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Alain Holeyman - UCL GraSMech08 :Multiphysics Coupling in Geomaterials

GRASMECH08 DYNAMIQUE DES SOLS


MULTIPHYSICS COUPLING IN GEOMATERIALS ORIGINE ET CARACTERISATION DES SEISMES
REPONSE D
DUN SYSTEME A UN DEGRE DE LIBERTE
PROPAGATION DES ONDES DANS UN MILIEU
SOIL BEHAVIOR ELASTIQUE (1-
(1-D ET 3-
3-D)
UNDER DYNAMIC
AND CYCLIC LOADING COMPORTEMENT DES SOLS SOUS
SOLLICITATION CYCLIQUE (squelette)
LIQUEFACTION DES SABLES (couplage HM)
Alain HOLEYMAN
DEFORMATION SISMIQUE
Universit catholique de Louvain
DIMENSIONNEMENT SEMI-
SEMI-PROBABILISTE
NUISANCES VIBRATOIRES

Colonne r
rsonante: compression et torsion
PROPRIETES DYNAMIQUES
ET CYCLIQUES DES SOLS

Comportement m
m canique du squelette des grains
mcanique
1) Module de cisaillement initial
2) D gradation
Dgradation
33)) Amortissement
4) Mod
Modles constitutifs
Modles

Essais cycliques de laboratoire conduits


Contrainte impos
impos e
impose
D
formation impos
Dformation impos e
impose
Energie impos
impos e
impose

Dtermination de
Conditions aux lamortissement
limites dun en vibration libre
essai de colonne
= 1 W
rsonante 4 W

Soil Behavior under dynamic and cyclic loading 1


Alain Holeyman - UCL GraSMech08 :Multiphysics Coupling in Geomaterials


Direct Simple Shear
(DSS) Test
Contrainte
de
cisaillement
mobilise
par une
distorsion
cyclique
impose

Cyclic DSS tests: Test principles Modle non-


Consolidation Cyclic constant volume DSS linaire

Point Measured
[kPa]

[kPa]

Point Measured during laboratory test


100 during laboratory test 400

(V',H')
Shear Stress
Shear Stress

50 200
max max

2'=3=L' 1'=V'' 3 ' 2 ' 1 '


0 0
0 50 100 150 200 250 0 200 400 600 800 1000
Effective Normal Stress' [kPa] Effective Normal Stress ' [kPa]

Amortissement hystrtique Empilement


cubique de
billes -Th
Thorie
de Hertz
(1881)
N = force normale de contact

N : rapprochement des
centres de deux billes

8 G R3 / 2
N= N3 / 2
9 1
2/3
d d N / 4R2 1 d N 3 2G
Etan = = = = 1/ 3
d d N / 2R 2 R d N 2 3(1 )

Soil Behavior under dynamic and cyclic loading 2


Alain Holeyman - UCL GraSMech08 :Multiphysics Coupling in Geomaterials

Effet de la
Module de contrainte de
cisaillement confinement 0
initial G0 pour sur le module de
diffrents tats cisaillement
initial G0 pour
de confinement
diff
diffrents
0 en fonction indices des
de lindice des vides e
vides e (Kokusho,
Kokusho, 1980)
(sables)
e=

Effet de lamplitude de distortion sur


= /(1 / Gmax + / u )
lexposant n affectant le confinement
= / u = 1 /(1 / + 1)

Loi Hyperbolique: G/Gmax et en fonction de /r


Hyperbolique: G/G

Dgradation de la raideur suite une Observation de la non-


non-lin
linarite et de
distorsion cyclique (Vucetic, 1993) lhyst
hystrse amenant la dgradation cyclique
Elastic domain Elasto-plastic domain Elasto-plastic domain with degradation

1.2
Normalised Secant Shear Modulus Gs/Gmax [-]

0.8 Elastic Threshold

0.6 N=1

Degradation Threshold N = 10
0.4
N = 100

N = 1000
0.2

0
0.00001 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10
Shear Strain Amplitude a [%]

Soil Behavior under dynamic and cyclic loading 3


Alain Holeyman - UCL GraSMech08 :Multiphysics Coupling in Geomaterials

Fatigue des sols (argiles)


Explication
inter-
inter-
particulaire de
la non-
non-
lin
lin arite et de
linarite
llhystrse
hyst
hystrse
amenant la
ddgradation
gradation
cyclique

Influence de llalternance de la
contrainte de cisaillement sur
DYNAMIQUE DES SOLS
la fatigue des sols (argiles) ORIGINE ET CARACTERISATION DES SEISMES
REPONSE DDUN SYSTEME A UN DEGRE DE LIBERTE
PROPAGATION DES ONDES DANS UN MILIEU ELASTIQUE
(1-
(1-D ET 3-
3-D)

COMPORTEMENT DES SOLS SOUS SOLLICITATION


CYCLIQUE
LIQUEFACTION DES SABLES (couplage HM)

DEFORMATION SISMIQUE
DIMENSIONNEMENT SEMI-
SEMI-PROBABILISTE
NUISANCES VIBRATOIRES

COMPORTEMENT DU SOL SATURE


Cisaillement Cyclique
Rponse non-
non-lin
linaire sous grandes
dformations
Amortissement hyst
hystrtique
(+ visqueux ?)
Effets de la vitesse de distorsion

Rle de llindice de plasticit


plasticit (PI)
Gnration de surpressions interstitielles
Dgradation cyclique

Soil Behavior under dynamic and cyclic loading 4


Alain Holeyman - UCL GraSMech08 :Multiphysics Coupling in Geomaterials

http://www.ce.washington.edu/~liquefaction/html/main.html

Gnration de pression interstitielle Influence de la plasticit (PI)


dans les sables (Dobry, 1982)

D = n/1 = N-t

Sand Strength Degradation within


Research organisation
the Framework of Vibratory Pile Driving Cyclic triaxial tests in Brusselian Sand
Cyclictriaxial
Cyclic triaxialtest
test

Cyclic
Cyclicdirect
directsimple
simpleshear
sheartest
test Brusselian sand
Cyclic TX: experimental set-
set-up and program
Results:
- , 1, 3 , and u observations
Vibratory
Vibratory pile
pile
- G and u vs. N
Driving
Driving model
model
- Influence of Dr, , and 1
Conclusions
Hypoplastic
Hypoplastic
constitutive
constitutive equation
equation

Vanden Berghe J-
J-F. (2001)

Soil Behavior under dynamic and cyclic loading 5


Alain Holeyman - UCL GraSMech08 :Multiphysics Coupling in Geomaterials

Relationship between Gsn and a Mohrs circle representation: P & q


Depends principally on Cambridge
Cambridges definition

Plasticity index PI P = 1 + 2 + 3
3
q= 1 . (1' 2') +( 1' 3' ) +(2' 3)
2 2 2

Effective mean stress P


P 2
P ' = 1' + 2' + 3'
3
400

300 Effective stress state Pore pressure Total stress state

[kPa]
Shear Stress
200

(P',q/2) (P,q/2)
100

3' 2 ' 1 ' 3 2 1


0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

Normal Stress [kPa]


Vucetic (1993)

Critical state vs. Measurement of cyclic soil properties


Cyclic mobility and flow liquefaction
Elastic domain Elasto-plastic domain Elasto-plastic domain with degradation

CONTRACTIVE
(P cr ', q cr ) C SOILS (Loose)
Normalised Secant Shear Modulus Gs/Gmax [-]

1.2
Flow liquefaction
A
1
Cyclic triaxial test
Void Ratio e

(P cr ', q cr ) 0.8 Cyclic direct simple shear test


D
B
Cyclic mobility Monotonic loading 0.6 Cyclic torsional test
Critical state line
0.4 Resonant column test
Bender
DILATIVE 0.2
elements
SOILS (Dense)
0
0.00001 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10
Effective Mean Stress P'
Shear Strain Amplitude a [%]
Ishihara (1995) Vanden Berghe J-
J-F. (2001)

Brusselian sand description Brusselian sand description


Tertiary sand (Eocene age)
age)
Marine origin
Layer more or less horizontal is about 50m thick

Outcrops in area of brussels and walloon Brabant


province

Vanden Berghe J-
J-F. (2001) Vanden Berghe J-
J-F. (2001)

Soil Behavior under dynamic and cyclic loading 6


Alain Holeyman - UCL GraSMech08 :Multiphysics Coupling in Geomaterials

Brusselian sand description Cyclic triaxial tests: Experimental setup


Grain size curve
d50 = 0.18 Cu = 2.2
emin = 0.52 emax = 1.18
110
100

90
80
Percentage Finer [%]

70
60

50
40
30
20

10
0
0.01 0.1 1 10
Grain Diameter [mm] Vanden Berghe J-
J-F. (2001) Vanden Berghe J-
J-F. (2001)

Cyclic triaxial tests: Experimental setup Cyclic triaxial tests: Tests program
Assumptions: 47 triaxial tests 1 year of testing
Undrained no volume change Relative Density Dr = 85%
a [%] .002 .004 .008 0.015 0.075 0.15 0.375 0.75 1.5 5.25 9
Uniform stress & strain distributions P0 = 50 kPa 1 1 1
P0 = 125 kPa 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 1 1
1 2 1 1

TXT compression TXT extension P0 = 200 kPa


Relative Density Dr = 80%
Shear Stress

Shear Stress

a [%] .002 .004 .008 0.015 0.075 0.15 0.375 0.75 1.5 5.25 9
P0 = 50 kPa
2 '= 3 ' 1' 3' 2 '= 1 '
P0 = 125 kPa 1 1
Effective Normal Stress ' Effective Normal Stress ' P0 = 200 kPa
Relative Density Dr = 70%
a [%] .002 .004 .008 0.015 0.075 0.15 0.375 0.75 1.5 5.25 9
1 +2.3 1'+2.3' P0 = 50 kPa 1 1 1 1
P= P'= 1 1 1 2 3 1
3 3 P0 = 125 kPa
1 1 2 1
P0 = 200 kPa
Relative Density Dr = 65%
q=1'3 a [%] .02 .0004 .008 0.015 0.075 0.15 0.375 0.75 1.5 5.25 9
P0 = 50 kPa
P0 = 125 kPa 1 1
P0 = 200 kPa
Vanden Berghe J-
J-F. (2001)
Vanden Berghe J-
J-F. (2001)

Cyclic triaxial tests: Typical test result Cyclic triaxial tests: Typical test result
Total stress evolution as a function of time Maximum shear stress & pore pressure build-
build-up
1 measured 500 5

3 adapted as a function of 1 P constant


/Pore Pressure u [kPa]

800 4 400 4
[kPa]

[% ]

700 3
300 3
3
/ Total Radial Stress

Maximum Shear Strain


[% ]

600 2
200 2
Maximum Shear Strain

500 1
Maximum Shear Stress

100 1
400 0
1

300 -1 0 0
Total Axial Stress

200 -2
-100 Maximu m Shear Stress Pore Pressure u -1
Measured Total Axial Stress 1 Total Mean Stress P Maximu m Shear strain Cu mulated Pore Pressure
100 -3
Total Mean Stress P
Adjusted Total Radial Stress 3 Maximu m Shear strain -200 -2
0 -4 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800
Time [s]
Time [s] Vanden Berghe J-
J-F. (2001)
Vanden Berghe J-
J-F. (2001)

Soil Behavior under dynamic and cyclic loading 7


Alain Holeyman - UCL GraSMech08 :Multiphysics Coupling in Geomaterials

Cyclic triaxial tests: Typical test result Cyclic triaxial tests: Typical test result
Hysteresis loops Particular points of hysteresis loops
300 140
Intial void ratio = 0.614
Fixed points u = 249 kPa
250 Skempton number = 0.95 120
Maximum pore pressure
Initial total mean stress = 400 kPa u = 276 kPa
Fixed Points 100 Minimum pore pressure
[kPa]

[kPa]
200 Final void ratio = 0.612
Amplitude of the cyclic axial strain = 1.0 % Maximum pore pressure during cycle 4
Hz 80
150 Frequency of the cyclic strain = 0.005
1 Cycle 5
Maximum Shear Sress

Maximum Shear Sress


60
100
40
50
20 u = 385 kPa
u = 380 kPa
0 u = 347 kPa
0
-50 Cycle 20 Cycle 15 u = 359 kPa
-20 u = 377 kPa
Cycle 10 Cycle 8
-100 Cycle 5 Cycle 2
-40
Cycle 1 u = 318 kPa
-150 -60
-2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 -2,0 -1,5 -1,0 -0,5 0,0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0
Shear Strain [% ] Shear Strain [%]
Vanden Berghe J-
J-F. (2001) Vanden Berghe J-
J-F. (2001)

Cyclic triaxial tests: Typical test result Cyclic triaxial tests: Typical test result
Stress path
Stress loop
600
6
Intial void ratio = 0.614
Intial void ratio = 0.614
500 Skempton number = 0.95
Skempton number = 0.95
Initial total mean stress = 400 kPa
5 Initial total mean stress = 400 kPa
400 Final void ratio = 0.612
Amplitude of the cyclic axial strain = 1.0 % Final void ratio = 0.612
[kPa]

300 Frequency of the cyclic strain = 0.005


1 Hz Amplitude of the cyclic axial strain = 1.0 %
4
Deviator q [kPa]

Frequency of the cyclic strain = 0.005


1 Hz
3'

200
1 '/

Cycle 15 Cycle 10
3
100 Cycle 8 Cycle 5
Sress Ratio

Cycle 2 Cycle 1
0 2
Cycle 20 Cycle 15
-100
Cycle 10 Cycle 8
1
-200 Cycle 5 Cycle 2
Cycle 1
-300 0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 -2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
Effective Mean Stress p' [kPa] Shear Strain [% ]
Vanden Berghe J-
J-F. (2001) Vanden Berghe J-
J-F. (2001)

Cyclic triaxial tests: Post processing Cyclic triaxial tests: Typical test result
Secant shear modulus degradation
Characterisation of 14
Intial void ratio = 0.614
hysteresis loops Skempton number = 0.95
12 kPa
Initial total mean stress = 400
n [MPa]

max
n
min
n Final void ratio = 0.612
Gs n = .100 10 Amplitude of the cyclic axial strain = 1.0 %

max min
Secant Shear Modulus Gs

n n Frequency of the cyclic strain = 1


0.005 Hz

Wn =surface of the hysteresis - 8

n
Wtot n =Wi
6

i =1
4
and pore pressure build- build-up
dliq n = u end of n nt cycle 2

Pc '
0
1 10 100

Vanden Berghe J-
J-F. (2001) Cycle Number N [-] Vanden Berghe J-
J-F. (2001)

Soil Behavior under dynamic and cyclic loading 8


Alain Holeyman - UCL GraSMech08 :Multiphysics Coupling in Geomaterials

Cyclic triaxial tests: Typical test result Cyclic triaxial tests: Typical test result
Pore pressure build-
build-up Secant shear modulus vs. cumulated dissipated energy

1.2 14
Intial void ratio = 0.614
1 Skempton number = 0.95
12
Initial total mean stress = 400 kPa

Secant Shear Modulus Gsn [MPa]


0.8
Final void ratio = 0.612
[-]

10 Amplitude of the cyclic axial strain = 1.0 %


0.6
Frequency of the cyclic strain = 0.005
1 Hz
Degree of liquefaction

0.4
8
0.2
At the maximum shear strain ( = %) 6
0 a
At the half of the cycle ( = 0%)
-0.2 At the minimum shear strain ( = - %) 4
a
At the end of the cycle ( = 0%)
-0.4
Maximum value on the cycle
2
-0.6 Average value on the cycle
0.018
-0.8
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016
Cycle Number N [-]
Cumulated dissipated Energy Wtot [MJ/m3]
Vanden Berghe J-
J-F. (2001) Vanden Berghe J-
J-F. (2001)

Cyclic triaxial tests: Repeatability Cyclic triaxial tests: Sample homogeneity


200 200

180 180
16

Dr=86%; a=1.5%; P0 =200kPa 160 160


Secant Shear Modulus Gsn [MPa]

14
Dr=86%; a=1.5%; P0 =125kPa 140 140
12

Specimen height [mm]


Specimen height [mm]

Dr=70%; a=5.25%; P0 =125kPa


10 120 120

8 100 100

6 80 80

4
60 60

2
40 40

0
20 20
1 10 100

Cycle Number N [-] 0 0


20 22 24 26 28 14 14.5 15 15.5 16
Water content [%] Dry density [kN/m]

Vanden Berghe J-
J-F. (2001) Vanden Berghe J-
J-F. (2001)

Cyclic triaxial tests: Cyclic triaxial tests:


Strain amplitude influence Strain amplitude influence
35
Initial secant shear modulus
120
P0' = 125 kPa =0.075%
Initial Secant Shear Modulus Gs1 [MPa]

Dr = 71%; P0 = 125kPa
30 Dr = 70 % a
=0.150% 100 Dr = 80 %;P 0 = 125kPa
a
Secant Shear Modulus Gs n [MPa]

=0.375% Dr = 86 %;P 0 = 125kPa


25 a 80
=0.750% Threshold for non linearity
a
20 =1.500%
a 60 Threshold for degradation N=1
=5.250%
15 a N = 10
40
N = 20
10 N = 30
20

5
0
0.00001 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100
0 Strain Amplitude a [%]
1 10 100 1000
Cycle Number N [-]
Vanden Berghe J-
J-F. (2001) Vanden Berghe J-
J-F. (2001)

Soil Behavior under dynamic and cyclic loading 9


Alain Holeyman - UCL GraSMech08 :Multiphysics Coupling in Geomaterials

Cyclic triaxial tests: Comparison with tests Cyclic triaxial


performed on other sands tests:
100

Secant Shear Modulus Gsn


Dr = 86 %
1.2

Shape of
10
Ishibashi's formula
Toyoura sand
Normalised Initial Secant Shear

[MPa]
hysteresis
Brusselian sand 1
Modulus Gs1 /Gmax [-]

0.8

loops
a =0.075% a =0.150%
0.1 a =0.375% a =0.750%
0.6 a =1.500% a =5.250%
a =9% P 0 =50kPa
P 0=125kPa P 0 =200kPa
0.01
0.4 0.000001 0.00001 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1
Dissipated Energy during Each Cycle Wn [MJ/m]
0.2 100

Secant Shear Modulus Gsn


Dr = 70 %
P' = 125 kPa
0 10

0.00001 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10

[MPa]
Shear Strain Amplitude a [%]
Gsn = A. WnB
1

Ishibashi
Ishibashis formula (1993) 0.000102+n(PI) 0.492
K(,PI) = 0.5. 1 + tanh ln
a =0.075% a =0.150%
Gs = K(, PI) . P' m(, PI )-m 0
0.1 a =0.375% a =0.750%
a =1.500% a =5.250%
G max a =9%
P 0=125kPa
P 0 =50kPa
P 0 =200kPa
0.000556 0.4
m(,PI )m0 = 0.272.1 - tanh ln . exp(-0.0145.PI1.3 ) 0.01


0.000001 0.00001 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1
Dissipated Energy during Each Cycle Wn [MJ/m]
Vanden Berghe J-
J-F. (2001) Vanden Berghe J-
J-F. (2001)

Cyclic triaxial tests:


Shape of hysteresis loops 250

200
= 1.50%; P = 50kPa
aa 00
a = 1.50%; P0 = 125kPa
- cycle 5
- cycle 5

Deviator q [kPa]
aa = 1.50%; P00 = 200kPa - cycle 7
100000 150 a = 0.75%; P 0 = 50kPa - cycle 4
a 0
= 0.75%; P 0 = 125kPa
a

Cyclic
100 a 0 - cycle 5
a = 0.75%; P 0 = 200kPa - cycle 23
aa 00
50
Emperical Parameter A

10000
triaxial -50
0

1000 tests: -100


-2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0
Dr= 86 %
1.5 2.0
Shear Strain [%]
Shape of

-1.8
100 A=2000. 140

hysteresis
Effective Mean Stress p'

= 1.50%; P = 50kPa - cycle 5


a a 0
120 aa = 1.50%; P00 = 125kPa - cycle 5
aa = 1.50%; P00 = 200kPa - cycle 7

loops
100 a = 0.75%; P 0 = 50kPa
a 0 - cycle 4
10 a = 0.75%; P 0 = 125kPa
[kPa]

80 a 0 - cycle 5
a = 0.75%; P 0 = 200kPa - cycle 23
0.1 1 10 aa 00
60
Shear Strain Amplitude a [%]
40
0.8

Gs =2000.W
20
n Dr= 86 %
0
1.8

n -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
Shear Strain [%]
a
Vanden Berghe J-
J-F. (2001) Vanden Berghe J-
J-F. (2001)

Cyclic triaxial tests:


1.2
Dr = 70 %
Relative density influence
Normalised Secant Shear

1.0
Modulus Gsn /Gs1 [-]

12
0.8
Relative density = 85%

Cyclic
0.6
10 Relative density = 80%
0.4 ga=0.075% ga=0.150%
Secant Shear Modulus Gsn [MPa]

ga=0.375% ga=0.750% Relative density = 70%


triaxial
ga=1.500% ga=5.250%
0.2 ga=9% p=50kPa
p=125kPa p=200kPa 8 Relative density = 65%
0.0

tests 1.2
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Degree of liquefaction at the beginning of the cycle dliq n-1 [-]
1.2

6
Cyclic shear strain = 1.5 %
Cyclic shear strain = 0.75 %
Dr = 86 %
Normalised Secant Shear

1.0
Modulus Gsn /Gs1 [-]

4 P0' = 125 kPa


0.8

0.6
2
0.4 ga=0.075% ga=0.150%
ga=0.375% ga=0.750%
ga=1.500% ga=5.250%
0.2 ga=9% p=50kPa
p=125kPa p=200kPa 0
0.0 1 10 100
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
Degree of liquefaction at the beginning of the cycle dliq n-1 [-] Cycle Number N [-]
Vanden Berghe J-
J-F. (2001) Vanden Berghe J-
J-F. (2001)

Soil Behavior under dynamic and cyclic loading 10


Alain Holeyman - UCL GraSMech08 :Multiphysics Coupling in Geomaterials

Cyclic triaxial tests: Cyclic triaxial tests:


Initial mean stress influence Summary and conclusions
20
Total mean stress = 200 kPa 2 phases of dilative behaviour
18
Total mean stress = 125 kPa
+ 2 phases of contractive behaviour per cycle
16
Total mean stress = 50 kPa
Shape of the hysteresis loops depends on
Secant Shear Modulus Gsn [MPa]

14 The dilative or contractive behaviour


Cyclic shear strain = 5.25 %
12 The mean stress P P at the beginning of the cycle
Cyclic shear strain = 1.5 %
10 2 fixed points are observed on the hysteresis loops where =0
Cyclic shear strain = 0.75 %
8
( vs 1/3)
No degradation of the stress ratio loops (
Dr = 85% the shape of stress paths are homothetic
6
Degree of liquefaction does not represent the cycle (only 1 point)
point)
4
Continuous degradation of the secant shear modulus
2 No equilibrium between dilative and contractive phases
0
Higher the dilative phases, faster the degradation
1 10 100
Cycle Number N [-]
Vanden Berghe J-
J-F. (2001)

Modle CSSM (Critical State)

n

ec = ec 0 . exp - 3.P'
hs

Soil Behavior under dynamic and cyclic loading 11