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Microstrip Array Antenna

Diego Llalau, Juan Lugmania, Jessica Montero, Henry Minta, Alex Yunga
School Of Electronic Engineering And Telecommunications Networks, Polytechnic High School Of Chimborazo
Riobamba, Ecuador
diegollalau@hotmail.com
juan_120792@hotmail.com
jessy_ale1593@hotmail.com
henry.minta@gmail.com
adnless17@hotmail.com

AbstractThis paper has the design of a microstrip array fed by a single line or by multiple lines in a feed network
antenna. The designed are 4x1 array. The optimum feeding arrangement.[3]
system is decided based on the various antenna parameters that
are simulated. The simulation has been performed by using HFSS III. M ICROSTRIP A NTENNA D ESIGN
version V13.0. The designed antennas provide return losses in the
range of - 30 dB to - 48 dB at frequency 2.4 GHz. Also, this paper The microstrip patch is designed so that its radiation pattern
has the dimension and the parameters values for all the elements maximum is normal to the patch. For a rectangular patch,
of the array antenna. the length L of the element is usually 30 < L < 20 . There
are numerous substrates that can be used for the design of
I. I NTRODUCTION microstrip antennas and their dielectric constants are usually
Modern wireless communication system requires low pro- in the range 2.2 r 12. The Performance of the microstrip
file, light weight, high gain, and simple structure antennas to antenna depends on its dimension. Depending on the dimen-
assure reliability, mobility, and high efficiency characteristics. sion the operating frequency, radiation efficiency, directivity,
Microstrip antenna satisfies such requirements.The key fea- return loss and other related parameters are also influenced.[1]
tures of a microstrip antenna are relative ease of construc- The Performance of the microstrip antenna depends on
tion, light weight, low cost and either conformability to the its dimension. Depending on the dimension the operating
mounting surface or, an extremely thin protrusion from the frequency, radiation efficiency, directivity, return loss and
surface. These advantages of microstrip antennas make them other related parameters are also influenced. For an efficient
popular in many wireless communication applications such as radiation, the practical width of the patch can be written as[1]
satellite communication, radar, medical applications, etc. The q
W = 2fr 10 0 r2+1
limitations of microstrip antennas are narrow frequency band
and disability to operate at high power levels of waveguide, and the length of the antenna becomes
coaxial line or even stripline. Therefore, the challenge in 1
microstrip antenna design is to increase the bandwidth and L= 2fr

ef f 0 0 2L
gain.[1] where
A way to enlarge the dimensions of the antenna, without +0.3 ( wh +0.264)
necessarily increasing the size of the individual elements, is L = 0.41h efeff f0.258
( wh +0.8)
to form an assembly of radiating elements in an electrical
and geometrical configuration. This new antenna, formed by and
r +1 r 1 h
0,5
multielements, is referred to as an array. In most cases, the ef f = 2 + 2 1 + 12 W
elements of an array are identical. This is not necessary, but
it is often convenient, simpler, and more practical.[2]

II. A NTENNA A RRAY


Microstrip antennas are very versatile and are used, among
other things, to synthesize a required pattern that cannot Figure 1: Adaptation of impedances
be achieved with a single element. In addition, they are
used to scan the beam of an antenna system, increase the Zo = Zl Zin
directivity, and perform various other functions which would Zo = 100 50
be difficult with any one single element. The elements can be Zo = 70, 71
h = 1, 6 mm IV. M ICROSTRIP A RRAY A NTENNA D ESIGN
r = 2, 2 A. Array Antenna With 2 Single Elements
f = 2, 4q Ghz
r +1 r 1

0,11
 Fig. 5 shows an array antenna, with 2 single elements,
A = Zo60 2 + r +1 0, 23 + r that has been designed to cover operating frequency of 2.4
A = 1, 596mm GHz. The dimensions of elements of this array antenna are
W 8eA
h = e2A 2 = 1, 767 shown below in Fig. 13. It is important to have correctly
W = 2, 83 mm matching impedances therefore, in this design all the elements
h 0,5
ef f = r2+1 + r21 1 + 12 W

of the array antenna are connected by using quarter wavelength
ef f = 1, 815 impedance transformer method.
= efCf f
= 92, 72 mm
l = 4 = 23, 18 mm

In the following Fig. 2 shows an antenna, with a transmis-


sion line, that has been designed to cover operating frequency
of 2.4 GHz with an input impedance of 50 . The dimensions
of this antenna are shown below in Fig. 13.

Figure 5: Array antenna with 2 single elements


Fig. 6 Illustrates the reflection coefficient in the Port 1. In
the plot shows that the return loss S is -30 dB at 2.4 GHz and
Figure 2: Single Element Microstrip Patch Antenna the bandwidth is around 2.38 GHz to 2.42 GHz.
A. Parameters analysis of microstrip antenna Fig. 7 Illustrates the radiation pattern that shows the gain
Fig. 3 Illustrates the reflection coefficient in the Port 1. In and the directive gain of the antenna at = 00 for the
the plot shows that the return loss S is -42 dB at 2.4 GHz and operating frequency 2.4 GHz.
the bandwidth is around 2.385 GHz to 2.415 GHz.
Fig. 4 Illustrates the radiation pattern that shows the gain
and the directive gain of the antenna at = 00 for the
operating frequency 2.4 GHz.

Figure 6: Reflection Coefficient in the Port 1

Figure 3: Reflection Coefficient in the Port 1

Figure 7: Radiation Pattern


B. Array Antenna With 4 Single Elements
Fig. 8 shows an antenna, with 4 single elements, that has
been designed to cover operating frequency of 2.4 GHz. The
Figure 4: Radiation Pattern dimensions of this antenna are shown below in Fig. 13.
Fig 12. Represents the matching of the real and imaginary
impedances at the input of the antenna.

Figure 12: Radiation Pattern


Figure 8: Array antenna with 4 single elements Fig 13. Shows the complete design of the array antenna
Fig. 9 Illustrates the reflection coefficient in the Port 1. In with all the dimensions of each part of the antenna.
the plot shows that the return loss S is -48 dB at 2.4 GHz.
Fig. 10 Represents the bandwidth that is around 45 MHz
and the frequency is between 2.37 GHz and 2.42 GHz.
Fig. 11 Illustrates the radiation pattern that shows the gain
and the directive gain of the antenna at = 00 for the
operating frequency 2.4 GHz.

Figure 9: Reflection Coefficient in the Port 1

Figure 13: Dimensions of the antenna


Fig 14. Shows the impedances of each transmission lines
of the array antenna.

Figure 10: Bandwidth of the Antenna

Figure 11: Radiation Pattern Figure 14: Impedances of the antenna


The maximum VSWR admitted usually is equal to 2; this is
a reflection power of -9.5 dB equivalent to 12% of the reflected
power. As the reflection coefficient is in the range of -40 dB
to -60 dB, there is a little reflection as shown in the Fig 14.
The VSWR has a value of 1.05.

Figure 15: Voltage Standing Wave Ratio


V. C ONCLUSIONS
As, the number of elements is increased in an array
antenna, the bandwidth increases.
The power that enters through the transmission line is
divided for each element of the array that are in parallel.
For maximum power transfer, the imaginary part has to
be zero; with what VSWR results close to 1 is obtained.
As the imaginary part is zero of the impedance of the
transmission line, we use quarter wavelength impedance
transformer method for matching the input impedance
with the impedance of the load.
R EFERENCES
[1] T. Huque, K. Hosain, S. Islam, A. Chowdhury, Design and
Performance Analysis of Microstrip Array Antennas with Optimum
Parameters for X-band Applications,[Online], International Journal of
Advanced Computer Science and Applications (IJACSA) Vol.2, no 4,
pp. 82-87. Available FTP: ijacsa.thesai.org, Directory: http://thesai.org/
downloads/volume2no4/paper%2013-design%20and%20performance%
20analysis%20of%20microstrip%20array%20antennas%20with%
20optimum%20parameters%20for%20x-band%20appli.pdf
[2] B. Constantine,Arrays: Linear, Planar, and Circular, in Antenna
Theory, Analysis and Desing, A JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC., PUB-
LICATION, 2005, p. 283.
[3] Y. Khraisat. (2012 Jan.). Design of 4 Elements Rectangular Microstrip
Patch Antenna with High Gain for 2.4 GHz Applications, [Online],
Modern Applied Science, Vol.6, no 1, pp. 68-74.Avialable FTP: cc-
senet.org/mas, Directory: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/mas.v6n1p68