Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 63

SERIES II

Shermco Industries
Sponsored by
Published
By

ANDBOOK
VOLUME 2

RC-FLASH
ARC-FLASH HANDBOOK VOLUME 2 SERIES II Published by NETA - The InterNational Electrical Testing Association
ARC-FLASH
HANDBOOK
VOLUME 2

Published by
InterNational Electrical Testing Association
Published by
InterNational Electrical Testing Association
3050 Old Centre Avenue, Suite 102, Portage, Michigan 49024
269.488.6382
www.netaworld.org

NOTICE AND DISCLAIMER


NETA Technical Papers and Articles are published by the InterNational Electrical Testing Association. Opinions, views,
and conclusions expressed in articles herein are those of the authors and not necessarily those of NETA. Publication herein
does not constitute or imply any endorsement of any opinion, product, or service by NETA, its directors, officers, members,
employees, or agents (hereinafter NETA).
All technical data in this publication reflects the experience of individuals using specific tools, products equipment, and
components under specific conditions and circumstances which may or may not be fully reported and over which NETA
has neither exercised nor reserved control. Such data has not been independently tested or otherwise verified by NETA.
NETA makes no endorsement, representation, or warranty as to any opinion, product, or service referenced in this
publication. NETA expressly disclaims any and all liability to any consumer, purchaser, or any other person using any
product or service referenced herein for any injuries or damages of any kind whatsoever, including, but not limited to,
any consequential, special incidental, direct, or indirect damages. NETA further disclaims any and all warranties, express
or implied including, but not limited to, any implied warranty or merchantability or any implied warranty of fitness for a
particular purpose.
Please Note: All biographies of authors and presenters contained herein are reflective of the professional standing of
these individuals at the time the articles were originally published. Titles, companies, and other factors may have changed
since the original publication date.

Copyright 2013 by InterNational Electrical Testing Association, all rights reserved. No part of this publication may
be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, without permission in writing from the publisher.
ARC-FLASH
HANDBOOK
VOLUME 2

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Arc-Flash Hazard Mitigation through relaying......................................................... 5


Basler Electric Co.

Arc-Resistant Switchgear: Tested to ANSI C37.20.7 & NFPA 70E............................... 9


Jim Bowen, Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company

Hazards of Establishing an Electrically Safe Work Condition.................................. 10


Tony Demaria and Dean Naylor, Tony Demaria Electric, Inc.; Mose Ramieh III, Power and Generation Testing

Novel Arc-Flash Protection System...................................................................... 14


Mark Claper, GE

Update on the IE/NFPA Joint Collaboration Project on the Arc-Flash Hazard............. 19


Jim White and Ron Widup, Shermco Industries

Overhead Lines: The Electrical Danger Above...................................................... 20


Jim White and Ron Widup, Shermco Industries

Significant Changes to 2012 NFPA 70E............................................................... 23


Jim White and Ron Widup, Shermco Industries

Switching 2 Maintenance.................................................................................. 29
Kerry Heid, Magna Electric Corporation

Safer Lock-Out Tag-Out with Permanent Electrical Safety DevicesElectrically


Safe Work Conditions Based Upon NFPA 70E and OSHA..................................... 32
Philip B. Allen, Grace Engineering Products

Changes and Enhancements to the 2012 NFPA 70E.............................................. 36


James R. White, Shermco Industries

Published by

InterNational Electrical Testing Association


3050 Old Centre Avenue, Suite 102, Portage, Michigan 49024
269.488.6382
www.netaworld.org
TABLE OF CONTENTS CONTINUED...

A New NFPA Process and a Few Words on the 70E Annexes................................ 40


Jim White and Ron Widup, Shermco Industries

Wearing PPE: Important or Not?........................................................................ 43


Jim White and Ron Widup, Shermco Industries

Arc-Flash Clothing and PPE - What Does NFPA 70E Say?...................................... 46


Jim White and Ron Widup, Shermco Industries

NETA Accredited Companies............................................................................ 49

Published by

InterNational Electrical Testing Association


3050 Old Centre Avenue, Suite 102, Portage, Michigan 49024
269.488.6382
www.netaworld.org
Arc-Flash Handbook 5

ARC-FLASH HAZARD
MITIGATION THROUGH RELAYING
NETA World, Spring 2011 Issue
by Basler Electric Co.

Arc-flash hazard awareness is a critical topic for those


responsible for the management of electrical power systems.
NFPA 70E requires an evaluation of the arc-flash hazard level
at each piece of electrical equipment and a listing of the personal
protective equipment (PPE) necessary if the equipment is to be
worked on while energized. NFPA 70E and IEEE Standard 1584-
2002 provide the means to calculate the hazard level in terms
of incident energy of the arc. In the evaluations used in both
standards, the hazard level becomes a function of available bolted
fault current at the point being evaluated and the time that a fault
might be allowed to persist before some portion of the protective
system clears the fault. Reducing either the bolted fault current or
the clearing time will reduce the arc flash-hazard, and a sufficient
reduction of the hazard will allow use of less restrictive PPE.
The magnitude of the available fault current is dependent on
the configuration of the system, the sources available, and other
factors beyond the scope of the protective system. The clearing
The switch would be wired to an input on each relay and used
time, on the other hand, is directly controlled by the protective
to control which of the two settings groups is active. With the
system. This application note provides suggestions for how to use
switch in the normal settings group position, there would be
relaying techniques to reduce clearing time without compromising
no change from the settings previously in use. With the switch in
the existing protection, including selectivity. Figures 1 and 2 show
the hot work settings group position, each relay would have an
representative one-line and relay connection diagrams to illustrate
instantaneous element set no more than 150% of maximum load,
many of the techniques mentioned. These techniques can be used
with an allowance for any starting inrush currents that might occur
individually or in combination. The one-line in Figure 1 represents
while workers are performing hot work. This instantaneous setting
an industrial system, served at medium-voltage from the utility
will not necessarily coordinate with downstream devices but is
(bus 1 in room 1), that has a second medium voltage switchgear
only used while energized equipment is being serviced.
location (bus 2 in room 2), and a transformer stepping down the
voltage to 480 V for utilization at bus 3. It is likely that a real-world Ideally, the change in settings groups also would be applied to
system would be much larger but would have similar features. the relay of the breaker supplying the gear in question, because the
Figure 2 illustrates connections among numeric multifunction reduced hazard only applies for faults beyond the CTs connected
relays discussed below. to the relay with hot work settings applied. If the supply breaker
is in the switchgear in question, that section of the gear will not
SETTINGS GROUPS have the same lower hazard level associated with the remainder
Typically, a system using numeric relays has multiple settings groups, of the gear.
and this capability can provide a means for arc-flash mitigation without Figures 1 and 2 show an example of this application. In Figure
the need for additional relays. One method for using settings groups 1, note the location of relays 1, 2, and 3; and, in Figure 2, note the
for arcflash mitigation is to have one group provide normal, fully connections to input IN3 of each of these relays. Relay 1 is on the
coordinated protection with the high hazard level associated with the main breaker on the incoming line from the utility to switchgear
normal protection. By using switches at the entrance to each switchgear bus 1 in room 1. Relay 2 is in the same gear as relay 1 and protects
room, the relays can be switched to a different settings group, which can the feeder to switchgear bus 2. Relay 3, at switchgear bus 2, is on
provide faster clearing times and allow work on energized equipment a feeder supplied by bus 2. A switch at the entrance to switchgear
with a lower level of PPE than the normal settings. room 1 would activate IN3 on relays 1 and 2 to change the settings
6 Arc-Flash Handbook

groups of these relays. Unfortunately, there is no means to increase Transformer differential relays can be useful in arc-flash hazard
the speed of the utility protection ahead of relay 1, so the fast mitigation, particularly if the zone of protection is expanded from
tripping will not apply for faults on the supply side of the main the usual zone of protection. Often, transformer differential relays
breaker; that section will have a higher incident arc energy than are applied with the CTs at the terminals of the transformer, and
the remainder of the gear. A switch at the entrance to switchgear this limits the zone of protection to the transformer itself. If, on the
room 2 controls relay 3 and other relays in that gear, as well as other hand, the CTs of the transformer differential are installed at
relay 2 in switchgear room 1 on the feeder to switchgear bus 2. To the breakers on each side of the transformer, the zone of protection
allow the control switches at each room to control relay 2 through will extend to the switchgear. With the transformer differential
the same input, the diodes shown are used to block the signal from CTs on the bus side of the breakers and the bus differential CTs
traveling beyond the intended relays. That way, when the switch on the line side of the breakers, the zones will overlap and there
for room 2 is on, relay 3 and the other relays in that room are in the will not be locations where a fault could persist for longer periods
hot work settings group as is relay 2 in room 1. The upper diode of time while waiting for a time overcurrent element to time out.
prevents the signal from reaching relay 1 and other relays on that Figure 1 shows a BE1-CDS relay around the transformer, with
bus, leaving the coordinated protection active. the CTs located at the gear at each end of the circuit.
One thing to consider when contemplating this approach In many industrial installations, lines are short enough that two
is how the relay responds to the command to change settings terminal differential relays can be used for line differential with
groups. Some relays make the change from one settings group to the CTs at both ends of the line brought to the relay. Used this way,
another between cycle scans and are never off-line. Other relay careful analysis of the burden of the CT circuits can help avoid CT
manufacturers are known to go off-line during the time the settings saturation. The relay burden is low enough that the burden seen by
groups are changing, and the relay does not provide any protection the CT secondary is essentially the impedance of the conductors
during that time. to the relay.
ADDITIONAL RELAYS
In many cases, the greatest reduction in arcflash hazard can
be achieved through the use of additional relays, particularly
differential relays. The beauty of differential relaying from an arc-
flash mitigation standpoint is that each differential relay protects
a clearly defined zone within the system and does not require
any delay to coordinate with protection for other portions of the
system.
Bus differential protection provides a means to respond to faults
on a bus without the need for any delay to coordinate with other
portions of the system; trip decisions can be made in less than one
cycle from the onset of the fault to the trip contact closing. Adding
in breaker time, a bus fault can be cleared in 6 cycles or less (0.10
sec at 60 Hz). This is a vast improvement over conventional
overcurrent protection times that can extend into the seconds or
even tens of seconds. One caution when using bus differential for
arc-flash mitigation with metalclad switchgear is that, with the
CTs mounted on the breaker bushings, as is the typical installation
method, the zone of protection ends at the CTs and a fault at the If the BE1-CDS relay shown around the transformer were to
line terminals will not be cleared by the bus differential. be connected on the feeder between the two pieces of switchgear,
In Figure 1, a BE1-87B is shown with CTs paralleled from each faults on the feeder could be cleared instantaneously.
line in and out switchgear bus 1. Not shown in the diagram is the
tripping connection between the relay and the breakers in the gear. COMMUNICATIONS
Typically, that tripping connection would be through a lockout Communications between relays can greatly reduce the relay
relay with a trip contact for each breaker. If a bus differential relay time without the need for additional relays, although it does require
were applied at switchgear bus 2, CTs would be needed on the the use of numeric relays. In the simplest implementation (see
incoming feeder, and the lockout relay for this gear would need to Figure 1), consider two relays on a radial circuit, one upstream
trip the supply breaker associated with relay 2. of the other. In addition to the normal time and instantaneous
overcurrent settings, we will add an additional low set definite
time (instantaneous with time delay) setting on each relay. We will
Arc-Flash Handbook 7

also connect an output of the downstream relay to an input of the


upstream relay. For each relay, this new setting will be set above
load, for example 150% of load, but does not necessarily need
to coordinate with inrush or other transient events. The upstream
relay may be set less sensitively as it may serve more load than the
downstream relay, or they may be set nominally the same if they
see the same load, but in no case should the upstream relay be set
more sensitively than the downstream relay. To avoid inadvertent
lack of coordination, the upstream relay should be set less
sensitively than the downstream relay by at least twice the relay/
CT tolerance. The downstream relay logic will be set to activate
the output whenever the low set element is picked up.
The upstream relay will receive, through its input, a signal that
the downstream relay sees something unusual. The NOT of this
signal will be ANDed with the trip of the low set element in the
upstream relay.
Knowing that the fault or other abnormality is beyond the next
relay downstream, the upstream relay does not need to trip. If the
upstream relay low set element picks up but the blocking signal is
not received, it can trip after a delay long enough to allow receipt
of the blocking signal, plus some margin, as it will have been
determined that the fault is located between the relays. With relays
directly connected, the delay time can be three cycles or less; with
an interposing relay the delay time can be four cycles. Testing
during system commissioning can determine the nominal signal
time, and the protection engineer can add the desired margin to
arrive at the time setting. With this technique, it is helpful to use a
8 Arc-Flash Handbook

very short recognition time and a very long debounce time for the BREAKER FAILURE PROTECTION
input on the upstream relay. The short recognition time is desired
All of the protection ideas discussed to this point assume that
to ensure than the signal is recognized as soon as possible, thereby
the intended breaker will trip at the correct time, but what happens
allowing a shorter delay time. The long debounce time is desired
if that assumption is false? The possibility of a breaker failing to
to keep the blocking signal in place until after the element on the
trip is accounted for in conventional coordinated time overcurrent
upstream relay has dropped out. Making these adjustments to the
settings where each device is backed up by all devices further
input processing times increases the security of this scheme.
upstream; failure of one device to clear a fault means that the next
The scheme can be extended to include more relays upstream device will have an opportunity to clear the fault after the set time
and downstream of the two considered above. As with the bus delay. The fact that times for this backup protection can get into
differential, if this scheme is used only within one piece of the seconds becomes a serious issue if failure of one interrupting
switchgear, there will be very fast clearing for faults on the bus means is considered when evaluating arc flash hazard. Using the
itself, but faults that occur on the cable terminals of outgoing feeders breaker failure protection features of the Basler numeric relays, it
will be beyond the CTs of the downstream relay. Communications is possible to have backup protection operate within a few cycles
from the next switchgear or from the load will extend the scheme of a breaker failure rather than a few seconds.
and provide complete protection.
In Figure 1, if relay 3 sent a trip signal to its breaker, but the
This scheme is illustrated in the figures with the connections breaker failure logic of the relay indicated that the breaker did
detailed in Figure 2. Starting with relay 3, OUT5 closes whenever not open to interrupt the current, the relay would try to retrip the
the low set picks up. This signal becomes an input to relay 2, breaker. Simultaneously, or with a user-selected delay, it also
shown as IN4 in this example. The signal from OUT5 is paralleled would send a trip signal to the breaker associated with relay 2 to
with outputs of other relays at the same level in the system so that clear the fault at that location. Using breaker failure protection, the
any relay can provide the blocking signal. Relay 2 receives the breaker at relay 2 will be tripped to clear a fault beyond the faulted
blocking signal from relay 3 and also has sent a blocking signal breaker at relay 3, and that tripping can occur with a delay of less
upstream to relay 1. If a fault occurred on bus 2 (Figure 1), the low than 20 cycles after the initial attempt to trip the breaker at relay 3.
set element on relays 1 and 2 would pick up; relay 1 would receive
a blocking signal and would not trip. Relay 3 would not see the SUMMARY
fault current, so no blocking signal is sent to relay 2 resulting in
Historically, protection systems have relied on time coordinated
a high speed trip to clear the fault. The tripping decision would
overcurrent protection for selective clearing of system faults.
be made in 3 to 4 cycles, significantly less than using coordinated
time-overcurrent elements. The need for selectivity has resulted in clearing times that
become progressively longer the further upstream in a system
In Figure 1, the connection shown between the BE1-CDS the fault occurs. When arc- flash hazards are considered, this
and the upstream relay can be used similarly. An overcurrent increased time results in increased levels of required PPE, until
element operating on the CTs on the secondary of the transformer
the hazard becomes so great that there is not an adequate level of
can provide a blocking signal which indicates that the fault has
PPE available. Using the relaying techniques discussed above, it
occurred on the 480V system rather than somewhere between the
is possible to significantly reduce the clearing time for faults at
medium-voltage gear and the lowvoltage gear.
any location in the system while maintaining full selectivity. It
CT PLACEMENT is a realistic goal to achieve primary clearing times of less than
10 cycles and backup clearing times of less than 20 cycles for
In all protection schemes, the boundary of the zone of protection
an entire system while maintaining full selectivity for all primary
is defined by the location of the CT. Traditionally, switchgear
protection.
has been designed to allow CT installation on the bushings of
the circuit breakers. This provides a convenient location for the As published by Basler Application Notes #PC-ARCFLASH
installation of the CTs and provides good physical protection of the
CTs (See Figure 2). Also, at this location there are no concerns of
cable shields interfering with correct measurement of the current.
As previously discussed, this location can create the situation of
faults within the switchgear being seen as beyond the zone of
the switchgear. If the CTs are moved to the cable compartment,
the zone of protection can be extended to include the cable
terminations. Unfortunately, in this location it will be necessary
to provide support for the CTs, run the cable shields back through
the CT to cancel any current flowing on the shield, and find a path
for the CT secondary circuit from the cable compartment to the
control compartment.
Arc-Flash Handbook 9

ARC-RESISTANT SWITCHGEAR
TESTED TO ANSI C37.20.7 & NFPA 70E
NETA World, Spring 2011 Issue
by Jim Bowen, Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company

The intent of the 2004 version of NFPA 70E, Standard for enhanced safety features while requiring no addition maintenance,
Electrical Safety in the Work Place, is to minimize the at-risk calibration, or final element tests to assure functionality.
procedures used by operators of electrical equipment. The first
step is to minimize risk by having operators perform work with the Jim Bowen graduated from Texas A&M University in 1976
equipment only in an electrically safe condition. The second step with a BSEE. He has worked for SIP Engineering as a power
is to design the hazard out of the normal work procedures, and the engineer and for Exxon in all facets of electrical engineering
third step is to rely on personal protective equipment to minimize in the petrochemical process. He held the position of regional
the risk to the individual performing the task. engineer for Exxon Chemicals Europe for three years. In January
Arc-resistant switchgear can assist with the first step effort of 1997, Jim joined Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company as
by providing enhanced safety conditions when the operator task Technical Director, providing leadership, training, and mentoring
involves energized equipment and possible exposure to an arcing to both internal and external electrical communities.
fault. Tasks in this category include:
Racking a medium-voltage circuit breaker to or from the bus
connected position
Racking a VT or CPT roll-out to or from the bus connected
position
Opening and closing a circuit breaker
Calibrating and troubleshooting devices within the instrument
compartment
The purpose of arc-resistant switchgear certified to ANSI
C37.20.7 is to eliminate the risk from the arc blast and the by-
products (heat, pressure, shrapnel, and molten copper) during
normal tasks performed on the equipment. During arc-fault
design tests, the energy release by an arcing fault is monitored
by mounting racks of a black cotton material in panels covering
the surface of the switchgear. This material is similar to 4.5oz/yd
untreated t-shirt material identified as Hazard/ Risk Category 0
per NFPA 70E Table 130.7(c) (11). The panels are mounted at 3.9
inches from all possible seams and one of the many acceptance
criteria of ANSI C37.20.7 is that none of the cotton indicators
ignites during or following a test.
While the focus of NFPA 70E is the heat from the arc in medium-
voltage switchgear, it is the pressure wave associated with the arc
fault that dictates the design of the switchgear. The switchgear
designed for arc-resistant protection requires heavy reinforcing of
the entire structure.
In conclusion, arc-resistant switchgear designs the hazard out
of the tasks and reduces the level of risk for normal tasks to a
zone 0 category. The result is a reduced need for PPE. The design
focus of arc-resistant switchgear is to provide the necessary
10 Arc-Flash Handbook

HAZARDS OF ESTABLISHING
AN ELECTRICALLY SAFE WORK CONDITION
NETA World, Spring 2011 Issue
by Tony Demaria and Dean Naylor, Tony Demaria Electric, and
Mose Ramieh, II, Power & Generation Testing

When working around electrical equipment, the preferred working Frequently, many people use the last method that should be
condition includes the equipment being put in an electrically safe applied. That method is to suit up in arc-flash protective clothing
work condition or turned off, locked out, and tagged out. This is including leather gloves and face shield or flash-suit hood. PPE
stated in both OSHA and NFPA 70E requirements. Unfortunately, should always be a last resort when implementing a safety policy.
there are electrical hazards which must be dealt with while In any unsafe situation, the goal is to remove the hazard so that the
achieving this electrically safe work condition. These hazards use of PPE is minimized.
could involve switching, equipment racking, voltage testing, and
applying grounds to assure an electrically safe work condition. DISTANCE
This paper will focus on the safety requirements associated with When turning equipment on or off, there are several options.
placing equipment in an electrically safe work condition. There are engineered options such as using computer control to
COMMON SENSE operate breakers from a distant operations center. Mimic panels
can be used to operate the equipment from outside of the protection
As a precursor to this discussion, it has been noted by some boundaries or outside of the room. There are aftermarket options
that OSHA and NFPA 70E requirements can be confusing and that attach onto the front of the switchgear and will operate switches
cumbersome. It has been said that Common sense is the knack while allowing the operator to stand away from the switchgear.
of seeing things as they are, and doing things as they ought to
be done. It is time to apply some common sense to electrical When none of these options are available, there is also an
hazards. Here are some common sense ideas for electrical safety old tried and true rope-andpulley system (See Figure 1). This
that are unfortunately, not so common. is not known or used by many people. It does not work for all
applications but excels in switching load interrupter switches,
1. Distance is your friend. The farther you are away from the haz- many medium-voltage starters, and many older style OCBs. Using
ard, the safer you will be and the less PPE you will be required the rope and pulley system, a rope is attached to the operating
to wear. handle or pull ring and run through a pulley(s), if necessary. In
2. Bigger equipment is usually more dangerous. this way the operator can stand away from, and to the side of,
the equipment while operating the equipment. This method is
3. When removing equipment covers, removing a household light
inexpensive, easy to set up, and available to everybody. This can
switch does not typically require an arc-flash suit for protection
but removing the cover from an industrial substation typically be seen being demonstrated on a motor starter in the Fall 2010
does. issue of NETA World Magazine in Tony Demarias article, Safety
and Medium Voltage Starters.
4. Shockrelated PPE requirements and arcflash related PPE re-
quirements should be determined separately and added together. If you must stand in front of the equipment to operate it, there
are a few other things you can do to mitigate being injured. Stand
With regard to electrical safety, to do things as they ought to to one side of the equipment being operated and always wear
be done means distancing yourself, and others, from the shock protective gloves. When wearing a face shield and balaclava
and arcflash hazards while establishing an electrically safe work
instead of a full hood, face the equipment to avoid collecting a
condition. In order to do this, the whole process needs to be
fireball inside the shield. Arc-rated blankets can be used to redirect
thought through and planned ahead of time. Before equipment is
the blast as well.
turned off, check the condition of the gear. Are there any panel
meters or voltage indicators present? Do they appear to be working
properly? Are the correct panel lights lit? In what order should the
equipment be shut down? Can the loads be turned off remotely
or further upstream or downstream where the hazards may be
lower? Are there any additional hazards that could be introduced
by turning this equipment off? If an action is likely to cause an
arc-flash event, then how do you avoid injury?
Arc-Flash Handbook 11

SHOCK BOUNDARIES
The next task that must be accomplished is to open covers in
order to test for absence of voltage. This seemingly easy task can
introduce additional hazards. The cover can slip and fall into the
gear. There may be loose hardware that is leaning against the cover
that could fall when the cover is moved. PPE will be necessary for
this task when crossing the shock or arc-flash boundaries.
First, a determination of the shock-related PPE requirements
should be performed. This involves identifying the voltage to
be worked on and the shock boundary to be applied. The shock
boundaries are voltage dependent boundaries and vary by system
nominal voltage. They are outlined in NFPA 70E, Table 130.2(C)
and in IEEE C2, Table 441-1. These are defined as the Limited,
Figure 1: Medium-Voltage Load Interrupter Switch Restricted, and Prohibited Approach Boundaries and are considered
Operation with Rope and Pulley System the distance from exposed, energized conductors. The distances
Racking out a breaker before you work on it is strongly stated in these tables are irregular and may be difficult to memorize.
advised and usually the only way to provide adequate separation NFPA 70E, Table 130.2(C) lists 14 voltage ranges in five columns,
from a hazard and establish an electrically safe work condition. or up to 70 distances. We believe that over 90 percent of the electrical
Unfortunately, racking out equipment can be very hazardous. workers in the U.S. and Canada have not studied these standards and
Again, there are many methods that can be used to distance could not tell you these distances from memory for every voltage
yourself from the hazards. Some equipment may have builtin, level presented in these tables. Further, they could not tell you the
electrically-operated racking mechanisms that will allow the definitions of Limited, Restricted and Prohibited Boundaries. The
operator to rack-in or rack-out the equipment while maintaining a following is an example of a way that your company can create a
safe distance. There are also many aftermarket products or robots safety policy that will cover the great majority of electrical workers
which may be employed to rack breakers either at the end of a long for shock protection. It uses common sense, and promotes an easy
control cord, or remotely via wireless control. Some of the remote way to memorize the distances. Keep in mind that this is an example
racking devices come with a remote camera, or may be fitted with of a safety policy for shock protection only.
one at a later date. 1. When working on or near exposed, energized, fixed circuits up
If you must rack the breaker out locally, there are additional to 750 volts, you should wear voltage-rated gloves and use volt-
things to remember. Use closed door racking whenever possible. age-rated tools, if you are going to get closer than three feet six
Wear the proper arc-flash rated PPE and stand to the side, if at inches. If there is a possibility that you might fall into the haz-
all possible. If using a hand crank, use an extension on the crank ard, you should also wear voltage-rated sleeves. No part of the
handle to increase your distance from the equipment and possible unprotected body should get closer than your arms can reach. A
arcing location. You can weld an additional section onto your hard hat and electrical face shield should also be used to prevent
factory-furnished crank handle (See Figure 2). Even an additional contact in tight areas.
few feet can drastically reduce the incident energy exposure. As an 2. When working on or near exposed, energized circuits over 750
example, a 42 cal/cm2 exposure at 36 inches on medium-voltage volts to 15 kV, you should wear voltage-rated gloves, voltage-
switchgear can be reduced to 21 cal/cm2 at 72 inches. rated sleeves and voltage-rated tools if you are going to get
closer than five feet. No part of the unprotected body may get
closer than your arms can reach. A hard hat with an electrical
face shield must be worn.
3. Any other voltages or situations should require specialized per-
sonnel who are qualified for the higher voltages.
These distances should apply when the covers are off and
before the circuits have been deenergized, locked out, tested, and
grounded, if necessary. The arc-flash boundary applies any time
there are exposed, energized conductors as well as any time anyone
Figure 2: F actory Racking Handle With Two-Foot is interacting with the equipment in such a manner that could cause
Extension Welded On an electric arc. This interaction includes operating and racking
breakers, removing covers, voltage testing, and applying grounds.
12 Arc-Flash Handbook

OPENING DOORS & COVERS may be energized on the top stabs and others on the bottom stabs.
This is especially typical in tie breakers. Using a grounding device
When opening hinged covers, care should be taken not to
with the wrong side grounded could lead to catastrophic damage.
position yourself so that you are in the path of the arc flash or
blast. Keep the door between yourself and the exposed conductors The grounding device may be inserted into a cubicle and then
until the cover has been fully opened with no incident. When operated remotely from system controls or mimic panels or,
removing a cover without hinges, get some help to remove the if necessary, from a robot operator. Keep in mind, if it needs to
cover. Suction cups can be very helpful when removing covers be racked into the cubicle, this should also be done remotely, if
without handles. Make sure the suction cups are placed on a clean, possible. If not, follow the same precautions as discussed earlier
dry, flat surface. These cups are very inexpensive and can be used for racking equipment out.
to avoid dropping the cover into the equipment. Lean the cover out If grounding cables or clusters must be applied manually,
slowly at first and listen for any unexpected noises. Any scraping use a hot stick. Remember again, distance is your friend. When
against the cover from loose parts, or the hissing or crackling of applying ground sets, assume the circuit is energized even after
ionized air is a warning sign that more trouble could be coming. the circuit has been voltage tested and verified to be de-energized.
This should be investigated before continuing with the task. This means wear the appropriate PPE for the hazard. This is
common sense as many an experienced electrician can relate a
VOLTAGE TESTING
story of applying grounds and having the unfortunate experience
In order to test for voltage, the live-dead-live method should of touching an energized conductor with the ground cluster. Not a
always be employed. Panel meters or auxiliary voltage indicators pretty picture! The good news is, if the grounding cluster has been
may be used as additional verification. Do the panel meters sized properly and is being installed correctly, it usually trips the
that you looked at before de-energizing the equipment show an upstream breaker with possible damage to equipment. Once again,
absence of voltage now? Have the voltage indicators that were use hot sticks at the longest practical lengths and position your
lit beforehand been extinguished? Even with these checks, it is body so that you are not in the line of fire. Dont stand in the path
necessary to use a tested meter to check the circuit. Shock-related of the hazard!
PPE and arcflash related PPE are necessary if crossing the shock or
arc-flash boundaries, respectively. When testing medium-voltage SUMMARY
equipment, the meter should be attached to a hot stick. As a general By thinking through and planning each step, the process of
recommendation, use a measuring device designed for the job and establishing an electrically safe work condition can be done safely
the voltage level. Do not select test equipment based on price and without exposing yourself to unnecessary hazards. Once the
alone. Using a hot stick will allow you to distance yourself from equipment is de-energized, locked out, tagged out, tested for
the hazard while performing the test. Always extend the hot stick voltage, and grounded, if necessary, an electrically safe work
to the fullest length that is practical. Always test all three phases. condition has been established. Now that this has been done safely
Start with the voltage range setting for the expected voltage, then and the electrical hazards have been removed, the original work
gradually lower the voltage range setting to the minimum range task(s) may begin.
to confirm that there is no voltage present. A contact-making
meter should be used even after a proximity tester has indicated
an absence of voltage in order to test for trapped charge, since
proximity testers do not respond to dc voltage. Always use gloves Tony Demaria worked for the Los
rated for the full system voltage for this task when crossing either Angeles Department of Water and
the restricted or prohibited approach boundaries. Test all three Power in substation maintenance
phases-to-ground as well as phase-to-phase. prior to starting his own company.
He has owned and operated Tony
GROUNDING Demaria Electric for over 25 years,
specializing in maintenance and
Now that absence of voltage has been verified, grounds may
testing of switchgear and large motors
be applied. Grounds should always be used when working on
for industrial facilities. Tony Demaria
equipment that has high fault current capacity., once again, the
Electric is a NETA Accredited
goal is to protect yourself and others from the hazard.
Company, and Tony serves as the
With this in mind, there is another way to apply grounds remotely. NETA Safety Committee Chair.
Grounding and test devices have been around for some time, but
they are not in common use. They are a common sense approach
to applying grounds safely. However, it is imperative that the
grounding and test device be tested for insulation integrity and the
correct stab position chosen for the ground cables. Some cubicles
Arc-Flash Handbook 13

Dean Naylor completed the NJATC


Apprenticeship in Baton Rouge, LA
before earning his degree in electrical
engineering at the University of
Tennessee at Chattanooga. He has
20 years of electrical experience
in electrical system operating,
installation, maintenance, analysis
and testing. He is a member of IEEE
1584 and 1814 Committees as well as a
Certified Maintenance and Reliability
Professional and a NETA Level III
Technician.
Mose Ramieh, III has ten years of
experience in the electrical power
field. He is certified as a Level II
Thermographer, a NICET Certified
Level III Electrical Testing Technician,
and a NETA Certified Level IV
Technician. His expertise covers
industrial and utility power systems
from 480 volts to 161 kV and all
controls associated with these systems.
14 Arc-Flash Handbook

NOVEL ARC-FLASH PROTECTION SYSTEM

NETA World, Spring 2011 Issue


by Mark Claper, GE Specification Engineer

INTRODUCTION factors associated with how we quantify the arcing fault will
be considered. With the benefit of this information, mitigation
To address the increasing concerns and standards around arcing
techniques can be outlined and categorized. Figure 1 illustrates
faults, GE challenged our Global Research Center to develop a
some of the basic parameters that factor into an incident energy
new, active method of detecting and removing an arcing fault.
calculation that in turn leads to the Hazard Risk Category labeling.
The goal was to develop a technology that would, in simple terms,
reduce the potential for injury and equipment damage. The result
is an innovative product called the Arc Vault Protection System.
This article will outline some basic arc-flash mitigation techniques
and culminate with a description of the new GE technology. It
should be noted from the onset that this technology is currently in
the prototype phase and that the discussion covers applications of
600 V and below.

ARCING FAULTS WHY THE INDUSTRY


CONCERN?
Simply put, the effects may result in serious injury, death,
Figure 1: Incident Energy Calculation
equipment damage, and downtime. Unlike the bolted fault, an
arcing fault uses ionized air as the conductor. The cause of the Clearly, there are many variables that factor into the incident
fault normally burns away during the initial flash and the arc is energy calculation. Some are specific to equipment types while
sustained by the establishment of a highly conductive, intensely others are tied to system parameters or maintenance practices.
hot plasma arc. The intense heat vaporizes conductors and barriers Each variable plays a particular role in how we categorize the arc-
and superheats the surrounding air resulting in an explosive flash hazard and each is briefly touched upon below:
volume-metric increase within the space. The consequence is Voltage The ability to sustain the arc. Arcing faults are general-
an intense pressure wave, deafening sound, blinding light, toxic ly limited to systems where the bus voltage is greater than 120 V.
gases, molten metal and shrapnel. This is often referred to as
Available bolted fault current The punch behind the arc fault
the arc blast. Unless action is taken to either quickly remove the
magnitude. Recall that the magnitude of a low-voltage arcing
fault or redirect the arc blast, the brunt of these items will impact
fault is approximately 43-57% of the bolted fault value. This im-
people, equipment, or both. The magnitude of the arcing fault is
plies that systems with significant bolted fault currents will have
only 43-57% of a bolted fault, so traditional overcurrent protection
elevated arcing current levels. The reverse is also true; lower
may not detect and clear the fault before the full impact of the arc
bolted fault levels will lead to lower arcing-fault energies. Items
develops and causes damage or injury.
such as system impedance, transformer sizing, utility, motor, and
To gain a better understanding of how to deal with an arcing generator contributions establish the available fault current.
fault, lets consider what the contributing variables are and the
Arc clearing time This includes detection and protective de-
corresponding incident energy calculations that help categorize them.
vice operating time. It is tied to the operating characteristics of
A complete discussion on arc-flash calculations can be found in IEEE
a specific protective device for a given level of arcing current.
1584 Guide for Performing Arc-Flash Hazard Calculations.
Reducing clearing time is critical to reducing the impacts of arc-
ing fault.
WHAT VARIABLES CONTRIBUTE TO AN
ARCING FAULT? Conductor gap distance Defines the distance between con-
ductors that an arc must cross. Varies by equipment type and
There are many items that can initiate an arcing fault. Rather
manufacturer, but is fixed for a specific piece of equipment.
than focusing on what the ignition sources can be, the system
Arc-Flash Handbook 15

Working distance The distance from a potential arc source to a


workers face and chest. Typically assumed to be 18. Items such
as remote monitoring and racking can be implemented to remove
the operator from the flash zone for routine maintenance tasks.
System configuration Solidly grounded, resistance grounded,
etc. This category also takes into consideration whether the arc
environment is enclosed or open.
Given a basic understanding of what variables contribute to
an incident energy calculation, the next logical question is to ask
what the engineer can do to reduce this energy or exposure to it?
Since energy is a function of current, voltage and time, there are
several strategies that can be explored:
Reducing the available fault current
Reducing the arcing time
Transferring the energy into a less damaging form or place
quicker than it could otherwise be interrupted
The paragraphs that follow will highlight several of these strategies.

METHODS OF LIMITING INCIDENT ENERGY


AND THE EXPOSURE TO ARCING FAULTS
Over the years, different methods to limit arc flash exposure
and incident energy have been introduced and can be divided into
two general categories: active and passive. Passive mitigation
is defined to be an equipment FEATURE SPRING 2011 option
or type that either contains and redirects the arc blast or helps to
eliminate the potential of a flash event (i.e., insulated main bus).
This type of mitigation does not require any actions or settings by
an operator to implement. On the opposite end of the spectrum is
active mitigation. Active mitigation takes a proactive approach to Figure 2: Arc-Flash Mitigation Techniques
reducing both incident energy and the exposure to arcing faults
through the active use of technology, design, and maintenance LOW-VOLTAGE METAL ENCLOSED
practices. The simplest example of active mitigation is to not SWITCHGEAR
approach or work on live electrical equipment. Figure 2 contains a Typical low voltage metal enclosed switchgear is designed and
list of passive and active items. tested to withstand the mechanical forces associated with bolted
One clear distinction between the passive and active methods faults (nonarcing). It is not constructed to contain and re-direct
is that the passive method does nothing in the way of detecting the arc blast away from the operator. The standard construction
or removing an arcing fault. It is focused solely on containing the must be able to withstand (carry) the bolted fault current from the
arc blast or eliminating a potential starting point for an arc flash line side of the main breaker through the load terminations on the
via equipment options. One should not employ passive techniques feeders and is short circuit tested to ensure compliance with the
without thinking through items such as thermal scanning. applicable ANSI standards. During a short circuit interruption,
Equipment options like insulated main bus and isolated phase bus there may be some out gassing of arc by-products from the breaker
are good preventative measures; however, they present an issue but not to the violent extent of the arcing fault.
to performing thermal scans of items other than load connections. An arc resistant line of low-voltage switchgear is also designed
The active methods seek to attack on both fronts, incident energy to withstand and interrupt a bolted fault, however it provides a
reduction and reduced exposure. The newest technology on the level of protection to arcing faults that is not incorporated in the
active side is the GE arc absorber protection system. To highlight standard design. Arc resistant structures have been around for 30
the application of this new system the following paragraphs will plus years and can trace their roots back to IEC standards. In North
contrast the active arc absorption system vs. the passive, arc America, this type of structure is tested & categorized to ANSI
resistant structure. The remaining items are listed for reference C37.20.7 (Refer to Figure 3.)The term arc resistant implies that no
and will not be covered in detail. arc-fault emissions/ blast will occur in the areas described by each
16 Arc-Flash Handbook

requires consideration and awareness of items that are specific to the


construction. Several items are listed below for consideration.
Equipment Damage / Downtime
What type of downtime will the owner experience for an arcing
fault? It is reasonable to expect some structural damage that will
require repair as a result of the arc blast. Bus, doors, and barriers
are likely candidates for repair. Are there other mitigation methods
that can provide operator protection and help reduce equipment
damage at the same time?
Maintenance Requiring Approaching Live Equipment
The protection afforded by the arc-resistant structure can be
negated if a door is not properly secured or if the maintenance task
requires the operator to open a door or compartment. What are the
Figure 3: Arc-Resistant Structure Categories
impacts to operator safety, maintenance practices, etc.?
category. For example, with a properly installed Type 1 design, Installation Considerations
an operator could approach the front of a switchgear lineup and
Where does the effluent go when it is vented from the structure?
not be exposed to the arc blast if an arcing fault were to occur.
Does the room size need to be increased? Does a restricted area
If the operator were standing to the side of this design, the same
need to be developed and labeled? Is placement of the structure
protection would not be provided.
limited to certain areas?
To function properly, arc-resistant structures have several
Cost and Size Impacts
distinguishing characteristics not found in traditional gear.
What are the cost and size impacts associated with the structure
Reinforced construction is used to withstand and contain the
itself? Does the room size need to be increased?
pressure wave. Front and rear doors, section barriers, etc., may
be reinforced and gasketed depending on the ANSI type. Existing Equipment
Exhaust chambers are employed within the structure to safely The arc-resistant structure cannot be retrofit onto existing
redirect the arcing fault by products away from the operator and equipment.
toward the vent flaps. The comments above are not meant to disparage the arc
Vent flaps that open due to increased pressure vent the arc blast, resistant design. Rather they are meant to highlight that with all
typically out the top. products there are application considerations that must be taken
into account. Items such as live maintenance, equipment damage,
Figures 4 illustrates the redirection and venting of the arcing
room size, and venting are real concerns that need to be thought
fault.
through and contrasted against other mitigation techniques.

HOW IS THE GE ARC ABSORPTION


TECHNOLOGY DIFFERENT?
The arc absorption is an active mitigation technique and aspires
to the same basic goal as the arc-resistant structure; to protect the
operator. However it does so in a much different fashion than arc-
resistant structures. Instead of containing and venting the arc-flash
effluent, it seeks to limit incident energy via the identification and
removal of an arcing fault before it escalates into the signature arc
Figure 4: Illustration of Arc-Resistant Venting
blast and elevated hazard risk categories. The result is a solution
that addresses three key areas:
CONSIDERATIONS ARC-RESISTANT STRUCTURES
Reduction of the arc-flash hazard
The arc-resistant structure does an excellent job of protecting
the operator from an arc-flash event; however, it is not a panacea. Improved equipment uptime/ reduced damage
As noted earlier, this passive technique seeks only to contain the Ability to retrofit existing switchgear
arc blast, but nothing to reduce incident energy or remove the
arcing fault, which can result in substantial equipment damage and
downtime. Like all products, the application of arc-resistant structures
Arc-Flash Handbook 17

It is important to note that since this system works at arcing


fault current levels, as opposed to bolted fault levels, there is a
significant energy reduction. The result is 63% less energy, and
considerably less stress on the system, when compared to crowbar
type systems. This energy reduction applies to not just the local
switchgear but also to other system components like transformers.
The prototype of the arc absorber containment dome is about
the size of an 800 AF breaker and is rated for applications of 100
kA at 480 volts.
The arc absorber protection system will contain an arc fault
in less than 8 ms with the circuit breaker compartment doors
open during operation and maintenance. The incident energy in
accordance with IEEE 1584 at 24 from the arc event will be less
than 1.2cal/cm2, which is equivalent to HRC0, for a 480 V HRG
system with available fault currents up to 100 kA.
In addition to incident energy/HRC reduction, eliminating the
arcing fault, reducing equipment damage, and eliminating arcing
fault effluent. The arc absorber offers the following benefits not
found in traditional arc resistant structures:

New and Retrofit Applications


The arc absorber can be implemented in new or existing low-
voltage switchgear platforms while the arc resistant structure is
Figure 5: Architecture tied to new installations only.

The architecture for the absorber is depicted in Figure 5 and Reuse


consists of a current sensor, a parallel-connected containment
The arc absorber will be reusable, with minor maintenance or
dome, light sensors, and a logic controller.
parts replacement, depending on the available fault currents where it
The current sensor looks for the signature of an arcing fault is applied. Arc-resistant structures will in all likelihood sustain some
while the light sensor looks for a simultaneous optical event. The form of damage and require repair to place them back into service.
combination of the two is fed into a logic controller which makes
the decision on whether to engage the absorber or not. Maintenance Activities
At this point you may be thinking that this is a crow bar. Rest The arc absorber does not depend on doors being closed to
assured, it is not, please read on. provide arc-flash protection. Hence the established Hazard Risk
Category does not change whether the doors are open or closed.
The arc absorber has no moving parts and makes use of a plasma
gun and containment chamber. When the logic controller activates No Effluent Ventilation
the absorber, two simultaneous actions take place. A trip signal
No need for increased ceiling heights or the creation of restricted
is sent to the main breaker, and the absorber is activated. When
areas to avoid potential exposure to redirected effluent.
activated, the absorber triggers the plasma gun to break down
the dielectric in the air gap within the absorption chamber. The CONCLUSION
resulting arc creates a lower impedance, phase-to-phase path
There are many techniques that can be employed to help mitigate
than the in equipment arcing fault presents to the system. This
the damaging effects of arcing faults. This article has introduced the
low impedance path is not a bolted fault and in turn redirects/
concept of the arc absorber as a feasible alternative to arc-resistant
absorbs fault current originally flowing towards the arcing fault
structures. It can at minimum offer the same or similar Hazard Risk
within the controlled environment of the containment chamber.
Category (HRC) protection as the arc resistant structure but far
The arc within the containment chamber is then safely cooled and
exceeds the structure in the areas of equipment protection, uptime,
vented. The open air or in equipment arc is extinguished as the
reuse and others. GE presented this concept on the arc absorber to the
bus voltage decreases due to the low impedance path within the
IEEE Petroleum and Chemical Conference Technical Conference in
absorber. The time required to quench the open-air arc is 8 ms. The
September of 2009.
event is brought to conclusion when the main protective device
opens and eliminates current flow within the absorption chamber.
18 Arc-Flash Handbook

REFERENCES
IEEE 1584 Guide for Performing Arc-Flash Hazard Calculations
IEEE C37.20.7: Guide for Testing Medium-Voltage Metal-
Enclosed Switchgear for Internal Arcing Faults.

Mark Clapper is a Specification


Engineer for the Industrial Solutions
division of GE Energy. He has 20 years
of power distribution experience and
holds a degree in electrical engineering
from Michigan State University
Arc-Flash Handbook 19

UPDATE ON THE IE/NFPA


JOINT COLLABORATION PROJECT
ON THE ARC-FLASH HAZARD
NETA World, Sping 2011 Issue
by Jim White and Ron Widup, Shermco Industries

At this years NFPA 70E ROC (Report on Comments) meeting, workers hearing if he is not protected. As a side note, these sound
an update on the IEEE/NFPA Joint Collaboration Project was levels were measured at a distance of 2 to 3 meters from the arc, as
presented by Dr. Wei-Jen Lee of the University of Texas at the instruments sensors were damaged if they were placed closer.
Arlington. Dr. Wei-Jen Lee is the Project Manager for the IEEE/ This means the actual sound levels were probably greater than that
NFPA Joint Collaboration Project. NETA is always looking for indicated.
ways to improve its workers safety and is a major contributor to At this time the project has almost completed the 480 V testing.
this project. During the Spring and Summer of 2011, Dr. Lee hopes to complete
Dr. Lee began by stating the goals of the project, which are to testing at the 4.16 kV level, complete the 480-volt to 600-volt
determine the arc-flash effects, including heat, blast pressures, light testing, analyze their data and possibly conduct some testing at
intensity, and sound intensity. These effects are to be quantified and the 208-volt level. It will take a considerable amount of time to
equations developed through executing approximately 2500 tests. properly analyze all the data produced by these tests, so dont
These tests are being conducted at five different test laboratories expect any usable information to be forthcoming anytime soon.
around the US and Canada. Testing on 7.2 kV and 13.8 kV is scheduled to be conducted during
The initial series of tests (Phase 1), which have been completed, the Fall and Winter of 2011.
were to determine instrument functionality, overall accuracy, A question was asked about dc voltages and Dr. Lee replied that
repeatability and consistency of the various test laboratories. Six they will look at dc voltages depending on funding once all the ac
calorimeters will be used for testing, and the electrodes will be tests have been completed. At this time it appears as though there
placed horizontally for some tests and vertically in others. The are no definite plans to conduct dc testing, but there are contingent
horizontal electrode placement was to address concerns raised plans if funding becomes available.
by Dr. David Sweeting who had written a paper pointing out that
his research showed that horizontal electrodes could produce arc James R. White and Ron A. Widup
jets which produce higher incident energy values than when the are NETAS representatives to NFPA
electrodes are placed vertically. The equations for IEEE 1584, Technical Committee 70E (Electrical
Guide for Performing Arc-Flash Hazard Calculations, will be Safety Requirements for Employee
updated to reflect the new information from these tests once they Workplaces). James R. White is
are completed and analyzed. Dr. Sweeting is also on the technical nationally recognized for technical
committee for this project. IEEE 1584 applies only to 208-volt skills and safety training in the
through 15 kV three-phase systems in enclosures. Higher voltages electrical power systems industry. He
and single-phase systems are covered using Ralph Lees equations is currently the Training Director for
(no relation to Dr. Lee). Shermco Industries, a NETA Accredited
Five series of tests were performed for Phase 1, during both cold Company. Jim has spent the last twenty
and warm weather, to gauge the effects of ambient temperature years directly involved in technical
on the test results. The video recorders being used can capture skills and safety training for electrical
(depending on the laboratory) between 600 fps to 1900 fps. power system technicians.
Calorimeters can capture between 200 to 5K samples/second and
the pressure sensors can capture between 20K to 50K samples
per second. Sound is captured at 20K samples per second. I often
get questioned about the need for hearing protection for HRC
0 and HRC 1 levels. Dr. Lee pointed out that their tests so far
have shown sound levels at 120 db to 130 db for a 480-volt, 5 kA
fault and between 130 db to 164 db at 480 volts and 20 kA. These
are very substantial acoustic values and can cause damage to a
20 Arc-Flash Handbook

OVERHEAD LINES:
THE ELECTRICAL DANGER ABOVE
NETA World, Summer 2011 Issue
by Jim White and Ron Widup, Shermco Industries

Do you know what to do around overhead power lines? What if CASE STUDY: A FAMILY TRAGEDY IN
one falls to the ground? What if one falls across your car? Do you CALIFORNIA
know what step potential is? Can you quickly and safely react to a
On January 14, 2011, three family members were electrocuted
downed power line event?
in San Bernardino, Californiaa father (age 44), a mother (age
The goal of this article is to provide you with facts to better 43), and their son (age 21). Based on information obtained from
understand the hazards of overhead power lines the Los Angeles Times, the details of the tragedy are:
INTRODUCTION During high winds, at about 5:45 a.m., they heard a loud pop
in the backyard.
Sadly, many people every year, both on and off the job, are
seriously injured or killed from contact with overhead lines, and A 12,000-volt line had fallen to the ground.
many times the incidents involve overhead lines that have fallen Several small fires had started in the back and front yards.
and are lying on the ground or lying on an object that has become
The father and his stepson went to investigate in the back yard.
energized. Understanding the hazards associated with overhead
lines and knowing what to do (or what NOT to do) can literally The mother went to the front yard and heard a loud explosion.
mean the difference between life and death. Her husband and son were lying on the ground, deceased.
She reached out to help them and was electrocuted.
Knowing about the dangers of overhead power lines, especially
downed power lines, can mean the difference between life and
death.

OVERHEAD LINES IN THE WORKPLACE


NFPA 70E
NFPA 70E covers work within the limited approach boundary
of uninsulated overhead lines in Article 130.5. This is the section
of the 70E that deals with many of the hazards associated with
work in locations near overhead lines. Everyone should take the
time to understand and comply with the requirements and guidance
located within Article 130.5.
The second leading cause of worker deaths in construction (after
falls) is electrocution, and the primary cause for the electrocutions
is contact with overhead lines. Many times the incidents involve a
nonelectrical person doing tasks such as operating a mobile crane,
moving a metal ladder, unloading supplies, or accessing a roof.
Ladders can be particularly hazardous, as a NIOSH review of
the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BL S) Census of Fatal Occupational
Injuries (CFOI) data from 19922005 identified at least 154
electrocution deaths that resulted from contacting overhead power
lines with portable metal ladders (excluding truck-mounted and
aerial ladders) [NIOSH 2007a].
Arc-Flash Handbook 21

OSHA Regulations
Current OSHA regulations require employers to take precautions
when cranes and boomed vehicles are operated near overhead
power lines. Any overhead power line shall be considered
energized unless the owner of the line or the electric utility
company indicates that it has been de-energized and it is visibly
grounded [29 CFR 1926.550 (a)(15)(vi)]. The OSHA regulations
are summarized as follows:
Employers shall ensure that overhead power lines are
de-energized or separated from the crane and its load by
implementing one or more of the following procedures:
De-energize and visibly ground electrical distribution and
transmission lines. 29 CFR 1910.333(c)(3); 29 CFR 1926.550(a)
(15)

are apart, one foot will be at a higher voltage than the other. If
that difference in voltage (potential) is great enough, it could force
current through your body.
That same electricity can enter into your body if you are walking
on the ground near the source and the ground becomes energized.
Electricity can flow between your feet and through your body and
that flow of electricity can lead to ventricular fibrillation (affecting
the heart)and the results can be deadly.
It takes very little current flow through the body to cause
problems: muscle contraction, suffocation, heart stoppage - all real
possibilities when involved in a downed power line event and step
potential becomes a factor.
Use independent insulated barriers to prevent physical contact If you are around a downed power line: DO THE SHUFFLE!
with the power lines. 29 CFR 1910.333(c)(3); 29 CFR 1926. Shuffle your feet and keep them close together, and after you are
550(a)(15) clear, keep everyone away and call 911!
Maintain minimum clearance between energized power lines But what if you are involved in a vehicle accident and a power
and the crane and its load. 29 CFR 1910.333(c)(3)(iii); 29 CFR line comes down on or around your vehicle dont get out of
1926.550(a)(15)(i), (ii), (iii) your car!! Only get out if there is a life-threatening situation if you
Where it is difficult for the crane operator to maintain clearance stayed in your car and if you do have to get out JUMP! as far
by visual means, a person shall be designated to observe the as you can! Dont touch the car and the ground at the same time
clearance between the energized power lines and the crane and and keep your feet close together (remember about step potential).
its load 29 CFR 1926.550(a)(15)(iv)
SUMMARY
The use of cage-type boom guards, insulating links, or proximity
warning devices shall not alter the need to follow required ALL of the incidents involving injury from overhead power
precautions. 29 CFR 1926.550 (a)(15)(v) lines can be prevented if a little education and understanding
of the hazards of electricity, along with an awareness of your
You should familiarize yourself with all of the OSHA rules surroundings, are put into place and followed. Remember
concerning overhead line safety. electricity is a very toxic thing and beware of the overhead line!
STEP POTENTIAL: WHAT IS IT? PRESENTATION
When power lines fall to the ground you have to be concerned If you would like to receive a short PowerPoint presentation
with step potential. Think of a rock dropping in a bucket of entitled Overhead Lines: The Electrical Danger Above to use at work,
water and the resulting ripples. The same thing happens with at school, at Boy Scouts, etc or even at home with the kids send
electricity it flows through the ground like ripples of water. The an email to overheadline@shermco.com and we will send it to you
voltage in the ground near the downed power line will be greatest for your use and grant permission to freely distribute the information.
and will decrease as a person moves away from it. If your feet
22 Arc-Flash Handbook

James R. White and Ron A. Widup


are NETAS representatives to NFPA
Technical Committee 70E (Electrical
Safety Requirements for Employee
Workplaces). James R. White is
nationally recognized for technical
skills and safety training in the
electrical power systems industry. He
is currently the Training Director for
Shermco Industries, a NETA Accredited
Company. Jim has spent the last twenty
years directly involved in technical
skills and safety training for electrical
power system technicians.
SERIES II

Shermco Industries
Sponsored by
Published
By

ANDBOOK
VOLUME 2

RC-FLASH
ARC-FLASH HANDBOOK VOLUME 2 SERIES II Published by NETA - The InterNational Electrical Testing Association
Arc-Flash Handbook 23

SIGNIFICANT CHANGES TO 2012 NFPA 70E

NETA World, Winter 2011-2012 Issue


by Jim White and Ron Widup, Shermco Industries

The 2012 edition of NFPA 70E is finalized at last! In addition a good idea to start saying Do you have your arcrated PPE?
to the Report on Proposals (504 public and eight committee instead of Do you have your FR? Look for the ATPV or EBT
proposals) and the Report on Comments (433 public and 11 rating in clothing as thats how electrical PPE is designated. (See
committee), there were 11 NITMAMs (Notice of Intent to Make Figure 1 for an example of arc-rated PPE.)
a Motion) and six appeals (the last gasp to change something).
It is actually unusual to see appeals made as they really get no
traction, but obviously someone did not like parts of the 2012
edition. And while this article does not contain all of the changes,
it does contain some of the more interesting ones to look for, and
often times we refer to the differences between the 2009 edition
and the 2012 edition. At 103 pages, the 2012 edition is packed full
of guidance and direction on how to deal with electrical hazards
while on the job, and it should be in the toolbox and back pocket
of every electrical worker out there.

WHY DO YOU CARE?


You probably have several articles on NFPA 70E, and you
might ask yourself Why do I care? Im not involved in all that
regulation and rules stuff; Im just a [worker, engineer, manager,
circus performer, etc.] Here is the first answer to the question of
Why do I care?: You just made it through the first 225 words of
the article and you are still reading! Here is the second reason why
you care: Because whether you are working in, around, on, or near
electricity you have the ultimate challenge of doing so without
getting hurt or killed. Knowledge of safe work practices and
the hazards of electricity are key if you are to lead an injuryfree
existence.
Do do you cut the blue wire or the red wire? Lets try to better
understand the 2012 edition 70E and see if we can figure it out
together.

GLOBAL CHANGES
Here are a couple of important terms to understand and use as
you go through the day:
Fine print notes (FPN) have been changed to informational
notes (IN) in order to harmonize with the NEC style manual.
When referring to PPE, the term flame-resistant (FR) will be Figure 1:F lame resistant (FR) PPE is now arc-rated PPE.
replaced by arc-rated in the standard. It is important to note that Look for the ATPV or EBT rating.
all arc-rated clothing is FR, but not all FR is arc-rated. This is
important to those of us who want protection from effects of
electrical arcs and not just protection from fire and flames. It is
24 Arc-Flash Handbook

with the general document than just Article 110 and now serve as an
introduction. Article 110 went through many changes. All of 110.8 was
moved to Article 130 so that all information relating to electrical hazards
or PPE could be in one place. 110.1(C) Relationships with Contractors
(Outside Service Personnel, etc), Documentation was added requiring
that the meeting between the host and contract employers be documented.
This was required in the 2004 edition, but dropped in the 2009. Now it is
back so make sure you document those meetings!
110.2(C) Training Requirements now require that all employees
responsible for taking action during an emergency be trained in CPR,
methods of release, and a new requirement for annual AED training, if
one is at the site. While the source is only known as an old safety manual,
see Figure 3 for an old school method of release. This is probably not the
way you would do it today.
110.2(D)(1)(f ) Employee Training takes wording very closely
from OSHA 29 CFR 1910.269(a)(2)(iii) which states: The employer
shall determine, through regular supervision and through inspections
conducted on at least an annual basis, that each employee is complying
with the safety-related work practices required by this section.
110.2(D)(1)(f ) of the 70E has essentially the same language, except
for one small difference in that: The employer shall determine, through
ARTICLE 100 DEFINITIONS
regular supervision or through inspections conducted on at least an
A new definition of incident energy analysis was added. It reads: annual basis, that each employee is complying with the safety-related
A component of an arc-flash hazard analysis used to predict the work practices required by this standard. 110.2
incident energy of an arc flash for a specified set of conditions.
110.2(D)(3)(d) Employee Training. Retraining for qualified persons
Working On (energized conductor or circuit parts) the words must now be conducted at least every three years. This requirement was
Intentionally coming in contact withwere added. The intent included because NFPA 70E has a threeyear cycle, and employers that are
was to clarify that accidental contact was not working on, it was following its requirements should train their personnel using the current
accidental contact. See the full definition in the call-out box. edition.
110.2(E) Employee Training, Qualified Person. The required
ARTICLE 110 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR
documentation now includes the content of the training as well as the
ELECTRICAL SAFETY-RELATED WORK PRACTICES
employees name and dates of training. There was a lot of discussion as to
The previous Sections 110.1 through 110.4 in the 2009 edition the wording (content vs. description). Content means something more
were separated into a new Article 105 for 2012 entitled Application than an outline, but not necessarily the handouts and text
of Safety-Related Work Practices. These items had more to do

Figure 3: Method of Release, Early Electrical Pioneers

Figure 2: 110.1(C) Requires a Documented Meeting Between


the Host Employer and the Contract Employer
Arc-Flash Handbook 25

110.4(C)(2) Test Instruments and Equipment requires the use of


GFCI protection for portable electric tools and cord sets supplied
by 125 V 15 A, 20 A or 30 A circuits. If the tools are rated for
other voltages or currents, an assured grounding program must be
implemented.

ARTICLE 130 WORK INVOLVING ELECTRICAL


HAZARDS
Arguably, Article 130 is one of the most valuable and widelyused
sections of the 70E. Providing guidance to management, safety
professionals, and electrical workers actually performing the
work, Article 130 supplies many answers to the difficult aspect of
working on, near, and around electrical equipment.
Article 130.1 specifies that all the requirements of Article 130
must be met whether the table method is used or an incident energy
analysis (arc-flash study) is performed. So no matter how you get
there, you need to follow the requirements of Article 130.

FIGURE 4: T raining of Qualified Persons Must also


Include the Content of Training.
110.4(C)(1) Test Instruments and Equipment requires that GFCI
protection be provided to employees where required by code,
standard or laws. It permits the use of listed cord sets and GFCI
protection for portable electric tools.

FIGURE 6: Be familiar with Article 130 when Working


on Electrical Equipment.
One of the more controversial changes was to Article 130. Per
Article 130.2 Electrically Safe Working Conditions, electrical
FIGURE 5: GFCI Protection is Required when Outdoors equipment that you are going to work on or might be exposed to must
and Operating Portable Tools. be placed into an electrically safe work condition (turned off ) if:
1. The employee is within the limited approach boundary.
26 Arc-Flash Handbook

2. The employee interacts with equipment where conductors or


circuit parts are not exposed, but an increased risk of injury
from an exposure to an arc-flash hazard exists.
There is an exception to this which essentially states that
equipment that has been properly installed and maintained and is
opened or racked out to achieve an electrically safe work condition
does not have to be turned off in order to operate it as long as the
risk assessment agrees with that thought process.
Additionally, there were changes (see underlined text) to Article
130.2(B)(1) Energized Electrical Work Permit: An Energized
Electrical Work Permit is required when working within the
limited approach boundary or the arc flash boundary of exposed
energized electrical conductors or circuit parts that are not
placed in an electrically safe work condition. The words arc flash
boundary were highlighted because this is a new, and somewhat
controversial, change to the 70E. But remember, you are working
on an energized piece of equipment with exposed parts dont you
think you should have plan as to why?
130.3(1) Energized Electrical Conductors and Circuit Parts.
Before an employee works within the Limited Approach Boundary
energized electrical conductors and circuit parts to which an
employee might be exposed shall be placed in to an electrically FIGURE 8:You Must Place Turn Off Exposed Equipment
safe work condition, unless work on energized components can be when Working within the Limited Approach
justified according to 130.2(A). Boundary unless Allowed by 130.2(A).
130.5 Arc Flash Hazard Analysis, IN No. 5 This IN replaces 130.5(A) Arc Flash Hazard Analysis, Arc Flash Boundary
Exception No. 1 that was in 130.3. It points out that an Arc Flash (AFB) eliminates the previously allowed precalculated 4-foot
Hazard Analysis may not be necessary for some threephase AFB and requires that the AFB be calculated as the distance where
systems rated less than 240 volts and refers the reader to IEEE a worker would receive 1.2 cal/cm2 incident energy exposure. No
1584, Guide for Performing Arc Flash Hazard Analysis. There more default to a four foot boundary you need to figure out what
is good information in 130.5 that you should read and become it really is.
familiar with. We could probably write an entire piece on just this
article of the standard. EQUIPMENT LABELING
One of the best ways to communicate to the electrical worker
in the field is to put a comprehensive label with pertinent hazard
information directly on the equipment he is about to work on.
Article 130.5(C) Arc Flash Hazard Analysis, Equipment Labeling
uses the wording from NEC Article 110.16 to specify that the
labeling requirement does not apply to all electrical equipment,
only equipment that requires inspection, maintenance, adjustment,
or servicing while energized. The label requirements have also
changed. Each label must have at least one of the following:
1. Available incident energy and the corresponding working distance
2. Minimum arc rating of clothing
3. Required level of PPE
4. Hazard/Risk Category (HRC) for the equipment
Second, the label must also include the nominal system
FIGURE 7: A
 n Energized Electrical Work Permit is Required voltage, and third, the label must contain the arc-flash boundary
when Working Within the Arc-Flash Boundary of information.
Exposed Parts
Arc-Flash Handbook 27

Also, an additional new requirement states that the method used circuit current and operating time of the overcurrent protective
to calculate the values and the supported data must be documented. device (OCPD) in the headers, but also the arc-flash boundary
It does not necessarily have to be on the label, but it must be at the maximum short-circuit current and operating time and the
available for inspection, if needed. working distance. Voltage protection limits, the arcflash boundary
An exception was included that allows the use of labels placed and working distances for medium-voltage equipment were
onto equipment prior to September 30, 2011, if it has the available also provided, something that has not been provided previously.
incident energy or the required level of PPE. Also in Table 130.7(C)(15) (a), the device Switchboards in the
category Panelboards or Switchboards Rated >240 V and up to
ARTICLE 130.7 PERSONAL AND OTHER PROTEC- 600 V was moved to category 600 V Class Switchgear (with power
TIVE EQUIPMENT circuit breakers or fused switches). In Table 130.7(C)(15)(a), the
equipment category 600 V Class Motor Control Centers (MCC),
Within Article 130.7(A), Personal and Other Protective
was split into two parts to reflect the difference in hazard level
Equipment, an IN was added that states the normal operation of
from working inside the bucket and working on the main bus. The
an enclosed switch, disconnect, or circuit breaker that has been
first nine tasks are in one section that has limits of 65 kA short-
properly maintained probably does not expose the worker to an
circuit available current and 0.03 second operating time.
electrical hazard. The exact wording of IN No. 2 is:
The second section has three tasks and has limits of 42 kA short
It is the collective experience of the Technical Committee on
circuit available current and 0.33 second operating time.
Electrical Safety in the Workplace that normal operation of
enclosed electrical equipment, operating at 600 volts or less, that Table 130.7(C)(15)(b) is new for the 2012 edition of NFPA 70E.
has been properly installed and maintained by qualified persons is This has the same general format as the table for ac electrical power
not likely to expose the employee to an electrical hazard. systems but is used for dc electrical systems.
Article 130.7(C)(5) requires that whenever you are working In Table 130.7(C)(16), formerly Table 130.7(C)(10), Hazard/Risk
within the arc-flash boundary you shall wear hearing protection. Category (HRC) 2* has been eliminated. All HRC 2 tasks now require
An arc-flash event can be a very large and loud acoustic event. It is the use of either an arc-rated balaclava and arc-rated face shield or an
a good idea to protect your hearing from damage. arc-rated hood. The format is unchanged from the 2009 NFPA 70E.
There has been a long-standing argument about whether or not
electrical equipment doors provide a quantifiable degree of protection
form an arc-flash event. Article 130.7(C)(15) IN No. 2 and No.3 help
to clarify the issue that cabinet doors do not provide enough protection
to eliminate the use of PPE. The exact wording is:
Informational Note No. 2:The collective experience of the task
group is that, in most cases, closed doors do not provide enough
protection to eliminate the need for PPE for instances where the
state of the equipment is known to readily change ( for example,
doors open or closed, rack in or rack out).
Informational Note No. 3: The premise used by the task group
in developing the criteria discussed in Informational Note No.
1 and Informational Note No. 2 is considered to be reasonable,
based on the consensus judgment of the full NFPA 70E Technical
Committee.

THE TABLES HAVE TURNED


The tables in Article 130 are one of the most-used sections of
the 70E, and extensive work was done on and with the tables for
the 2012 edition, all of which was to help make the tables easier to
understand and use.
The table that outlined tasks and corresponding hazard risk
categories and selection of PPE is now Table 130.7(C)(15)(a) which
was formerly Table 130.7(C)(9). Notes 1, 2, 3, and 4 that provided FIGURE 9: T he Tables in 130.7 Provide Guidance on
the limits for this table were moved from the notes section and put PPE Use and Hazard Risk Categories.
in the headers for each type of equipment. Not only are the short-
28 Arc-Flash Handbook

AND FINALLY LETS TALK A LITTLE


MAINTENANCE!
IF you have a single-line diagram, take note. Article 205.2
Single Line Diagram states that single-line diagrams must be
kept in a legible condition and must be kept current. Since not
all facilities have single-line diagrams, this would not require one
to be produced. A single line diagram, where provided for the
electrical system, shall be maintained in a legible condition and
kept current.
If you read Article 205.3 General Maintenance Requirements,
electrical equipment is required to be maintained in accordance
with the manufacturers recommendations or, if they are not
available, with industry consensus standards. There are only
two industry consensus standards; NFPA 70B, Recommended
Practice for Electrical Equipment Maintenance and ANSI/NETA
MTS-2011, Standard for Maintenance Testing Specifications for
Electrical Power Equipment and Systems.
As was stated earlier, there are many other changes to the 2012
edition of the 70E. For you to be the very best you can be, and
more importantly, for you to work safely while on or near electrical
equipment, you really need to understand this very important
safety standard.

Ron Widup and Jim White are


NETAS representatives to NFPA
Technical Committee 70E (Electrical
Safety Requirements for Employee
Workplaces). James R. White is
nationally recognized for technical
skills and safety training in the
electrical power systems industry. He
is currently the Training Director for
Shermco Industries, a NETA Accredited
Company. Jim has spent the last twenty
years directly involved in technical
skills and safety training for electrical
power system technicians.
Arc-Flash Handbook 29

SWITCHING 2 MAINTENANCE

NETA World, Winter 2011-2012 Issue


by Kerry Heid, Magna Electric Corp.

One thing is for sure if personnel are to establish an electrically 1. INSULATION FAILURE
safe work condition, electrical power systems apparatus must be
Switching the distribution equipment can initiate surges in the
switched. (Im talking operating, opening, racking, removing,
power system. Insulation systems that are not maintained can
resetting, etc.)
become weak over time. Partial discharge activity may cause the
Any time there is interaction with the power distribution insulation to slowly decrease its resistance value phase-to-phase
equipment, the risk of some type of failure increases. Switching an and phaseto- ground. Transient voltage spikes during switching
electrical device can be a dangerous act when regular maintenance can sometimes exceed the insulation dielectric values. This is of
on the equipment is not performed. particular concern during the switching processes as workers are
So where does maintenance rank when doing a hazard analysis and interacting with the equipment during the switching procedures.
a risk assessment during planned switching operations? Here are a few Regular maintenance involving cleaning, inspecting, insulation
items to consider especially if your system is not properly maintained. resistance testing, and partial discharge testing will help eliminate
these issues.

Figure 1: Main contacts open with arcing contacts closed on a medium voltage disconnect switch
30 Arc-Flash Handbook

2. SWITCHING DEVICES DO NOT OPERATE equipment damage as the fault clearing time extends. Here are
PROPERLY some things to ensure when maintaining the relaying protection
systems:
One of the key facets of performing regular maintenance is
to ensure that the switching devices will operate when called Setpoints
upon either during routine switching activities or during a fault Always ensure the settings are current with a recent arc-flash
condition. During regular maintenance, equipment is operated hazard analysis and coordination study. With newer vintage relays,
numerous times to ensure that it operates as originally designed. review the entire set point file and compare it to the original
From a 2011 NETA survey, we know that most of the issues with engineered design.
these devices are related to mechanical problems. The fact that the
device has not operated in years is not a good thing. Often these Relay function and trip testing
dormant devices will not open when called upon in a critical fault Make sure the relay itself works according to the manufacturers
condition or when trying to perform normal switching operations. functional design. Ensure the inputs are being received from the
Routine testing requires the devices to be operated numerous power system and the associated switching devices operate when
times to perform the various tests and assures that the equipment called upon. Utilize the up-to-date and accurate drawings to prove
will operate when called upon. Some of the serious issues that this vital interaction of the protection scheme.
have been experienced are: Clean and calibrate
Circuit breaker closed when racking Particularly on vintage electromechanical relays, additional
This is a legitimate concern as it can cause a serious arc flash steps are required to clean and calibrate the devices. Other survey
if the device is racked in or out in this state. If the mechanism results indicated that equipment reliability is the worst once the
operated and the mechanical indicator says open, are you sure equipment is over 25 years old. There were some significant
that all three power contacts actually opened? NETA maintenance performance issues found during the acceptance testing phase of
testing is designed to ensure that these devices operate correctly the equipment life cycle. The most common reasons facilities do
between service intervals. not perform maintenance are challenges surrounding scheduling,
Only two of three vacuum bottle contacts open financial or technical constraints, or having a run-to-failure
philosophy. The highest failure mode was mechanical problems
Not only does this pose the same arc-flash issues as above, it edging out protection relaying (including settings) and well ahead
can cause the misconception that the circuit is de-energized fully, of electrical diagnostic issues such as insulation resistance and
particularly in contactors that do not rack out. In one instance contact resistance.
an electrical worker at a mine opened the bolt in contactor on a
4160 volt mine circuit. The electrical worker received an electrical
shock at phase-to-ground voltage in the motor connection box as
one of the motor leads was still energized. NETA 2011 Survey
Disconnect switch arc blade stays in At the recent PCIC in Toronto, Ontario, the results of our
(See figure 1) latest NETA survey were released. After asking a number of
questions regarding the reliability of electrical power systems,
This is a serious concern when switching. It is very important
the following results were obtained. To learn more about this
to check the arc blade through the viewing window on medium-
survey you can access PowerTest 2012 pressentations at
voltage switches or visually on outdoor switches. The main blades
netaworld.org and listen to the entire presentation.
of the disconnect switches may open, but the arcing blades may
not as the arcing blades release after the main blades. This can Highest reliability by equipment type: Fuses
cause a misconception that the circuit is fully isolated. Lowest Reliability: Molded-Case C
 ircuit Breakers
3. PROTECTION FAILS Highest failure rate by Industry: Mining
It is not difficult to notice electrical systems that are poorly Lowest failure rate: Commercial facilities
maintained, dirty, or appear to be in terrible condition. Precautions
Highest Failure Rate during acceptance testing: Molded
can be taken when switching to avoid putting workers in dangerous
Case Circuit Breakers
switching scenarios. This is not always the case with the relaying
protection scheme. Older solid-state relaying protection can fail Lowest Failure Rate during acceptance testing: Fuses
without notice and what is worse if the protection does not
operate at all or even operates milliseconds slower than designed,
there will be a large impact on incident energy during an arc-flash
event. This causes higher risk to workers and will result in major
Arc-Flash Handbook 31

CONCLUSION:
Maintenance testing assures that the equipment is ready and
capable of being operated safely when establishing an electrically
safe work condition. Partnering with a NETA Accredited
Company using NETA Certified Technicians who follow the
ANSI/NETA Standard for Maintenance Testing Specifications for
electrical Power Equipment and Systems, 2011 edition, will give
you everything you need to keep your electrical system safe and
reliable.
If you do not have a regular maintenance plan for your
electrical power distribution equipment, it might be time for a
switch.

Kerry Heid is the President of Magna


Electric Corporation, a Canadian based
electrical projects group providing
NETA certified testing and related
products and solutions for electrical
power distribution systems. Kerry
is a past President of NETA and has
been serving on its board of directors
since 2002. Kerry is chair of NETAs training committee and
its marketing committee. Kerry was awarded NETAs 2010
Outstanding Achievement Award for his contributions to the
association and is a NETA senior certified test technician level IV.
Kerry is the chair of CSA Z463 Technical committee on
Maintenance of Electrical Systems. He is also a member of the
executive on the CSA Z462 technical committee for Workplace
Electrical Safety in Canada and is chair of working group 6 on
safety related maintenance requirements as well as a member of
the NFPA 70E CSA Z462harmonization working group.
32 Arc-Flash Handbook

SAFER LOCK-OUT TAG-OUT WITH PERMANENT


ELECTRICAL SAFETY DEVICESELECTRICALLY
SAFE WORK CONDITIONS BASED UPON
NFPA 70E AND OSHA
PowerTest 2012
by Philip B. Allen, Grace Engineered Products

Article 120.1 of the NFPA 70E establishes the procedure for conditions can be created and maintained through their work
creating an electrically safe work condition. Since this was written, environment. Article 120.1 of the NFPA 70E was, as its title
the day-to-day practice of electrical safety has changed and goes suggests, penned with the important purpose of establishing the
beyond the precise language of Article 120.1(1-6). This is due to gold standard for creating an electrically safe work condition.
the increased usage of permanent electrical safety devices (PESDs) Since then, however, innovation in the realm of electrical safety
in Lock-out/Tag-out procedures (LOTO). The relatively new has surpassed the precise language of Article 120.1(1-6) because
concept of permanent electrical safety devices actually improves it fails to speak directly to the value permanent electrical safety
the workers ability to safely isolate electrical energy beyond that devices have in achieving an electrically safe work environment.
which was originally conceived when Article 120 was written. The relatively new concept of permanent electrical safety devices
PESDs go beyond the high standard, yet they still adhere to the (PESDs) actually improves the workers ability to safely isolate
core principles found in Article 120.1. With PESDs incorporated electrical energy beyond that which was originally conceived
into safety procedures, installed correctly into electrical enclosures, when Article 120 was written.
and validated before and after each use, workers can transition the The forward-thinking concept of PESDs goes beyond the high
once-risky endeavor of verifying voltage into a less precarious standard of safety for which competent companies strive, yet it
undertaking that never exposes them to voltage. Combining a hazard still adheres to the core principles found in Article 120.1. With
risk analysis with PESDs on an electrical panel allows workers to PESDs incorporated into safety procedures, installed correctly
open the panel without PPE. Since every electrical incident has one into electrical enclosures, and validated before and after each
required ingredient voltage - electrical safety is radically improved use, workers can transition the once-risky endeavor of verifying
by eliminating exposure to voltage while still validating zero energy voltage into a less precarious undertaking that never exposes them
from outside the panel. to voltage. Lets face it; every electrical incident has one required
Index Terms voltage detectors, voltage portals, non-contact ingredient voltage. Electrical safety is radically improved by
voltage detector, NCVD, power warning alerts, permanent eliminating exposure to voltage while still validating zero energy
electrical safety devices, voltage detector validation procedures, from outside the panel.
verification, voltmeters
TIME-TESTED PRACTICES: THE FOUNDATION
Key Points FOR SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS
Introduction: Applicable safety concepts The standard shoulder belt you (hopefully) use each time you
Definitions: Voltage Indicator, Voltage Portal are in a vehicle is an improvement on a simple lap belt found in
What happens with a voltage detector is validated? many vehicles of the past. American car manufacturers offered
seat belts only as options until Saab introduced them in 1958 as
Validating a voltage indicator and voltage portal a standard safety element an act that changed the landscape of
Multi-meter comparison passenger safety in vehicles. Later, driver- and passenger-side
air bags offered breakthrough safety advances beyond the then-
Written procedures and mechanical LOTO
simplistic seatbelt only to later be enhanced by side-impact air
Reduced arc flash risk and reduce PPE for workers accessing panels. bags. Each of these safety innovations relies upon each other for
Other reference materials peak functionality and surpassed conventional safety protocols of
1958. Air bags provide little protection if drivers are not wearing
INTRODUCTION seatbelts; shoulder belts without lap belts are ineffective, and side
To employees all safety especially electrical safety is air bags alone are insufficient. These safety reformations, when
personal. Little else matters to them unless electrically safe work used in conjunction with each other, raised the expectations of
Arc-Flash Handbook 33

safety for all users and ultimately manufacturers began offering principles absolutely apply to PESDs. However, because a PESD
them as standard equipment. Similarly, PESDs are revolutionizing cannot be moved between two voltage sources, the technique for
electrical safety and should be used in conjunction with existing validation needs a slightly different approach.
safety practices. So what actually needs to happen to validate a voltage detector?
DEFINITIONS AND RESOURCES1 Testing for voltage simply requires a small amount of current to
flow between the two voltage potentials. The voltage detector
Non-Contact Voltage Detector (NCVD) A battery operated circuit determines a voltage potential by relating this current
voltage detector that senses voltage without actually touching an flow to actual voltage and providing the worker an appropriate
energized conductor. indication (audible, visual or digital display).
Voltage Portal Extends a voltage source to the outside of an
electrical enclosure in an encapsulated non-conductive housing VALIDATING A VOLTAGE PORTAL & NCVD COM-
designed for a NCVD to sense voltage if placed into the voltage BINATION
portal (Fig 1). A NCVD determines whether or not voltage exists in a conductor
Voltage Indicator A hardwired LED indicator permanently by creating a low current capacitive circuit between the conductor,
wired to the phase(s) and ground that illuminates when a the NCVD, the worker, and ground (Fig 3). Therefore, when the
40VAC/30VDC or greater voltage deferential exists between two NCVD is positioned close to a live conductor this completed
lone inputs. Typical 3-phase/4-wire voltage indicator requirements circuit causes the NCVD to beep or flash telling the worker that
include (Fig 2): voltage exists in the conductor. Because voltage portals mount
Powered from the line voltage (no batteries) permanently to the outside of enclosures, the worker has to
stand in the same place when using his NCVD. This makes this
Applies to any power system by operating on a wide voltage capacitive circuit more reliable and more repeatable than it would
range (40-750VAC/30-1000VDC) be when workers use a NCVD in all other applications.4 Since
Cat IV rated for high surge immunity NCVDs are portable, they can also be checked to an independent
UL Certified to UL 61010-1 as per NFPA 70E 120.1(5) FPN voltage source as per NFPA 70E 120.1(5).

Written Procedures and Training: Using PESDs in an MINIMUM REQUIREMENT FOR A VOLTAGE IN-
electrical safety program requires written Lock-out/Tag-out DICATOR
(LOTO) procedures. Employees need to be trained and have A voltage indicator is hardwired to the 3-phase disconnect and
access to these procedures.2 earth ground (Fig 2). The circuit illuminates LEDs when AC/
DC voltage exists between any two phase(s) and(or) ground.
VALIDATING A VOLTAGE DETECTOR Since voltages above 50 volts are deemed unsafe by NFPA 70E,5
Creating an electrically safe work condition depends upon a it is imperative that the LEDs on a voltage indicator illuminate
process that ensures 100% accuracy from voltage detectors. To for all voltages above 50 volts. Perhaps, the most compelling
help ensure this, the NFPA 70E says, Before and after each test, characteristic of a voltage indicator is the wide operating
determine that the voltage detector is operating satisfactorily, characteristics (40-750AC/30-1000VDC). This feature separates
(NFPA 70E 120.1(5). Validation means that electricians first it from other devices, like a pilot light, for example, that would
check their voltage detector to an independent voltage source (i.e. quickly fail if the voltage exceeded its normal operating range (i.e.
a nearby 120VAC outlet). Next, they check for zero voltage on 120VAC +/- 10%).
the primary source. Work begins only after the voltage detector
is rechecked to the independent live voltage source. This straight- VALIDATING A VOLTAGE INDICATOR
forward validation procedure works for a portable voltage detector A hardwired voltage indicator brings up three interesting issues.
because it can be physically moved between two voltage sources. First, it is impractical to verify the voltage indicator to another
Because of this, perhaps the authors of NFPA 70E only considered independent voltage source. Trying to accomplish this by adding
portable voltage detectors (i.e. voltmeters), not PESDs, when a switch to toggle between the line voltage and the test voltage
writing Article 120.1? Over the past several years, PESDs have adds more components and complexity and leads to unreliability.6
become a way for Fortune 500 companies to increase safety Second, since the voltage indicators sole purpose is to indicate
and productivity simultaneously. Weyerhaeuser started using voltage, anything installed between the source voltage and the
voltage indicators (a PESD) in 2004 and that quickly spread to voltage indicator increases the chance of a false negative voltage
other facilities. Warren Hopper, Manufacturing Services Manager reading - switches, relays and fuses included.7 Third, because of
Weyerhaeuser stated, Use of the fixed voltage indicators would the three phase circuit design, a voltage indicator accommodates
allow us to avoid opening starter or disconnect compartment multiple current paths between phase(s) and ground, thereby
doors for approximately three quarters of all lockouts.3 The same reducing the number of possible failure modes.8 In one possible
34 Arc-Flash Handbook

circuit design, before a single LED illuminates, the current must installing voltage portals into each motor control center bucket,
pass through at least four LED flashing circuits. Voltage when rewriting their LOTO procedure, and training the operators to use
illuminated means if only one of the four LEDs illuminates, it NCVD detectors with voltage portals. In the past, even a simple
still provides voltage indication to the worker. maintenance task like replacing a broken fan belt was side-barred
until the first-shift electrician arrived to lock-out the electrical
MULTI-METERS COMPARED TO PESDS
energy feeding the fan motor. In the end, both electricians and
Creating electrically safe work conditions relied solely upon the operators became more productive and still complied with OSHA
portable multi-meter before PESDs came along. This tool is not LOTO requirements.9
only used in electrical safety, but has features making it invaluable
REDUCED ARC FLASH RISK AND PERSONAL
for other purposes such as electrical troubleshooting and
PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
diagnostics. Additionally, a PESD leaves no question or confusion
when a worker uses it in creating an electrical safe work condition An electrical safety program is safer when workers can determine
because it was designed, built, and installed for a single purpose a zero electrical energy state without any voltage exposure to
voltage indication for electrical safety. Understanding these themselves. Verifying the proper operation of a meter and testing
differences helps determine an acceptable validation procedure for absence of voltage before working on electrical conductors
for PESDs. (test- before-touch) must remain a habitual practice for workers.
The goal of PESDs is to ensure when workers test-before- touch
Voltage indicators and voltage portals have unique strengths and
they test only dead conductors. Therefore, after completing a
complementary characteristics, and when used together they meet
hazard risk analysis (NFPA70E Annex F) on the installation and
the validation requirements of NFPA 70E 120.1. The traditional
PESDs written into this procedure, users may conclude this task
method of validating the voltage detector to an independent
may be done without special PPE. Without PESDs, a failure of
voltage source is met with the NCVD/voltage portal combination.
an isolator may go undetected until the electrician discovers live
On the other hand, it can be argued that a voltage indicator by
voltage after opening the panel. This exact scenario is a common
itself cannot be validated by the traditional method. However,
cause of arc flash. A direct short circuit may result from one
because permanently-mounted voltage detectors are designed to
misstep by the electrician while checking voltage. Even worse yet,
only detect voltage, the built-in advantages over a simple multi-
the electrician would take a direct hit in the face from the resulting
meter needs to also be considered in validating this device (Fig 5).
arc flash. Because PESDs meet NFPA 70E 120.1 and the lessened
WRITTEN LOTO PROCEDURES & risk of voltage exposure, some will conclude that the need for
MECHANICAL LOTO personal protection equipment (PPE) is reduced once the panel is
open. Whether or not you agree with this, voltage detectors are a
A PESD only becomes a real safety device only after it is
low-cost, redundant voltage verification tool that reduces arc flash
included as part of a written LOTO procedure. Without this,
risk, increases safety, and adds productivity for an installed cost
PESDs are nothing more than just another electrical component.
of $150.
The LOTO procedure must explain to the worker each step in the
LOTO procedure that involves the PESD. At a minimum, workers CONCLUSION
will need to verify proper operation of the PESD before and after Safety is an evolution based on best work practices and
performing a LOTO procedure. Interestingly, the mechanical innovation. High safety standards not only create safer workplaces,
maintenance workers receive a huge benefit with PESDs when but also encourage safety innovations. Ultimately, safety standards
these devices are used in mechanical LOTO procedures. Workers must be rigid enough to garner the highest level of safety while still
performing mechanical LOTO (work involving no contact with being flexible enough allowing for advances through innovation
conductors or circuit parts) procedures must still isolate electrical to be incorporated while still adhering to the principles of Article
energy. PESDs provide a means of checking voltage inside an 120.1. Now, thinking outside the panel doesnt leave you boxed in.
electrical panel without exposure to that same voltage. Without
these devices, a mechanic performing mechanical LOTO would be
required to work in tandem with an electrician using a voltmeter REFERENCES
to physically verify zero voltage inside an electrical panel before
(1) For more reference information please see http://graceport.
work begins. In this case, the electrician is exposed to voltage.
com/thru_door.cfm
With PESDs, the mechanic can single-handedly check for zero
electrical energy without any exposure to voltage, thereby making (2) O
 SHA 29 CFR 1910.147, 1910,333(b) NFPA 70E 120.2(B)
the LOTO procedure safer and more productive. (2), 120.2(C)(1)
This is exactly how a western Pennsylvania power plant increased (3) One Mills Response to a Specific Type of Arc Flash Problem,
both the safety and efficiency of their operators. Operators were Warren S. Hopper, PE, Senior Member, IEEE, Weyerhaeuser
able to perform more maintenance tasks during off-shift hours by Company, Springfield, OR
Arc-Flash Handbook 35

(4) For more info, see Voltage Portals Improve Non-Contact Volt-
age Detectors paper http://www.graceport.com/assets/files/
Application%20Notes/Application_VoltagePortals%20Im-
prove%20NCVD.pdf
(5) NFPA 70E 110.6(D)(1)(b), 110.7(E)
(6) This is impractical because it requires a 600V fused three -pole
double throw relay. The fusing, the relay wiring, and switching
introduces 18 connections (failure points) between the voltage
source and the voltage indicator.
(7) False-Negative: When voltage exists in a conductor and the
voltage detector does not sense it.
(8) This design has four voltage detection circuits (L1, L2, L3,
GRD) with two LED flashing circuits each. Therefore a cur-
rent path between two phases passes through at least four LED
flashing circuits. For more information, see: http://graceport.
com/assets/files/Application%20Notes/How%20does%20
it%20work%204page.pdf
(9) OSHA 1910.147

Phil Allen (philallen@grace-eng.com) is the President and owner


of Grace Engineered Products, the leading innovator of permanent
electrical safety devices. He holds two US Patents, a power
receptacle design and a voltage detector test circuit. His passion is
finding new and more efficient ways of bringing electrical safety to
the forefront. Phil did his undergraduate work at California State
University, San Luis Obispo and is a 1984 graduate with a BSIE.
Grace Engineered Products is best known for its GracePort line
of custom-made data port interfaces. In addition to the GracePort
line, the company provides a well-established line of products
ChekVolt and VoltageVision - that make pre-verifying electrical
isolation through enclosure doors safe and easy. Their focus is
on NFPA 70E guidelines and making companies electrically safe
while also increasing their employee productivity.
36 Arc-Flash Handbook

CHANGES AND ENHANCEMENTS


TO THE 2012 NFPA 70E
PowerTest 2012
by James R. White, Shermco Industries, Inc.

THE NFPA CONSENSUS PROCESS CHANGES IN TABLES FOR ARC FLASH


Briefly, the 70E committee is managed by the NFPA by a CLOTHING AND PPE
consensus process, which allows input from any member of the There are now two tables for determining the Hazard/Risk
general public or from within the 70E committee. Proposals are Category (HRC) for the arc flash protective clothing. Table
solicited from the public and compiled by the NFPA staff. A report 130.7(C)(9) is now 130.7(C)(15)(1) for AC power systems and a
is generated listing each proposal and is posted on the NFPA 130.7(C)(15)(2) will be added for choosing PPE when working on
website in an area that is accessible to anyone who may have DC power systems. Table 130.2(C) is now 130.4(C)(a) for shock
an interest. The 70E Technical Committee reviews each of the approach boundaries for AC power systems and 130.4(C)(b) for
proposals at a meeting, usually referred to as the ROP (Report on shock approach boundaries for dc power systems. The new table
Proposals). The committee recommends action of each proposal for DC systems was necessary, as Table 130.7(C)(9) used phase-
and can accept it as written, reject it outright or accept it with to-phase voltages, whereas DC systems are phase-to-ground (or
changes. These actions are published on the NFPA website, again positive-to-negative). The notes that used to appear at the bottom
in an area that is accessible to the general public. Comments to of Table 130.7(C)(9) have been moved into the header for each
the proposed actions are solicited from any interested party by the type of equipment to make them more noticeable. The Arc Flash
NFPA and are complied in a Report on Comments. Boundary and the working distance are also specified in the
The next step in the process is the Report on Comments (ROC) table headers at the maximum short circuit available current and
meeting, where all comments received by the NFPA are discussed operating times. In general, the committee believed that the notes,
and actions voted on. The NFPA consensus process requires a as they were positioned in Table 130.7(C)(9), were not being
2/3 majority on all votes. Comments can be accepted, rejected utilized by the average user of the standard and that those people
or accepted with changes. Once the ROC meeting is finished, the could be seriously under-protected if they are not aware of the
standard is finished, at least for the Technical Committee. The limits of the table.
NFPA staff takes all the actions and correlates them with each other The equipment category 600V class motor control centers
and produces a document for the committee and the Technical has been split into two sections; one section for the hazards and
Correlating Committee (TCC) to review. The TCC will sometimes risks involved in work inside the bucket and another for work
make motions to modify what the committee has done in what is involving the main bus that feeds the bucket. This change should
referred to as a NITMAM (Notice of Intent to Make a Motion). make determining the proper arc flash protective PPE more
This is voted on at the national meeting and is the completion of straightforward. The equipment type 600V class switchboards
the process. Rarely, someone may file an appeal if they disagree was removed from the equipment category Panelborads and
with the action taken on a NITMAM. This was the case during other equipment rated >240V and up to 600V and inserted into
the 2012 cycle. The chances of an appeal being successful are the equipment category 600V class switchgear (with power
very small, as the issues would have been voted on twice by the circuit breakers or fused switches) and 600V class switchboards.
committee and ruled on by the TCC. Once the NFPA blesses the The 70E committee is still trying to sort out the best method of
document, it becomes the new 70E and is usually published in handling switchboards, as we believed they had more resemblance
October of the year preceding its listed date (October, 2011 for the to switchgear than panelboards. This structure may change for the
2012 edition). next edition of 70E.
Medium-voltage equipment rated from 1kV through 38kV
DISCLAIMER now has the same information in the header as the low-voltage
The opinions expressed in this paper are the authors and in no equipment, including the Arc Flash Boundary and working
way represent the official NFPA interpretation or even that of the distance. The Arc Flash Boundary is based on the short circuit
Technical Committee. available current and operating of the OCPD that would create
approximately 40 cal/cm2 incident energy, if there were an arc
Arc-Flash Handbook 37

flash. No guidance for this type of equipment was provided in ARTICLE 100, DEFINITIONS
previous editions of NFPA 70E.
Arc Rating This definition was expanded upon with two new
Table 130.7(C)(11) was eliminated, as it was rendered redundant Informational Notes. One provides the ASTM F1959 definition of
by changes made in the 2009 edition to Table 130.7(C)(10). Table ATPV and the other is the ASTM definition of EBT or breakopen
130.7(C)(16) [formerly 130.7(C)(10)] eliminate HRC 2*. All HRC threshold.
2 tasks will now require the use of a balaclava under an arc-rated
Boundary, Arc Flash The word Protection was dropped, as
face shield, or the use of an arc-rated hood. There was concern,
it did not add clarity and did not appear in the shock boundaries.
based on substantiation provided with the original proposal, that
A new Informational Note was added that defined when a person
the sharp edge of the face shield could create a vacuum as the
could receive a second-degree burn on bare skin (1.2cal/cm2).
heat flux flows past it, causing the heat to be pulled in towards the
face. This could cause the unprotected face to suffer serious burn
NEW ARTICLE 105, APPLICATION OF SAFETY-
injuries, even though it is covered by the face shield.
RELATED WORK PRACTICES
Annex H has been renamed Guidance on Selection of
This new article relocated 110.1, Scope through 110.4,
Protective Clothing and Other Personal Protective Equipment
Organization and used them to make Article 105. The
and contains new Table H.3(a), which is an easy method to locate
information contained in them is unchanged.
references to PPE contained within NFPA 70E. New Table H.3(b)
contains guidance on arc flash protective clothing and PPE when ARTICLE 110, GENERAL REQUIREMENT FOR
an Incident Energy Analysis is performed. Table H.3(b) shows the ELECTRICAL SAFETY RELATED WORK PRAC-
required arc flash protective clothing at three levels: TICES
Less than or equal to 1.2 cal/cm2 This article now begins with Relationships with Outside
Greater than 1.2 cal/cm2 up to 12 cal/cm2 Contractors, since the previous paragraphs were used to make
Greater than 12 cal/cm2 new Article 105.

Previously, the only guidance for arc-rated PPE was in Table 110.1 now requires that the meeting between a host employer
130.9(C)(10), and its use was discouraged by the 70E when an and contractor be documented. This was required in the 2004
Incident Energy Analysis had been performed. Theres also new edition, was deleted in 2009 and is now back in the 2012 edition.
Table H.4, titled, Two-Level Clothing Approach for Use with Place your bets on the 2015 edition.
known Short Circuit Currents and Device Clearing Times. 110.2(C) (formerly 110.6), Emergency Procedures has added
There are actually two tables, H.4(a) for low-voltage systems and the requirement for AED training annually. There was some
H.4(b) for high-voltage systems. These tables provide guidance concern about requiring training if the facility does not have
for using 8cal/cm2 and 40cal/cm2 arc-rated clothing and PPE and AEDs, but the general feeling was that if no AEDs are present,
should add clarity as to when the two-category method would be no training is required.
appropriate to use.
110.2(D), Employee Training adds a new requirement that
GLOBAL CHANGES TO ENTIRE DOCUMENT an annual inspection be performed verifying that each employee
is complying with the safety-related work practices in NFPA
The phrase Fine Print Notes (FPN) will not be used in the 2012
70E. The wording closely mimics wording in 1910.269. Also, in
edition. They will now be referred to as Informational Notes
110.2 retraining of employees is required every three years. The
(IN) in order to conform to the NEC Manual of Style.
committee felt that safety training is needed to refresh workers
Arc-rated will be used instead of FR. It was noted that all arc- awareness and that the three year maximum was not overly
rated clothing is FR, while not all FR is arc-rated. This change burdensome and coincided with the release of the new editions of
ensures that arc flash protective clothing and PPE is designed and NFPA 70E. If a company wanted to conduct the training annually
rated for electrical hazards. there is nothing to restrict that, either.
Calories/cm2 is now the preferred rating for arc-rated clothing 110.2(E), Training Documentation now requires that
and PPE. The use of Joules/cm2 is not used in the main body of the content of the training be documented. There was some
the standard (one exception 130.5(A) Arc Flash Boundary). The discussion concerning whether the wording should be content
committee consensus was that all arc-rated clothing and PPE used or description. Description was considered to be too vague.
cal/cm2 and any other term would only add confusion.
110.3(E), Electrical Safety Program Procedures now includes
Hazard/Risk Analysis has been changed to Hazard Identification the wording, An electrical safety program shall identify the
and Risk Assessment. This was done to differentiate between the procedures for working within the Limited Approach Boundary
two steps required. Some people confused the hazard with the risk and for working within the arc flash boundary before work is
and were not completing both parts as required by the standard. started. Since there are tasks that could create an arc flash hazard
38 Arc-Flash Handbook

when there is no shock hazard (racking of breakers and similar opening and closing circuit breakers, MCCs or starters. When the
tasks) this wording change made sense. committee stated that interacting with equipment in a manner
110.3(H), Electrical Safety Auditing includes a requirement that could cause an arc flash hazard constitutes a possible hazard,
that field safety audits be conducted to ensure procedures and it was referring to operations such as racking circuit breakers or
principles of the electrical safety program are still compliant with installing or removing MCC buckets; tasks that involve making
the latest standards and regulations. This audit is required no more and breaking energized electrical connections that are not made
than every three years. NFPA 70E also requires a field safety audit for switching.
to be performed to ensure workers are following those standards 130.7(C)(9)(a), Layering states that clothing that is not arc
and regulations. rated cannot be used to increase the arc rating of a clothing system.
ASTM 1959 does allow this practice, but it only pertains to the
ARTICLE 120, ESTABLISHING AN ELECTRI- manufacture of specific clothing, such as parkas or cold weather
CALLY SAFE WORK CONDITION gear that has cotton or wool linings. If underlayers are tested as a
The provision for Individual Control was eliminated from this system, those exact underlayers are the only ones acceptable. The
article. This allowed a worker to work within a MCC or other such committee did not think there was enough clarity in this to allow
equipment without locking it out. OSHA stated they would find it for everyday use.
that in violation of their regulations. 130.7(C)(10)(b)(2), Arc Flash Protective Equipment requires
the use of an arc rated hood if the incident energy exceeds 12cal/
ARTICLE 130, WORK INVOLVING ELECTRICAL
cm2.
HAZARDS
130.7(C)(11), Clothing Material Characteristics clarifies that
130.5, Arc Flash Hazard Analysis, The erroneous wording
all materials used in arc-rated clothing is to be arc-rated. Some
of the exception for electrical systems fed by one transformer
low-cost manufacturers are using flammable or even melting
<125kVA and <240V in the 2009 edition has been modified to
materials in the construction of arc-rated clothing, which could
just state that an arc flash hazard analysis may not be needed for
put the worker at risk.
three-phase systems <240V and refers the reader to IEEE 1584.
This is now contained in an information note and not an exception Article 300, Safety Requirements Related to Batteries and
in 130.3. Battery Rooms. Deleted all portions of Article 320 dealing with
130.5(A), Arc Flash Boundary eliminates the 4 installation requirement. Since NFPA 70E is a work practices
precalculated Arc Flash Boundary. There never was a default standard, the consensus was that installation requirements
belonged in the NEC.
boundary, but people acted like there was, so the committee felt it
best to remove this provision. Annex D, Incident Energy and Arc Flash Boundary
Calculations. Informational notes were added to clarify that
130.5(C), Equipment Labeling has been reworded to reflect
when the operating time of an OCPD exceeds two seconds how
Article 110.16 of the NEC, which is what the committee intended
long the person may be exposed must be considered. Two seconds
last cycle. It was never the intent to require all electrical equipment
is considered adequate for a person working on the ground, but
to have labels, so this corrects a big misunderstanding. Also, each
may not be if a person is working from an elevated platform or
label must contain the incident energy at working distance or the
bucket truck.
arc rating of the required PPE or the maximum HRC for that type
of equipment. Also required will be the Arc Flash Boundary. A Proposed Annex Q (not the real number) for samples of
grandfather clause was implemented so companies wont have to equipment labels was not accepted by the committee. It was
change out their labels every time a new 70E is published. determined that there are too many variations that could be in
service and that the annex generally did not add anything to the
130.7(A), Personal and Other Protective Equipment adds an
standard. It was also the feeling of the committee that annexes
exception below Informational Note 2 that reads, It is the collective
needed to bring real value to the standard, not just information.
experience of the Technical Committee on Electrical Safety in the
Workplace that normal operation of enclosed electrical equipment,
operating at 600 volts or less, that has been properly installed SUMMARY
and maintained by qualified persons is not likely to expose the As a point of clarification, I cannot speak for the 70E committee,
employee to an electrical hazard. This statement is significant in nor can I provide official interpretations to the standard. Only the
that many of the users of the 70E believe arc flash PPE may be NFPA staff can do that. Any place that I refer to what the committee
required to enter equipment rooms that contain normally-operating thought, believed or felt is my personal assessment only.
electrical equipment. That is not the case. It is also the collective
opinion of the committee that there is very little risk in performing
normal operations of electrical equipment and devices, such as
Arc-Flash Handbook 39

There are many more changes that cannot be addressed in this


paper due to time limitations. Some may be important to some
companies, while others have little consequence to them. It is not
the intent of this paper to cover all changes. It is recommended that
each reader of this paper purchase a copy of the 2012 NFPA 70E
and familiarize themselves with the specifics of that document, as
opposed to relying on someone elses judgment.

James R. White is nationally recognized


for technical skills and safety training
in the electrical power systems industry.
He is currently the Training Director for
Shermco Industries, a NETA Accredited
Company. Jim has spent the last twenty
years directly involved in technical skills
and safety training for electrical power
system technicians.
40 Arc-Flash Handbook

A NEW NFPA PROCESS AND A FEW


WORDS ON THE 70E ANNEXES
NETA World, Spring 2012 Issue
by Jim White and Ron Widup, Shermco Industries

The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has announced will now be called Revisions and Correlating Revisions (which
a new process for its technical committees starting with the includes First Revisions and Second Revisions).
2013 cycle. Renamed Regulations Governing the Development Preprint, which is a complete draft of a proposed new or revised
of NFPA Standards, these new regulations will be in effect for NFPA standard (often published in the ROP or ROC stage), will
standards reporting beginning with the fall 2013 revision cycle now be called Draft (includes the First Draft showing all First
and all subsequent revision cycles. The NFPA 70E, Standard for Revisions and the Second Draft showing the First Draft as further
Electrical Safety in the Workplace, will be revised under the new revised by Second Draft Revisions).
process for the upcoming 2015 edition.
Report on Proposals (ROP) will now be called First Draft
One of the benefits of the new process is the new, on-line Report.
workflow, as the technical committee report will be available and
published on the NFPA Standards Development Web Site as a Report on Comments (ROC) will now be called Second Draft
true on-line publication with hyperlinking, legislative text, and Report.
other features, including downloading and printing capabilities. Technical Committee Report, which includes the Report on
This will make reviewing the standards easier as they are being Proposals and the Report on Comments and is published as two
revised and/or developed. publications, will still be called Technical Committee Report and
In conjunction with the new process there will also be a new will include the First Draft Report and the Second Draft Report.
schedule with a closing date of June 22, 2012, for Public Input The next edition of NFPA 70 (National Electrical Code) will be
(PI), previously referred to as Proposals. The June date is several the 2014 edition and will be completed under the new procedures.
months earlier than the November closing date to which we have The due date for NEC proposals (input) to the 2014 edition has
become accustomed under the old process and schedule. Public already passed as the cutoff for inputs was November 4, 2011.
comments and proposals need to be in soon for the 2015 edition The original deadline for proposals for the 2015 NFPA 70E was
of the 70E, as June 2012 is not that far away! November 2, 2012. The new deadline is June 22, 2012.
Many members may be familiar with NFPA terms such as A complete description of the new process is available for
ROC (Report on Comments) and ROP (Report on Proposals); review at www.nfpa.org/newregs.
therefore, it is noteworthy that those terms will change with the
new process. Following is a list of some of the more common
terms and concepts used in the NFPA process and a description of
how they will be changed for the new procedures:
Proposal (includes Public and Committee Proposals) will now
be called Input (includes Public, Committee, and Technical
Correlating Committee input; and the Proposal Stage will be
called the Input Stage.
Comment (includes Public and Committee Proposals), including
the Comment Stage terms, remains unchanged.
Accept, Reject, Accept in Principle, and similar terms will now
be Agreeing or Disagreeing (with Public Inputs). If one Agrees
with a PI, one is accepting or accepting in principle a public
comment.
Changes in the text of proposed new or revised NFPA Standards
that result from actions of the Committee or Correlating Committee 2012 Edition NFPA 70E
Arc-Flash Handbook 41

INFORMATIVE ANNEXES IN THE 70E in metalenclosed equipment (arc-in-a-box) with short-circuit


currents between 700 amperes to 106,000 amperes.
Annexes in NFPA 70E are used to supplement the information in
the standard and are not part of the standard insomuch as they are The Doughty/Neal method can be used to determine incident
not mandatory. The new title for the annex section is Informative energy for three-phase systems of 600 volts and less, when the
Annexes. While people do not often review the annexes, perhaps shortcircuit current is between 16,000 amperes and 50,000
because they do not recognize their importance, the annexes help amperes.
readers to better understand the standard and the reasons the NFPA The Ralph Lee method is used for determining incident energy
70E committee has made some of its decisions. on a three-phase system above 15,000 volts in open air. The text
Annex A is a listing of all standards referenced by NFPA portion of IEEE 1584 is included as part of Annex D for reference.
70E. This list includes ANSI standards, IEEE standards, ICRP Table D.2 contains very useful information, in that it estimates
standards, ASTM standards, IEC standards, and the NEC. The the arc-flash boundaries for various system voltages and short-
most recent versions (as of the ROC/ Second Draft meeting) are circuit currents in a large petrochemical plant. This should be of
used as references for each standard. use to almost anyone who works in a large facility and wants to
know the risk of an arc-flash burn, even though the table applies
Annex B contains a listing of informational references,
specifically to petrochemical plants.
which may also include standards. The primary difference
between Annex A and Annex B is that the standards within Some of the arc-flash boundaries are eyeopening, and one
Annex A are considered part of the standard and thus include should take the time to read and understand Annex D.
mandatory elements, and the documents listed in Annex B are One change to Annex D is in D.6 Calculation of Incident Energy
informational only. Exposure Greater Than 600 V for an Arc Flash Hazard Analysis.
Annex C has information about limits of approach. Information Often the software for arc-hazard studies is set at a twosecond
contained within Articles 110 and 130 are expanded upon in maximum fault duration, which is normally satisfactory for the
Annex C, and more detail is provided about the shock approach purposes of arcflash analysis. The fault duration is based on the
boundaries. As an example, C.2.1 discusses the following: belief that in two seconds the worker is either on his way out of
the room or the exposure has passed, but that may not always be
The distances in columns 2 through 5 of Tables 130.4(C)(a)
the case.
and (b) were derived from the basic minimum air insulation
distances in IEEE Standard 4, Standard Techniques for High For example, a person working inside a cabinet or in an area
Voltage Testing, Appendix 2B for voltages 72.5 kV and less, that has restricted access such as a bucket truck as described
while IEEE Standard 516, Guide for Maintenance Methods on in the following example may be exposed to an arc for longer
Energized Power Lines was used for voltages above 72.5 kV). than two seconds. In situations such as this, the worker has little
choice other than to do the best he can to protect himself until the
Column 2, Limited Approach Boundary (Exposed Movable
danger passes. Fortunately, most such incidents would probably
Conductor), uses OSHAs requirement stated in 29 CFR
be from a single-phase fault; therefore, the incident energy would
1910.333(c)(3)(i).
be reduced from a three-phase arc. However, the incident energy
Column 3, Limited Approach Boundary (Exposed Fixed Circuit is proportional to time, so the longer the arc lasts, the more heat
Part) comes from NEC Table 110.26(A)(1) for 151 volts to 600 is produced.
volts, NEC Table 110.34(A) for 750 volts to 145 kV and OSHA
The wording for this new section is If the arcing time, t, in
1910.333 for voltages above 145 kV.
Equation D.7.3(c) is longer than 2 seconds, consider how long a
Column 4, Restricted Approach Boundary, primarily comes person is likely to remain in the location of the arc flash. It is likely
from the National Electrical Safety Code, ANSI C2 and that a person exposed to an arc flash will move away quickly if
Column 5, Prohibited Approach Boundary, is from a combination it is physically possible, and 2 seconds is a reasonable maximum
of experience and NEC Tables 230.51(C) and 490.24. time for calculations. Sound engineering judgment should be used
in applying the 2-second maximum clearing time, because there
Annex D, Incident Energy and Arc Flash Boundary Calculation could be circumstances where an employees egress is inhibited.
Methods, has information concerning several methods that can be For example, a person in a bucket truck or a person who has
used to calculate incident energy and the arc flash boundary with crawled into equipment will need more time to move away.
IEEE 1584, Guide for Performing Arc-Flash Hazard Calculations
Annex E through Annex P Although there are many more
being one of them. Each method discussed has limitations of use,
informative and important annexes within the 70E, space
and in some cases, one may be more appropriate than another.
restrictions unfortunately prevent us from detailing each one.
As an example, IEEE 1584 can only be used to determine Readers should take the time to study and understand the
incident energy for voltages from 208 volts through 15,000 volts remaining annexes.
42 Arc-Flash Handbook

SUMMARY
Information in the 70E standard and the annexes is constantly
changing. The NFPA is moving to an on-line submission and
review system to streamline the process, and the 70E changes
approximately every three years. Proposals (Public Input) must
be submitted before the new closing date of June 22, 2012. Some
items could use editing for clarification, and reader suggestions
are welcome to help improve this edition. After all, this is your
safety standard. Help make it a better by providing constructive
inputs for change.
___________________________________________________
Ron Widup and Jim White are NETAS representatives to NFPA
Technical Committee 70E (Electrical Safety Requirements for
Employee Workplaces).Both gentlemen are employees of Shermco
Industries in Dallas, Texas a NETA Accredited Company.
Ron Widup is President of Shermco
and has been with the company since
1983. He is a Principal member of the
Technical Committee on Electrical
Safety in the Workplace (NFPA 70E)
and a Principal member of the National
Electrical Code (NFPA 70) Code Panel
11. He is also a member of the technical
committee Recommended Practice for Electrical Equipment
Maintenance (NFPA 70B), and a member of the NETA Board of
Directors and Standards Review Council.
Jim White is nationally recognized for
technical skills and safety training in
the electrical power systems industry.
He is the Training Director for Shermco
Industries, and has spent the last twenty
years directly involved in technical
skills and safety training for electrical
power system technicians. Jim is a
Principal member of NFPA 70B representing Shermco Industries,
NETAs alternate member of NFPA 70E, and a member of ASTM
F18 Committee Electrical Protective Equipment for Workers.
Arc-Flash Handbook 43

WEARING PPE:
IMPORTANT OR NOT?
NETA World, Summer 2012 Issue
by Jim White and Ron Widup
Shermco Industries

Do you hate wearing your PPE? Doesnt everyone? Who wants to Donnie mistakenly used a motor rotation meter, which should
wear clothing and equipment that is hot, bulky, interferes with the job, only be used on deenergized circuits to check phase rotation on a
slows you down, makes you itch, fogs up your protective eyewear, live, 480- volt circuit. The resulting meter failure blew carbon into
and causes you to sweat to the point that you become uncomfortable? the energized bus, creating a phaseto- phase arc flash that severely
Does any of this sound familiar? And did you know the NFPA injured him. Again quoting Donnie, I remember hearing some
70E standard has many pages on what to wear and how to wear sizzling noise and seeing few glowing orange spots or slag, other
it? In the 70E standard, there are two tables on shock hazards, than that it was pitch black. I could see daylight from around the
one for ac voltages and one for dc voltages, and seven tables exterior door of the room and I just started heading that way. I
specifically on arc-flash clothing and PPE. Four of these tables scrambled on my finger tips and toes and it felt as if something had
appear in Annex H. (Note to all: make sure you check these out!) a hold on my belt loop, like I couldnt move fast enough.
These tables, and the supporting text in the standard and annexes, There had been two maintenance men from this facility in
represent a tremendous amount of time, research, and effort on the electric room with me but they were on the other side of the
the part of companies and individuals who contribute to NFPA equipment. I called out their names, but didnt hear a response.
70E, all with the intent of preventing people from being injured or I found out later from them that they had gotten out just as the
killed. This column will highlight two incidents involving arc flash explosions started and that it had been a little longer than I had
events. One person was protected by PPE, and the other was not. recalled from the actual explosion until I found my way out of the
building. I remember standing up outside and realizing that I was
THE FIRST INCIDENT hurt, but I still didnt fathom how bad. I thought to myself that
The first incident involved a gentleman named Donnie Johnson. this kind of thing doesnt happen to me. Donnie was obviously
Donnie has a website at www.donniesaccident.com and has given in shock from the heat and arc blast created by the arc flash.
us permission to use his story to help others avoid what happened He was fortunate in one regard, he did not inhale the vaporized
to him. The following is a brief summary of the incident, and we copper, which could have seared his esophagus and lungs, and then
would encourage readers to view his video and read the complete solidified, closing his airway and rendering portions of his lungs
article on his website. non-functional.
Donnie Johnson is the assistant manager of the service
department for an electrical contractor. He has been an electrician
for 28 years. On Thursday, August 12, 2004, Donnie was involved
in an arc flash incident and suffered third degree burns down to the
muscle on both arms and hands, and second degree burns to his
face, head, and neck. In Donnies words, I have sat through safety
meetings before, thinking the whole time that the only reason for
the meeting was to meet some company insurance requirement
or the company just trying to cover itself in case an accident
happened. Once this happened to me, I realized whether or not this
was the case, the things they were saying could have protected me.
Honestly, if I had been wearing the personal protection equipment
that was provided for me, that I was trained to use and still in the
PPE bag between the front seats of my van; my trip to the hospital
would have probably been just for a check-up and a few, minor
burns. Although my injuries were electrical in nature, whether you
are a plumber, a carpenter or a mason there are safety procedures
that could protect you from injury or save your life. Figures 1: Damaged Equipment
44 Arc-Flash Handbook

Figures 2: Damaged Equipment


Figures 3 & 4: Destoyed PPE
Donnie remembers little from the time he was admitted until
about a month and a half later, but his wife kept a journal while he
was in the hospital: Over the next couple of days I became very
swollen and was looking bad. My dad came to see me for the first
time, and usually an unemotional man he was visibly upset. On
the fifth day the surgeons grafted skin from my right leg to my
right arm. All went well and I was due to have the breathing tube
removed within a day or two. My mother and step-father came to
Tampa to help my wife. The next day, my blood pressure dropped
extremely low and my heart rate increased significantly. The
doctors tested for infection. Test results would not be back for two
days. My brother came to town as I was not looking good. While
waiting for the test results and my health was deteriorating, all my
wife could do was worry. The test results showed I had an E. coli
infection in my lungs. This would be the first of many infections.
Your skin is your main protection from infection, and with the
burns on my arms, the grafting on my legs and the breathing tube,
it was open season on me for every infection that came along. The contractor installed all the panels, but neglected to remove the
These infections slowed the healing process of my injuries to temporary protective grounds installed as part of his procedure. The
almost a stand still. I developed pneumonia and blood infections. contractor then informed the owner that the switchgear was ready
A decision was made to graft my left arm as well because the burns for energization. When the owners electrician closed the circuit
were not healing as expected. My health continued to falter. The breaker, the resulting arc flash blew the doors open, exposing the
infections, wounds and the medicines also prevented me from electrician to the heat and pressure wave of the arc. Figures 1 and
receiving tube feeding, so my only source of nourishment was 2 show the damaged equipment. Note the damage to the side of the
an IV drip. Donnie returned to work in early 2006. That was switchgear enclosure.
18 months of his life he will never get back, 18months of pain, The end result of this story is far different, though. There was
frustration, and rehabilitation. Donnie is also lucky in the respect no lengthy, painful hospital stay, no rehabilitation, no skin grafts
that his wife stood beside him through all this. Often, the stresses or infections. This worker had donned his 40 cal/cm2 arc-rated
created by the aftereffects of a major accident can destroy what flash suit prior to operating this new switchgear. As a result of
has often become an already weakened and strained relationship. following both safe work practices as outlined in NFPA 70E and his
Having a strong family and spousal relationship is an important companys safe work practices and procedures this electrician had
aspect of recovery. no injuries even though the intense heat pretty much destroyed
THE SECOND INCIDENT his PPE! (See Figures 3 and 4.)
The second incident occurred in December of 2009. A contractor
was finishing the installation of new medium-voltage switchgear.
Arc-Flash Handbook 45

SUMMARY
Is there anyone who actually enjoys wearing arcrated protective
clothing and PPE? Probably not. But we do not only because it is
a necessity and a requirement of our jobs, not only because it is
the rules and what the company tells us to do, but we also do it for
ourselves and our families.
In spite of its shortcomings, PPE does work. Despite any
controversy about what actual exposures may or may not be for
any specific circumstance and even if the PPE is under-rated for the
incident energy, the injuries received will be much less severe than
if no PPE had been worn. An arc-flash event can change your life
in an instant, and not for the better. Most of us will find our careers
changed or even ended, our lives significantly less than they would
have been. Like Donnie, we may be wiser for the experience, but
would any of us volunteer for that? If not for yourself, think of the
negative effects that such an event can have on your family, your
spouse, and your children who did not ask to be spectators to the
slow, painful rebuilding of your life, an event that can be avoided
with safe work practices and that PPE you hate to wear.
___________________________________________________
Ron Widup and Jim White are NETAS representatives to NFPA
Technical Committee 70E (Electrical Safety Requirements for
Employee Workplaces). Both gentlemen are employees of Shermco
Industries in Dallas, Texas a NETA Accredited Company.
Ron Widup is President of Shermco
and has been with the company since
1983. He is a Principal member of the
Technical Committee on Electrical
Safety in the Workplace (NFPA 70E)
and a Principal member of the National
Electrical Code (NFPA 70) Code Panel
11. He is also a member of the technical
committee Recommended Practice for Electrical Equipment
Maintenance (NFPA 70B), and a member of the NETA Board of
Directors and Standards Review Council.
Jim White is nationally recognized for
technical skills and safety training in
the electrical power systems industry.
He is the Training Director for Shermco
Industries, and has spent the last twenty
years directly involved in technical
skills and safety training for electrical
power system technicians. Jim is a
Principal member of NFPA 70B representing Shermco Industries,
NETAs alternate member of NFPA 70E, and a member of ASTM
F18 Committee Electrical Protective Equipment for Workers.
46 Arc-Flash Handbook

ARC-FLASH CLOTHING AND PPE


WHAT DOES NFPA 70E SAY?
NETA World, Spring 2012 Issue
by Jim White and Ron Widup
Shermco Industries

NFPA 70E has a wide following in the electrical industry and (such as during troubleshooting) wearing additional arc-rated
with good reason. Not only is it generally considered the latest PPE is probably in order. Remember, it all goes back to the
word on protecting electrical workers, but OSHA recommends it hazard assessment.
as a guide for meeting the federal regulations. It provides proven Arc-Rated Informational Note No. 1: Arc-rated clothing or
and workable safe work practices and has been used as the basis equipment indicates that it has been tested for exposure to an
for development of other countrys electrical safety standards and electric arc. Flame-resistant (FR) clothing without an arc rating
regulations. has not been tested for exposure to an electric arc.
What does the latest [2012] edition of NFPA 70E have to say This is to differentiate an electrical workers protective clothing
about arc-rated PPE? We will take a look at several nuggets of and PPE from that worn by other trades that require flame-
information within the 70E to explain further. resistant clothing such as steel mills, oil and gas, firefighters, etc.
We have dicussed it previously, but close attention should be They may have FR clothing, but it may not be rated for exposure
paid to Article 100, Definitions. If you read and understand the to electrical arcs.
definitions, it will help to understand the standard in a more INFORMATION FOUND IN ARTICLE 130, WORK
comprehensive and complete manner. INVOLVING ELECTRICAL HAZARDS
INFORMATION FOUND IN ARTICLE 100, 130.5 Arc Flash Hazard Analysis 130.5(B) Protective
DEFINITIONS Clothing and Other Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Arc-Flash Hazard Informational Note No. 1: An arc-flash for Application with an Arc Flash Hazard Analysis. Where it
hazard may exist when energized electrical conductors or has been determined that work will be performed within the arc
circuit parts are exposed or when they are within equipment in a flash boundary, one of the following methods shall be used for
guarded or enclosed condition, provided a person is interacting the selection of protective clothing and other personal protective
with the equipment in such a manner that could cause an equipment (PPE):
electric arc. Under normal operating conditions, enclosed (1) Incident Energy Analysis
energized equipment that has been properly installed and
maintained is not likely to pose an arcflash hazard. (2) Hazard/Risk Categories [Tables 130.7(C)(15) and
130.7(C)(16)]
Arc-Flash Hazard Informational Note No. 2: See Table
130.7(C)(15)(a) and Table 130.7(C)(15)(b) for examples of The most widely-preferred method for choosing arc-rated
activities that could pose an arc-flash hazard. clothing and PPE is to have an arc flash hazard analysis
performed and have the equipment labeled. However, there are
Usually, guarded equipment does not pose a hazard from arc many facilities where that just is not going to happen, so the
flash, but when interacting with electrical equipment in a manner tables in Section 130.7 can be used instead. Be aware that neither
that could cause failure the arc-flash hazard has to be considered, method is foolproof and both have drawbacks, but the arcflash
even though there are no exposed energized conductors or circuit hazard analysis is the best we have right now for determining the
parts. This is why Informational Note No. 2 provides guidance correct levels of PPE. It will likely be improved once the findings
regarding activities that may fall in to this category. of the IEEE/NFPA Joint Collaboration Arc-Flash Research
It is also important to note that equipment in normal operation, Project are released.
installed in accordance with the NEC and other applicable 130.7 Personal and Other Protective Equipment 130.7(C)
codes and standards, along with being maintained correctly in Personal Protective Equipment. (1) General
accordance with manufacturers recommenda-tions and industry
consensus standards (such as the ANSI/NETA maintenance 
.When an employee is working within the arc-flash
testing standard), does not pose an arc-flash hazard. This does boundary, he or she shall wear protective clothing and other
not mean there is no possibility of an arc flash, just that the personal protective equipment in accordance with 130.5.
possibility is small. If for any reason the equipment is suspect All parts of the body inside the arcflash boundary shall be
protected.
Arc-Flash Handbook 47

Figure 2: T roubleshooting Electrical Equipment is


Hazardous Work

All hook and loop (Velcro ) fasteners should be closed so they


are not exposed to lint and dirt. If it gets oil or grease on it, other
than just a few spots, launder it. It can be laundered at home, but
it must be laundered separately. Just follow the manufacturers
Figure 1: It Was Too Big To Fit in a Trash Bag instructions.

Section 130.5 covers the arc-flash hazard analysis or the use RULE 2: LAYERING REDUCES THE POSSIBILITY
of the tables. Note that all parts of the body are to be protected if OF BURNS.
they inside the arcflash boundary. Hands, ears, eyes, etc. All PPE If you thought that arc-rated PPE provides the level of
and clothing specified in tables 130.7(C)(16) or Annex H.3(b) protection for the incident energy embroidered in or on the label,
must be worn. think about this: ASTM F1959 states that at the rated incident
Rather than cover each item in this section, lets skip down to energy of arc-rated clothing or PPE for 1/10th of a second there
Article 130.7(C)(7)(c) Hand and Arm Protection. Maintenance is a 50 percent probability of a second-degree burn on bare skin
and Use which states, Electrical protective equipment shall be underneath it. This applies to arc-rated face shields and arc-rated
maintained in a safe, reliable condition. . windows as well. If you suspect that the electrical equipment
you are about to work on may have issues, for instance when
Arc-flash PPE and clothing must be stored, laundered, and
troubleshooting, wear extra layers of PPE. Think of equipment
used properly in order to provide adequate p Figure 1: It Was
that requires troubleshooting as being in distress; it is no
Too Big To Fit in a Trash Bag rotection from an arc flash. This
longer operating normally and you need to wear the maximum
is really where we want to go in this article. How do we care for
recommended arc-rated clothing and PPE when you troubleshoot
and use arc-rated PPE and clothing so it remains reliable?
it. Wearing cotton or arc-rated underlayers provides additional
RULE 1: TREAT IT LIKE YOUR LIFE DEPENDS ON IT. protection from burns.
Your life does depend on it! Rolling arc-rated flash suits into RULE 3: INSPECT YOUR ARC-RATED CLOTHING
a knot, cramming it into a bag or leaving it out to collect dust is AND PPE PRIOR TO USING IT.
not maintaining it (Figure 1). It should be inspected, folded and
Look for any rips, tears, or openings in either the outer layer or
placed in a suitable container, either a locker or a garment bag.
the inner layer. On multilayer flash suits all layers are important
48 Arc-Flash Handbook

be injured or killed. We love the old movies where the pilot is trying
to get his plane over the mountain peak and hes saying, Come on,
girl! Come on, baby! I know you can do it! Dont let me down!
Invariably he makes it, but in real life the local authorities would be
mounting an expedition to rescue survivors, Figure 3. Dont think
inanimate objects hear you or care about you. Know your own
limitations as well. If you are sick, tired, or distracted by crushing
issues, you probably should not be performing hazardous tasks.
RULE 5: TELL ME AGAIN WHY YOU HAVE TO DO
THIS ENERGIZED?
Turn it off!! That is the best way to eliminate the hazards.
SUMMARY
Understanding the application, and more importantly the
limitations, of your PPE is vital if you are to go through the
work day properly protected from the hazards of electricity. So
please take the time to read and understand the definitions, the
application, and the limitations of your PPE.
Hey that Rule No. 5 you might want to move that one up to
Figure 3: Come On, Baby, You Can Do It! the top of the list.
to meet the identified arc rating. The inside is as important as ___________________________________________________
the outside. Look for seams that are coming loose, especially in Ron Widup and Jim White are NETAS representatives to NFPA
the armpits and the crotch. These are high-stress areas and must Technical Committee 70E (Electrical Safety Requirements for
also be inspected inside the garment as well as on the outside. Employee Workplaces). Both gentlemen are employees of Shermco
Inspect the sewing along zippers and Velcro to ensure they Industries in Dallas, Texas a NETA Accredited Company.
are not curling or becoming detached. If they are, they wont
Ron Widup is President of Shermco
seal properly. Grease spots larger than about one inch or so in
and has been with the company since
diameter will probably require laundering as grease, oil, and other
1983. He is a Principal member of the
lubricants increase heat transfer through the fabric. Check the
Technical Committee on Electrical
label to make certain it meets ASTM F1505 and NFPA 70E. Also
Safety in the Workplace (NFPA 70E)
make certain the arc rating is sufficient for your exposure.
and a Principal member of the National
On arc-rated face shields and hoods, make certain the face Electrical Code (NFPA 70) Code Panel
shield is secure to the hard hat. Look for excessive scratching in 11. He is also a member of the technical
the viewing area (not to the sides). Excessive means that it limits committee Recommended Practice for Electrical Equipment
your vision so you cannot see clearly. Make certain the hard hat Maintenance (NFPA 70B), and a member of the NETA Board of
suspension is secured inside the hard hat and that the sweat band Directors and Standards Review Council.
is not cracked or broken. Ensure any extensions on the arc-rated
Jim White is nationally recognized for
face shield are secured properly with all needed fasteners, and
technical skills and safety training in
never use an arc-rated face shield without the chin cup. Some
the electrical power systems industry.
face shields are rated with the chin cup and some without. Not
He is the Training Director for Shermco
wearing the chin cup would allow the arc plasma to roll up your
Industries, and has spent the last twenty
chest and under the face shield. Inspect the arc-rated windows
years directly involved in technical
on arcrated hoods to ensure there are no gaps around them. If the
skills and safety training for electrical
Velcro is missing in the upper corners an arc flash may cause a
power system technicians. Jim is a
burn to the top of your head. Inspect the hood for cuts, rips, tears,
Principal member of NFPA 70B representing Shermco Industries,
grease or oil spots, loose seams, etc., just like the flash suit itself.
NETAs alternate member of NFPA 70E, and a member of ASTM
RULE 4: KNOW THE LIMITATIONS OF YOUR F18 Committee Electrical Protective Equipment for Workers.
EQUIPMENT AND PPE.
Exceeding the limitations of your protective clothing and
equipment, or your tools and meters, for that matter, is a sure way to
NETA Accredited Companies
Valid as of January 1, 2014

For NETA Accredited Company List Updates Visit www.netaworld.org


Ensuring Safety and Reliability
Trust in a NETA Accredited Company to provide independent, third-party
electrical testing to the highest standard, the ANSI/NETA Standards.

NETA has been connecting engineers, architects, facility managers, and users of electrical power equipment and systems
with NETA Accredited Companies since1972.

United StateS 7 Hampton Tedder 13 Applied Engineering Concepts


Technical Services 1105 N. Allen Ave.
AlAbAmA 3747 West Roanoke Ave. Pasadena, CA 91104
Phoenix, AZ 85009 (626) 398-3052 Fax: (626) 398-3053
1 AMP Quality Energy Services, LLC (480) 967-7765 Fax:(480) 967-7762 michel.c@aec-us.com
4220 West Schrimsher SW, Site W1 www.hamptontedder.com www.aec-us.com
PO Box 526 Michel Castonguay
Huntsville, AL 35804 Southwest Energy Systems, LLC
8
(256) 513-8255 Electrical Reliability Services
2231 East Jones Ave., Suite A 14
brian@ampqes.com 5810 Van Allen Way
Phoenix, AZ 85040
Brian Rodgers
(602) 438-7500 Fax: (602) 438-7501 Carlsbad, CA 92008
bob.sheppard@southwestenergysystems.com (760) 804-2972
2 Utility Service Corporation www.southwestenergysystems.com www.electricalreliability.com
4614 Commercial Dr. NW Robert Sheppard
Huntsville, AL 35816-2201
(256) 837-8400 Fax: (256) 837-8403 15 Electrical Reliability Services
9 Western Electrical Services, Inc. 6900 Koll Center Pkwy., Suite 415
apeterson@utilserv.com
5680 South 32nd St. Pleasanton, CA 94566
www.utilserv.com
Phoenix, AZ 85040 (925) 485-3400 Fax: (925) 485-3436
Alan D. Peterson
(602) 426-1667 Fax: (253) 891-1511 www.electricalreliability.com
carcher@westernelectricalservices.com
ArizonA www.westernelectricalservices.com 16 Electrical Reliability Services
Craig Archer 10606 Bloomfield Ave.
3 ABM Electrical Power Solutions
Santa Fe Springs, CA 90670
3602 East Southern Ave., Suite 1 & 2
Phoenix, AZ 85040 CAliforniA (562) 236-9555 Fax: (562) 777-8914
(602) 796-6583 www.electricalreliability.com
www.abm.com 10 ABM Electrical Power Solutions
Jeff Militello 720 S. Rochester Ave., Suite A 17 Hampton Tedder Technical
Ontario, CA 91761 Services
(951) 522-8855 Fax: (909) 937-6798 4571 State St.
4 American Electrical Testing Co., Inc.
www.abm.com
12566 W. Indianola Ave. Montclair, CA 91763
Ben Thomas
Avondale, AZ 85392 (909) 628-1256 x214
(480) 383-9242 Fax: (909) 628-6375
11 Apparatus Testing and Engineering
dmadaglia@aetco.us matt.tedder@hamptontedder.com
www.aetco.us 7083 Commerce Cir., Suite H
Pleasanton,CA 94588 www.hamptontedder.com
Donald Madaglia Matt Tedder
(925) 454-1363 Fax: (925) 454-1499
5 Electric Power Systems, Inc. info@apparatustesting.com
www.apparatustesting.com 18 Industrial Tests, Inc.
557 E. Juanita Ave., #4
Harold (Jerry) Carr 4021 Alvis Ct., Suite 1
Mesa, AZ 85204
(480) 633-1490 Fax: (480) 633-7092 Rocklin, CA 95677
www.eps-international.com 12 Apparatus Testing and Engineering (916) 296-1200 Fax: (916) 632-0300
PO Box 984 greg@indtest.com
6 Electrical Reliability Services Folsom, CA 95763-0984 www.industrialtests.com
1775 W. University Dr., Suite 128 (916) 853-6280 Fax: (916) 853-6258 Greg Poole
Tempe, AZ 85281 jlawler@apparatustesting.com
(480) 966-4568 Fax: (480) 966-4569 www.apparatustesting.com
www.electricalreliability.com James Lawler

For additional information on NETA visit netaworld.org


51

19 Pacific Power Testing, Inc. 27 Magna IV Engineering floridA


14280 Doolittle Dr. 96 Inverness Dr. East, Unit R
San Leandro, CA 94577 Englewood, CO 80112 34 C.E. Testing, Inc.
(510) 351-8811 Fax: (510) 351-6655 (303) 799-1273 Fax: (303) 790-4816 6148 Tim Crews Rd.
steve@pacificpowertesting.com info.denver@magnaiv.com Macclenny, FL 32063
www.pacificpowertesting.com Aric Proskurniak (904) 653-1900 Fax: (904) 653-1911
Steve Emmert cetesting@aol.com
28 Precision Testing Group Mark Chapman
20 Power Systems Testing Co. 5475 Hwy. 86, Unit 1
4688 W. Jennifer Ave., Suite 108 Elizabeth, CO 80107
35 Electric Power Systems, Inc.
Fresno, CA 93722 (303) 621-2776 Fax: (303) 621-2573 4436 Parkway Commerce Blvd.
(559) 275-2171 x15 glenn@precisiontestinggroup.com Orlando, FL 32808
Fax: (559) 275-6556 Glenn Stuckey (407) 578-6424 Fax: (407) 578-6408
dave@pstcpower.com www.eps-international.com
www.powersystemstesting.com ConneCtiCut 36 Electrical Reliability Services
David Huffman
29 Advanced Testing Systems 11000 Metro Pkwy., Suite 30
21 Power Systems Testing Co. 15 Trowbridge Dr. Ft. Myers, FL 33966
6736 Preston Ave., Suite E Bethel, CT 06801 (239) 693-7100 Fax: (239) 693-7772
Livermore, CA 94551 (203) 743-2001 Fax: (203) 743-2325 www.electricalreliability.com
(510) 783-5096 Fax: (510) 732-9287 pmaccarthy@advtest.com
www.powersystemstesting.com www.advtest.com
37 Industrial Electric Testing, Inc.
Pat MacCarthy 201 NW 1st Ave.
22 Power Systems Testing Co. Hallandale, FL 33009-4029
600 S. Grand Ave., Suite 113 American Electrical Testing Co., Inc. (954) 456-7020
30
Santa Ana, CA 92705-4152 34 Clover Dr. www.industrialelectrictesting.com
(714) 542-6089 Fax: (714) 542-0737 South Windsor, CT 06074
www.powersystemstesting.com 38 Industrial Electric Testing, Inc.
(860) 648-1013 Fax: (781) 821-0771
11321 West Distribution Ave.
jpoulin@aetco.us
23 POWER Testing and Jacksonville, FL 32256
www.99aetco.com
Energization, Inc. (904) 260-8378 Fax: (904) 260-0737
Gerald Poulin
731 E. Ball Rd., Suite 100 gbenzenberg@bellsouth.net
Anaheim, CA 92805 www.industrialelectrictesting.com
31 EPS Technology Gary Benzenberg
(714) 507-2702 29 N. Plains Hwy., Suite 12
www.powerte.com Wallingford, CT 06492 39 Industrial Electronics Group
(203) 679-0145 850369 Highway 17 South
24 Tony Demaria Electric, Inc. www.eps-technology.com PO Box 1870
131 West F St.
Yulee, FL 32041
Wilmington, CA 90744 32 High Voltage Maintenance Corp. (904) 225-9529 Fax: (904) 225-0834
(310) 816-3130 x111 150 North Plains Industrial Rd. butch@industrialgroups.com
Fax: (310) 549-9747 Wallingford, CT 06492 www.industrialgroups.com
tde@tdeinc.com (203) 949-2650 Fax: (203) 949-2646 Butch E. Teal
www.tdeinc.com www.hvmcorp.com
Anthony Demaria GeorGiA
33 Southern New England Electrical
Electrical Equipment Upgrading, Inc.
ColorAdo
40
Testing, LLC
21 Telfair Pl.
Electric Power Systems, Inc. 3 Buel St., Suite 4
25 Savannah, GA 31415
6753 E. 47th Avenue Dr., Unit D Wallingford, CT 06492
(912) 232-7402 Fax: (912) 233-4355
Denver, CO 80216 (203) 269-8778 Fax: (203) 269-8775 kmiller@eeu-inc.com
(720) 857-7273 Fax: (303) 928-8020 dave.asplund@sneet.org www.eeu-inc.com
www.eps-international.com www.sneet.org Kevin Miller
David Asplund, Sr.
26 Electrical Reliability Services 41 Electrical Reliability Services
7100 Broadway, Suite 7E 2275 Northwest Pkwy. SE, Suite 180
Denver, CO 80221-2915 Marietta, GA 30067
(303) 427-8809 Fax: (303) 427-4080 (770) 541-6600 Fax: (770) 541-6501
www.electricalreliability.com www.electricalreliability.com

For additional information on NETA visit netaworld.org


52

42 Electrical Testing, Inc. 49 Electrical Maintenance & Testing Inc. 57 Tidal Power Services, LLC
2671 Cedartown Hwy. 12342 Hancock St. 8184 Hwy. 44, Suite 105
Rome, GA 3016-6791 Carmel, IN 46032 Gonzales, LA 70737
(706) 234-7623 Fax: (706) 236-9028 (317) 853-6795 Fax: (317) 853-6799 (225) 644-8170 Fax: (225) 644-8215
info@emtesting.com darryn.kimbrough@tidalpowerservices.com
steve@electricaltestinginc.com www.emtesting.com www.tidalpowerservices.com
www.electricaltestinginc.com Brian K. Borst Darryn Kimbrough
43 Nationwide Electrical Testing, Inc. 50 High Voltage Maintenance Corp. 58 Tidal Power Services, LLC
6050 Southard Trace 8320 Brookville Rd., #E 1056 Mosswood Dr.
Cumming, GA 30040 Indianapolis, IN 46239 Sulphur, LA 70663
(770) 667-1875 Fax: (770) 667-6578 (317) 322-2055 Fax: (317) 322-2056 (337) 558-5457 Fax: (337) 558-5305
shashi@n-e-t-inc.com www.hvmcorp.com steve.drake@tidalpowerservices.com
www.n-e-t-inc.com www.tidalpowerservices.com
Shashikant B. Bagle iowA Steve Drake

Shermco Industries
illinois 51
2100 Dixon St., Suite C
mAine
44 Dude Electrical Testing, LLC Des Moines, IA 50316 59 Electric Power Systems, Inc.
145 Tower Dr., Suite 9 (515) 263-8482 56 Bibber Pkwy., #1
Burr Ridge, IL 60527 lhamrick@shermco.com Brunswick, ME 04011
(815) 293-3388 Fax: (815) 293-3386 www.shermco.com (207) 837-6527
Lynn Hamrick www.eps-international.com
scott.dude@dudetesting.com
www.dudetesting.com 52 Shermco Industries 60 Three-C Electrical Co., Inc.
Scott Dude
796 11th St. 72 Sanford Drive
Marion, IA 52302 Gorham, ME 04038
45 Electric Power Systems, Inc.
(319) 377-3377 Fax: (319) 377-3399 (800) 649-6314 Fax: (207) 782-0162
23823 Andrew Rd.
lhamrick@shermco.com jim@three-c.com
Plainfield, IL 60585
www.shermco.com www.three-c.com
(815) 577-9515 Fax: (815) 577-9516
Lynn Hamrick Jim Cialdea
www.eps-international.com

46 High Voltage Maintenance Corp. louisiAnA mArylAnd


941 Busse Rd. 53 Electric Power Systems, Inc. 61 ABM Electrical Power Solutions
Elk Grove Village, IL 60007 1129 East Hwy. 30 3700 Commerce Dr., #901- 903
(847) 640-0005 Gonzalez, LA 70737 Baltimore, MD 21227
www.hvmcorp.com (225) 644-0150 Fax: (225) 644-6249 (410) 247-3300 Fax: (410) 247-0900
www.eps-international.com www.abm.com
47 PRIT Service, Inc. Bill Hartman
112 Industrial Dr. 54 Electrical Reliability Services
PO Box 606 14141 Airline Hwy., 62 ABM Electrical Power Solutions
Minooka, IL 60447 Building 1, Suite X 4390 Parliament Pl., Suite Q
(815) 467-5577 Fax: (815) 467-5883 Baton Rouge, LA 70817 Lanham, MD 20706
rod.hageman@pritserviceinc.com (225) 755-0530 Fax: (225) 751-5055 (301) 967-3500 Fax: (301) 735-8953
www.pritserviceinc.com www.electricalreliability.com www.abm.com
Rod Hageman Frank Ceci
55 Electrical Reliability Services
63 Harford Electrical Testing Co., Inc.
indiAnA 9636 St. Vincent, Unit A
Shreveport, LA 71106 1108 Clayton Rd.
48 American Electrical Testing Co., Inc. (318) 869-4244 Joppa, MD 21085
4032 Park 65 Dr. www.electricalreliabilty.com (410) 679-4477 Fax: (410) 679-0800
Indianapolis, IN 46254 testing@harfordtesting.com
(317) 487-2111 Fax: (781) 821-0771 56 Electrical Reliability Services www.harfordtesting.com
scanale@99aetco.us 121 E. Hwy108 Vincent Biondino
www.99aetco.com Sulphur, LA 70665
Stephen Canale
(337) 583-2411 Fax: (337) 583-2410
www.electricalreliability.com

For additional information on NETA visit netaworld.org


53

64 High Voltage Maintenance Corp. miChiGAn minnesotA


9305 Gerwig Ln., Suite B
Columbia, MD 21046 71 DYMAX Service Inc. 78 DYMAX Holdings, Inc.
(410) 309-5970 Fax: (410) 309-0220 46918 Liberty Dr. 4751 Mustang Cir.
www.hvmcorp.com Wixom, MI 48393 St. Paul, MN 55112
(248) 313-6868 Fax: (248) 313-6869
(763) 717-3150 Fax: (763) 784-5397
65 Potomac Testing, Inc. www.dymaxservice.com
Bruce Robinson gphilipp@dymaxservice.com
1610 Professional Blvd., Suite A www.dymaxservice.com
Crofton, MD 21114 Gene Philipp
(301) 352-1930 Fax: (301) 352-1936
72 Electric Power Systems, Inc.
kbassett@potomactesting.com 11861 Longsdorf St.
Riverview, MI 48193
79 High Voltage Service, Inc.
www.potomactesting.com
Ken Bassett (734) 282-3311 4751 Mustang Cir.
www.eps-international.com St. Paul, MN 55112
66 Reuter & Hanney, Inc. (763) 717-3103 Fax: (763) 784-5397
11620 Crossroads Cir., Suites D - E 73 High Voltage Maintenance Corp. www.hvserviceinc.com
Middle River, MD 21220 24371 Catherine Industrial Dr., Suite 207 Mike Mavetz
(410) 344-0300 Fax: (410) 335-4389 Novi, MI 48375
www.reuterhanney.com (248) 305-5596 Fax: (248) 305-5579 missouri
Michael Jester www.hvmcorp.com
80 Electric Power Systems, Inc.
Northern Electrical Testing, Inc. 6141 Connecticut Ave.
mAssAChusetts 74
1991 Woodslee Dr. Kansas City, MO 64120
67 American Electrical Testing Co., Inc. Troy, MI 48083-2236 (816) 241-9990 Fax: (816) 241-9992
480 Neponset St., Bldg. 6 (248) 689-8980 Fax: (248) 689-3418 www.eps-international.com
Canton, MA 02021-1970 ldetterman@northerntesting.com
(781) 821- 0121 Fax: (781) 821-0771 www.northerntesting.com 81 Electric Power Systems, Inc.
sblizard@aetco.us Lyle Detterman 21 Millpark Ct.
www.99aetco.com Maryland Heights, MO 63043-3536
Scott A. Blizard 75 POWER PLUS Engineering, Inc. (314) 890-9999 Fax:(314) 890-9998
46575 Magallan Dr. www.eps-international.com
68 High Voltage Maintenance Corp. Novi, MI 48377
24 Walpole Park South Dr. (248) 344-0200 Fax: (248) 305-9105 82 Electrical Reliability Services
Walpole, MA 02081 smancuso@epowerplus.com 348 N.W. Capital Dr.
(508) 668-9205 www.epowerplus.com Lees Summit, MO 64086
www.hvmcorp.com Salvatore Mancuso (816) 525-7156 Fax: (816) 524-3274
www.electricalreliability.com
69 Infra-Red Building and 76 Powertech Services, Inc.
Power Service 4095 South Dye Rd. nevAdA
152 Centre St. Swartz Creek, MI 48473-1570
Holbrook, MA 02343-1011 (810) 720-2280 Fax: (810) 720-2283 83 ABM Electrical Power Solutions
(781) 767-0888 Fax: (781) 767-3462 kirkd@powertechservices.com 6280 South Valley View Blvd., Suite 618
tom.mcdonald@infraredbps.net www.powertechservices.com Las Vegas, NV 89118
www.infraredbps.com Kirk Dyszlewski (702) 216-0982 Fax: (702) 216-0983
Thomas McDonald Sr. www.abm.com
77 Utilities Instrumentation Service, Inc. Jeff Militello
70 Three-C Electrical Co., Inc. 2290 Bishop Circle East
40 Washington Street Dexter, MI 48130 84
Control Power Concepts
Westborough, MA 01581 (734) 424-1200 353 Pilot Rd, Suite B
(508) 881-3911 Fax: (508) 881-4814 Fax: (734) 424-0031 Las Vegas, NV 89119
jim@three-c.com gewalls@uiscorp.com zfettig@ctrlpwr.com
www.three-c.com www.uiscorp.com www.controlpowerconcepts.com
Jim Cialdea Gary E. Walls Zeb Fettig
85 Electrical Reliability Services
6351 Hinson St., Suite B
Las Vegas, NV 89118
(702) 597-0020 Fax: (702) 597-0095
www.electricalreliability.com

For additional information on NETA visit netaworld.org


54

86 Electrical Reliability Services 93 Longo Electrical-Mechanical, Inc. 100 A&F Electrical Testing, Inc.
1380 Greg St., Suite 217 One Harry Shupe Blvd., Box 511 80 Broad St., 5th Floor
Sparks, NV 89431 Wharton, NJ 07855 New York, NY 10004
(775) 746-8484 Fax: (775) 356-5488 (973) 537-0400 Fax: (973) 537-0404 (631) 584-5625 Fax: (631) 584-5720
www.electricalreliability.com jmlongo@elongo.com afelectricaltesting@afelectricaltesting.com
www.elongo.com www.afelectricaltesting.com
87 Hampton Tedder Technical Services Joe Longo Florence Chilton
4920 Alto Ave.
Las Vegas, NV 89115 94 M&L Power Systems, Inc. 101 American Electrical Testing Co., Inc.
(702) 452-9200 Fax: (702) 453-5412 109 White Oak Ln., Suite 82 76 Cain Dr.
www.hamptontedder.com Old Bridge, NJ 08857 Brentwood, NY 11717
Roger Cates (732) 679-1800 Fax: (732) 679-9326 (631) 617-5330 Fax: (631) 630-2292
milind@mlpower.com mschacker@aetco.us
new hAmpshire www.mlpower.com www.99aetco.com
Milind Bagle Michael Schacker
88 Electric Power Systems, Inc.
915 Holt Ave., Unit 9 95 Scott Testing Inc. 102 Elemco Services, Inc.
Manchester, NH 03109 1698 5th St. 228 Merrick Rd.
(603) 657-7371 Fax: (603) 657-7370 Ewing, NJ 08638 Lynbrook, NY 11563
www.eps-international.com (609) 882-2400 Fax: (609) 882-5660 (631) 589-6343 Fax: (631) 589-6670
rsorbello@scotttesting.com courtney@elemco.com
new Jersey www.scotttesting.com
Russ Sorbello
www.elemco.com
Courtney OBrien
American Electrical Testing Co., Inc.
89
50 Intervale Rd., Suite 1 96 Trace Electrical Services 103 High Voltage Maintenance Corp.
& Testing, LLC 1250 Broadway, Suite 2300
Boonton, NJ 07005
293 Whitehead Rd. New York, NY 10001
(973) 316-1180 Fax: (781) 316-1181
Hamilton, NJ 08619 (718) 239-0359
jsomol@aetco.us
(609) 588-8666 Fax: (609) 588-8667 www.hvmcorp.com
www.99aetco.com
Jeff Somol jvasta@tracetesting.com
www.tracetesting.com 104 HMT, Inc.
Joseph Vasta 6268 Route 31
90
Eastern High Voltage Cicero, NY 13039
11A South Gold Dr. (315) 699-5563 Fax: (315) 699-5911
Robbinsville, NJ 08691-1606 new mexiCo jpertgen@hmt-electric.com
(609) 890-8300 Fax: (609) 588-8090 www.hmt-electric.com
joewilson@easternhighvoltage.com 97 Electric Power Systems, Inc.
8515 Cella Alameda NE, Suite A John Pertgen
www.easternhighvoltage.com
Joseph Wilson Albuquerque, NM 87113
(505) 792-7761 north CArolinA
www.eps-international.com ABM Electrical Power Solutions
91
High Energy Electrical Testing, Inc. 105
515 S. Ocean Ave. 3600 Woodpark Blvd., Suite G
98 Electrical Reliability Services Charlotte, NC 28206
Seaside Park, NJ 08752
8500 Washington Pl. NE, Suite A-6 (704) 273-6257 Fax: (704) 598-9812
(732) 938-2275 Fax: (732) 938-2277
Albuquerque, NM 87113 ernest.goins@abm.com
hinrg@comcast.net
(505) 822-0237 Fax: (505) 822-0217 www.abm.com
www.highenergyelectric.com
www.electricalreliability.com Ernest Goins
Charles Blanchard

92 Longo Electrical-Mechanical, Inc. new york 106 ABM Electrical Power Solutions
1625 Pennsylvania Ave. 5805 G Departure Dr.
Linden, NJ 07036 99 A&F Electrical Testing, Inc. Raleigh, NC 27616
(908) 925-2900 Fax: (908) 925-9427 80 Lake Ave. S., Suite 10 (919) 877-1008 Fax: (919) 501-7492
jmlongo@elongo.com Nesconset, NY 11767 www.abm.com
www.elongo.com (631) 584-5625 Fax: (631) 584-5720 Rob Parton
Joe Longo kchilton@afelectricaltesting.com
www.afelectricaltesting.com
Kevin Chilton

For additional information on NETA visit netaworld.org


55

107 ELECT, P.C. 115 Electrical Reliability Services 123 Taurus Power & Controls, Inc.
7400-G Siemens Rd. 610 Executive Campus Dr. 9999 SW Avery St.
PO Box 2080 Westerville, OH 43082 Tualatin, OR 97062-9517
Wendell, NC 27591 (877) 468-6384 Fax: (614) 410-8420 (503) 692-9004 Fax: (503) 692-9273
(919) 365-9775 Fax: (919) 365-9789 info@electricalreliability.com robtaurus@tauruspower.com
btyndall@elect-pc.com www.electricalreliability.com www.tauruspower.com
www.elect-pc.com Rob Bulfinch
Barry W. Tyndall 116 High Voltage Maintenance Corp.
5100 Energy Dr. pennsylvAniA
108 Electric Power Systems, Inc. Dayton, OH 45414
(937) 278-0811 Fax: (937) 278-7791 124 ABM Electrical Power Solutions
319 US Hwy. 70 E, Unit E
www.hvmcorp.com 710 Thomson Park Dr.
Garner, NC 27529
Cranberry Township, PA 16066-6427
(919) 322-2670 (724) 772-4638 Fax: (724) 772-6003
www.eps-international.com 117 High Voltage Maintenance Corp.
7200 Industrial Park Blvd. william.mckenzie@abm.com
www.abm.com
109 Electrical Reliability Services Mentor, OH 44060
William (Pete) McKenzie
6135 Lakeview Road, Suite 500 (440) 951-2706 Fax: (440) 951-6798
Charlotte, NC 28269 www.hvmcorp.com 125 American Electrical Testing Co., Inc.
(704) 441-1497 Green Hills Commerce Center
www.electricalreliability.com
118 Power Services, LLC 5925 Tilghman St., Suite 200
998 Dimco Way, PO Box 750066 Allentown, PA 18104
110 Power Products & Solutions, Inc. Centerville, OH 45475 (215) 219-6800
12465 Grey Commercial Rd. (937) 439-9660 Fax: (937) 439-9611 jmunley@aetco.us
Midland, NC 28107 mkbeucler@aol.com www.99aetco.com
(704) 573-0420 x12 Mark Beucler Jonathan Munley
Fax: (704) 573-3693
119 Power Solutions Group, Ltd. 126 Burlington Electrical Testing Co., Inc.
ralph.patterson@powerproducts.biz 300 Cedar Ave.
670 Lakeview Plaza Blvd.
www.powerproducts.biz Croydon, PA 19021-6051
Columbus, OH 43085
Ralph Patterson (215) 826-9400 x221
(614) 310-8018
sspohn@powersolutionsgroup.com Fax: (215) 826-0964
111 Power Test, Inc. waltc@betest.com
2200 Hwy. 49 www.powersolutionsgroup.com
www.betest.com
Harrisburg, NC 28075 Stuart Spohn
Walter P. Cleary
(704) 200-8311 Fax: (704) 455-7909
rich@powertestinc.com 120 Power Solutions Group, Ltd. 127 Electric Power Systems, Inc.
425 W. Kerr Rd. 1090 Montour West Industrial Blvd.
www.powertestinc.com
Tipp City, OH 45371 Coraopolis, PA 15108
Richard Walker
(937) 506-8444 Fax: (937) 506-8434 (412) 276-4559
bwilloughby@powersolutionsgroup.com
ohio www.powersolutionsgroup.com
www.eps-international.com

112 CE Power Solutions, LLC Barry Willoughby 128 Electric Power Systems, Inc.
4500 W. Mitchell Ave. 2495 Boulevard of the Generals
Cincinnati, OH 45232 oklAhomA Norristown, PA 19403
(513) 563-6150 Fax: (513) 563-6120 (610) 630-0286
121 Shermco Industries
info@cepowersol.net www.eps-international.com
1357 N. 108th E. Ave.
Rhonda Harris
Tulsa, OK 74116 EnerG Test
129
(918) 234-2300
113 DYMAX Service, Inc. 204 Gale Lane, Bldg. 2 2nd Floor
jharrison@shermco.com
4213 Kropf Ave. Kennett Square, PA 19348
www.shermco.com
Canton, OH 44706 (484) 731-0200 Fax: (484) 713-0209
Jim Harrison
(330) 484-6801 Fax: (740) 333-1271 kbleiler@energtest.com
www.dymaxservice.com www.energtest.com
Gary Swank oreGon Katie Bleiler
122 Electrical Reliability Services
114 Electric Power Systems, Inc. 130 High Voltage Maintenance Corp.
4099 SE International Way, Suite 201
2601 Center Rd., #101 355 Vista Park Dr.
Milwaukie, OR 97222-8853
Hinckley, OH 44233 Pittsburgh, PA 15205-1206
(503) 653-6781 Fax: (503) 659-9733
(330) 460-3706 Fax: (330) 460-3708 (412) 747-0550 Fax: (412) 747-0554
www.electricalreliability.com
www.eps-international.com www.hvmcorp.com

For additional information on NETA visit netaworld.org


56

131 Longo Electrical-Mechanical, Inc. 138 Power & Generation Testing, Inc. 146 Saber Power Systems
1400 F Adams Road 480 Cave Rd. 9841 Saber Power Lane
Bensalem, PA 19020 Nashville, TN 37210 Rosharon, TX 77583
(215) 638-1333 Fax: (215) 638-1366 (615) 882-9455 Fax: (615) 882-9591 (713) 222-9102
jmlongo@elongo.com mose@pgti.net info@saberpower.com
www.elongo.com www.pgti.net www.saberpower.com
Joe Longo Mose Ramieh Ron Taylor

132 North Central Electric, Inc. texAs 147 Shermco Industries


69 Midway Ave. 33002 FM 2004
139 Absolute Testing Services, Inc. Angleton, TX 77515
Hulmeville, PA 19047-5827 6829 Guhn Rd.
(215) 945-7632 Fax: (215) 945-6362 (979) 848-1406 Fax: (979) 848-0012
Houston, TX 77040 mfrederick@shermco.com
ncetest@aol.com (832) 467-4446 Fax: (713) 849-3885
Robert Messina www.shermco.com
rgamble@absolutetesting.com Malcom Frederick
www.texasats.com
133 Reuter & Hanney, Inc. Richard Gamble 148 Shermco Industries
149 Railroad Dr.
1705 Hur Industrial Blvd.
Northampton Industrial Park Electric Power Systems, Inc.
140 Cedar Park, TX 78613
Ivyland, PA 18974 4100 Greenbriar Dr., Suite 160 (512) 267-4800 Fax: (512) 258-5571
(215) 364-5333 Fax: (215) 364-5365 Stafford, TX 77477 kewing@shermco.com
mikereuter@reuterhanney.com (713) 644-5400 www.shermco.com
www.reuterhanney.com www.eps-international.com Kevin Ewing
Michael Reuter
141 Electrical Reliability Services 149 Shermco Industries
south CArolinA 1057 Doniphan Park Cir., Suite A 2425 E. Pioneer Dr.
El Paso, TX 79922 Irving, TX 75061
134 Power Products & Solutions, Inc. (915) 587-9440 Fax: (915) 587-9010 (972) 793-5523 Fax: (972) 793-5542
13 Jenkins Ct. www.electricalreliability.com rwidup@shermco.com
Mauldin, SC 29662 www.shermco.com
(800) 328-7382 142 Electrical Reliability Services Ron Widup
ralph.patterson@powerproducts.biz 1426 Sens Rd., Suite 5
www.powerproducts.biz Houston, TX 77571 150 Shermco Industries
Raymond Pesaturo (281) 241-2800 Fax: (281) 241-2801 12000 Network Blvd., Bldg. D, Suite 410
www.electricalreliability.com San Antonio, TX 78249
135 Power Solutions Group, Ltd. (512) 267-4800 Fax: (512) 267-4808
135 Old School House Rd. 143 Grubb Engineering, Inc. kewing@shermco.com
Piedmont, SC 29673 3128 Sidney Brooks www.shermco.com
(864) 845-1084 Fax: (864) 845-1085 Kevin Ewing
San Antonio, TX 78235
fcrawford@powersolutionsgroup.com (210) 658-7250 Fax: (210) 658-9805
www.powersolutionsgroup.com 151 Tidal Power Services, LLC
bobby@grubbengineering.com
Frank Crawford 4202 Chance Ln.
www.grubbengineering.com
Rosharon, TX 77583
Robert D. Grubb Jr.
tennesee (281) 710-9150 Fax: (713) 583-1216
monty.janak@tidalpowerservices.com
136 Electric Power Systems, Inc. 144 National Field Services www.tidalpowerservices.com
146 Space Park Dr. 649 Franklin St. Monty C. Janak
Nashville, TN 37211 Lewisville,TX 75057
(972) 420-0157
(615) 834-0999 Fax: (615) 834-0129
www.eps-international.com www.natlfield.com utAh
Eric Beckman 152 Electrical Reliability Services
137 Electrical & Electronic Controls 3412 South 1400 West, Unit A
6149 Hunter Rd. 145 Power Engineering Services, Inc. West Valley City, UT 84119
Ooltewah, TN 37363 9179 Shadow Creek Ln. (801) 975-6461
(423) 344-7666 x23 Converse,TX 78109 www.electricalreliability.com
Fax: (423) 344-4494 (210) 590-4936 Fax: (210) 590-6214
engelke@pe-svcs.com 153 Western Electrical Services, Inc.
eecontrols@comcast.net
Michael Hughes www.pe-svcs.com 3676 W. California Ave.,#C-106
Miles R. Engelke Salt Lake City, UT 84104
rcoomes@westernelectricalservices.com
www.westernelectricalservices.com
Rob Coomes

For additional information on NETA visit netaworld.org


57

virGiniA 162 Taurus Power & Controls, Inc. 168 Energis High Voltage
6617 S. 193rd Pl., Suite P104 Resources, Inc.
154 ABM Electrical Power Solutions Kent, WA 98032 1361 Glory Rd.
814 Greenbrier Cir., Suite E (425) 656-4170 Fax: (425) 656-4172 Green Bay, WI 54304
Chesapeake, VA 23320 jiml@tauruspower.com (920) 632-7929 Fax: (920) 632-7928
(757) 548-5690 Fax: (757) 548-5417 www.tauruspower.com info@energisinc.com
www.abm.com Jim Lightner www.energisinc.com
Mark Anthony Gaughan, III Mick Petzold
163 Western Electrical Services, Inc.
155 Electric Power Systems, Inc. 14311 29th St. East 169 High Voltage Maintenance Corp.
827 Union St. Sumner, WA 98390 3000 S. Calhoun Rd.
Salem, VA 24153 (253) 891-1995 Fax: (253) 891-1511 New Berlin, WI 53151
(540) 375-0084 Fax: (540) 375-0094 dhook@westernelectricalservices.com (262) 784-3660 Fax: (262) 784-5124
www.eps-international.com www.westernelectricalservices.com www.hvmcorp.com
156 Potomac Testing, Inc. Dan Hook
11179 Hopson Rd., Suite 5
Ashland, VA 23005 164 Western Electrical Services, Inc.
(804) 798-7334 Fax: (804) 798-7456 4510 NE 68th Dr., Suite 122
www.potomactesting.com Vancouver, WA 98661
(888) 395-2021 Fax: (253) 891-1511
157 Reuter & Hanney, Inc. tasciutto@westernelectricalservices.com
4270-I Henninger Ct. www.westernelectricalservices.com
Chantilly, VA 20151 Tony Asciutto
(703) 263-7163 Fax: (703) 263-1478
www.reuterhanney.com wisConsin
wAshinGton 165 CE Power Solutions of
Wisconsin, LLC
158 Electrical Reliability Services 3100 East Enterprise Ave.
2222 West Valley Hwy. N., Suite 160 Appleton, WI 54913
Auburn, WA 98001 (920) 968-0281 Fax: (920) 968-0282
(253) 736-6010 Fax: (253) 736-6015 rob.fulton@cepower.net
www.electricalreliability.com Rob Fulton

159 POWER Testing and 166 Electrical Energy Experts, Inc.


Energization, Inc. W129N10818, Washington Dr.
22035 70th Ave. South Germantown,WI 53022
Kent, WA 98032 (262) 255-5222 Fax: (262) 242-2360
(253) 872-7747 bill@electricalenergyexperts.com
www.powerte.com www.electricalenergyexperts.com
William Styer
160 POWER Testing and
Energization, Inc. 167 Electrical Testing Solutions
14006 NW 3rd Ct., Suite 101 2909 Green Hill Ct.
Vancouver, WA 98685 Oshkosh, WI 54904
(360) 597-2800 Fax: (360) 576-7182 (920) 420-2986 Fax: (920) 235-7136
chris.zavadlov@powerte.com tmachado@electricaltestingsolutions.com
www.powerte.com www.electricaltestingsolutions.com
Chris Zavadlov Tito Machado
161 Sigma Six Solutions, Inc.
2200 West Valley Hwy., Suite 100
Auburn, WA 98001
(253) 333-9730 Fax: (253) 859-5382
jwhite@sigmasix.com
www.sigmasix.com
John White

For additional information on NETA visit netaworld.org


58

canada 178 Magna Electric Corporation BrUSSelS


1033 Kearns Crescent, Box 995
170 Magna IV Engineering Regina, SK S4P 3B2 Canada 184 Shermco Industries
200, 688 Heritage Dr. SE (306) 949-8131 Fax: (306) 522-9181 Boulevard Saint-Michel 47
Calgary, AB T2H1M6 Canada kheid@magnaelectric.com 1040 Brussels, Brussels, Belgium
(403) 723-0575 Fax: (403) 723-0580 www.magnaelectric.com +32 (0)2 400 00 54
info.calgary@magnaiv.com Kerry Heid Fax: +32 (0)2 400 00 32
Virginia Balitski pidziak@shermco.com
179 Magna Electric Corporation www.shermco.com
171 Magna IV Engineering 851-58th St. East Paul Idziak
1005 Spinney Dr. Saskatoon, SK S7K 6X5 Canada
Dawson Creek, BC V1G 1K1 Canada (306) 955-8131 x5
(780) 462-3111 Fax: (780) 462-9799
chile
Fax: (306) 955-9181 185 Magna IV Engineering
info@magnaiv.com lwilson@magnaelectric.com Avenida del Condor Sur #590
www.magnaelectric.com Officina 601
172 Magna IV Engineering Luis Wilson
1103 Parsons Rd. SW Huechuraba, Santiago 8580676 Chile
Edmonton, AB T6X 0X2 Canada +(56) 9-9-517-4642
180 Magna Electric Corporation info.chile@magnaiv.com
(780) 462-3111 Fax: (780) 450-2994 1375 Church Ave.
info@magnaiv.com Cristian Fuentes
Winnipeg, MB R2X 2T7 Canada
www.magnaiv.com
(204) 925-4022 Fax: (204) 925-4021
Virginia Balitski PUerto rico
cbrandt@magnaelectric.com
www.magnaelectric.com 186 Phasor Engineering
173 Magna IV Engineering
Curtis Brandt Sabaneta Industrial Park #216
106, 4268 Lozells Ave
Burnaby, BC VSA 0C6 Mercedita, Puerto Rico 00715
Canada 181 Orbis Engineering Field Services Ltd. (787) 844-9366 Fax: (787) 841-6385
(604) 421-8020 #300, 9404 - 41st Ave. rcastro@phasorinc.com
Edmonton, AB T6E 6G8 Canada Rafael Castro
174 Magna IV Engineering (780) 988-1455 Fax: (780) 988-0191
8219D Fraser Ave. lorne@orbisengineering.net
Fort McMurray, AB T9H 0A2 Canada www.orbisengineering.net
(780) 791-3122 Fax: (780) 791-3159 Lorne Gara
info.fmcmurray@magnaiv.com
Virginia Balitski 182 Pacific Powertech Inc.
#110, 2071 Kingsway Ave.
175 Magna IV Engineering Port Coquitlam, BC V3C 1T2 Canada
1040 Winnipeg St. (604) 944-6697 Fax: (604) 944-1271
Regina, SK S4R 8P8 Canada Jkonkin@pacificpowertech.ca
(306) 585-2100 Fax: (306) 585-2191 www.pacificpowertech.ca
info.regina@magnaiv.com Josh Conkin
Peter Frostad
183 REV Engineering, LTD
Magna Electric Corporation 3236 - 50 Ave. SE
176
3430 25th St. NE Calgary, AB T2B 3A3 Canada
Calgary, AB T1Y 6C1 Canada (403) 287-0156 Fax: (403) 287-0198
(403) 769-9300 Fax: (403) 769-9369 rdavidson@reveng.ca
cgrant@magnaelectric.com www.reveng.ca
www.magnaelectric.com Roland Nicholas Davidson, IV
Cal Grant

177 Magna Electric Corporation


3731-98 Street
Edmonton, AB T6E 5N2 Canada
(780) 436-8831 Fax: (780) 463-9646
fgranacher@magnaelectric.com
www.magnaelectric.com
Franz Granacher

REV 01.14 For additional information on NETA visit netaworld.org


ABOUT THE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRICAL
TESTING ASSOCIATION
The InterNational Electrical Testing Association (NETA) is an accredited standards developer for the American National Standards
Institute (ANSI) and defines the standards by which electrical equipment is deemed safe and reliable. NETA Certified Technicians con-
duct the tests that ensure this equipment meets the Associations stringent specifica-tions. NETA is the leading source of specifications,
procedures, testing, and requirements, not only for commissioning new equipment but for testing the reliability and performance of
existing equipment.

CERTIFICATION
Certification of competency is particularly important in the electrical testing industry. Inherent in the determination of the equipments
serviceability is the prerequisite that individuals performing the tests be capable of conducting the tests in a safe manner and with com-
plete knowledge of the hazards involved. They must also evaluate the test data and make an informed judgment on the continued ser-
viceability, deterioration, or nonserviceability of the specific equipment. NETA, a nationally-recognized certification agency, provides
recognition of four levels of competency within the electrical testing industry in accordance with ANSI/NETA ETT-2000 Standard for
Certification of Electri-cal Testing Technicians.
QUALIFICATIONS OF THE TESTING ORGANIZATION
An independent overview is the only method of determining the long-term usage of electrical apparatus and its suitability for the
intended purpose. NETA Accredited Companies best support the interest of the owner, as the objectivity and competency of the testing
firm is as important as the competency of the individual technician. NETA Accredited Companies are part of an independent, third-party
electrical testing associa-tion dedicated to setting world standards in electrical maintenance and acceptance testing. Hiring a NETA Ac-
credited Company assures the customer that:
The NETA Technician has broad-based knowledge this person is trained to inspect, test, maintain, and calibrate all types of
electrical equipment in all types of industries.
NETA Technicians meet stringent educational and experience requirements in accordance with ANSI/NETA ETT-2000 Standard for
Certification of Electrical Testing Technicians.
A Registered Professional Engineer will review all engineering reports
All tests will be performed objectively, according to NETA specifications, using cali-brated instruments traceable to the National
Institute of Science and Technology (NIST).
The firm is a well-established, full-service electrical testing business.

Setting the Standard

Оценить