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ASIGNATURA:

MATEMTICA II

TEMA:
FRACCIONES ALGEBRAICAS

PARTICIPANTE:
ROSALA ABREU ORTEGA

MATRICULA:
16-6203

FACILITADOR:
YSIDRO CRUZ EDUARDO

TAREA:
2

RECINTO CIBAO ORIENTAL NAGUA


MARA TRINIDAD SNCHEZ, RD.
31/05/2017.-
1. Comprueba en cada caso si las fracciones dadas son
equivalentes:

x+2 1
a) y Si, es equivalente
3x + 6 3

x+2 = x+2 = 1 (x+2) = 1


3x+6 3x+2 3 (x+2) 3

2
x + x x +1
b) 2
y Si, es equivalente
x x

x (x+1) = x+7
x (x) x

3x 3
c) 2
y No, es equivalente
x - x x-2

3x = 3x.1 = 3x
x2-x.1 1 (x-1) (x-1)

3x - 3 1
d) 2
y Si, es equivalente
9 x - 9 3x - 3

3x-3 = 1
3x-3 3x -3

2. Calcula:

1 3 1
a) + - = 1+3-1 = 3
3x 2x x
x x
3 x
c) - = 3 (x-2) - x(x) = 3x-3 -x = 3x - 3
x x -1
x (x-1) x (x-1) (x-1)

1 1
d) - = 1 (x+1) - (x-1) 1 = x+1-x+1 = 0
x -1 x +1
(x-1) (x+1) (x-1) (x+1) (x-1) (x+1)

3. Saca factor comn y luego simplifica:

5x + 5
a) = 5 (x + 1) 5
3x + 3
3 (x + 1) 3

2
x - 3x
b) = x (x - 3) x
2x - 6
2 (x - 3) 2

2
x +x
c) 2 = x (x+1) x
x -1
(x - 1) (x + 1) ( x 1)

12x
d) 4 2 = 12x 2.6 6 6
x + 2x
2 x ( 2x + 4 ) 2 x ( 2x + 1 ) x ( 2x + 1) x ( 2x + 1)

4. Recuerda los productos notables, descompn en


factores y simplifica:

2
x -1
a) = x( x-1)( x + 1) x
x +1
(x + 1 )(x - 1)
2
x -1
b) 2 = x ( x 1) x( x - 1) x
(x - 1 )
x2 12 x ( x 1) 1 1

2
x -4
c) = x (x -2) x
2x - 4
2( x - 2) 2
2
x + 4x + 4
d) 2 = x( x + 2 x+ 2) x(3x + 2) 5x + 2
x -4
x ( x - 2) x( x - 2) x-2

2
x - 16
e) 2 = ( x 4) ( x - 4) ( x + 1) 1
x + 8x + 16
( x + 4) ( x + 4) ( x + 4)( x + 4)( x 4 ) ( x + 4)

x (x + 2)
f) 2 = x ( x 3) x
x + 4x + 4
( x + 2 )( x - 2) ( x - 2)

2
x - 6x + 8
g) 2 = ( x - 3)( x + 4) x+4
x -9
( x - 3)( x + 3) x+3

2
x -9
h) 4 =( x - 3)( x - 3)
x - 81
( x + 3 )( x - 3)

5. Descompn en factores el dividendo y el divisor y


despus simplifica:

2
x + 3x
a) 2 = x ( x + 3)
x + x -6
x ( x + 1)( x 3 )
2
x + 2x - 3
b) 3 2 =( x + 1 )( x 3 ) x3
x -x
( x + 1 ) (x - 6 ) x6

3 2
x + 4 x + 3x
c) 2 = x2 (x + 1 ) ( x + 3) x2 ( x + 3 )
x + x -6
( x + 1) ( x - 6 ) x6

2
x + 2x - 3
d) 2 = ( x + 1 )( x 3 ) x3
x + 4x - 5
( x + 1 )( x - 5) x5

6. Opera y simplifica:

4 1 1
a) - x : + = 4x / 1 +1
x x 2
x x

= 4x / 2 + x
X 2

= 4x / 3x = 4 x / 2
X 2 x 3x

= 2x / 3x
X 2

2
x+2 x -4
b) . = (x + 2) . (x +2)(x- 2) = ( x + 2) . (x
(x + 2 )2 x
+2)(x-2)
x2 + 4 x (x + 2)(x-2) x

= ( x + 2)(x + 2)( x 2) = x + 2
( x + 2)(x - 2) x x

2 1 1
c) + : x - . x =2 / 1 = 2x + 4
x x +1 x + 1
x x+2 x

= x2 / 2 x + 4 = x 2 x = (x)(2x) = 2x
2 x 2 x ( 2)( x) 2

7. Reduce a una sola fraccin y resuelve:


2
x 2 2
a) - + - 2 = 0
x +1 x -1 x -1

= x + 2 2 ( x + 1) ( x - 1 ) 1
(x+1) (x1) x (x 1 ) ( x + 1 )( x 1 ) ( x - 1) (x 1)

x+3 2 2
b) 2
- - = 0
x - 2x + 1 x -1 x +1

= ( x + 3) = 2 -2 =(x+3)(x1) =
( x+3)
(x - 1) (x 1) ( x - 1) (x1) ( x 1) ( x 1) ( 2) (x
1)

=(x+3) = 2 = (x + 3)( x + 1 ) = ( x + 3 )( x + 7 )
(x -1)( 2) ( x 1) ( x 1 ) (2) ( 2x 2 )

8. Haz las operaciones indicadas y simplifica:

x+ y x- y x y
a) x - y - x + y . y - x = x+y - x-y = (x+y) (x+y) - (x-y)

(x-y)
x-y x+y (x-y) ( x+y)
= ( x+y) (x-y)
1

= x-x-y-y = 0
yx yx

= (x+y) ( x-y)

1 1 x+ y 2xy
b) x - y + xy

. x+ y

1 - 1 = (y-x) + (x-y) =
x y xy xy

= (x-y) . 2x4
xy x+y

= ( x-4) (x+y) - xy (2xy)


x (x+y)

= x2 - y2 - 2x2 y2
x (x+y)

= x (x-y2) - 2x2 y2
x (x+y)

= (x-y) - 2x4
x (xy)

10. Opera:

1 1 x -1
a) x - 1 + x - 3 - 2 - 4x + 3 M.C.M
x
(X-7) (X-
3)
= 1 + 1 = (x-1)
(x-1) (x-3) (x-1) (x-3)

= 1 (x-1) (x-3) + 1(x-1) = (x-1)


(x-1) (x-3) (x-1)(x-3) (x-1) (x-3)

= 1 (x-1 + x-3) + x-1 - x2 -1-x+7


(x-1) (x-3)

= 1+4 + 1 - x2
(x-1) (x-3)

= (6-x)
(x-1) (x-3)

= 6-x
(x-1) (x-3)

1 3 x +1
b) x + 2 + x - 1 - 2 + x - 2
x

= 1 + 3 = (x+1)
(x+2) (x-1) (x-2) (x-1)

= 1 (x-1) (x-2) + 3(x+2) - (x+1) Factor comn


(x+2)(x-1)(x-2) (x-2)(x-1)(x+2) (x-2)(x-1)(x+2) (x+2)(x-1)
= 1 (x-1) + 3 (x+2) - (x+1)
(x+2) (x-1)

= (x-1) + 3x + 6 - x + 1
(x+2) (x-1)

= (x-1) + 9x - x + 1
(x+2) (x-1)

= 9x
x+2
11. Simplifica:

9 + 6x + x 2 3 x 2 - x3

9 - x2 3 x 2 + x3
a)
2x - 4 2 x 2 - 8x + 8
:
3/4 + 2/8 x-2

= 9 + 6 x+ x2 . 3x2 x3 = (93 + 6x3)(3 3 x2 + x3)


9 x2 3x2 + x3 ( 9 x2 )( 3 x2 - x2)

= ( 9 + 9x2 ) + ( 9 x3 +3x2 ) + ( 3x2 + x3)


(9x2 9 x3 ) ( 3 x2 +x 3)

2 3
x + 6x + 5 x-2 x - 2x
b) 2
2
+ 2
x - 5x + 4 x -4 x - 4x

= ( x + 1)( x + 5) . x 2 + x ( x2 - 2 x)
( x -1)( x - 4) x( x - 2) x ( x 2x)

= x2 + x2 2x + x . 2x + 5x 10 ` x( x2 2 x)
( x- 1) ( x - 4) ( x 2 ) x ( x 2x)

= 5x 10 + x ( x 2x) = 5x 10 ( x 2x )
( x-1)(x- 4) ( x - 2) x ( x 2 x) ( x - 1) ( x - 4) ( x 2)

= 2x

(X 1)( x 4)

12. Simplifica:
2 2
a + 6a + 9 a + 9
a) 2
: 4
a -9 a - 81

a2 + 6a + 9
a + 3
2.a.3 = 6a

= (a+2) (a+3) . a + 3
a-3 . a-3

= (a+2) (a+3) (a-3) = a+2


(a-3) (a+3) 1

2 a 2 - 4ab + 2 b2 a-b
b) :
3x - 6 4x - 8

= (a-b+4ab) (a2 -b-4ab) . (a-b)


3 (x-2) 4 (x-2)

= (a-b) (a+b) 4 (x-2) = (a+b) 4


3 (x-2) (a-b) 3

16 - x4
c) : (32 - 8 x 2 ) = (4-x2) . 32 - 2
4x + 8
2 (x+2)

= 32 - 2 (4-x2) = 128 - 32x - 8 + 2x2


2 (x+2) 64 + 32x +64

= 128 - 8 + 2x2 = 120 + 2x2


164 + 64 128
2
x -4 x-2
D) 2 2
: =
a -b a+b

= x (x-2) . (x-2)
(a-b) (a-b) a+b

= x (x-2) ( a+b) = x
(a+b) (a-b) (x-2) a-b