong and sturdy

enough to support the load given by the question. The findings obtained are discussed in the discussion

section.

3

INTRODUCTION

Truss bridges are characterized by the joining of numerous relatively small

structural members into a series of interconnected triangles. They were first built of

wood, then iron, then steel or, occasionally, a combination of the materials. Many

wooden truss bridges served North Carolinas roads in the 19th and early 20th

centuries. Only one still survives largely intact, the 1895 Bunker Hill Bridge near

Claremont in Catawba County, which no longer carries traffic and is not part of the

highway system. All of the states other truss bridges are metal structures, which

partook of an explosion of design and technological innovations that began in the mid-

19th century.

A truss bridge can be characterized by the location of its traffic deck. At a pony

truss, the travel surface passes along the bottom chords of trusses standing to either

side that are not connected to each other at the top. These trusses are designed for

lighter loads. At a through truss bridge, the deck again is carried along the bottom

chord, but the trusses to either side are generally higher and are connected by cross-

bracing at their tops. Designed for heavier loads and longer spans, this truss is the

most common in North Carolina. The least common truss in the state is the deck truss,

which carries its deck and traffic entirely on top of the truss structure.

Metal trusses may also be differentiated by how their structural members are

connected. The earliest examples in the state were connected with pins. The pin

connection was subsequently replaced by bolted and then welded connections.

There are numerous wood and metal truss types. The wooden Bunker Hill Bridge is a

Haupt truss, a type invented in 1839. North Carolinas metal truss bridges utilize only

about five of the many types or subtypes of metal truss bridgesthe Pratt, the Warren,

the Parker, the Camelback, and the Pennsylvania.

and verticals in compression. Patented in 1844 by engineer Thomas Pratt and his

architect father, Caleb, the Pratt offered ease of design and fabrication by using

economical, standard, rolled-angle and channel sections, plates, bars, rods, and I

beams. Pratt trusses were dominant during the last quarter of the 19th century and

continued in use well into the 20th. Most of the later examples of the truss used

riveted or bolted rather than pinned connections. A larger number of intact Pratt

trusses survived in North Carolina into the beginning of the 21st century than any

other type.

4

The Warren truss design is distinguished by equal-sized members and the ability of

some of the diagonals to act in both tension and compression. The type is generally

characterized by thick, prominent, diagonal members, although verticals could be

added for increased stiffness. Warren truss bridges gained popularity after 1900, as

American engineers began to see the structural advantages of riveted or bolted

connections over those that were pinned. The design was well suited to a variety of

highway bridge applications and was very popular in North Carolina and nationally

from about 1900 to 1930.

A Parker truss is a Pratt truss that has a polygonal top chord. It is named after

engineer C. H. Parker, who is associated with the development of the design in the

mid-19th century. Polygonal top chords offer savings in material and place the

greatest depth of the truss at the center of the span where it is most needed. The

riveted Parker truss was admirably suited for relatively long spans and it remained

popular through the early decades of the 20th century.

A Camelback truss is a variation of the Parker truss that has a polygonal upper

chord of exactly five slopes. This provides some saving of material with the greatest

depth of truss where it is most required, at the center of the span. The State Highway

Commissionwhich made only limited use of the type and then only at long

crossingsused the Camelback variant as the center span of Nash County Bridge 271,

which it erected over the Tar River just east of Spring Hope in 1921.

The Pennsylvania truss is named after the Pennsylvania Railroad, whose engineers

developed the design in 1875. It is yet another variant of the Pratt truss with polygonal

top chords and panels that are additionally subdivided by ties and struts. The sloping

of the top chords saves materials and best places the depths of the truss at the center

of the span, while the subdivided panels distribute the loads uniformly and handle

secondary stresses well. The Pennsylvania truss was well-suited to long spans and

remained popular through the early decades of the 20th century. The state utilized it

at a few crossings in the mid-1950s, reflecting a conservative application of truss

technology by the Highway Commission.

5

EXAMPLE OF TRUSS BRIDGE

6

OBJECTIVES

The goals of this project are as follows:

View the practical applications for trigonometry, physics and statics

Improve skills associated with collecting data and drawing meaningful conclusions.

Recognize the necessity of good communication skills for engineers by completing memos,

reports, and drawings.

7

PROBLEM STATEMENT

From the problem given, it is given two buildings with a length 16m between these two

buildings and we need to design a truss to support the walkway connecting two buildings. We also knew

the walkway must be built for pedestrians only. Thus, there are vertical 5kN loads at G, H, I, J. We are

also given a table of type of welded steel pipe of given diameter. The table also provided the load

analysis for each type of welded steel.

The cost of each type of welded steel pipe are also provided by the table. The problem

mentioned that the welding cost RM20/joint. Thus, we need to include these costs into our problem

analysis.

The specification given in term of 16m length and 4m height. Thus, we must not exceed the limit

of the specification given.

8

IDEAS AND CONCEPT DESIGN

For this project, we will design the truss design similar to the Pratt truss design and Howe truss

design. This design is chosen based on its simplicity, the sturdiness and the strength to support the

walkway with the vertical loads of 5kN at G, H, I, J.

How we obtain the ideas? Firstly, we tried to build the truss design by using the simulation truss

from the internet. By using the information provided, we tried to build many types of truss with the

vertical loads of 5kN applied to the truss. Thus, we used the results of each simulation from many types

of design truss to compare which one uses the less members and less tension load and compressive

load.

We found out that our design of truss is the most suitable for our project since it uses less

members which are 17 members only (costs lesser) and lesser joints for welding (save the costs of

welding for each joint). We also compare the forces on every member of all design trusses. We also

found out that the forces on each member of our design is comparatively less than other design. Thus,

we can save the cost by using cheaper type of welded steel pipe for the members in our design.

9

ANALYSIS OF SECTION PORTION

Ay

MD=0

-Ay(9.6)+5k(4.8)+FEG (2)=0

2FEG=10k(9.6)-5k(4.8)

=36kN (T)

MG=0

-10k(14.4)+5k(9.6)+5k(4.8)+FDF(2)=0

FDF=36kN (C)

Fy=0

FDG=0

10

ANALYSIS OF INTERNAL FORCE

B D F H

2m

Force Analysis

Ax=0 Iy=10kN

Fy=0 Hence,Ay=20kN-10kN=10kN

Ay+Iy-5k(4)=0

Ay+Iy=20kN

Tan A=2/4.8

=22.6

11

Point D(FBD)

Fx=0

-FDF+FBD=0

F BD=F DF

=36kN(C)

Fy=0

FED-5k=0

FED=5kN(C)

Point E(FBD)

Fx=0

FCE=24kN(T)

Fy=0

FEB=FED/sin 22.6

=13kN(T)

12

Point C(FBD)

Fx=0

-FAC+FCE=0

F AC=F CE

=24kN(T)

Fy=0

FBC=0

Point A(FBD)

Fx=0

FAC-FABX =0

=26kN(C)

13

Point F(FBD)

Fx=0

FDF-FFH=0

FDF=FFH

FFH=36kN(C)

Fy=0

FGF-5kN=0

FGF=5kN(C)

Point G(FBD)

Fx=0 Fy=0

=24kN(T)

14

Point J(FBD)

Fx=0

FJI-FGJ=0

F JI=F GJ

=24kN(T)

Fy=0

FHJ=0

Point I(FBD)

Iy=10kN

Fx=0

FHIX-FJI =0

=26kN(C)

15

DATA TABULATION

FORCE MEMBERS INTERNAL FORCE (N) TENSILE/COMPRESSIVE

EG 36k Tensile

DF 36k Compressive

DG - -

BD 36k Compressive

ED 5k Compressive

CE 24k Tensile

EB 13k Tensile

BC - -

AC 24k Tensile

AB 26k Compressive

FH 36k Compressive

GF 5k Compressive

GI 24k Tensile

GH 13k Tensile

HJ - -

HI 26k Compressive

JI 24k Tensile

16

COST CALCULATION

MEMBERS LENGTH(m) X PRICE(RM) COST (RM)

AB 5.2 X 30 156

AC 4.8 X 30 144

BC 2.0 X 30 60

BE 5.2 X 30 156

CE 4.8 X 30 144

BD 4.8 X 30 144

DE 2.0 X 30 60

DG 5.2 X 30 156

DF 4.8 X 30 144

EG 4.8 X 30 144

FG 2.0 X 30 60

GH 5.2 X 30 156

GJ 4.8 X 30 144

HJ 2.0 X 30 60

HI 5.2 X 30 156

FH 4.8 X 30 144

JI 4.8 X 30 144

TOTAL(RM) 2172

P/S: As per given by the question, we are using the 25mm diameter nominal inner diameter truss design

since our compressive and tensile load nominal value is between 20kN and 40kN.

17

DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION

Based on our design which is Pratt truss design, force analysis was done in the members

of the design. There are 17 members present in the design. Each forces acting upon a member

was calculated and the total cumulative force was calculated and recorded in cost calculation.

In addition, length of the truss plays an essential part in choosing the best truss design.

Economically, the shortest length of pipe needed to create a design is the cheapest. The best

design usually comprises of the least length of pipe used. The concept was applied in our project

in order to determine which of the designs require the least length of pipe needed to create the

truss. Therefore, the lengths of pipes in our design were calculated by means of trigonometry

principle (i.e. Pythagoras theorem). As a result, our design necessitates the least length of pipe.

Furthermore, the amount of force in each member determines the type of pipe used for

that particular member. In economic-sense, small diameter pipes are cheaper compared to large

diameter pipes. But in our project the diameter was already set to 25mm so there is nothing we

can change about it.

As a conclusion, Pratt truss is the best design because it can be used to design a cost

effective structure due to more efficient members. It also reduces the self-weight and eases the

constructability of the structure. Plus it has a simple design.

18

REFERENCES

1. http://apecsec.org/truss-bridge-pros-and-cons/

2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Truss_bridge#Pratt_truss

3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Truss_bridge

4. http://www.instructables.com/id/Teach-Engineering-Truss-Bridges/

5. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Truss

6. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bridge

19

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