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Gothenburg

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For other uses, see Gothenburg (disambiguation).
Gothenburg
Gteborg
From left to right: First row: Gta lv with Barken Viking to the left. Second row:
The Gteborg Opera and Gunnebo House. Third row: Poseidon at Gtaplatsen and Gothia
Towers including Svenska Mssan. 4th row: Gothenburg heritage tram and Elfsborg
Fortress. 5th row: Ullevi stadium.
From left to right: First row: Gta lv with Barken Viking to the left. Second row:
The Gteborg Opera and Gunnebo House. Third row: Poseidon at Gtaplatsen and Gothia
Towers including Svenska Mssan. 4th row: Gothenburg heritage tram and Elfsborg
Fortress. 5th row: Ullevi stadium.
Coat of arms of Gothenburg
Coat of arms
Nickname(s):
Little London Gbg New Amsterdam The front side of Sweden
Gothenburg is located in Sweden GothenburgGothenburg
Show map of Sweden
Show map of Vstra Gtaland
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Coordinates: 5742'N 1158'ECoordinates: 5742'N 1158'E
Country Sweden
Province Vstergtland and Bohusln
County Vstra Gtaland County
Municipality Gothenburg Municipality
Charter 1621
Area[1]
City 447.76 km2 (172.88 sq mi)
Water 14.5 km2 (5.6 sq mi) 3.2%
Urban 203.67 km2 (78.64 sq mi)
Metro 3,694.86 km2 (1,426.59 sq mi)
Elevation 12 m (39 ft)
Population (2016)[1][3]
City 572,779
Density 1,300/km2 (3,300/sq mi)
Urban 558,638
Urban density 2,700/km2 (7,100/sq mi)
Metro 1,001,032[2]
Demonym(s) Gteborgare
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 40xxx 41xxx 421xx 427xx
Area code(s) (+46) 31
Website www.goteborg.se
Gothenburg (English pronunciation: /'g???nb?rg/;[4] Swedish: Gteborg, pronounced
[jt?'b?rj] (About this sound listen))[5] is the second-largest city in Sweden and
the fifth-largest in the Nordic countries. Situated by Kattegat, on the west coast
of Sweden, the city has a population of approximately 580,000 in the urban area and
about 1 million inhabitants in the metropolitan area.[1]
Gothenburg was founded as a heavily fortified, primarily Dutch, trading colony, by
royal charter in 1621 by King Gustavus Adolphus. In addition to the generous
privileges (e.g. tax relaxation) given to his Dutch allies from the then-ongoing
Thirty Years' War, the king also attracted significant numbers of his German and
Scottish allies to populate his only town on the western coast. At a key strategic
location at the mouth of the Gta lv, where Scandinavia's largest drainage basin
enters the sea, the Port of Gothenburg is now the largest port in the Nordic
countries.[6]
Gothenburg is home to many students, as the city includes the University of
Gothenburg and Chalmers University of Technology. Volvo was founded in Gothenburg
in 1927.[7] The original, parent Volvo Group and the now separate Volvo Car
Corporation are still headquartered on the island of Hisingen in the city. Other
key companies are SKF and Astra Zeneca.
Gothenburg is served by Gteborg Landvetter Airport 30 km (18.64 mi) southeast of
the city center. The smaller Gteborg City Airport, 15 km (9.32 mi) from the city
center, was closed to regular airline traffic in 2015.
The city hosts some of the largest annual events in Scandinavia. The Gothenburg
Film Festival, held in January since 1979, is the leading Scandinavian film
festival with over 155,000 visitors each year.[8] In summer, a wide variety of
music festivals are held in the city, such as Way Out West and Metaltown.
Contents [hide]
1 Name
2 History
3 Geography
3.1 Climate
3.2 Parks and nature
4 Architecture
4.1 Characteristic buildings
5 Culture
5.1 Museums
5.2 Leisure and entertainment
5.3 Festivals and fairs
5.4 Music
5.5 Sports
6 Economy
7 Government
8 Proportion of foreign born
9 Education
10 Transport
10.1 Public transport
10.2 Rail and intercity bus
10.3 Air
10.4 Sea
10.5 Freight
11 Notable people
12 International relations
12.1 Twin towns and sister cities
13 See also
14 References
15 External links
Name[edit]
The city was named after the Geats (Swedish: Gtar varied: Geatas, Gautar, Goths,
Gotar, Gtar), the inhabitants of Gothia, now southern Swedeni.e. "Geat Castle".
[9][10][11] The river on which the city sits is the Gta lv or Gothia River. Gta
borg "Gothia Fortress" is the fort on the Gta lv, built to protect the port.
In Dutch, Scots, and English, all languages with a long history in this trade and
maritime-oriented city, the name Gothenburg is used for the city. The French form
of the city name is Gothembourg, but in French texts, the Swedish name Gteborg is
more frequent. "Gothenburg" can also be seen in some older English texts. In
Spanish and Portuguese the city is called Gotemburgo. These traditional forms are
sometimes replaced with the use of the Swedish Gteborg, for example by The
Gteborg Opera and the Gteborg Ballet. However, Gteborgs universitet, previously
designated as the Gteborg University in English, changed its name to the
University of Gothenburg in 2008.[12] The Gothenburg municipality has also reverted
to the use of the English name in international contexts.[13] Other old variations
in Swedish are Gtheborgh, and the more common Gtheborg. One English text, written
in the late 15th century, states the name as "Guthaeborg".[citation needed]
In 2009, the city council launched a new logotype for Gothenburg. Since the name
"Gteborg" contains the Swedish letter "" the idea was to make the name more
international and up to date by "turning" the "" sideways. As of 2015, the name is
spelled "Go:teborg" on a large number of signs in the city.[14]

View over Gustav Adolfs torg, square named after Gustavus Adolphus, the founding
father of Gothenburg
History[edit]
Further information: History of Gothenburg and Timeline of Gothenburg

Gothenburg, circa 1700 from Suecia Antiqua et Hodierna


In the early modern period, the configuration of Sweden's borders made Gothenburg
strategically critical as the only Swedish gateway to the North Sea and Atlantic,
situated on the west coast in a very narrow strip of Swedish territory between
Danish Halland in the south and Norwegian Bohusln in the north. After several
failed attempts, Gothenburg was successfully founded in 1621 by King Gustavus
Adolphus (Gustaf II Adolf).[15]
The site of the first church built in Gothenburg, subsequently destroyed by Danish
invaders, is marked by a stone near the north end of the lvsborg Bridge in the
Frjens Park. The church was built in 1603 and destroyed in 1611.[16] The city was
heavily influenced by the Dutch, Germans, and Scots, and Dutch planners and
engineers were contracted to construct the city as they had the skills needed to
drain and build in the marshy areas chosen for the city. The town was designed like
Dutch cities such as Amsterdam, Batavia (Jakarta) and New Amsterdam (Manhattan).
[15] The planning of the streets and canals of Gothenburg closely resembled that of
Jakarta, which was built by the Dutch around the same time.[17] The Dutchmen
initially won political power, and it was not until 1652, when the last Dutch
politician in the city's council died, that Swedes acquired political power over
Gothenburg.[18] During the Dutch period, the town followed Dutch town laws and
Dutch was proposed as the official language in the town. Robust city walls were
built during the 17th century. In 1807, a decision was made to tear down most of
the city's wall. The work started in 1810, and was carried out by 150 soldiers from
the Bohus regiment.[19]
Along with the Dutch, the town also was heavily influenced by Scots who settled
down in Gothenburg. Many became people of high-profile.[20] William Chalmers, the
son of a Scottish immigrant, donated his fortunes to set up what later became the
Chalmers University of Technology.[21] In 1841, the Scotsman Alexander Keiller
founded the Gtaverken shipbuilding company that was in business until 1989.[22]
His son James Keiller donated Keiller Park to the city in 1906.[23]
The Gothenburg coat of arms was based on the lion of the coat of arms of Sweden,
symbolically holding a shield with the national emblem, the Three Crowns, to defend
the city against its enemies.[24]

Swedes emigrating to the Americas from Gothenburg


In the Treaty of Roskilde (1658), DenmarkNorway ceded the then Danish province
Halland, in the south, and the Norwegian province of Bohus County or Bohusln in
the north, leaving Gothenburg less exposed. Gothenburg was able to grow into a
significant port and trade centre on the west coast, because it was the only city
on the west coast that, along with Marstrand, was granted the rights to trade with
merchants from other countries.[18]

1888 map of Gothenburg


In the 18th century, fishing was the most important industry. However, in 1731, the
Swedish East India Company was founded, and the city flourished due to its foreign
trade with highly profitable commercial expeditions to China.[25]
The harbour developed into Sweden's main harbour for trade towards the west, and
when Swedish emigration to the United States increased, Gothenburg became Sweden's
main point of departure for these travelers. The impact of Gothenburg as a main
port of embarkation for Swedish emigrants is reflected by Gothenburg, Nebraska, a
small Swedish settlement in the United States.[26]
With the 19th century, Gothenburg evolved into a modern industrial city that
continued on into the 20th century. The population increased tenfold in the
century, from 13,000 (1800) to 130,000 (1900).,[27][28][29] In the 20th century,
major companies that developed included SKF (1907)[30] and Volvo (1927).[31]

Panoramic view of Gothenburg's downtown coast line.


Geography[edit]

Gothenburg viewed from space


Gothenburg is located on the west coast, in southwestern Sweden, about halfway
between the capitals Copenhagen, Denmark, and Oslo, Norway. The location at the
mouth of the Gta lv, which feeds into Kattegatt, an arm of the North Sea, has
helped the city grow in significance as a trading city. The archipelago of
Gothenburg consists of rough, barren rocks and cliffs, which also is typical for
the coast of Bohusln.[32] Due to the Gulf Stream, the city has a mild climate and
moderately heavy precipitation.[33] It is the second-largest city in Sweden after
capital Stockholm.[34]

View from lvsborg Bridge


The Gothenburg Metropolitan Area (Stor-Gteborg) has 982,360 inhabitants and
extends to the municipalities of Ale, Alingss, Gteborg, Hrryda, Kunglv, Lerum,
Lilla Edet, Mlndal, Partille, Stenungsund, Tjrn, cker in Vstra Gtaland
County, and Kungsbacka in Halland County.[35]
Angered, a suburb outside Gothenburg, consists of Hjllbo, Eriksbo, Rannebergen,
Hammarkullen, Grdsten, and Lvgrdet.[36] It is a Million Programme part of
Gothenburg, like Rosengrd in Malm and Botkyrka in Stockholm.[37] Angered had
about 50,000 inhabitants in 2015.[38] It lies north of Gothenburg and is isolated
from the rest of the city. Bergsjn is another Million Programme suburb north of
Gothenburg, it has 14,000 inhabitants. Biskopsgrden is the biggest multicultural
suburb on the island of Hisingen, which is a part of Gothenburg but separated from
the city by the river.

A panorama of central Gothenburg taken from Keillers park, facing south from left
to right: Gta lvbron, Lilla Bommen, Viking, The Gteborg Opera in front of
Gteborgshjulet, Skansen Kronan, Oscar Fredrik Church, Masthugg Church, and
lvsborg Bridge
Climate[edit]
Gothenburg has an oceanic climate[39] according to Kppen climate classification.
Despite its northern latitude, temperatures are quite mild throughout the year and
warmer than places in similar latitude, for example Stockholm, or even somewhat
further south, mainly because of the moderating influence of the warm Gulf Stream.
[33] During the summer, daylight extends 18 hours and 5 minutes, but lasts 6 hours
and 32 minutes in late December. The climate has become significantly milder in
later decades, particularly in summer and winter; July temperatures used to be
below Stockholm's 19611990 averages, but have since been warmer than that
benchmark.
Summers are warm and pleasant with average high temperatures of 19 to 20 C (66 to
68 F) and lows of 10 to 12 C (50 to 54 F), but temperatures of 2530 C (7786
F) occur on many days during the summer. Winters are cold and windy with
temperatures of around -3 to 3 C (27 to 37 F), though it rarely drops below -15
C (5 F). Precipitation is regular but generally moderate throughout the year.
Snow mainly occurs from December to March, but is not unusual in November and April
and can sometimes occur even in October and May, in extreme cases even in
September.[40]
[hide]Climate data for Gothenburg, 20022015; precipitation 19611990; extremes
since 1901
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high C (F) 10.8
(51.4) 11.2
(52.2) 18.9
(66) 28.5
(83.3) 29.8
(85.6) 32.0
(89.6) 33.8
(92.8) 33.5
(92.3) 28.5
(83.3) 20.7
(69.3) 14.5
(58.1) 12.7
(54.9) 33.8
(92.8)
Average high C (F) 2.5
(36.5) 2.8
(37) 6.6
(43.9) 12.5
(54.5) 16.8
(62.2) 19.9
(67.8) 22.7
(72.9) 21.9
(71.4) 18.0
(64.4) 12.0
(53.6) 7.7
(45.9) 4.2
(39.6) 12.3
(54.1)
Daily mean C (F) 0.3
(32.5) 0.4
(32.7) 3.1
(37.6) 8.1
(46.6) 12.6
(54.7) 15.9
(60.6) 18.8
(65.8) 18.5
(65.3) 14.4
(57.9) 9.1
(48.4) 5.5
(41.9) 2.0
(35.6) 9.0
(48.2)
Average low C (F) -1.9
(28.6) -1.9
(28.6) -0.3
(31.5) 3.7
(38.7) 8.3
(46.9) 11.8
(53.2) 14.8
(58.6) 14.2
(57.6) 10.7
(51.3) 6.1
(43) 3.2
(37.8) -0.1
(31.8) 5.7
(42.3)
Record low C (F) -26.0
(-14.8) -22.8
(-9) -19.2
(-2.6) -11.0
(12.2) -4.3
(24.3) 1.8
(35.2) 5.3
(41.5) 3.5
(38.3) -2.5
(27.5) -8.5
(16.7) -13.5
(7.7) -21.9
(-7.4) -26.0
(-14.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 68
(2.68) 41
(1.61) 54
(2.13) 42
(1.65) 48
(1.89) 59
(2.32) 72
(2.83) 74
(2.91) 84
(3.31) 87
(3.43) 87
(3.43) 75
(2.95) 791
(31.14)
Average precipitation days 15 12 10 12 10 12 14 14 16
15 16 17 163
Mean monthly sunshine hours 45 68 163 211 238 253 232 200 167
100 46 33 1,756
Source #1: [41]
Source #2: [42]
Parks and nature[edit]

A view in the Gothenburg Botanical Garden


Gothenburg has several parks and nature reserves ranging in size from tens of
square metres to hundreds of hectares. It also has many green areas that are not
designated as parks or reserves.
Selection of parks:
Kungsparken, 13 ha (32 acres), built between 1839 and 1861, surrounds the canal
that circles the city centre.[43]
Garden Society of Gothenburg, a park and horticultural garden, is located next to
Kungsportsavenyen. Founded in 1842 by the Swedish king Carl XIV Johan and on
initiative of the amateur botanist Henric Elof von Normann, the park has a noted
rose garden with some 4,000 roses of 1,900 cultivars.[44]
Slottsskogen, Gothenburg's largest park, 137 ha (340 acres), was created in 1874 by
August Kobb. It has a free "open" zoo that includes harbor seals, penguins, horses,
pigs, deer, moose, goats, and many birds. The Natural History Museum
(Naturhistoriska Museet) and the city's oldest observatory are located in the park.
[44] The annual Way Out West festival is held in the park.[45]
nggrdsbergens naturreservat, 320 ha (790 acres), was bought in 1840 by pharmacist
Arvid Gren, and donated in 1963 to the city by Sven and Carl Gren Broberg, who
stated the area must remain a nature and bird reserve. It lies partly in Mlndal.
[46]
Delsjomrdets naturreservat, about 760 ha (1,900 acres),[47] has been in use since
the 17th century as a farming area; significant forest management was carried out
in the late 19th century. Skats gym and motionscentrum is situated here.
Rya Skogs Naturreservat, 17 ha (42 acres), became a protected area in 1928. It
contains remnants of a defensive wall built in the mid- to late 17th century.[48]
Keillers park was donated by James Keiller in 1906. He was the son of Scottish
Alexander Keiller, who founded the Gtaverken shipbuilding company.[23][36]
S A Hedlunds park: Sven Adolf Hedlund, newspaper publisher and politician, bought
the 15 ha (37 acres) Bjursltt farm in 1857, and in 1928 it was given to the city.
Hisingsparken is Gothenburg's biggest park.[49]
Flunssparken, built in 1950, has many free activities during the summer such as
concerts and theatre.[50]
Gothenburg Botanical Garden, 175 ha (430 acres), opened in 1923.[51] It won an
award in 2003, and in 2006 was third in "The most beautiful garden in Europe"
competition. It has around 16,000 species of plants and trees. The greenhouses
contain around 4,500 species including 1,600 orchids.[44] It is considered to be
one of the most important botanical gardens in Europe with three stars in the
French Guide Rouge.
Architecture[edit]

Many buildings in the old part of the city were built along canals.
Very few houses are left from the 17th century when the city was founded, since all
but the military and royal houses were built of wood.[52] A rare exception is the
Skansen Kronan.[53]
The first major architecturally interesting period is the 18th century when the
East India Company made Gothenburg an important trade city. Imposing stone houses
in Neo-Classical style were erected around the canals. One example from this period
is the East India House, which today houses the Gteborg City Museum.[54]
In the 19th century, the wealthy bourgeoisie began to move outside the city walls
which had protected the city. The style now was an eclectic, academic, somewhat
overdecorated style which the middle-class favoured. The working class lived in the
overcrowded city district Haga in wooden houses.[55]
In the 19th century, the first comprehensive town plan after the founding of city
was created, which led to the construction of the main street, Kungsportsavenyen.
[56] Perhaps the most significant type of houses of the city, Landshvdingehusen,
were built in the end of the 19th century three-storey houses with the first
floor in stone and the other two in wood.[57]
The early 20th century, characterized by the National Romantic style, was rich in
architectural achievements.[55] Masthugg Church is a noted example of the style of
this period.[58][59] In the early 1920s, on the city's 300th anniversary, the
Gtaplatsen square with its Neoclassical look was built.[55]
After this, the predominant style in Gothenburg and rest of Sweden was
Functionalism which especially dominated the suburbs such as Vstra Frlunda and
Bergsjn. The Swedish functionalist architect Uno hrn served as city planner from
1932 through 1943.[55] In the 1950s, the big stadium Ullevi was built when Sweden
hosted the 1958 FIFA World Cup.[60]
The modern architecture of the city has been formed by such architects as Gert
Wingrdh,[61] who started as a Post-modernist in the 1980s.[62]
Gustaf Adolf Square is a town square located in central Gothenburg. Noted buildings
on the square include Gothenburg City Hall (formerly the stock exchange, opened in
1849) and the Nordic Classicism law court. The main canal of Gothenburg also flanks
the square.[55]
Characteristic buildings[edit]

Skanskaskrapan
The Gothenburg Central Station is in the centre of the city, next to Nordstan and
Drottningtorget.[63] The building has been renovated and expanded numerous times
since the grand opening in October 1858. In 2003, a major reconstruction was
finished which brought the 19th-century building into the 21st century expanding
the capacity for trains, travellers, and shopping.[64] Not far from the central
station is the Skanskaskrapan, or more commonly known as "The Lipstick". It is 86 m
(282 ft) high with 22 floors and coloured in red-white stripes. The skyscraper was
designed by Ralph Erskine and built by Skanska in the late 1980s as the
headquarters for the company.[65]
By the shore of the Gta lv at Lilla Bommen is The Gteborg Opera. It was
completed in 1994. The architect Jan Izikowitz was inspired by the landscape and
described his vision as "Something that makes your mind float over the squiggling
landscape like the wings of a seagull."[66]

Feskekrka
Feskekrka, or Fiskhallen, is an indoor fishmarket by the Rosenlundskanalen in
central Gothenburg. Feskekrkan was opened on 1 November 1874 and its name from the
building's resemblance to a Gothic church.[67] The Gothenburg city hall is in the
Beaux-Arts architectural style. The Gothenburg Synagogue at Stora Nygatan, near
Drottningtorget, was built in 1855 according to the designs of the German architect
August Krger.[68]
The Gunnebo House is a country house located to the south of Gothenburg, in
Mlndal. It was built in a neoclassical architecture towards the end of the 18th
century.[69] Created in the early 1900s was the Vasa Church. It is located in
Vasastan and is built of granite in a neo-Romanesque style.[70]
Another noted construction is Brudaremossen TV Tower, one of the few partially
guyed towers in the world.[71]
Culture[edit]

The Poseidon Statue at Gtaplatsen, a well-known cultural symbol and landmark


The sea, trade, and industrial history of the city is evident in the cultural life
of Gothenburg. It is also a popular destination for tourists on the Swedish west
coast.
Museums[edit]
Many of the cultural institutions, as well as hospitals and the university, were
created by donations from rich merchants and industrialists, for example the
Rhsska Museum.[72] On 29 December 2004, the Museum of World Culture opened near
Korsvgen.[73][74] Museums include the Gothenburg Museum of Art, and several
museums of sea and navigation history, natural history, the sciences, and East
India.[75] Aeroseum, close to the Gteborg City Airport, is an aircraft museum in a
former military underground air force base.[76] The Volvo museum has exhibits of
the history of Volvo and the development from 1927 until today. Products shown
include cars, trucks, marine engines, and buses.[77]
Universeum is a public science centre that opened in 2001, the largest of its kind
in Scandinavia. It is divided into six sections, each containing experimental
workshops and a collection of reptiles, fish, and insects.[78] Universeum
occasionally host debates between Swedish secondary-school students and Nobel Prize
laureates or other scholars.[79]
Leisure and entertainment[edit]

Liseberg amusement park


The most noted attraction is the amusement park Liseberg, located in the central
part of the city. It is the largest amusement park in Scandinavia by number of
rides,[80] and was chosen as one of the top ten amusement parks in the world (2005)
by Forbes.[81] It is the most popular attraction in Sweden by number of visitors
per year (more than 3 million).[82]
There are a number of independent theatre ensembles in the city, besides
institutions such as Gothenburg City Theatre, Backa Theatre (youth theatre), and
Folkteatern.[83]
The main boulevard is called Kungsportsavenyn (commonly known as Avenyn, "The
Avenue"). It is about 1 km (0.62 mi) long and starts at Gtaplatsen which is the
location of the Gothenburg Museum of Art, the city's theatre, and the city library,
as well as the concert hall and stretches all the way to Kungsportsplatsen in the
old city centre of Gothenburg, crossing a canal and a small park.[84] The Avenyn
was created in the 1860s and 1870s as a result of an international architecture
contest, and is the product of a period of extensive town planning and remodelling.
[85] Avenyn has Gothenburg's highest concentration of pubs and clubs. Sweden's
largest shopping centre, Nordstan, is located in central Gothenburg.[82]

The Haga district


Gothenburg's Haga district is known for its picturesque wooden houses[82] and its
cafs serving the well-known Haga bulle a large cinnamon roll similar to the
kanelbulle.[86]
Five Gothenburg restaurants have a star in the 2008 Michelin Guide: 28 +, Basement,
Fond, Kock & Vin, Fiskekrogen, and Sjmagasinet.[87] The city has a number of star
chefs over the past decade, seven of the Swedish Chef of the Year awards have
been won by people from Gothenburg.[88]
The Gustavus Adolphus pastry, eaten every 6 November in Sweden, Gustavus Adolphus
Day, is especially connected to, and appreciated in, Gothenburg because the city
was founded by King Gustavus Adolphus.[89]
One of Gothenburg's most popular natural tourist attractions is the Southern
Gothenburg Archipelago, which is a set of several islands that can be reached by
ferry boats mainly operating from Saltholmen. Within the archipelago are the
lvsborg fortress, Vinga and Styrs islands.[82]
Festivals and fairs[edit]

Discussion by Nanna Ullman (1957) in front of the Swedish Exhibition and Congress
Centre
The annual Gothenburg Film Festival, is the largest film festival in Scandinavia.
[90] The Gothenburg Book Fair, held each year in September.[91]
The International Science Festival in Gothenburg is an annual festival since April
1997, in central Gothenburg with thought-provoking science activities for the
public. The festival is visited by about 100,000 people each year.[92] This makes
it the largest popular-science event in Sweden[93] and one of the leading popular-
science events in Europe.[94]
Citing the financial crisis, the International Federation of Library Associations
and Institutions moved the 2010 World Library and Information Congress, previously
to be held in Brisbane, Australia, to Gothenburg. The event took place on 1015
August 2010.[95]
Music[edit]
Further information: List of bands from Gothenburg

Entrance to the Way Out West Festival


Gothenburg has a diverse music communitythe Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra is the
best-known in classical music.[96] Gothenburg also was the birthplace of the
Swedish composer Kurt Atterberg.[97] The first internationally successfully Swedish
group, instrumental rock group The Spotnicks came from Gothenburg.[98] Bands such
as The Soundtrack of Our Lives[99] and Ace of Base are well-known pop
representatives of the city.[100] There is also an active indie scene in
Gothenburg. For example, the musician Jens Lekman was born in the suburb of
Angered[101] and named his 2007 release Night Falls Over Kortedala after another
suburb, Kortedala.[102] Other internationally acclaimed indie artists include the
electro pop duos Studio,[103] The Knife,[104] Air France,[105] The Tough Alliance,
[106] songwriter Jos Gonzlez,[107] and pop singer El Perro del Mar,[108] as well
as genre-bending quartet Little Dragon fronted by vocalist Yukimi Nagano.[109]
Another son of the city is one of Sweden's most popular singers, Hkan Hellstrm,
who often includes many places from the city in his songs.[110][111] The glam rock
group Supergroupies derives from Gothenburg.[112]
Gothenburg's own commercially successful At the Gates, In Flames, and Dark
Tranquillity are credited with pioneering melodic death metal.[113] Other well-
known bands of the Gothenburg scene are thrash metal band The Haunted,[114]
progressive power metal band Evergrey,[115] and power metal bands HammerFall and
Dream Evil.[116]
Many music festivals take place in the city every year. The Metaltown Festival is a
two-day festival featuring heavy metal music bands, held in Gothenburg. It has been
arranged annually since 2004, taking place at the Frihamnen venue.[117] In June
2012, the festival included bands such as In Flames, Marilyn Manson, Slayer, Lamb
of God, and Mastodon.[118] Another popular festival, Way Out West, focuses more on
rock, electronic, and hip-hop genres.[119][120]
The 3D-animated anthropomorphic blue frog known as Crazy Frog originally hails from
Gothenburg. The eurodance act marketed to children gained some brief success on
several international music charts in the mid-2000s.[121]
Sports[edit]

Fireworks at the opening ceremony of Gothia Cup


As in all of Sweden, a variety of sports are followed, including football, ice
hockey, basketball, handball, baseball, and figure skating. A varied amateur and
professional sports clubs scene exists.[122]
Gothenburg is the birthplace of football in Sweden as the first football match in
Sweden was played there in 1892.[123] The city's three major football clubs, IFK
Gteborg, rgryte IS, and GAIS[124] share a total of 34 Swedish championships
between them.[125] IFK has also won the UEFA Cup twice.[126] Other notable clubs
include BK Hcken (football),[127] Pixbo Wallenstam IBK (floorball),[128] multiple
national handball champion Redbergslids IK,[129] and four-time national ice hockey
champion Frlunda HC,[130] Gothenburg had a professional basketball team, Gothia
Basket, until 2010 when it ceased.[131] The bandy department of GAIS, GAIS Bandy,
played the first season in the highest division Elitserien last season. The group
stage match between the main rivals Sweden and Russia in the 2013 Bandy World
Championship was played at Arena Heden in central Gothenburg.[132]
The city's most notable sports venues are Scandinavium,[133] and Ullevi
(multisport) and the newly built Gamla Ullevi[134] (football).
The 2003 World Allround Speed Skating Championships were held in Rudhallen,
Sweden's only indoor speed-skating arena.[135] It is a part of Ruddalens IP, which
also has a bandy field and several football fields.[136]
The only Swedish heavyweight champion of the world in boxing, Ingemar Johansson,
who took the title from Floyd Paterson in 1959, was from Gothenburg.[137]

Boats at Saltholmen in the Gothenburg Archipelago


Gothenburg has hosted a number of international sporting events including the 1958
FIFA World Cup,[60] the 1983 European Cup Winners' Cup Final,[138] an NFL preseason
game on 14 August 1988 between the Chicago Bears and the Minnesota Vikings,[139]
the 1992 European Football Championship, the 1993[140] and the 2002 World Men's
Handball Championship,[141] the 1995 World Championships in Athletics,[142] the
1997 World Championships in Swimming (short track),[143] the 2002 Ice Hockey World
Championships,[141] the 2004 UEFA Cup final,[144] the 2006 European Championships
in Athletics,[145] and the 2008 World Figure Skating Championships.[146] Annual
events held in the city are the Gothia Cup[147] and the Gteborgsvarvet.[148] The
annual Gothia Cup, is the world's largest football tournament with regards to the
number of participants: in 2011, a total of 35,200 players from 1,567 teams and 72
nations participated.
Gothenburg hosted the XIII FINA World Masters Championships in 2010.[149] Diving,
swimming, synchronized swimming and open-water competitions were held on 28 July to
7 August. The water polo events were played on the neighboring city of Bors.[150]
Gothenburg is also home to the Gothenburg Sharks, a professional baseball team in
the Elitserien division of baseball in Sweden.[151]
With around 25,000 sailboats and yachts scattered about the city, sailing is a
popular sports activity in the region, particularly because of the nearby
Gothenburg Archipelago.[152] In June 2015, the Volvo Ocean Race, professional
sailing's leading crewed offshore race, concluded in Gothenburg,[153] as well as an
event in the 20152016 America's Cup World Series in August 2015.[154]
Economy[edit]

SKF Wingquist self-aligning bearing


Due to Gothenburg's advantageous location in the centre of Scandinavia, trade and
shipping have always played a major role in the city's economic history, and they
continue to do so. Gothenburg port has come to be the largest harbour in
Scandinavia.[6]
Apart from trade, the second pillar of Gothenburg has traditionally been
manufacturing and industry, which significantly contributes to the city's wealth.
[155] Major companies operating plants in the area include SKF, Volvo, and
Ericsson. Volvo Cars is the largest employer in Gothenburg, not including jobs in
supply companies. The blue-collar industries which have dominated the city for long
are still important factors in the city's economy, but they are being gradually
replaced by high-tech industries.[156][157]
Banking and finance are also important, as well as the event and tourist industry.
[6]
Gothenburg is the terminus of the Valdemar-Gteborg gas pipeline, which brings
natural gas from the North Sea fields to Sweden, through Denmark.[158]
Historically, Gothenburg was home base from the 18th century of the Swedish East
India Company.[159] From its founding until the late 1970s, the city was a world
leader in shipbuilding, with such shipyards as Eriksbergs Mekaniska Verkstad,
Gtaverken, Arendalsvarvet, and Lindholmens varv.[160] Gothenburg is classified as
a global city by GaWC, with a ranking of Gamma-.[161] The city has been ranked as
the 12th-most inventive city in the world by Forbes.[162]
Government[edit]
Main article: Gothenburg Municipality
Gothenburg became a city municipality with an elected city council when the first
Swedish local government acts were implemented in 1863.[163] The municipality has
an assembly consisting of 81 members,[164] elected every fourth year.[165]
Political decisions depend on citizens considering them legitimate. Political
legitimacy can be based on various factors: legality, due process, and equality
before the law, as well as the efficiency and effectiveness of public policy. One
method used to achieve greater legitimacy for controversial policy reforms such as
congestion charges is to allow citizens to decide or advise on the issue in public
referendums. In December 2010 a petition for a local referendum on the congestion
tax, signed by 28,000 citizens, was submitted to the City Council. This right to
submit so-called people's initiatives was inscribed in the Local Government Act,
which obliged local governments to hold a local referendum if petitioned by 5% of
the citizens unless the issue was deemed to be outside their area of jurisdiction
or if a majority in the City Council voted against holding such a referendum.[166]
A second petition for a referendum, signed by 57,000 citizens, was submitted to the
local government in February 2013. This petition followed a campaign organised by a
local newspaper Gteborgs Tidningen whose editor-in-chief argued that the
paper's involvement was justified by the large public response to a series of
articles on the congestion tax, as well as out of concern for the local democracy.
[167][166]
Proportion of foreign born[edit]
Largest groups of foreign residents[168]
Nationality Population (2014)
Iraq 11,872
Iran 11,706
Somalia 6,912
Bosnia and Herzegovina 6,863
Finland 6,793
Poland 5,757
Turkey 4,441
Syria 3,361
China 3,066
Germany 2,832
Gothenburg has a population of people born in Sweden of around 75%.[169] Like most
Swedish metropolitan areas, the city has a sizeable immigrant population.[170]
According to Statistics Sweden in 2016, 140,093 foreign born people resided in
Gothenburg, which is about 25% of the population.[171]
Education[edit]
Gothenburg has two universities, both of which started as colleges founded by
private donations in the 19th century. The University of Gothenburg has about
25,000 students and is one of the largest universities in Scandinavia,[172] and one
of the most versatile in Sweden. Chalmers University of Technology is a well-known
university located in Johanneberg 2 km (1 mi) south of the inner city, lately also
established at Lindholmen in Norra lvstranden, Hisingen.[173]
In 2015, there were ten folk high schools in Gothenburg: Agnesbergs folkhgskola,
Arbetarrrelsens folkhgskola i Gteborg, Finska folkhgskolan, Folkhgskolan i
Angered, Gteborgs folkhgskola, Kvinnofolkhgskolan, Mo Grd folkhgskola, S:ta
Birgittas folkhgskola, Vstra Gtalands folkhgskolor and Wendelsbergs
folkhgskola.[174]
In 2015, there were 49 high schools Gothenburg. Some of the more notable schools
are Sigrid Rudebecks gymnasium, Hvitfeldtska gymnasiet, Gteborgs Hgre Samskola,
Mikael Elias Teoretiska Gymnasium, Polhemsgymnasiet and Donnergymnasiet. Some high-
schools are also connected to big Swedish companies. One is SKF Technical high-
school (belonging to SKF) and Gothenburg's technical high-school (belonging to
Volvo). An international school with campuses in Guldheden and central Gothenburg
is called the International School of the Gothenburg Region.[175]
Transport[edit]
Public transport[edit]

Gothenburg's trams
With over 80 km (50 mi) of double track, the Gothenburg tram network covers most of
the city and it is the largest tram/light rail network in Scandinavia. The bus
network, however, is almost as important. There are also some boat and ferry
services. The lack of a subway is due to the soft ground on which Gothenburg is
situated. Tunneling is very expensive in such conditions.[176] A commuter rail in
Gothenburg services some nearby cities and towns.[177]
Rail and intercity bus[edit]
Other major transportation hubs are Centralstationen (Gothenburg Central Station)
and the Nils Ericson Terminal with trains and buses to various destinations in
Sweden, as well as connections to Oslo and Copenhagen (via Malm).[178]
Air[edit]
Gothenburg is located in Vstra Gtaland Gothenburg GOTGOT GSEGSE
Map showing the locations of airports around Gothenburg
There is one operational international airport in Gothenburg: Gteborg Landvetter
Airport (IATA: GOT, ICAO: ESGG) is located 20 km (12 mi) east of Gothenburg, and is
the largest international airport serving the Gothenburg region in Sweden. With 4.9
million passengers in 2011, it is Sweden's second-largest airport.[179] It is
operated by the Swedish Civil Aviation Administration. It has connections with
about 40 scheduled destinations.[180]
Gteborg City Airport (IATA: GSE, ICAO: ESGP) is closed. On 13 January 2015,
Swedish airport operator Swedavia announced that Gteborg City Airport will not
reopen for commercial services following an extensive rebuild of the airport
started in November 2014, citing that the cost of making the airport viable for
commercial operations again was too high, at 250 million kronor ($31 million).
Commercial operations will be gradually wound down.[181] The airport was located 10
km (6 mi) northwest of the city centre. It was formerly known as Sve Flygplats. It
is located within the borders of Gothenburg Municipality. In addition to commercial
airlines, the airport was also operated by a number of rescue services, including
the Swedish Coast Guard, and was used for other general aviation.[182] Most civil
air traffic to Gteborg City Airport was via low-cost airlines such as Ryanair and
Wizz Air. Those companies have now been relocated to Landvetter Airport.[183]
Sea[edit]

Gothenburg harbour seen from the lvsborg bridge, seen to the left is the ship HSS
Stena Carisma and to the right MS Stena Scandinavica (1983).
The Swedish company Stena Line operates between Gothenburg/Frederikshavn in Denmark
and Gothenburg/Kiel in Germany.[184]
The "England ferry" (Englandsfrjan) to Newcastle over Kristiansand (run by the
Danish company DFDS Seaways) ceased at the end of October 2006,[185] after being a
Gothenburg institution since the 19th century.[186] DFDS Seaways' sister company,
DFDS Tor Line, continues to run scheduled cargo ships between Gothenburg and
several English ports, and these used to have limited capacity for passengers and
their private vehicles. Also freight ships to North America and East Asia leave
from the port.[187]
Freight[edit]
Gothenburg is an intermodal logistics hub and Gothenburg harbour has access to
Sweden and Norway via rail and trucks. Gothenburg harbour is the largest port in
Scandinavia with a cargo turnover of 36.9 million tonnes per year in 2004.[188]
Notable people[edit]
Main article: List of people connected to Gothenburg

Kal and Ada at Liseberg


Two of the noted people from Gothenburg are fictional, but have become synonymous
with "people from Gothenburg". They are a working class couple called Kal and Ada,
featured in "Gothenburg jokes" (gteborgsvitsar), songs, plays and names of events.
[189][190] Each year two persons who have significantly contributed to culture in
the city are given the honorary titles of "Kal and Ada".[191] A bronze statue of
the couple made by Svenrobert Lundquist, was placed outside the entrance to
Liseberg in 1995.[192]
Some of the noted people from Gothenburg are Academy Award Winning actress Alicia
Vikander, cookbook author Sofia von Porat, footballer Gunnar Gren, artist Evert
Taube, golfer Helen Alfredsson, industrialist Victor Hasselblad, singer-songwriter
Bjrn Ulvaeus, diplomat Jan Eliasson, British Open Winner and professional golfer
Henrik Stenson, and YouTuber PewDiePie, who is the most subscribed user on YouTube.

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