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ACCUMULATOR A chamber in which a fluid/ gas can be stored under pressure, and can be taken
on system demand
2. ACTUATOR Converts hydraulic energy into mechanical energy. A motor or cylinder.
3. AERATION Air in the hydraulic fluid. Aeration causes the fluid to appear milky and
components to operate erratically because of the air trapped in the fluid.
4. ANNULAR AREA A ring shape area. Often refers to the effective area of the rod side of a cylinder

5. BACK PRESSUREPressure existing on the discharge side of a load. It adds to the pressure
required to move the load.
6. BLEED-OFF To reduce a portion of pump delivery to the reservoir.
7. BYPASS Alternative passage for fluid flow.

8. CAVITATION Where fluid does not completely fill the existing space. Commonly associated
with the pump inlet.
9. CAPACITY The amount of fluid required to fill the device at its maximum usage point.
10. CHARGE (SUPERCHARGE)1. To fill a hydraulic system above atmospheric pressure. 2. To
fill an accumulator with fluid under pressure.
11. CHARGE PRESSURE The pressure that fluid is forced into the hydraulic system.
12. CHECK VALVE A valve that allows flow in one direction only.
13. Circuit - A series of component parts connected to each other by fluid lines or passages. Usually
part of a "system".
14. CLOSED CIRCUIT A system designed so that when the fluid has been used in the system
and Hydraulic components, bypasses the reservoir and returns directly to the pump inlet
15. COMPENSATION CONTROL A displacement control for variable pumps and motors which
alters the displacement in response to pressure changes in the system.
16. CONTROL An item that can change the function of a unit.
17. Coupler - A device to connect two hoses or lines, or to connect hoses to valve receptacles.
18. COUNTERBALANCE VALVE A valve which maintains resistance to flow in one direction but
permits free flow in the other. Usually connected to the outlet of a double-acting cylinder to
support weight or prevent uncontrolled failure.
19. CRACKING PRESSURE The pressure at which a valve begins to pass fluid.
20. CUSHION Built into the ends of a cylinder which limits the hydraulic flow to the outlet
port, in turn decreasing the speed of the piston.
21. CYLINDER A cylinder barrel with a piston rod for pushing and pulling using pressurized

22. DECOMPRESSION The release of pressurized fluid to steadily reduce the pressure of the
fluid in the system.
23. DELIVERY The amount of fluid expelled by the pump in a set time. Commonly expressed as
litres per second (L/s).
24. DIFFERENTIAL CYLINDER Any cylinder in which the two opposing piston areas are not
25. DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVE A valve that controls the direction of fluid flow into
predetermined paths.
26. DISPLACEMENT A measurable amount of fluid that passes from the inlet port to the outlet port
of an actuator in a single revolution.
27. DOUBLE-ACTING CYLINDER Hydraulic force can be applied in either direction. (Extend or
28. DRAIN Used in a hydraulic system to direct fluid back to reservoir.
29. Drift - Motion of a cylinder or motor due to internal leakage past components in the
hydraulic system.
30. Filter (OIL )- A device which removes solids from a fluid.
31. Flow Meter - A testing device which gauges either flow rate, total flow, or both..
32. FLOW CONTROL VALVE A valve which controls the rate of flow of the fluid.
33. Flow Rate - The volume of fluid passing a point in a given time.
34. Fluid Power - Energy transmitted and controlled through use of a pressurized fluid.
35. Force - A push or pull acting upon a body. In a hydraulic cylinder, it is the product of the
pressure on the fluid, multiplied by the effective area of the cylinder piston. It is
measured in pounds or tons.
36. FOUR WAY VALVE A directional control valve with four flow paths (ports).
37. Friction - The resistance to fluid flow in a hy- draulic system. (An energy loss in terms of
power output.
38. FRONT CONNECTED A condition where the connections are on the exposed surfaces of

39. GAUGE An instrument used to display the pressure reading of an area or device in the system
often displayed in BAR, Psi, KPA or Mpa.

40. HEAD The force exerted by a column of fluid due to its height and weight (density).
41. HEAT EXCHANGER A device in which heat is added or removed from fluids to control a set
42. HYDRAULIC BALANCE Equal and opposed hydraulic forces acting on a part in a hydraulic
43. HYDRAULIC CONTROL A method of control that is actuated by hydraulically induced forces.
44. Horsepower - The work produced per unit of time.
45. HOSE A flexible tube used to transmit fluid / hydraulic energy to a desired location or device in
the system.
46. Hydraulics - The engineering science of liquid pressure and flow.
47. Hydrodynamics - The engineering science of the energy of liquid pressure and flow.
48. Hydrostatics - The engineering science of the energy of liquids at rest.

49. Inert Gas - A non-explosive gas.

50. LINE A tube, pipe which acts as a conductor of fluids and transmits the fluid energy.
51. LINEAR ACTUATOR A device for converting fluid/ gas power energy into a straight line
motion. For example- A cylinder or ram.

52. MANUAL CONTROL ( From the Latin Manus the hand) A control actuated by the operator,
through e.g. lever, foot pedal or button etc.
53. MANIFOLD A chamber that has several outlets through fluid or gas is distributed or
gathered to or from different parts of the system.
54. MECHANICAL CONTROL Operated by machine linkages, gears, screws, cams or other mechanical

METER To regulate the rate of fluid flow.

METER-IN To regulate the amount of fluid flowing into an actuator or system.

METER-OUT To regulate the amount of fluid flowing out of an actuator or system.

55. MOTOR A device which converts other energy forms into rotary mechanical energy For example
- Rotary actuator

56. ORIFICE A small opening found in various devices and components throughout hydraulic
systems. Used to control and restrict flow for many applications.
57. O-Ring - A static and/or dynamic seal for curved or circular mating surfaces.

58. Packing - Any material or device which seals by compression. Common types are U-
packings, V- packings, "Cup" packings, and a-rings.
59. PASSAGE A way or means for fluid to flow in a system.
60. PISTON Cylindrical shaped part that fits inside a cylinder or ram barrel and transmits or receives
61. PLUNGER A part which is used to transmit thrust.
62. POPPET A part within valves which prevents flow when it seals against a seat.
63. PORT The open end of an internal passage. Usually within or at the surface of a components
64. PILOT PRESSURE System pressure used to control components. May be at a lower
65. Port - The open end of a fluid passage. May be within or at the surface of a component.
66. POWER PACK A stand alone hydraulic system containing a pump, reservoir, relief valve and
drive unit. To produce its own power, often compact.
67. PRECHARGE PRESSURE The pressure reading of gas (nitrogen) in an accumulator prior to the
addition of fluid.
68. Pressure - Force of a fluid per unit area, usually expressed in pounds per square inch
69. PRESSURE DROP The reduction in pressure between two points in a line or device caused
by the increase in resistance. May be induced by fitting an orifice in the system.
70. PRESSURE OVER-RIDE The difference between the cracking pressure of a valve and the
pressure reached when the valve is passing full flow.
71. PRESSURE REDUCING VALVE A valve that limits the maximum set pressure at its outlet
regardless of the extreme inlet pressure.
72. PRESSURE SWITCH A switch operated by increase or decrease in fluid pressure
73. PROBE The male section of a coupling that is inserted in to female coupling half join the two
sections together.
74. Pulsation - Repeated small fluctuation of pressure within a circuit.
75. PUMP A device to convert mechanical energy into fluid energy.

76. RELIEF VALVE A pressure operated valve which by-passes pump flow to the reservoir, limiting
system pressure to a preset level.
77. REPLENISH To add fluid to a hydraulic system
78. REMOTE To control the operation or performance of a device or apparatus from a
distance or mobile position.
79. Reservoir - A container for keeping a supply of working fluid in a hydraulic system.
80. RESTRICTION A reduced area in a line/hose or passage which creates a pressure drop at the
other side of the system.
81. ROTARY ACTUATOR Used for converting hydraulic/pneumatic energy into mechanical
energy. For example - Hydraulic motor

82. Solenoid - An electro-magnetic device which positions a hydraulic valve.

83. SEQUENCE VALVE Pressure operated valve which diverts flow to a secondary circuit once
the primary circuit goes above a preset pressure.
84. SINGLE ACTING CYLINDER A cylinder in which fluid energy produces thrust or motion in
one direction only. Commonly spring or gravity returned.
85. SPOOL A term applied to any moving cylindrical shaped component which moves to change
fluid flow through the component.
86. Starvation - A lack of oil in vital areas of a sys- tem. Often caused by plugged filters,
87. Strainer - A coarse filter.
88. STROKE The length of travel of a piston or plunger.* Also used to explain the changing of the
displacement of a variable pump or motor. For example - To de-stroke the pump.
89. SURGE A sudden rise in pressure. Can be associated with a sudden shock or blockage to flow.

90. Terminal Expansion - Expansion of the fluid volume due to heat.

91. THROTTLE Allow the passing of a set amount of fluid flow. May control flow or create a
pressure drop.
92. TORQUE Rotary energy or force of a turning shaft like a hydraulic motor. Measured in
Newton Meters (Nm).
93. Tube - A line whose size is its outside diameter.
94. TWO WAY VALVE A directional control (DCV) valve with two flow paths or ports.

95. UNLOAD To release flow to the reservoir to prevent increased pressure being exerted on
the system or components.
96. UNLOADING VALVE A valve that directs flow to reservoir when a set pressure is maintained
on its pilot port.

97. VALVE For controlling flow rate, flow direction or pressure of a fluid. Can be manually,
electrically, mechanically or pilot controlled.
98. Valve Stack - A series of control valves in a stack with common end plates and a
common oil inlet and outlet.

99. Velocity - The distance which a fluid travels per unit time. Usually given as feet per

100. Vent - An air breathing device in a fluid reservoir.

101. VISCOSITY The measure of a fluids resistance to flow. The greater the resistance to
flow, the higher the viscosity number.
102. VISCOSITY INDEX An arbitrary scale for lubricating oils that indicates the extent of
variation in viscosity with variation of temperature.
103. Volume - The amount of fluid flow per unit time. Usually given as gallons per
minute (gpm).