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Chapter 1

THE RESEARCH PROBLEM

I. Background of the study

Barangay Health Workers are accredited to function as such by the local health board in
accordance with the guidelines promulgated by the Department of Health, as defined in Section 3
of Republic Act No. 7883. Each volunteer receives about five weeks of training. Barangay
Health Workers live in the communities they serve and act as change agents in their
communities. They provide information, education and motivation services for primary health
care, maternal and child health, child rights, family planning and nutrition. They may administer
immunizations and regular weighing of children. They often assist midwives in providing
birthing services. The Barangay serves as the primary planning and implementing unit of
government policies, plans, programs, projects, and activities in the community.

In 1979, former ex-President Ferdinand Marcos issued letter of instruction 949 (LOI)
mandating the implementation of primary health care. Initially rural health midwives were
oriented on the concept of PHC and trained in community organizations. LOI 949 strengthens
the promotion of health care through the training of barangay health workers. These trained
barangay health workers were stationed in their own barangays.

Every day, many accidents and emergency situations happen in each of the barangays.
Barangay health workers are the first liners to respond for help. They play an important role in
improving the countrys healthcare system. Mainly because they are the ones immediately there
and are easily accessible when it comes to health crisis.

With this said, barangay health workers should be equipped with first aid skills and basic
life support since they should be the first ones to respond during emergency situations. The time
that elapses between someone calling for an emergency and the arrival of the paramedics is
sensitive and critical. The manner on how they respond during this critical stage can increase the
likelihood of survival for an individual.

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Thus, barangay health workers are being utilized increasingly in the delivery of health
services especially in the remote or rural areas.

Barangay Health Workers live in the communities they serve, and act as change agents in
their communities. They provide information, education and motivation services for primary
health care, maternal and child health, child rights, family planning and nutrition. They may
assist in immunizations and regular weighing of children. They often assist midwives in
providing birthing services. On average, each volunteer is expected to work with around 20
families in their community. However, the scarcity of trained individuals has narrowed down the
number of volunteers, especially in some remote areas, where one or two volunteers serves an
entire barangay.

The barangay health workers were called by variety of names but in this study the
researcher used Barangay Health Workers. The BHWs are the persons who promote better life
within their community through better health. (Reyala, et al, 2000). Some become barangay
health workers after undertaking trainings whom the people respected as healers or leaders in
matters of health. These were the people who studied health matters on their own.

This study is conducted to determine the level of knowledge of Barangay Health Workers
on performing first aid and knowledge on basic life support. Barangay health workers are the
first responder during emergency situations especially that some communities or barangays are
located far from the hospitals, it is necessary for them to have the enough knowledge on
performing primary health care to those who are ill, sick and injured. It is a dream for every
family to have its own representative in this worldwide endeavor of keeping themselves abreast
with the basic first aid and life support techniques which serves as their strongest weapon in
matters concerning life and death. The commencement of the appropriate first aid measures in a
medical emergency can mean the difference between life and death; between temporary and
permanent disability; and, between rapid recovery and long term hospitalization.

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II. Statement of the problem:

Generally, the study aims to determine the level of knowledge on First Aid and Basic Life
Support among Barangay Health Workers in selected barangays of Leyte.

Specifically this study aims to:

1. Describe the demographic characteristics in terms of the following:

a. Age

b. Gender

c. Religion

d. Location

e. Educational Attainment

f. Years of experience as Brgy. Health Worker

2. Determine the Level of Knowledge on Basic Life Support and First Aid among selected
Barangays of Leyte.

3. Determine the Level of Knowledge on Basic Life Support and First Aid in each locality.

4. Determine whether there is a significant relationship between demographic profile of the


respondents and their Level of Knowledge.

III. Null Hypothesis

There is no significant relationship between the level of knowledge on first aid


and basic life support of the selected barangay health workers of Leyte and their
demographic profile.

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IV. Significance of the Study

The result of this study would be a great benefit to the following:

Residents

This study would benefit mainly the residents of Tacloban, Palo and Tanauan so that they
would be aware of the importance of having knowledgeable and competent barangay health
workers in terms of first aid and basic life support.

Barangay Health Workers (BHW)

This study would help upgrade the capabilities of Barangay Health Workers in enhancing
some skills that are needed in a local community. It also gives them the opportunity to be readily
available in times of emergency and disaster.

City Health Office (CHO)/ Rural Health Unit (RHU)

This study would be able to help the CHO and RHU in terms of determining the lack of
trainings to be done like seminars and guided return demonstrations in order for barangay health
workers to be qualified people in responding to clients in terms of first aid and basic life support.

Department Of Health (DOH)

This study would be an eye opener for the DOH in the realization of the need for
barangay health workers to have a refresher and advancement of knowledge regarding first aid
and basic life support since this is the primary reason why there are barangay health workers.

Department Of Nursing

This study would help the department of nursing in terms of giving quality health
education to the students specifically in the area of community health nursing.

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Future researchers

This study would open the mind of future researchers who would want to continue our
goal in upgrading the barangay health workers in local communities, since they are the first
responders in a barangay regarding on the health of the citizens. They should be equipped with
the knowledge and skills in performing procedures in connection to the program of involvement.
We the researchers only fixed a part of the problem and believe that there are still a lot of
advancements that can be done.

V. Scope and limitations

The researchers focuses on the level of knowledge of barangay health workers on first aid
specifically on burns, wounds and fractures and in basic life support. Practical skills were not
assessed in this study but knowledge was measured through a standardized questionnaire.
Chosen respondents were selected in those who are located in rural and urban areas. The
researchers chose all the barangay health workers in Sagkahan and San Jose, Tacloban City and
in selected barangays of Palo and Tanauan.

VI. Review of Related Literature

Health has been a prime concern of humanity since the beginning of history. According to
Dhillon & Philip (1994), man has knowledge and tools to prevent many diseases. He knows how
to improve his health and how to give ourselves, the families, and the communities best possible
chance of staying healthy. Unfortunately, that knowledge and those tools are not evenly
distributed among humanity. Nor they are always used as well or given appropriate priority.
Great advances have been made in health sciences. People now have a better understanding of
risk factors for many conditions and better information on health status, ill-health and premature
death at different levels of society. As a result many are more aware than even before of
inequities in health.

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Improvements in health can only be achieved if theres also an improvement of social and
economic conditions. (Azurin 1988) said that poverty, poor living conditions, lack of education,
illiteracy (including health illiteracy) and the lack of information or ability to make decisions
about ones health are all impediments to health.

Maslows (1954) famous hierarchy of needs suggests that human needs are in fact health
needs. For a person to be self-actualizing, physical, social and emotional needs must be met. In
Primary Health Care, great importance is given to community participation and involvement of
people in all aspects of health care in the Philippines. Some of these efforts were coordinated by
the government, while others were initiated by non-government organizations.

The World Health Organization (WHO) was created in 1948 with the ultimate aim of
-making possible the attainment by all people the highest level of health- not merely the
absence of disease but health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being. This
is explicitly expressed in its preamble when it says, The enjoyment of the highest attainable
standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being without distinction of
race, religion, political belief, economic or social condition. (Azurin, 1988)

The Alma-Ata conference identified primary health care as the key to achieving and
acceptable level of health throughout the world in the foreseeable future as part of social
development and in the spirit of social justice.

The heavy burden of sickness, the high cost of health technology and the inadequacy of
health services coverage called for a bold new approach. Primary health care offers a rational and
practical means for both developing and industrialized nations to work towards the health-for-all-
goal. Primary health care was endorsed as strategy for making fundamental health services
universally accessible to the worlds population.

The objective of the first International conference on Primary Heath Care sponsored by
the World Health Organizations and UNICEF is to promote primary health care through the
training of barangay health workers. In the Philippines, this has been strengthened by Letter of
Instructions (LOI) 949 by then President Ferdinand E. Marcos on October, 1979 (Reyala, et.al.,
2000).

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Primary Health Care has been high lightened as a key setting in both international and
national health promotion policies. The World Health Organization Health for All 2000
program called a reorientation of health care services away from tertiary hospital sector and
towards the primary sector. The focus on health care system should be on primary health care
the basic needs of each community through services provided as close possible where people live
and work readily accessible and acceptable to all and based on full community participation.
WHO, 1988). The components of Primary health care are: (1) Education concerning prevailing
health problems and the methods of identifying, preventing and controlling them. (2) Promotion
of food supply and proper nutrition, an adequate supply of safe water and basic sanitation (3)
Maternal and child health care including family planning.
(4) Immunization against major infectious diseases. (5) Prevention and control of locally
endemic diseases. (6) Treatment of common diseases and injuries. (7) Promotion of mental
health. (8) Provision of essential drugs.

In Republic act 7883, the term barangay health worker is defined as a person who has
undergone training programs under any credited government organization and who voluntarily
renders primary health care services in the community after having been accredited to function as
such by the local health board in accordance with the guidelines promulgated by the Department
of Health.

One of the benefits and incentives of Barangay health workers according to Republic Act
7883 is education, training and career enrichment programs. This shall provide opportunities to
the barangay health workers such as: (1) educational programs which shall recognize years of
primary health care service as credits to higher education in institutions with stepladder curricula
that will entitle barangay health workers to upgrade their skills and knowledge for community
work or to pursue further training as midwives, pharmacists, nurses or doctors; (2) continuing
education, study and exposure tours training, grants, field immersion, scholarships, etc.; (3)
scholarship benefits in the form of tuition fees in state colleges, to be granted to one child of
every barangay health worker who will not be able to take advantage of the above programs; and
(4) special training programs such as those on traditional medicine, disaster preparedness and
other programs that address emergent community health problems and issues.

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According to senate bill 2219, section 2, the State further protects and promotes the right to
health of the people and provides conditions of health empowerment, where each individual has
access to information and services that will bring about health and well-being.

The section 5 of Senate bill 2219 (Barangay health workers services and reform act of
2014) States that the function of barangay health workers are: (a) Delivers basic and primary
care services for the community. (b) Coordinates efforts and actions of the different members of
the health team. (c) Keeps records of health indices, community profile and other data. (d) Serves
as an area of congregation for meetings of the health team. (e) Serves as training of future and
present members of the health team and (f) assists and coordinates with the respective local
government units appropriate offices on first aid procedures in disaster risk reduction.

As of the 2011, the Bureau of Local Health Development of the Department of Health
indicated that barangay health workers are indispensable in delivery and promotion of primary
health care services and programs of our government. With the formal health care delivery
system in the Philippines almost exclusively in the domain of cities and municipalities, that there
is a great need to train health workers from communities to provide first aid treatment to the
communities where they belong. (http://www.doh.gov.ph/sites/default/files/HB01603)

Philippines is one of the most disaster prone countries in the world. In 2012, according to
the International Disaster Database EMDAT from Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of
Disasters (CRED), Philippines ranked third by the number of reported disasters. The highest
death toll for a single event from a natural disaster in 2012 was also in Philippines caused by
tropical cyclone Bopha in December, resulted in 1,901 deaths in total. Typhoons frequently affect
the Philippines, however most of the typhoons were responded to locally, rarely requiring
external assistance or support. The vital role of the community health workers in emergencies
was highlighted in the joint statement published by the Global Health Workforce Alliance, IFRC,
UNHCR, UNICEF and WHO.

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The joint statement highlighted the importance of community based actions, the
contribution of the community health workforce, and the significance of better preparedness for
emergencies. Our team worked closely with community health workers and midwives in the
barangays, and therefore understanding their role and function in the health system was one of
the initial priorities of the ERU team.

First Aid is the immediate care given to an injured or suddenly ill person. First Aid does not
take the place of proper medical care. It consists only of giving temporary help until proper
medical care, if needs, is obtained or until the chance of recovery without medical care is
ensured. Most injuries and illnesses do not require medical care.

First aid training helps you learn the right methods of administering help in an
emergency. There are certain rules and precautions that must be followed while handling a
victim. An ignorant person may inadvertently aggravate the medical condition of an injured or
traumatized person by improper approach and handling. They can end up doing more harm than
good. With the right knowledge of the first aid rules and processes, you can save a life regardless
of the place of time. (https://occupationalfirstaid.wordpress.com/2013/03/15/the-importance-of-
first-aid-training-to-you-and-the-community/)

Some of these procedures can be lifesaving and are often important to implement early.
Specifically in the case of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation with automatic
external defibrillators (AEDs), BLS procedures can have a significant impact on survival, and
are typically delivered by initial responders (sometimes referred to as first-responders) until more
advanced and definitive medical care can be implemented. BLS is typically provided by either
first responders or emergency medical technician (EMT)-basics.

The department of health should conduct intensive trainings on first aid and basic life
support, thus it can help the barangay and would greatly benefit the people especially during
disaster and emergent problems and situations.

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VII. Theoretical framework

According to Faye Abdellah, the nursing-centered orientation to client care seems


contrary to the client-centered approach that Abdellah professes to uphold. The apparent
contradiction can be explained by her desire to move away from a disease-centered orientation.
In her attempt to bring nursing practice to its proper relationship with restorative and preventive
measures for meeting total client needs, she seems to swing the pendulum to the opposite pole,
from the disease orientation to nursing orientation, while leaving the client somewhere in the
middle.

Major Concepts
She describe the recipients of nursing as individuals (and families), although she does
not delinate her beliefs or assumptions about the nature of human beings.
Health, or the achieving of it, is the purpose of nursing services. Although Abdellah does not
give a definition of health, she speaks to total health needs and a healthy state of mind and
body.(Abdellah et al., 1960)
Health may be defined as the dynamic pattern of functioning whereby there is a
continued interaction with internal and external forces that results in the optimal use of necessary
resources to minimize vulnerabilities. (Abdellah & Levine, 1986; Torres & Samton, 1982).
Society is included in planning for optimum health on local, state, and international
levels. However, as Abdellah further delineates her ideas, the focus of nursing service is clearly
the individual.

The clients health needs can be viewed as problems, which may be overt as an apparent
condition, or covert as a hidden or concealed one because covert problems can be emotional,
sociological, and interpersonal in nature, they are often missed or perceived incorrectly. Yet, in
many instances, solving the covert problems may solve the overt problems as well. (Abdellah, et
al., 1960)

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Twenty One Nursing Problems

(1) To maintain good hygiene and physical comfort. (2) To promote optimal activity: exercise,
rest, and sleep. (3) To promote safety through the prevention of accidents, injury, or other trauma
and through the prevention of the spread of infection. (4) To maintain good body mechanics and
prevent and correct deformities. (5) To facilitate the maintenance of a supply of oxygen to all
body cells. (6) To facilitate the maintenance of nutrition of all body cells. (7) To facilitate the
maintenance of elimination. (8) To facilitate the maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance. (9)
To recognize the physiological responses of the body to disease conditions pathological,
physiological, and compensatory. (10) To facilitate the maintenance of regulatory mechanisms
and functions. (11) To facilitate the maintenance of sensory functions. (12) To identify and accept
positive and negative expressions, feelings, and reactions. (13) To identify and accept the
interrelatedness of emotions and organic illness. (14) To facilitate the maintenance of effective
verbal and nonverbal communication. (15) To promote the development of productive
interpersonal relationships. (16) To facilitate progress toward achievement of personal spiritual
goals. (17) To create and/or maintain a therapeutic environment. (18) To facilitate awareness of
self as an individual with varying physical, emotional, and developmental needs. (19) To accept
the optimum possible goals in the light of limitations, physical and emotional. (20) To use
community resources as an aid in resolving problems arising from illness. (21) To understand the
role of social problems as influencing factors in the case of illness.

Analysis
The problem-solving approach introduced by Abdellah has the advantage of increasing the
barangay health workers critical and analytical thinking skills.
One can identify that the framework is strongly applied to barangay health workers as the
focus of their service and render to care. The inclusion of an aggregate of people such as the
community or society would make the theory of Abdellah more generalizable since nurses do not
only provide one-person service especially now that the community healthcare level is sought to
have higher importance than curative efforts in the hospital.

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Betty Neuman's Systems Model

Provides a comprehensive holistic and system-based approach to nursing that contains an


element of flexibility. The theory focuses on the response of the patient system to actual or
potential environmental stressors and the use of primary, secondary, and tertiary nursing
prevention intervention for retention, attainment, and maintenance of patient system wellness.

The basic assumptions of the model are: Each patient system is a unique composite of
factors and characteristics within a range of responses contained in a basic structure. Many
known, unknown, and universal stressors exist. Each differ in their potential for upsetting a
client's usual stability level. Each patient has evolved a normal range of responses to the
environment referred to as the normal line of defense. It can be used as a standard by which to
measure health deviation. The client is a dynamic composite of the inter-relationships of the
variables, whether in a state of illness or wellness. Wellness is on a continuum of available
energy to support the system in a state of stability. Primary prevention is applied in patient
assessment and intervention, in identification and reduction of possible or actual risk factors.
Secondary prevention relates to symptomatology following a reaction to stressors, appropriate
ranking of intervention priorities, and treatment to reduce their noxious effects. Tertiary
prevention relates to adjustive processes taking place as reconstitution begins, and maintenance
factors move them back in a cycle toward primary prevention. The patient is in dynamic,
constant energy exchange with the environment.

The major concepts of Neuman's theory are content, which is the variables of the person
in interaction with the environment; basic structure or central core; degree to reaction; entropy,
which is a process of energy depletion and disorganization moving the client toward illness;
flexible line of defense; normal line of defense; line of resistance; input-output; negentropy,
which is a process of energy conservation that increases organization and complexity, moving the
system toward stability or a higher degree of wellness; open system; prevention as intervention;
reconstitution; stability; stressors; wellness/illness; and prevention.

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In the Systems Model, prevention is the primary intervention. It focuses on keeping
stressors and the stress response from having a detrimental effect on the body. Primary
prevention occurs before the patient reacts to a stressor. It includes health promotion and
maintaining wellness. Secondary prevention occurs after the patient reacts to a stressor and is
provided in terms of the existing system. It focuses on preventing damage to the central core by
strengthening the internal lines of resistance and removing the stressor. Tertiary prevention
occurs after the patient has been treated through secondary prevention strategies. It offers support
to the patient and tries to add energy to the patient or reduce energy needed to facilitate
reconstitution.

The researchers identified that this framework is strongly applied to barangay health
workers since the Systems Model involves preventions as a primary intervention to which further
injury, severe illness and even death can be lessen in the community if only Barangay health
workers are aware and are active in their terms of service.

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VIII. Conceptual framework

Demographic characteristics:

a. Age

b. Gender
Level of knowledge on basic life
c. Religion
support and first aid among Brgy.
d. Location Health workers in selected
Barangays of Leyte.
e. Educational Attainment

f. Years of experience as Brgy.

Health Worker

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IX. Definition of terms

Barangay Health Worker - A person who has undergone training programs under any
accredited government and nongovernment organization and who voluntarily renders primary
health care services in the community after having been accredited to functions as such by the
local health board in accordance with the guidelines promulgated by the DOH.

-In this research, it is being used as the main element of the study.

Barangay - Smallest administrative division in the Philippines and is the native Filipino term for
a village.

-In this research, it is where we selected our respondents.

Basic Life Support - The level of medical care which is used for victims of life-threatening
illnesses or injuries until they can be given full medical care at a hospital.

First Aid- Emergency care or treatment given to an ill or injured person before regular medical
and can be obtained.

Tacloban City - The capital and seat of government of the Eastern Visayas (Region VIII),
Philippines.

-Where the researchers chose their respondents

Tanauan and Palo - Rural areas of Leyte where the researchers chose their respondents.

Basic manual - A small book, giving information or instructions.

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Chapter II

METHODOLOGY

Research design

The researchers opted to use the descriptive type of research that would precisely gather
the different needed data that would enable the researchers to determine the level of knowledge
of BHW on basic life support and first aid including their demographic profile namely, age,
gender, religion, location, educational attainment, and years of experience as BHW in selected
barangays of Leyte. The data were correlated and determined whether the demographic profile of
the respondents level of knowledge of Basic life support and first aid.

The researchers carefully chose a standardized questionnaire and was translated into
waray-waray was used as the primary tool in gathering sufficient information to determine the
level of knowledge of the respondents. And with this study, the researchers will provide an
output or basic manual that will help contribute in enhancing the skills and knowledge of
barangay health workers.

Research Locale

The researcher conducted the study in selected barangays of Palo, Tanauan and Tacloban
City, particularly the barangays of San Jose and Sagkahan. All the barangay health workers in the
chosen barangay were the respondents of the study.

Sampling Technique

The respondents were chosen through simple stratified sampling in order to give
respondent equal chances of being chosen, 11 barangays in each locality were randomly chosen
by draw lots. All BHW were chosen in each barangays with the total of 165 BHW in all
localities.

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Research Instrument

The instrument that was used in the preliminary study is a standardized questionnaire
which was translated to waray-waray.

The questionnaire was composed of informed consent and demographic profile of the
respondents. The questions were also categorized in which the first part was about burns,
followed by wounds, fracture and lastly CPR.

Data Gathering

The process of data gathering started with the seeking of approval for the conduct of
preliminary study. Since the study involves Barangay Health Workers managed by the City
Health Office and Municipal Health Office, permission from their office will be sought.
Population list will be acquired from the same office and the respondents will be identified. The
conduct of the actual study were arranged with the Barangay Health Centers and data gathering
were made. Confidentiality of the information were put into outmost consideration.

Statistical Analysis

The data gathered from the questionnaire were analyzed according to their corresponding
quantitative equivalents. The responses were also categorized according to the nature of the
specified questions asked. The profile of the Barangay Health Workers were analyzed using
frequency tally and percentages. The following formula in determining percentages was used:

f
P= x 100
n

where: P Percent
f frequency
n number of respondents

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To test for the significant relationship of Barangay Health Workers level of knowledge
on Basic Life Support and First Aid and profile variables such as: age and years of experience as
Barangay Health Workers, Pearsons Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was used. The
machine formula follows: (Walpole, 1982: Introduction to Statistics)

x


y


n y 2
x 2
n


n XY x y
r=
where: X Level of knowledge on Basic Life Support and First Aid
Y age and years of experience as Barangay Health Worker
n sample size
To test for the significant relationship of Barangay Health Workers level of knowledge
on Basic Life Support and First Aid and profile variables such as: educational attainment and
location, Eta Correlation was used. The machine formula follows:

eta=
SSB
SST
y ij


2
where:

2
y ij

SST =

18
y ij


2

SSB=
y 2i .
n
Level of significance was set at 0.05.

CHAPTER III

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter presents the analysis and interpretation of data gathered. Each set of data
was analyzed and interpreted to shed light on the problem under investigation.

DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF BARANGAY HEALTH WORKERS

This study investigated the demographic characteristics of Barangay Heath Workers in


terms of: age, sex, educational attainment, religion, years of experience as Barangay Heath
Worker, and location.

Figure 1 below presents the demographic characteristics of the respondents in terms of age.

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74
80
70
60 50
50
Frequecy

40 31

30
20 10
10
0
21 - 30 yrs ol d 31 - 40 yrs ol d 41 - 50 yrs ol d 51 yrs ol d a nd above

Figure 1. Distribution of Brgy. Health Workers by Age

The figure above shows the frequency distribution of respondents in terms of age. There
are 5 categories of respondents that are represented, those that are 21-30 years old, 31-40 years
old, 41-50 years old and 51 years old and above. It can be seen in the above figure that majority
of the respondents belong to the range of 51 years old and above.

Table 1 that follows presents the demographic characteristics of the respondents in terms
of gender.

Table 1. Distribution of Brgy. Health Workers in Terms of Gender

Gender Frequency Percent (%)


Male 1 0.6
Female 164 99.4
Total 165 100.0

Results above revealed that majority of the Brgy. Health Worker respondents are females
with 164 or 99.4 percent with only 1 or 0.6 percent males. This results describes that females
preferred health related work compared to their male counterpart.

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Figure 2 that follows show the distribution of Brgy. Health Workers in terms of their educational
attainment.

114
120
100
80 50
60
40
Frequency

20 1
0

Figure 2. Distribution of Brgy. Health Workers in terms of Educational Attainment

The above figure reveals that majority of the barangay health workers are high school
graduate with a total of 114 out of 165 respondents which is 69 percent. This statistics confirms
that if the respondents have less educational attainment they would partake on becoming
barangay health workers.

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Table 2 presents the demographic characteristics of the respondents in terms of religion.

Table 2. Distribution of Barangay Health Workers in Terms of Religion

Religion Frequency Percent (%)


Roman Catholic 165 100.0
Total 165 100.0

The table above presents that all of the respondents are Roman Catholics. This results
describes that Roman Catholics prefer Brgy. Health work than other religions.

Figure 3 shows the distribution of Brgy. Health Workers in terms of their years of experience in
their profession.

10 yea rs a nd above 50

7 - 9 years 15

4 - 6 years 70

1 - 3 years 30

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

Figure 3. Distribution of Brgy. Health Workers by Years of Experience

The above figure shows the frequency of Brgy. Health workers by Years of Experience. It
is categorized into 4; (1) 1 to 3 years, (2) 4 to 6 years, (3) 7 to 9 years, (4) 10 years above. For
the purposes of accounting the respondents, it can be gleaned that 30 respondents or 18% of the
respondents belong to those who have 1 to 3 years of experience; 70 respondents or 43% of the
respondents belong to those who have 4 to 6 years of experience, which comprises the majority
of the respondents; 15 respondents or 9% of the respondents belong to those who have 7 to 9

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years of experience and 50 respondents or 30 % of the respondents belongs to those who have 10
years and above of experience. This result describes that barangay health workers are more likely
to leave their work after 4 to 6 years of experience.

Figure 4 that follows show the distribution of Brgy. Health Workers in terms of their location.

Tanauan Leyte;
24.85%
Tacloban City;
41.21%

Palo Leyte;
33.94%

Figure 4. Distribution of Brgy. Health Workers by Location

In the figure above, it shows that the majority of our respondents are located in Tacloban
City which is 41% of the respondents followed by Palo which is 34% and lastly Tanauan which
is 25%.

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LEVEL OF KNOWLEDGE ON BASIC LIFE SUPPORT AND FIRST AID AMONG
BRGY. HEALTH WORKERS

The study determine the level of knowledge on basic life support and first aid among
Brgy. health workers in selected barangays of Leyte.

Table 3: Knowledge of Brgy Health Workers on Basic Life Support and First Aid

Level of Knowledge Frequency Percent (%)

1.00-0.67 (High Average) 1 0.6

0.66-0.34 (Average) 99 60

0.33-0.00 (Low Average) 65 39.4

Total 165 100.0

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The table above shows the rating of the respondents in their level of knowledge on basic
life support and first aid. The rating were categorized into 3, whereas results of 0-0.33 were
classified as low average, 0.34-0.66 as average and 0.67-1.00 as high average. The table reveals
that 60% which is the majority of the respondents were rated 0.34-0.66 which is then classified
as average in regards to their knowledge on basic life support and first aid.

LEVEL OF KNOWLEDGE OF BRGY. HEALTH WORKERS ON BASIC LIFE


SUPPORT AND FIRST AID IN EACH LOCALITY.

Table 4: Presents the result on the level of knowledge of Barangays Health Workers in Tanauan
Leyte.

Table 4 : Distribution of Brgy. Health workers in knowledge on Basic Life Support and
First Aid in Tanauan Leyte.

Level of Knowledge Frequency Percent (%)


1.00-0.67 (High Average) 0 0.0
0.66-0.34 (Average) 23 56
0.33-0.00 (Low Average) 18 44
Total 41 100.0

The above table shows the ratings of the respondents in Tanauan Leyte. The ratings were
categorized into 3, whereas results of 0-0.33 were classified as low average, 0.34-0.66 as average
and 0.67-1.00 as high average. The table reveals that 56% of the respondents which is the

25
majority were rated 0.34 0.66 which is classified as average in terms of their knowledge on
basic life support and first aid.

Table 5. Level of Knowledge of Brgy. Health workers on Basic Life Support and First Aid in
Palo, Leyte.

Level of Knowledge Frequency Percent (%)


1.00-0.67 (High Average) 1 1.8
0.66-0.34 (Average) 30 53.6
0.33-0.00 (Low Average) 25 44.6
Total 56 100.0

The above table shows the ratings of the respondents in Palo Leyte. The ratings were
categorized into 3, whereas results of 0-0.33 were classified as low average, 0.34-0.66 as average
and 0.67-1.00 as high average. The table reveals that 53.6% of the respondents which is the
majority were rated 0.34 0.66 which is classified as average in terms of their knowledge on
basic life support and first aid.

26
Table 6. Level of Knowledge of Brgy. Health workers on Basic Life Support and First Aid in
Tacloban City.

Level of Knowledge Frequency Percent (%)


1.00-0.67 (High Average) 0 0.0
0.66-0.34 (Average) 46 67.7
0.33-0.00 (Low Average) 22 32.3
Total 68 100.0

The above table shows the ratings of the respondents in Tacloban City. The ratings were
categorized into 3, whereas results of 0-0.33 were classified as low average, 0.34-0.66 as average
and 0.67-1.00 as high average. The table reveals that 67.7% of the respondents which is the
majority were rated 0.34 0.66 which is classified as average in terms of their knowledge on
basic life support and first aid.

27
Table 7. Level of knowledge on Basic Life Support And First Aid of the 165 respondents in
Tanauan Leyte, Palo Leyte, and Tacloban City.

No. of Respondents Frequency Rating Interpretation


165 63.685 0.385 Average

The above table shows the overall rating of the respondents. It reveals that the rate of the
165 barangay health workers was 0.385, and which is interpreted as average in terms on their
level of knowledge on first aid and basic life support.

TEST OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF BRGY.


HEALTH WORKERS AND THEIR LEVEL OF KNOWLEDGE

ON BASIC LIFE SUPPORT AND FIRST AID

28
The study tested if there is a relationship between the demographic profile of Barangay Health
Workers and their level of knowledge on Basic Life Support and First Aid.

Table 8 presents the results.

Table 8. Relationship between the Demographic Profile of Barangay Health Workers and
their Level of Knowledge on Basic Life Support and First Aid

Variables Correlation p-value Interpretation


Coefficient
Age and Level of Knowledge
of Basic life support and first -0.205 0.008 Significant
aid

Educational Attainment and


Level of Knowledge of Basic 0.033 0.674 Not Significant
life support and first aid
Years of Experience and
Level of Knowledge of Basic 0.020 0.491 Not Significant
life support and first aid

Location and Level of


Knowledge of Basic life 0.015 0.851 Not Significant
support and first aid

Age. Results above revealed that of the three of the five areas identified in measuring the
level of knowledge on basic life support and first aid among Brgy. Health Workers showed to be
significant. A correlation coefficient value of -0.205 was obtained with a corresponding p-value
0.008, respectively. Hence, the null hypotheses of no significant relationship between age of the
Brgy. Health Workers and their level of knowledge on Basic Life Support and First Aid was
rejected at the 5% level of significance. This result imply that the older the Brgy. Health Worker

29
is the less knowledgeable they are. And thus, the age of the Brgy. Health Worker influence their
knowledge on basic life support and first aid.

Educational Attainment. Results above revealed that the level of knowledge on basic
life support and first aid among Brgy. Health Workers showed to be not significant. A correlation
coefficient value of 0.033 was obtained with a corresponding p-value of 0.674, respectively.
Hence, the null hypotheses of no significant relationship between educational attainment of the
Brgy. Health Workers and their level of knowledge on Basic Life Support and First Aid was not
rejected at the 5% level of significance. This result imply that educational attainment of the
Brgy. Health Worker does not influence their knowledge on basic life support and first aid.

Years of Experience as Brgy. Health Worker. Results above revealed that the level of
knowledge on basic life support and first aid among Brgy. Health Workers showed to be not
significant. A correlation coefficient value of 0.020 was obtained with a corresponding p-value
of 0.491, respectively. Hence, the null hypotheses of no significant relationship between years of
experience as Brgy. Health Workers and their level of knowledge on Basic Life Support and First
Aid were not rejected at the 5% level of significance. These results imply that years of
experience as Brgy. Health Worker does not influence their knowledge on Basic Life Support and
First Aid.

Location. Results above revealed that level of knowledge on basic life support and first
aid among Brgy. Health Workers showed to be not significant. A correlation coefficient value of
0.015 were obtained with a corresponding p-value of 0.851, respectively. Hence, the null
hypotheses of no significant relationship between location of the Brgy. Health Workers and their
level of knowledge on Basic Life Support and First Aid were not rejected at the 5% level of
significance. These results imply that location of Brgy. Health Worker does not influence their
knowledge on Basic Life Support and First Aid.

30
CHAPTER IV

SUMMARY OF RESULTS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter presents the summary, conclusions and recommendations of the study.

Summary

31
The study conducted in selected barangays of Tacloban City, Palo and Tanauan Leyte
focused on measuring the level of knowledge of barangay health workers on first aid and basic
life support. The sample of the study involves all the barangay health workers of the chosen
barangays. In addition, the barangay health workers were given a standardized questionnaire to
measure and validate the objectives of the study. Specifically, the study sought to answer the
following:

The study involving 165 barangay health workers, majorities are within the age group of
51 years old and above comprising 45% in which 99.4% are females. 69% of the respondents
which is the majority are only high school graduates. All of the respondents are Roman
Catholics, no other religion were stated. 70 respondents or 43% of the respondents belong to
those who have 4 to 6 years of experience, which comprises the majority of the respondents. 68
respondents or 41% which is the majority are from Tacloban City.

To further understand and determine the level of knowledge of barangay health workers
on first aid and basic life support, a standardized questionnaire was given.

The results in the study reveal that majority of the respondents which is 41.8% scored 5-6
which is classified as moderately knowledgeable in regards to burns, 46.1% scored 3-4 which is
classified as less knowledgeable in regards to wounds, 55.2% scored 3-4 which is classified as
less knowledgeable in regards to fractures, and is 58.2% scored 0-2 which is classified as not
knowledgeable in regards to CPR. Overall results showed that 58.9% scored 9-16 which is
classified as less knowledgeable in basic life support and first aid.
The significance of the relationship between the demographic profile and their level of
knowledge were measured in this study.
Results revealed the level of knowledge on basic life support and first aid among
Barangay Health Workers showed to be significant in terms of age. With regards to the
educational attainment, years of experience and location, results revealed that the level of
knowledge on basic life support and first aid among Barangay Health Workers showed to be not
significant.

Conclusions

32
The following conclusions were drawn based on the foregoing results of the study and
statement of the problem.

1. a. In terms of age, it can be seen that majority of the respondents belong to the range
of 51 years old and above.
b. In terms of gender, it is revealed that Brgy. Health Worker respondents are
outnumbered by females with 164 or 99.4 percent with only 1 or 0.6 percent males.

c. In terms of religion, it presents that all of the respondents are Roman Catholics

d. In terms of location, it shows that the majority of our respondents are located in
Tacloban City which is 41% of the respondents followed by Palo which is 34% and
lastly Tanauan which is 25%.

e. In terms of educational attainment, that majority of the barangay health workers are
high school graduate.

f. In terms of years of experience, majority are in the range of 4 to 6 years of


experience.

2. Overall results revealed that the barangay health workers are classified as average
with a rating of 0.385 in regards to their knowledge on basic life support and first
aid.

3. a. In Tanauan, results revealed that the barangay health workers are classified as
average (56%) in regards to their knowledge on basic life support and first aid.

b. In Palo, results revealed that the barangay health workers are classified as
average (53%) in regards to their knowledge on basic life support and first aid.
c. In Tacloban, results revealed that the barangay health workers are classified as
average (67.7%) in regards to their knowledge on basic life support and first aid.

4. a. There is a significant relationship between the age of the barangay health


workers and their knowledge on basic life support and first aid with a p-value of
0.008. Therefore, it can be inferred that the older the barangay health worker the
less knowledgeable they are on Basic Life Support and First Aid.

33
b. There is no significant relationship between the educational attainment of
barangay health workers and their knowledge on basic life support and first aid.
(p-value= 0.674)
c. There is no significant relationship between the years of experience as barangay
health workers and their knowledge on basic life support and first aid. (p-value=
0.491)
e. There is no significant relationship between the location of barangay health
workers and their knowledge on basic life support and first aid. (p-value= 0.851)

5. Finally, there is a significant relationship in terms of age in the level of knowledge


of barangay health workers in first aid and basic life support. On the other hand,
there is no significant relationship in other areas in the demographic profile which
are location, educational attainment and years of experience as barangay health
worker.

Recommendations

Based on the conclusions of the study, the following recommendations that we arrived at:
The Department of Health should have standard qualifications for barangay health
workers so that they are more equipped and eligible in the said position.
To be knowledgeable about first aid and basic life support, the Department of Health
should hold seminars and thorough trainings on basic life support and first aid so that the

34
barangay health workers would be proficient and skillful in rendering services that are expected
of them.
The City and Municipal Health Office should conduct annual trainings and seminars for
the barangay health workers for refreshment and updates on newly trends regarding first aid and
basic life support.
The barangay health workers should actively participate and should go through return
demonstrations on first aid and basic life support to ensure that they completely understood the
seminar and training sessions.
For future researchers to conduct further studies in other areas of services that are
expected on a barangay health worker to improve the quality health care in the community they
serve.

Bibliography

Books:

Azurin (1988). Pimary Health Care: Innovations in the Philippine health system 1981-1985.

Dillon and Philip (1994). Health promotion and community action for health in developing

countries.

35
Maslows 1954. Motivation and Personality

Reyala, et. Al 2000. Community health nursing services in the Philippine

Department of Health.

Journals:

Hung and Otsu 2014; Community Health Workers prove the Key to Philippine Relief Efforts

Internet sources:

http://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry

http://www.senate.gov.ph/lisdata/1907216195!.pdf

http://www.doh.gov.ph/sites/default/files/HB01567.pdf

http://www.congress.gov.ph/download/basic_16/HB00054.pdf

QuizCenter 2000 - 2002. This quiz was generated at Quiz Center on DiscoverySchool.com.
All rights reserved.

www. Abc-traing.com-uk/quiz-Questions-for first aid-p-52.html


(http://www.jacobbrown.com/RidgewoodHealthEd/FirstAid)

(http://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry)

http://www.epijournal.com/articles/122/community-health-workers-prove-the-key-to-philippines-

relief-efforts

APPENDIX A

Letter of Approval of the Proposed Research Title


St.Scholasticas College of Tacloban
Sta. Cruz Street, Tacloban City
College of Nursing and Midwifery

October 13, 2015

36
Dr. Antonio E. Lim Jr., RMT, FPASMAP, Ph.D
Dean of College
St. Scholasticas College Tacloban
Sta. Cruz St., Tacloban City

Dear Sir:

Good day!

We, the 4th yr. nursing students of St. Scholasticas College Tacloban would like to ask
permission of your approval for our research entitled A BASIC MANUAL ON BASIC LIFE
SUPPORT AND FIRST AID FOR BRGY. HEALTH WORKERS IN SELECTED
BARANGAYS OF LEYTE. Based on preliminary study entitled LEVEL OF KNOWLEDGE
ON BASIC LIFE SUPPORT AND FIRST AID AMONG BRGY. HEALTH WORKERS IN
SELECTED BARANGAYS OF LEYTE.
We hope that this request will merit your favorable attention.
Thank you and God Bless!

Respectfully yours: Noted By:

Domingo, Carissa Maynette G. Mr. Gerrydel A. Corres RN MAN


Research Instructor
Gerrman, Kelvin B.
Dr. Carolina D. Barrot RN, MAN
Matienzo, Marie Damica Dean College of Nursing/ Midwifery

Raby, Michelle Q.
Approved By:
Salve, Elyssa Jeanne C.
Dr. Antonio E. Lim Jr., RMT, FPASMAP, PhD
Vice President for Academic Affairs

APPENDIX B

Letter of Permission to the Tacloban City Health Office

St. Scholasticas College of Tacloban


Sta. Cruz Street, Tacloban City
College of Nursing and Midwifery

37
October 21, 2015

Dr. Joedina Gumapay


OIC
City Health Office
Tacloban City

Dear Maam:

Good day!

We, the 4th yr. nursing students of St. Scholasticas College Tacloban are conducting a
study entitled LEVEL OF KNOWLEDGE ON BASIC LIFE SUPPORT AND FIRST AID
AMONG BRGY. HEALTH WORKERS IN SELECTED BARANGAYS OF LEYTE. We
have chosen all the barangays of San Jose and Sagkahan, Tacloban City. In this regard we would
like to ask from your good office to allow us to gather background information on their
knowledge so that we can come up with a basic manual on basic life support and first aid to be
utilized by the Barangay.

We hope that this request will merit your favorable attention.


Thank you and God Bless!

Respectfully yours: Noted By:

Domingo, Carissa Maynette G. Mr. Gerrydel Corres, RN MAN


Research Instructor
German, Kelvin B. Ms. Lorelie . Asis, RN, MAN
Research Adviser
Matienzo, Marie Danica D. Dr. Carolina D. Barrot RN, MAN
Dean College of Nursing/ Midwifery
Raby, Michelle Q.
Dr. Antonio E. Lim Jr., RMT, FPASMAP, Ph.D
Salve, Elyssa Jeanne C. Vice President of Academic Affairs

Approved by:
Dr. Joedina Gumagay
APPENDIX C

Letter of Permission
St. Scholasticas College of Tacloban
Sta. Cruz Street, Tacloban City
College of Nursing and Midwifery

October 13, 2015

38
Hon.Milagros M. Reposar
Chairwoman
Brgy. Arado
Palo, Leyte

Dear Maam:

Good day!

We, the 4th yr. nursing students of St. Scholasticas College Tacloban are conducting a
study entitled LEVEL OF KNOWLEDGE ON BASIC LIFE SUPPORT AND FIRST AID
AMONG BRGY. HEALTH WORKERS IN SELECTED BARANGAYS OF LEYTE. In this
regard we would like to ask from your good office to allow us to gather background information
on their knowledge so that we can come up with a basic manual on basic life support and first aid
to be utilized by the Barangay.
We hope that this request will merit your favorable attention.

Thank you and God Bless!

Respectfully yours: Noted By:

Domingo, Carissa Maynette G. Mr. Gerrydel Corres, RN MAN


Research Instructor
German, Kelvin B. Ms. Lorelie . Asis, RN, MAN
Research Adviser
Matienzo, Marie Danica D. Dr. Carolina D. Barrot RN, MAN
Dean College of Nursing/ Midwifery
Raby, Michelle Q.
Dr. Antonio E. Lim Jr., RMT, FPASMAP, Ph.D
Salve, Elyssa Jeanne C. Vice President of Academic Affairs

Approved by:
Hon.Milagros M. Reposar
Chairwoman
APPENDIX D

INFORMED CONSENT TO THE RESPONDENTS

I am, ______________________________________, ____________ years of age,


Ako hi, ____________________________________, _____________ nga pangidaron
and resident of _____________________________________________, who hereby
nga na ukoy ha _____________________________________________ nga
agrees to participate in this data gathering done
39
na-uyon hin pagbulig han guinbubuhat nga pagkuha hin impormasyon
by the students of St. Scholasticas College Tacloban
han mga estudyante han St. Scholasticas College Tacloban
regarding the knowledge of first aid and basic life support.
mahitungod han akon hibaruan ha first aid ngan basic life support.

I am interested and willing to give any information & spend few hours in
Interesado ako hin paghatag hin impormasyon bisan mga pira la ka oras dinhi
at barangay health center this _________ of ____________, 2015 at about ____ in the
ha barangay health center ha ika _______ han __________, 2015 mga banda ____ han
in the morning/evening.
aga / gab-i.

After talking and meeting with the students, I believed that this research
Kahuman hini nga pakig-aratubang ha mga estudyante, natoud ako nga ine
will help in understanding in having better skills to the barangay health workers in this
community.
May-ada maibubulig han pag intende ug pagtuo hin mauoay na pag aram ha tag tagsa nga
barangay health workers dinhio ha comunidad.

I wil give without hesistation any information that is


Akon igtutug-an hin waray pagruha-duha kun ano man nga impormasyon an
useful in this study.
kinahanglon hini nga pagturun-an.
give will help reveal the needs of brgy
ighahatag in makakabulig para masabutan kon ano an kinahanglan hini na brgy

As a proof that I agree and believe in the objectives of this study,


Ha pagpasabot nga ako in nagtangdo han mga panuy0an hini nga pag aradman,
I hereby affix my signature this _______ of _________, 2015
Akon igbubutang dinhi an akon pirma yana nga ika ____ han ______, 2015

____________________
Signature
Pirma

APPENDIX E

NAME (Ngaran): RELIGION (Relihiyon):


AGE (Edad): SEX (Anu na tawoha):
LOCATION (Taga-diin):
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT (Gin-taposan):
YEARS OF EXPERIENCE AS BRGY. HEALTH WORKER:

40
SPECIAL TRAININGS:
DIRECTION: Encircle the correct answer given in the choices below!

A. BURNS (Paso)

1. What is the common type of Burns? (Ano it komon nga klase hin paso?)
A. Thermal Burns (kalayo)
B. Electrical Burns (kuryente)
C. Radiation Burns
D. Sunburn
2. What is the common cause of burns? (Ano it komon nga rason hit kapaso?)
A. warm water from jugs (mapaso-paso nga tubig ha jug)
B. Hot cooking oil (mapaso nga asyete)
C. Hot water from Kettles and thermoses (mapaso nga tubig ha kalan ngan termos)
D. Both B and C (pareho letra B ngan C)
3. Who is the most at risk for burns? (Hin-o it pinakadelikado nga napapaso?)
A. Children from 4 to 14 years old. (kabataan tikang 4 ngada ka 14 anyos)
B. Age 25 and above (edad 25 pa igbaw)
C. Adults age 50 to 60 (edad 50 ngada 60 anyos)
D. All of the above. (Tanan nga nakabutang ha igbaw)
4. What we must assess for burn patient? (Ano it aton pangingitaon hin usa nga napaso)
A. Patient who are Unconscious (Pasyente nga nalinop)
B. Type of object caused the injury (Ano an nakapaso)
C. We must assess Gag reflex (Pag-ubo han pasyente)
D. Must assess the breathing pattern, skin color , and temperature. (Paghinga, color han
panit ngan temperatura)

5. What type of burn degree should we call for an ambulance? (Ano nga klase nga kapaso it
angay tawagan hin ambulansya)
A. First degree (Syahan nga kahimtang)

41
B. Second degree (Ika-duha nga kahimtang)
C. Third degree (Ika-tulo nga kahimtang)
D. Forth degree (Ika-upat nga kahimtang)
6. First-degree partial thickness burns: (Ano it una nga kahimtang nga kapaso)
A. Appears wet or blistered and are extremely painful but can heal on their own.
(Mahulos ngan may lapnos nga maulol pero nauupay la hin iya)
B. Damages throughout the dermis. Appears dry, black. (Nakakaruba hin panit. Mamara
ngan nangingitom iton pustura)
C. Involves the skin, fat, muscle and bone. Appears charred or may be completely burned
away. (Upod an panit, tambok, unod ngan tul-an ngan pwede masunog ngatanan)
D. Superficial and painful and appears red. (Ha baw-baw la, maulol ngan mapula iton
pustura)
7. To treat a first degree burn you should: (Para pag tambal hin siyahan nga kahimtang, it
imo bubuhaton:)
A. Apply a good quality burn cream or ointment (Butangi hin maupay nga kalidad nga
ugguwento o krema)
B. clean the area thoroughly with hot water and soap (Limpyuha an apektado hin mapaso
nga tubig ngan sabon)
C. Apply a band between the burn and the heart (Butangi hin dugnit ha butnga hit napaso
ngan kasing-kasing)
D. Apply cool running water until there is a little or no remaining pain (Butangi hin
matunagnaway nga nag-aawas nga tubig hasta guti nala o waray na maulol)

8. What is the first thing we should do if patient has a chemical burn? (Ano it una nga
hihimoun ha pasyente kun kemikal an rason han iya kapaso)
A. Leave it open and unattended. (Pabay-i la)
B. Remove chemical from the patient and begin flushing with warm water for at least 15
minutes. (Tanggala an kemikal tikang ha pasyente ngan tikangi pag buhos hin mapaso-
paso nga tubig ha sakob hin 15 minutos)
C. Stay away with the patient and call for another BHW. (Paharayo ha pasyente ngan
tawag hin usa pa ka BHW)

42
D. Give IV medications to the patient. (Hatag hin IV nga medisina ha pasyente)
9. The initial intervention in the emergency management of a burn of any type is to? (Ano it
panguna nga bubuhaton ha emergency nga pag areglar ha napaso?)
A. establish and maintain an airway (magpabaskog ngan ipadayon han pag agi han
paghinga)
B. assess for associated injury (Tasari hin kaupod nga injury)
C. establish an IV line with a large-gauge needle (Pagtukod hin IV nga linya ha dako nga
dagom)
D. Remove the patient from the burn source and stop the burning process. (Ig-iwas an
pasyente ha katinikangan han kapaso ngan
10. What should staff wear when caring for burn patient? ( Ano it dapat nga sul-ot kun nag
aariglar hin napaso na pasyente?)
A. No protective gear should be worn since it is just a burn. ( warai panprotektar nga
bado it angay sul-oton kay paso manla)
B. Used gowns and mask ( gamit na nga gowns ngan mask)
C. Wear glove and mask ( pag sul-ot hin gown ngan mask)
D. Disposable gown, gloves and mask ( disposable nga gown, gloves ngan mask)

B. WOUND (Samad)

1. What is the definition of wound? ( Ano it karuyag signgon hit Samad?)


A. Injury to a person especially one in which the skin is torn, pierced or cut. ( Injury ha
us aka tawo labi kun an panit gisi.)
B. it is an infection (usa nga inpeksyon)
C. transmittable or communicable disease ( nakatapon ngan nakakahawa nga sakit)
D. All of the above (tanan nga nakabutsng ha igbaw)
2. If blood is spurting from a wound, what should you do? (Kun an dugo nagsirit-sirit tikang
ha samad, anu tin bubuhaton?
A. Apply a tourniquet. ( butange hin
B. Cover the wound with a clean cloth and apply continuous pressure with the palm of
your hand. ( tabuni an samad hn malimpyo nga dugnit ngan dun-I gamit hit imu palad)
C. call an ambulance. (tawag hin ambulansya)

43
D. none of the above. (waray ha igbaw na pinamimili-an)
3. Which of the following is the appropriate intervention of BHW for open wound? (Ano ha
mga nakabutang it pinaka-sakto nga hihimuon hit BHW para ha abri nga samad?)
A. Clean wound thoroughly by irrigating with normal Saline (hamisi an samad hin
maupay gamit hit normal saline)
B. Apply bandage to the wound (butangi hin bandage ha samad)
C. Apply hydrocolloid dressing (butangi hin bandage na may-ada solusyon)
D. All of the above. (ngatanan nga nakabutang ha igbaw)
4. Which of the following items are used to perform wound care irrigation? (ano ha mga
gamit it kinahanglan para mag hamis hin samad?)
A. Clean Gloves (mahamis na gloves)
B. Irrigating solution (pagpatubig nga solusyon)
C. Gown
D. All of the above (ngatanan nga nakabutang ha igbaw)

5. What solutions are not best for cleansing the wound? ( Ano nga solusyon it diri naangay
pan limpyo hin samad?
A. Betadine (Betadine)
B. Normal Saline (Normal Saline)
C. Lotion ( lotion)
D. Hydrogen peroxide ( Hydrogen peroxide)

6. According to the RYB guide for wound care, what should you do if the wound area is
yellow? ( Pama-age tikang ha RYB para han paglimpyo hit samad, ano tim bubuhaton kun an
samad ng dulaw na?)
A. Protect it ( protektaran)
B. Cleanse it (huhugasan)
C. Debride it (hahamisan)
D. Cover it (tatabonan)
7. Would you let the wound be open to air? ( Papabay-an mula ba na abre an samad?)
A. Yes, to minimize the infection (OO, para maibanan an impeksyon)
B. Yes, to dry the infected area (OO, para magmara an apektado nga dapit?)

44
C. No, wound healing best occurs when the wound is kept moist (Diri, an samad mas
nauupay kun kin papabay an la mahulos-hulos)
D. No, to prevent further injury (diri, para malikayan an mas grabe na injury)
8. Which of the following is not true of wounds that are treated by leaving them in open to
air. (Hain ha mga nakalista an diri tuod nga pagtambal kun kin papabay an la na nakaabre an
samad.?)
A. No dressing is applied (warai dugnit na nakabutang)
B. They are at more risk for infection (mas delikado nga impeksyon)
C. They heal more slowly (natatambal hin hinay-hinay la)
D. All of the above (ngatanan nga nakabutang ha igbaw)
9. What medicine would you give to a person with an infected wound? ( Ano nga medisina it
im ihahatag ha tawo nga may samad?
A. Biogesic (Biogesic)
B. Neozep ( Neozep)
C. Amoxcicillin (Amoxcicillin)
D. None of the above (Ngatanan nga nakabutang ha igbaw)
10. If a person comes to you with a stabbed wound you would: (Kun may duma-op ha m
nga nabuno, anu tim bubuhaton?)
A. Remove the knife from the patients body and call an ambulance (Tanggala an kutsilyo
dida han kin buno nga pasyente ngan tawag hin ambulansya)
B. Put a Bandage around the area and apply pressure ( Butange hin dugnit ngan dun-i)
C. Leave it as it is and call an ambulance ( Baya-e ngan tawag hin ambulansya)
D. All of the above (ngatanan nga nakabutang ha igbaw)

C. FRACTURE

1. One of the primary objectives when administering first aid is to? ( usa nga labaw nga
tuyo kun naghahataghin first aid?)

A. to save life(para masalbar an kinabuhi)


B. maintain breathing(para ma maintain an paghinga)
C. prevent permanent injury(para malikyan it pirmingainjury)
D. minimize infection(para maibanan it impeksyon)
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2. If you suspect head or neck injuries from a person you would: (Kun nagduduga nga
may-ada ulo o leog nga injury ha tawo, ano tim bubuhaton:)

A. keep the injured person lying flat until professional medical assistance arrives (Ipa
patag hiya paghigda hasta may umabot it medical assistance)
B. put him in a sitting position (Ipa lingkod an pasyente nga posisyon)
C. carry him to a nearby hospital (Alsaha hiya ha pinakaharani nga hospital)
D. None of the above

3. To avoid causing further pain or further injury, shoes may have to be?(Para makaiwas
hin mas duroy nga kaulol o injury, aanhon mo it sapatos)

Your answer:
A. pulled off(tanggalon)
B. cut off(utdon)
C. left on (dire tanggalon )
D. none of the above (waray hairanga tanan nga nakalista)

4. What should you do prior to splinting? (Ano tim hihimoun bag-o mag splinting)

A. Straighten all broken or dislocated bones (Tadunga and mga nabari nga tul-an o
dislokar nga tul-an)
B. loosen the splint (Pahukala an splint)
C. apply only little force (Dun-i hin gutiay na kusog)
D. none of the above (Waray ha nakalista)

5. Casualties should be carried FEET FIRST when transported so that?(Dapatit pagalsa hit
pasyentedapatuna it tiilkun gin hahatodPara?)

A. the front bearer will be able to see where he or she is going (para an printingatawonga
nag aalsamakakita kun hain hiya Makadto)
B. the casualty's body weight will be equally distributed(para an timbang hit
pasyentepantay)
C. the rear bearer can protect the casualty from debris (para it
likodnganaalsamakaprotektar it mganahuhulogngamateryales)
D. the rear bearer can observe the casualty for any complications (para an ha
likodnganaalsamakakita it mgacomplikasyon it Pasyente)

6. The accepted treatment for a sprained ankle is? (Ano it acceptado nga tambal ha nalisa
nga buko-buko)

A Remove the shoe and check for swelling using the capillary reflex method (Tanggala it
sapatos ngan panginsayuri kun may nahubag gamit hit paagi han pagpidlit hit kulo)

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B keep the shoe on, apply an ankle bandage for support, elevate and apply cold towels
(Ayaw pag tanggala an sapatos, butangi hin bandage it sapatos para pag supportar,
pagigbaw ngan butangi hin matugnaw nga towalya)

C keep the shoe on, apply an ankle.(Ayaw pagtanggala it sapatos, butangi hin splint an
buko-buko.

D have the victim walk or move as soon as possible to prevent stiffness (Palakta an
bikitima o pagi-usa dayon para pag prebentar panig-a)

7. What is the appropriate treatment for a suspected broken shoulder? (Ano it maupay
nga tambal para ha may possible nga bari nga sugbong)

A. apply a simple sling, bind the sling to the chest with cravat (Butangi hin simple nga
sling ngan higta ha dughan gamit hin dugnit)
B. use the cross your heart padded chest support method
C. use the fail chest protection system
D. apply a modified Johnson traction splint

8. Which statement about a simple sling is true? (Ano nga

A. the part of the sling against the chest goes over the shoulder on the injured arm
B. the pigtail protects the neck from injury from the sling
C. the injured hand should be four to six inches higher than the elbow
D. the part of the sling furthest away from the chest passes over the shoulder on the
injured arm

9. Which injury is the priority? (Ano nga injury ut prioridad?)

A. Bleeding arm (Nagdudugo nga braso)


B. Broken leg (Nabari nga tul-an ha paa)
C. Bleeding mouth (Nagdudugo nga baba)
D. none of the above (Waray ha nakalista ha igbaw)

10. What should you do in an injured foot? ( Ano tim bubuhaton ha injured na tiil?)

A. Apply warm (Bubutngan hin mapaso-paso)


B. apply cold (Bubutasngan hin matugnaw)
C. apply ointment (Bubutangan hin uggwento)
D. none of the above (waray ha nakalista)
D. CPR (CARDIOPULMONARY RESUCIATITION)

1. If you neeed to call an emergency number, what should you tell to the dispatcher?

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A. describe the emergency
B. Give your name and the telephone number of the phone you are using to make the call
C. give the exact address where the emergency occurred
D. ALL of the above

2. The ABC's of basic life support are?(It ABC hit basic life support ?)

Your answer:
A. open airway, control bleeding, restore circulation
B. open airway, restore breathing, remain calm
C. open airway, restore breathing, control breathing
D. open airway, restore breathing, restore circulation

3. What is the rate of rescue breathing (breaths per minute) for an infant?(Anu it
katumbasngarescue breathing ngakadaminuto ha baby?)

A. 10
B. 20
C. 15
D. 25

4. Which artery must be located to check an infant's pulse?(Hain nga artery o ugat it
imobibilngonkunmacheckka hit pulso hit baby?)

Your answer:
A. radial
B. femoral
C. carotid
D. brachial

5.When performing infant chest compressions, you use?(Kun magbuhatkahin chest


compression ha baby, dapatmagamitkahin?)

A. the heel of one hand(tikod it usangakamot)


B. both hands(duwangakamot)
C. your middle and ring finger(butngangansurul-utan hit sing-singngatudlo)
D. none of the above(warayhairangatanan)

6. When performing adult chest compression, you use? Kun nagbubuhatkahin chest
copmpression ha bata, dapatmagamitkahin

A. the heel of one handhand (tikod it usangakamot)


B. both hands (duwangakamot)
C. your middle and index fingers (butnganganhintuturongatudlo)
D. none of the above (warayhairangatanan)

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7. The rate of chest compressions for an infant is at least _____ per minute?(Pira it
katumbas ha usakaminuto kun nagcchest compression ka ha baby?)

A. 120
B. 100
C. 80
D. 60

8.The rate of chest compression for a adult is at least ____ per minute? (Katumbasnga
chest compression ha batakadaminute?)

A. 100
B. 120
C. 60 to 80
D. 80 to 100

9.The ratio of compression to ventilations during infant CPR is? (Pira it katumbasnga
compression ngan ventilation kunnahatag hit CPR ha baby?)

A. 30 to 2
B. 5 to 2
C. 15 to 1
D. 5 to 1

10. The ratio of compressions to ventilations during adult one person CPR is?

A. 5 to 1
B. 15 to 1
C. 5 to 2
D. 30 to 2

QuizCenter 2000 - 2002. This quiz was generated at Quiz Center on DiscoverySchool.com.
All rights reserved.
www. Abc-traing.com-uk/quiz-Questions-for first aid-p-52.html
APPENDIX F

SCHEDULE OF ACTIVITIES

PHASE I

The Conceptual Phase

STEP 1: Formulating and delivering the problem February 20, 2015

49
STEP 2: Reviewing the related literature March 3-5, 2015

STEP 3: Developing the theoretical Framework March 6, 2015

STEP 4: Formulating Hypothesis March 6, 2015

PHASE II:

The Design and Planning Phase March 7, 2015

STEP 5: Selecting a Research Design March 7, 2015

STEP 6: Identifying the population to be studied March 8-10, 2015

STEP 7: Specifying method to collect the research data March 11-12, 2015

STEP 8: Designing then sampling plan August 26, 2015

STEP 9: Finalizing and reviewing the research plan August 27, 2015

STEP 10: Conducting the pilot study and making revisions October 3, 2015

PHASE III:

The Empirical Phase

STEP 11: Collecting the data Oct. 13 Dec. 22, 2015

STEP 12: Preparing the data form analysis January 17, 2016

PHASE IV:

The Analytical Phase

STEP 13: Analyzing the Data February 16, 2016

STEP 14: Interpreting the Results February 25, 2016

PHASE V:

50
The Dissemination Phase

STEP 15: Communicating the Findings February 29, 2016

APPENDIX G

BREAK DOWN OF EXPENSES

EXPENSES AMOUNT

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Photocopy P1,500.00

Internet P1,000.00

Printing P1,250.00

Fare P930.00

Miscellaneous P520.00

TOTAL P5,200.00

APPENDIX H

PROFILE OF THE RESEARCHERS

Name: Carissa Maynette Gauran Domingo


Age: 19 years old

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Birthday: July 18, 1996
Birthplace: Tacloban City
Address: Brgy. Sto Nino, Tanauan Leyte
Elementary School Graduated: St. Therese Educational Foundation of Tacloban Inc.
Secondary School Graduated: St. Therese Educational Foundation of Tacloban Inc.
Motto: Every accomplishment starts with the decision to try.

Name: Kelvin Burdeos German


Age: 20 years old
Birthday: August 25,1995

Birthplace: Maripipi, Biliran


Address: Hagonoy Maripipi Biliran
Elementary School Graduated: Maripipi Central School
Secondary School Graduated: Maripipi National Vocational School
Motto: Aim high and hit the mark.

Name: Marie Danica de la Pena Matienzo


Age: 21 years old
Birthday: September 30,1994
Birthplace: Tacloban City
Address: San Jose, Tacloban City
Elementary School Graduated: St. Therese Educational Foundation of Tacloban Inc.
Secondary School Graduated: St. Therese Educational Foundation of Tacloban Inc.
Motto: If you believe, you can achieve.

Name: Michelle Quelbio Raby


Age: 19 years old
Birthday: August 14, 1996
Birthplace: Tacloban City
Address: 71 brgy. Baras palo leyte
Elementary School Graduated: St. Therese Educational Foundation of Tacloban Inc.

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Secondary School Graduated: St. Therese Educational Foundation of Tacloban Inc.
Motto: Accept the challenges so that you can feel the exhilaration of victory.

Name: Elyssa Jeanne Conde Salve


Age: 21 years old
Birthday: December 1, 1994
Birthplace: Tacloban City
Address: 75 Sto. Nino St. Burauen, Leyte
Elementary School Graduated: Dagami South Central School
Secondary School Graduated: Burauen National High School
Motto: To accomplish great things, we must not only act, but also dream; not only plan, but also
believe; not only follow, but also lead.- Anatole France

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