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REPUBLIQUE DU CAMEROUN

REPUBLIC OF CAMEROON **************************


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Paix Travail Patrie
PeaceWork Fatherland *****************
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MINISTERE DE LENSEIGNEMENT
MINISTRY OF HIGHER EDUCATION SUPERIEUR
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UNIVERSITY OF BAMENDA UNIVERSITE DE BAMENDA
HIGHER TECHNICAL TEACHERS ECOLE NORMALE SUPERIEURE DE
TRAINING COLLEGE (H.T.T.T.C.) LENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE
BAMBILI-BAMENDA DE BAMBILI-BAMENDA
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P.O. BOX. 39 BAMENDA Tel: 33 36 36 94 FAX : 33 05 10 69

DEPARTMENT: ELECTRICAL AND POWER ENGINEERING

OPTION: AIR CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION

COURSE TITLE: ENERGY SAVINGS AND TECHNOLOGY


MANAGEMENT OF BUILDING

LEVEL: 500

GROUP: 1

ACTIVE SOLAR WATER


HEATING SYSTEM
NAMES OF STUDENTS MATRICULE RATE OF PARTICIPATION (%)

BAMOU STEPHANE 11T1231 100


FOKAM FOKOUO JULES EMMANUEL 14T0884 100
TAGU TAKAM Yannick Printice 14T0894 100
TOHOKO TAGHO Bernard 14T0898 100

WRITTEN BY:

COURSE INTRUCTOR

Dr. ALOYEM

ACADEMIC YEAR 2015-2016


Table of content
...............................................................................................................................................................1
Table of content....................................................................................................................................1
LIST OF FIGURE................................................................................................................................1
INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................................2
1. Classification of active solar water heater..............................................................................2
1.1. Open-loop active...............................................................................................................2
1.1.1. Advantages of Open Loop............................................................................................3
1.1.2. Disadvantages Open Loop............................................................................................3
1.2. Closed-loop active systems...................................................................................................3
1.2.1. Advantages of a Closed Loop.......................................................................................4
1.2.2. Disadvantages of a Closed Loop..................................................................................4
1.3. Drainback systems................................................................................................................5
2. MAIN COMPONENTS OF ACTIVE SOLAR WATER HEATING SYSTEM.......................5
2.1. A solar collector....................................................................................................................5
2.2. A Storage tank.......................................................................................................................6
2.3. Heat exchanger fluid in indirect systems............................................................................7
2.4. Pump......................................................................................................................................7
3. Benefits of Solar Water Heaters..................................................................................................7
3.1. Economic Benefits.................................................................................................................8
3.2. Long-Term Benefits..............................................................................................................8
3.3. Environmental Benefits........................................................................................................8
4. Controls for Solar Heating Systems............................................................................................8
5. Building Codes, Covenants, and Regulations for Solar Heating Systems................................9
6. Installing and Maintaining Your Solar Heating System............................................................9
Conclusion...........................................................................................................................................10
REFERENCE.....................................................................................................................................11

LIST OF FIGURE

Figure 1 : An open-loop system heats household water directly in the collectors............................3


Figure 2 : An active, closed-loop system.............................................................................................4
Figure 3: Drainback Solar Water Heating System.............................................................................5
Figure 4 : Solar Collector.....................................................................................................................6

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Figure 5: Storage Tank.........................................................................................................................7

INTRODUCTION
Solar hot water heaters can provide households with a large proportion of their hot
water needs while cutting back on home energy costs. The amount of hot water that solar
energy will provide depends on the type and size of the system, the climate, and the quality of
the site in terms of solar access. A back-up heating system for water will be necessary during
times when solar radiation is insufficient to meet hot water demands. Solar water heaters
come in a variety of shapes, sizes, and capabilities, ranging from small passive heaters to
three- or four-panel active using the suns energy to heat water is not a new idea. More than
one hundred years ago, black painted water tanks were used as simple solar heaters in number
of countries. Harnessing the sun as a clean and renewable source of energy has proven to be a
challenge over the centuries and in modern times has fallen off in favor of other technologies
which are easier to commercialize and capitalize on. The sun is an energy source available to
everyone, an energy source that can be used simply, and inexpensively to reduce developing
and undeveloped countries dependence on imported fuels. The sun gives us energy in two
forms; light and heat. For many years, people have been using the suns energy to make their
homes brighter and warmer. Today we use special equipment and specially designed homes to
capture energy for lighting and heating. We would focus in this work on the active solar water
heater, their classifications

1. Classification of active solar water heater

Active systems use electric pumps, valves, and controllers to circulate water or other heat-
transfer fluids through the collectors. There are three types of active systems:

1.1. Open-loop active

Systems use pumps to circulate water through the collectors. These systems are appropriate in
areas that do not freeze for long periods and do not have hard or acidic water.

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Figure 1 : An open-loop system heats household water directly in the collectors

1.1.1. Advantages of Open Loop

It is the simplest and typically the least expensive active system to install. There is no
heat exchanger, which allows efficient heat transfer directly to the water. The system operates
at standard line pressure. It is simple to add capacity to the system if demand changes. The
system integrates easily with existing systems.

1.1.2. Disadvantages Open Loop

Some stored heat can be lost when the system re-irculates. It does, however recirculate
from the colder bottom of the tank and supply pipes, and there are minimal losses in the loop
and none through the collector. The primary freeze protection needs electricity or battery
back-up.

1.2. Closed-loop active systems

Pump heat-transfer fluids such as a mixture of glycol and water antifreeze through
collectors. Heat exchangers transfer the heat from the fluid to the water stored in the tanks.

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Figure 2 : An active, closed-loop system

1.2.1. Advantages of a Closed Loop

Closed Loop system allows simple switching between heat exchangers for multiple
applications, as well as excellent freeze protection. Special solar domestic hot water tanks are
available with internal heat exchangers (coils), with or without electric backup. Twin coil
tanks are also available that allow surplus solar energy to be directed to spa, pool, floor etc.
The top coil can also be connected to the house boiler as a DHW backup. No freeze sensors or
drain down valves are necessary.

1.2.2. Disadvantages of a Closed Loop

It is generally more complicated than an open loop system, because either a tank with
a heat exchange coil or an external heat exchanger is required. As a heat exchanger is required
the collector loop will run at slightly higher temperatures than an open loop system. The
collector loop needs to be pressurized. (8 -12 psi) The antifreeze may need to be recharged on
a 3 to 5 year basis.

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1.3. Drainback systems

It use pumps to circulate water through the collectors. Because the water in the
collector loop drains into a reservoir tank when the pumps stop, this is a good system for
colder climates.

Pressure relief valve


Collector

Brainback tank
Sight glass
Control

Cold water in

Hot water out


Pump

Brain
Hot water tank

Figure 3: Drainback Solar Water Heating System

2. MAIN COMPONENTS OF ACTIVE SOLAR WATER HEATING SYSTEM

It generally consists of following components:

A solar collector;

A storage tank;

Heat exchanger fluid in indirect systems;

Pump

2.1. A solar collector

Solar collectors are at the heart of most active solar energy systems. They are the key
component of active solar systems, and are designed to meet the specific temperature
requirements and climate conditions for the different end-uses. The collector absorbs the

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sun's light energy and changes it into heat energy. This thermal energy can then be used to
provide heated water for residential or commercial use, to provide space heating or cooling, or
for many other applications where fossil fuels might otherwise be used.

There are several types of solar collectors:

Flat-plate collectors

Evacuated-tube collectors

Concentrating collectors

Transpired air collectors

Residential and commercial building applications that require temperatures below 200F
typically use flat-plate or transpired air collectors, whereas those requiring temperatures
greater than 200F use evacuated-tube or concentrating collectors.

Figure 4 : Solar Collector

2.2. A Storage tank

A solar water tank is an insulated water storage tank. Cold water that is used to go
directly to conventional water heater enters the solar tank and solar-heated water exits.

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Figure 5: Storage Tank

2.3. Heat exchanger fluid in indirect systems

Heat exchangers are used in regions that experience temperatures less than freezing.
Heat exchangers themselves are built into a closed loop system and transfer the heat gathered
in the collector to the houses hot water supply. They enable the transfer of heat from one fluid
to another without the two mixing. The main advantage of using heat exchanger is to protect
the system against freezing, and as one option to supplement another source of water heating.

2.4. Pump

Pumps are used in active systems, but are not required in batch or thermo-siphon
systems. They circulate water or antifreeze between the solar collector and the storage tank.

3. Benefits of Solar Water Heaters

There are many benefits to owning a solar water heater, and number one is economics.
Solar water heater economics compare quite favorably with those of electric water heaters,
while the economics arent quite so attractive when compared with those of gas water heaters.
Heating water with the sun also means long-term benefits, such as being cushioned from
future fuel shortages and price increases, and environmental benefits.

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3.1. Economic Benefits

Many home builders choose electric water heaters because they are easy to install and
relatively inexpensive to purchase. However, research shows that an average household with
an electric water heater spends about 25% of its home energy costs on heating water.

3.2. Long-Term Benefits

Solar water heaters offer long-term benefits that go beyond simple economics. In
addition to having free hot water after the system has paid for itself in reduced utility bills,
you and your family will be cushioned from future fuel shortages and price increases. You
will also be doing your part to reduce this countrys dependence on foreign oil. The National
Remodelers Association reports that adding a solar water heater to an existing home raises the
resale value of the home by the entire cost of the system. You may be able to recoup your
entire investment when you sell your home.

3.3. Environmental Benefits

Solar water heaters do not pollute. By investing in one, you will be avoiding carbon
dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and the other air pollution and wastes created when
your utility generates power or you burn fuel to heat your household water. When a solar
water heater replaces an electric water heater, the electricity displaced over 20 years
represents more than 50 tons of avoided carbon dioxide emissions alone. Carbon dioxide traps
heat in the upper atmosphere, thus contributing to the greenhouse effect.

4. Controls for Solar Heating Systems

Controls for solar heating systems are usually more complex than those of a conventional
heating system, because they have to analyze more signals and control more devices
(including the conventional back-up heating system). Solar controls use sensors, switches,
and/or motors to operate the system. The system uses other controls to prevent freezing or
extremely high temperatures in the collectors.

The heart of the control system is a differential thermostat, which measures the difference in
temperature between the collectors and storage unit. When the collectors are 10 to 20F (5.6
to 11C) warmer than the storage unit, the thermostat turns on a pump or fan to circulate water
or air through the collector to heat the storage medium or the house.

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The operation, performance, and cost of these controls vary. Some control systems monitor
the temperature in different parts of the system to help determine how it is operating. The
most sophisticated systems use microprocessors to control and optimize heat transfer and
delivery to storage and zones of the house.

It is possible to use a solar panel to power low voltage, direct current (DC) blowers (for air
collectors) or pumps (for liquid collectors). The output of the solar panels matches available
solar heat gain to the solar collector. With careful sizing, the blower or pump speed is
optimized for efficient solar gain to the working fluid. During low sun conditions the blower
or pump speed is slow, and during high solar gain, it runs faster.

When used with a room air collector, separate controls may not be necessary. This also
ensures that the system will operate in the event of utility power outage. A solar power system
with battery storage can also provide power to operate a central heating system, though this is
expensive for large systems.

5. Building Codes, Covenants, and Regulations for Solar Heating Systems

Before installing a solar energy system, you should investigate local building codes, zoning
ordinances, and subdivision covenants, as well as any special regulations pertaining (added)
to the site. You will probably need a building permit to install a solar energy system on an
existing building.

Not every community or municipality initially welcomes residential renewable energy


installations. Although this is often due to ignorance or the comparative novelty of renewable
energy systems, you must comply with existing building and permit procedures to install your
system.

6. Installing and Maintaining Your Solar Heating System

How well an active solar energy system performs depends on effective siting, system
design, and installation as well as the quality and durability of the components. Todays
collectors and controls are high quality, but it can still be a challenge finding an experienced
contractor who can properly design and install the system.

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Once a system is in place, it has to be properly maintained to optimize its performance and
avoid breakdowns. Different systems require different types of maintenance, and you should
set up a calendar listing the maintenance tasks that the component manufacturers and installer
recommends for your installation.

Most solar water heaters are automatically covered under your homeowner's insurance policy.
However, damage from freezing is generally not. Contact your insurance provider to find out
what its policy is. Even if your provider will cover your system, it is best to inform them in
writing that you own a new system.

Conclusion
Properly installed domestic solar hot water systems are efficient and reliable. System
configurations can from simple systems that rely on gravity to more complex systems that
require pumps, controllers, and heat exchangers. Although they have a higher initial cost than
a conventional water heater, they will dramatically reduce fuel consumption and can have a
payback of 5-10 years. Again, it is recommended that you hire a professional to install your
solar hot water system. If additional technical assistance is needed, contact the North Carolina
Solar Center.

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REFERENCE
[1] Consumer Guide to Solar Energy,S. Sklar and K. Sheinkopf, Bonus Books, Inc., 160 East
Illinois Street, Chicago, IL 60611, 1991.

[2] Solar Today, 2400 Central Avenue, Unit G-1, Boulder, CO, 80301. (303) 443-3130. Solar
Todaycovers all the solar technologies, both mature and emerging, in a generalinterest format.

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