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Title:

Tzeltal Grammar

Author:

Publication Date:

1963

Series:

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Keywords:

Linguistics, Dissertations

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Submitted

T zeltal

grammar

By

Terrence S co tt Kaufman

A.B.

(U niversity of Chicago) 1959

DISSERTATION

in p a rtia l

sa tisfa c tio n

of

the

requirements for

DOCTOR OP PHILOSOPHY

in

L inguistics

in

the

GRADUATE DIVISION

of

the

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA,

BERKELEY

Approved

the degree of

Committee

in

Charge

Deposited

in

the U niversity Library,

at

Berkeley,

Date

Librarian

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner.

Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.

i

i

TABLE OF CONTENTS

10

Introduction

.

.

.

.

1

11 Acknowledgments

 

1

12 The Position

of T zeltal

 

" 2

13 Format of the

Grammar.

.

.

4

20

Phonemics

.

.

5

21 Introduction andD e fin itio n s

 

5

22 T zeltal

Phonemes

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

. 5

23 Articulatory Description of

Segmentals

.

. 6

24 Suprasegmentals

 

9

25 Phonetic

Symbols

 

.

10

26 A llo p h o n e s

 

.11

27 D istributions

 

of Foreign

 

Phonemes

.

.

.14

28

I

D istributions

of

Phonemes in

General

.

.

.15

29

Paralinguistic

Features

 

17

20A

Minimal P airs

 

18

30

Morphophonemics

 

.

.21

31 Introduction

 

*

*21

32 D e f i n i t i o n s

.

.

.

.

*23

33 Morphophonemes

 

.

2g

34 Morphophonemic Rules

 

*24

35 Vowel Reduction

 

.

.

.

.

83

36 D istributions

 

of Morphophonems

.

.

*35

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i

Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission

40

Grammar:

Introduction

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

. 3

8

41

D efinitions

 

.

.

.

.

38

42

Alternants

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

. 3

8

43

Types of Morphemes

 

39

44

Roots

.

.

.

.

39

45

A f f i x e s

 

.

42

46

Canonical

Shapes of Morpnemes

 

46

47

T a c t i c s

 

. 4

7

48

Morphology:

Desinence Formation

 

48

50

D e r i v a t i o n

 

50

51

Derivation by A ffixation

 

50

52

Derivation by Compounding

 

146

60

The

Structure

of N u m e r a l s

 

150

61

Numeral Expressions

 

150

62

Numeral

P h r a s e s

 

• 153

63

D istribution of ta

 

158

64

Specific

Numeral C la ssifiers

 

159

65

R e d u p l i c a t i o n

 

163

66

Vagueness in Numeral Reference

 

164

67

S p ecific

C la ssifiers

 

of Limited D istribution .

164

68

Order Properties of NumeralPhrases .

.

.

164

69

Syntactic

Functions of Numeral Phrases

.

.

166

70

I n f l e c t i o n

 

167

71 Paradigmatic

 

Charts of

In flectio n a l

A ffixes

.

167

72 In flectio n a l

Categories

 

.

.

.

.

.

174

73 A nalytical Tables

 

of

In flectio n a l

A ffixes

.

175

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80

Allomorphs of Root Morphemes

187

90

Syntax

192

91 In tro d u ctio n

192

92 Abbreviations

192

93 Syntactic WordT y p e s

194

94 P h r a s e s

200

95 Clauses

.

*

219

i

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10

INTRODUCTION

11 Acknowledgments

I

wish to

make grateful

acknowledgement to

lowing personsi

Brent Berlin

(Stanford U niversity),

the

f o l­

Mary R.

Haas

(University

of

C alifornia,

Berkeley),

Eric

P.

Hamp (Univer­

s ity

of

Chicago), David

G.

Hays

(RAND Corporation),

Nicholas

 

I

Hopkins (Chicago), D ell

H.

Hymes

(Berkeley),

Elaine D. Marlowe

(Berkeley),

Norman A.

McQuown (Chicago),

Duane G. Metzger

(Stanford),

A.

Kimball Romney (Stanford),

Harvey B.

Sarles,

and William F.

I have had with them th is

Shipley

(Berkeley).

To the

rewarding contacts

and present

study owes it s

existence

form.

Their

contributions

are too

numerous and varied to

allow

sp ecifica tio n ;

they

involve

training

in

the methodology

of descriptive

lin g u is tic s ,

providing the

environment for

research,

and serving as

interlocutors

in

the

resolution

of

analytic

problems.

Their

friendly

encouragement is

deeply

appreciated.

At various times

since the

beginning of my work on

T zeltal

I have been employed by the Anthropology Research

department of Stanford U niversity,

and the L inguistics

at Berkeley.

department of the U niversity of C alifornia

I have received

research funds from the

National

Science

Foundation,

and from the National

In stitu te

of Mental

Health.

 

The machine translation

project of the RAND Corp­

oration

has provided

concordances of a large

corpus of textual

m aterials,

and analyzing

which has made the task

syntax an easier

one.

of assembling a vocabulary

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2

12 The Genetic

and Geographical Position

of T zeltal

T z e lta l.is

a member of the Mayan family

of lan­

guages,

which includes

about twenty other

languages

in

Mexico,

Guatemala,

and B ritish

Honduras.

It

is

spoken by

about 100,000

Indians

liv in g

in the

State

of

Chiapas,

Mexico.

Perhaps 30 percent

T zeltal

of these

speak some Spanish.

is

spoken in

the

follow ing

Indian towns,

each, of

which is

a d istin c t

corporate

en tity:

Pinol'a

(V illa

la s

Rosas)

Aguacatenango

Amatenangc

Chanal

Oxchuc

San Martin Abasolo

Tenejapa

Cancuc

San Carlos Altamirano

 

Sibac3

Guaquitepec

Tenango ,

Sitalci

Bachaj<5n

Chil6n

Tayaldn

Petalcingo.

It

is

also

spoken in

Ocosingo,

where the majority of the pop­

ulation

relig io u s

speaks T zelta l,

hierarchy.

It

but where there

is

is

also

spoken in

no Indian

c iv il-

several

settlem ents

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which are p o litic a lly

dialects

of

T zeltal.

parts

of towns

speaking d ifferen t

The geographical

extent

of

T zeltal was formerly

greater,

including towns which now speak Tojolabal,

a

related

language,

towns where now only Spanish is

spoken,

and one town the

s ite

of which is

now uninhabited.

On the

other

hand,

T zeltal

speakers are

now expanding in to

the

jungle which lie s

to

the

east

of th eir

territo ry

and which

was formerly more heavily populated by Lacanddn Mayas,

speakers of a related

language,

of whom only about

200 survive

at

preserve.

The number of speakers of T zeltal

has probably

never since

the

Conquest been greater than i t

is

now.

Each of the

towns lis te d

above has a separate

d ia lect

which

can be defined by a complex of

lin g u istic and

cultural

featu res.

I n itia l

attempts

have been made to

define

d ia lect

regions

on the basis

of purely lin g u istic

features,

using the methods of d ia lect

geography.

The w riter's

ten tative

a) Southern T zeltal:

c la ssific a tio n

of T zeltal

d ialects

Aguacatenango,

Pinola,

is

Amatenango

as follows:

b) West Central

T zeltal:

Tenejapa,

Cancuc

c) East Central

T zeltal:

Chanal,

Oxchuc,

San Matfn Abasolo

d) Eastern Tazeltal:

San Carlos Altamirano,

Sibac5,

Ocosingo

e) Northern T zeltal:

Guaquitepec,

Tenango,

S ita l£ ,

Bachaj6n,

 

t

Childn,

Yajaldn,

Petalcingo.

 

The present

study is

a description

of the

Agua­

catenango d ia lect

of T zeltal.

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Aguacatenango is

a nuclear

Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

town of about 1200 inhabitants,

of whom about h alf have

some

knowledge of Spanish.

The population

has remained at about

1200

ever

since

the

f ir s t

time

i t

was lis te d

in

census

records,

ca.

1620.

13 Format of the

Grammar

addition

This

to

the

grammar contains

the follow ing

Introduction

(10);

20

Phonemics

30

Morphophonemics

40

Grammar:

Introduction

50

Derivation

60

Numerals

70

In flection

80

Root Alternants

90

Syntax

chapters,

in

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20

PHONEMICS

21 Introduction and D efinitions

respect

to

The follow ing d efin itio n s

w ill

be adhered to with

phones,

phonemes,

and allophones.

a)

The allophones

of

a phoneme are,

(1)

in

complementary

d

istrib u tion

or free

variation with one another,

(2)

phonetically

sim ilar

to

one another.

 

b)

A given phone is

always an allophone

of the

same phoneme,

no matter where i t

occurs.

 

22

T

zeltal

Phonemes

 

22.1

Consonants

(C)

>

>

P

t

b

f

m

n

 

1

r

r

 

w

22.2

Vowels

(V)

i

u

e

o

 

a

22.3

Stresses

 

V

C

9

v

c

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)
k

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6

22.4 Junctures

+

22.5 Contours

(§)

 

-?

t

 

,

23

Description

of

Segmental

Phonemes by Features

of

Articulation

 

23.1

/p

t

k/

voiceless

fo r tis

stops,

aspirated

 

. in

some environments,

unaspirated

in

others

 

a.

/p /

 

b ilabial

 

b.

/ t /

apicodental

c.

/k /

dorsomidpalatal

 
 

23.2 /? /

 

g lo tta l stop

(or

’catch’ ),

 
 

aspirated

in

some environments,

unaspirated

in

others

 

23.3 /p

t

k/

voiceless

fo r tis

g lottalized

stops,

 

aspirated

in

some environments,

unaspirated

in

others

 

a.

/p /

 

bilabial

 
 

!

b.

/ t /

apicodental

 

c.

/k /

dorsomidpalatal

 
 

23.4 / I

c /

voiceless

fo r tis

aoical

a ffrica tes,

 

optionally

aspirated

in

some en­

vironments,

unaspirated

in

others

 

a.

Iji/

 

apicodental

 

with

r i l l

spirant

 
 

release

 

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|.

/cl

 

.

apicoalveolar with groove spirant.

|

release

 
 

7

7

23.5

/

/

&/

voiceless

fo rtis

glottalized

apical

 

a ffrica tes,

optionally aspirated

 

in

some environments, ' unaspirated

in

others

 

7

 

i.

//./

 

apicodental with

r i l l

spirant

 
 

release

 
 

).

/ c /

 

apicoalveolar with

groove spirant

 
 

release

.

 

23.6

/

f /

 

v o iceless

la b ia l

s l i t

spirant*,

 
 

labiodental,

optionally b ilab ial

 

i

23.7

/s

 

s /

voiceless

apical

spirants,

 
 

optionally aspirated

in

some en­

 

vironments,

long in -oth ers,

and in

others

neither

 
 

i.

/ s /

 

apicodental

r i l l

spirant

 

).

/ s

/

apicoalveolar

groove-spirant

 

23.8

/h /

nonsyllabic

vo iceless

vowel with

 
 

i

the

same a rticu lation

as

an

ad­

jacent vowel phoneme in the

same

syllable

 

23.9

^b

d

 

g /

voiced

obstruents,

stops

in

some

 

environments and spirants

others

in

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.

/b /

 

b ila b ia l;

when a spirant may be

 
 

long,

or aspirated,

or neither,

depending on the

environment

 

b .

/d /

apicodental

 

c .

/V

 

dorsomidpalatal

 

23.10

/m

n/

voiced

nasal

continuants,

aspirated

 

in

some environments,

long in

 

others,

and in

others

neither

 

a .

/m/

b ilab ial

 

b .

/n /

apicodental

and dorsomidpalatal

 

23.11

/ l

/

voiced

apicodental

la teral

contin­

 

uant,

aspirated

in

some environ­

ments,

long in

others,

and in

 

others

neither

 

23.12

/ r

/

voiced

apicoalveolar

flap ,

 
 

aspirated

in

some environments,

long

in

others,

and in

others

neither

 

23.13

/?

/

hpicoalveolar

t r ill;

usually

 
 

voiced,

optionally voiceless

23.14

/w /

 

nonsyllabic

high back rounded

 

vowel,

with additional features

of

aspiration,

length,

and rubbing,

according to

environment

23.15

/

y /

 

nonsyllabic

high front

unrounded

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vowel,

with additional features

Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.

of aspiration,

length,

and rubbing,

 

according to

environment

23,. 16

/u /

a lower-high back rounded voiced

 

vowel

23.17

/o /

a mean-mid back rounded voiced

 

vowel

23.18

/ i /

a lower-high

front unrounded

 

voiced

vowel

23.19

/a /

a low non-front unrounded voiced

 

vowel

23.20

/ e /

a mid non-back unrounded vowel

24

Suprasegmentals

24.1 Pitch phenomena have not been fu lly

analyzed.

The

symbols for

contours

cover phenomena of pitch

and

terminal

countours,

and are

a ll

d ifferen t

from each

other;

i t

is

probable

that

more phonemic

e n titie s

would be recognized

in

an exhaustive an alysis.

24.2 More than one primary stress

may occur in

a stretch

between contours.

Stresses

become louder as the

end of

a contour approaches,

so that

the

la st

primary

stress

is

louder than the n ex t-la st,

the

n ex t-la st

louder than the

previous

one,

and so

forth.

which are always

The same holds

le s s

primary str e sse s.

for

secondary stresses,

prominent than neighboring

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1 0

25 Conventions of

Phonetic

25.1 D efinitions

Symbology and Description

a) aspiration

Aspirated release

in

free

variation

with v o iceless

gemination followed

 

by v o iceless

echo vowel.

 

b) sy lla b le

Every vowel

is

a sy lla b le

peak.

Syllable d iv isio n s

occur according

to

the

following patterns:

 

1.

/

V

C V

/

[

V

.C V

]

2.

/

V

C C (C )V

,/

[

V

C ,C (C )V

],

25.2

Symbols

C

9

ch

C-.

I

c

V

9

V1

V*

V

J

where

(C)

may be zero,

one,

or more

consonants.

 

v

o iceless

consonant

 

aspirated

consonant

long consonant

g

lo tta lized

consonant

v

o iceless

vowel

 

echo, vow el

 

long vowel

very

short vowel

 

[n

£ [<f]

 

[f]

£ Bf'j

non-syllabic v o iceless

vowel

of same

quality as voiced vowel in

syllable

same

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!

|

'

11

[I

D

E -/*L]

respectively

are ten se,

but lower than

[ i

u

e

o ],

26 Allophones and Their D istributions

26.1 V oiceless

Basic

Phonemes

#-V

V-C

V- +

V-jf

 

V-V

V - a

C-V

C

c

c

^

r

cl cl? l

Ch

c

c

Ch £ c1c1v1

C

c

c

C

C

c

c

c £ tcv, X

0

c

c-

c-

£c1o1y1

Symbol.

P)

?J

/p /

N

/ V

M

ill

/ t f

/k /

III

m

ill

i

n

4

k

>

P

>

t

k

'

1

/

)

t s

t 5

»

Is

'

ii j

t sl

m f

I bI

III s

N h

S l

V

\

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1 2

/b /

/d/

/g /.

26.2 Voiced Obstruents

Basic

rr-V

&

\T

Symbol

c-v

St

b

d

g

Sp

£

f

5

St

26.3 Voiced Continuants

/w/

N

h

h

i

i

Basic

Symbol

w

26.4

Vowels

Extra

Short

»/

I

V

e

*/

A

#-V

V-C

v-v

■V-A

c-v

Short

I

V

E

0

A

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner.

v-c

V“ A

v-v

Sp

V-fr

Normal

I

E

a

v-t

Sp*

V-#

V-#

SpSp ~SpSpV,

• -L

cc £ccv,

X

Long

I*

E*

a*

Glottal

9

I-

1

9

a’

.

Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.

26.4

Vowels

(continued)

Extra

Short

Normal

Long

G lottal

.Short

/

0 /

V

1j

i/L .

/L

/u/

a)

b)

Vowels are

extra

U

short when unstressed

before

following a stressed

vowel.

Vowels are

short when unstressed

before /(/.,

c) Vowels are normal when,

(l)

unstressed

before

a consonant

a consonant

cluster

or a vowel,

before

/+ /

or

/# / ,

preceding a

stressed

syllab le

(unless

following a stressed

sy lla b le),

and'when

(2)

stressed

before

a consonant

clu ster.

d) Vowels are long when stressed

a vowel,

or /$/.

before

a sin gle

consonant,

e) Vowels are g lo tta l

preceding g lo tta lized

consonants.

a)

26 0 5

S tresses,

Junctures,

and Contours

S tresses,

junctures,

and contours

have certain

phonetic

features

of th eir

own.

In addition,

they determine

certain allophones of certain segmental phonemes with

which they occur.

b)

c)

Every utterance begins with

/+ /

and ends with

/ . / , / !

/ ,

or

/? /.

(1)

Vowels with stress

are

long

i f

in

an open sy lla b le .

(2)

Vowels

are

short and Consonants normal before

/ * / .

(3)

Vowels are normal and non-stop

consonants long

before

/+ /•

(4).

Stressed

vowels are long and consonants aspirated

before

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14

27 D istributions

of

/b d

g

f

r

y / in

Loans

 

27.1

Three types

of

speakers along the

qcculturated-

 

.'conservative'axis

can be distinguished

on the

basis

of

the d istrib u tion s

of the

above phonemes

in

loans

from Spanish.

I

w ill

c a ll

them

’acculturated’ ,

’average’ ,

and

’ conservative’ .

/

b / ,

/ d/

All

speakers

have /b /

and

/ d/

in

it ia lly

and in ter-

 

vocally.

Where acculturated

speakers.have /b /

after

/m/

and / d/ after

consonants,

average and con­

servative

speakers

have

/ p/ and / t / , resp ectively.

/

g/

All

have / g / -in itia lly

and in terv o ca lica l-

 

ly

speakers before / a / .

Where acculturated

and average-

speakers

have / g /

in it ia l

and in tervocalic

before

/e ,

i /

and in

the

environment V-C,

conservative

 

speakers

have /y / .

Where acculturated

and average

 

speakers

have

/ g/

in it ia lly

and in terv o ca lica lly

before /o ,

u /,

conservative

speakers

have /w /.

Where acculturated

speakers

have. / g /

after

conso­

/ f /

nants, / f / i s

average

found in

and conservative

use

speakers

have /k /. speakers.

only by acculturated

Where acculturated

speakers

have

/ f / ,

average and

conservative

speakers

have /h p /

in terv o ca lica lly ,

 

/p /

elsewhere.

 

/? /

/? /

is

used

only by acculturated

speakers.

It

occurs

in it ia lly

and in ter v o ca lic a lly

only.

Where

acculturated

servative

speakers have / ? / ,

have

/ r / .

speakers

average

and con­

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner.

Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.

A

!

/

y /

a fter

two consonants.

Where'acculturated

15

speakers

 

have /y /

after

two consonants,

average

and conser­

vative

speakers

have zero.

 

27.2

Examples

 
 

Acculturated

Average

Conservative

'

cow’

b£ka

b5ka

b5ka

'

Saturday1

s^baro

s£baro

Scibaro

'custom'

kostumbre

kostiSmpre

kostilmpre

'Sunday'

domingo

dominko

domfnko

' sou'

kaldo

kdlto

k£lto

' earning'

g5n£r

gan^r

gan£r

'kerosene'

g£s

g£s

g£s

'Michael'

migll

m igll

m iyll

'

Peter'

pSgro

plgro

p£yro

'fau lt'

f^lta

p£lta

p£lta

'representative'

hfyerdl

 

hpyer6l

hpyerdl

'co ffee'

kaf£h

kahp£h

kahp£h

'receipt'

resfbo

resibo

reslbo

'automobile'

k5ro

klro

k£ro

'permission'

les^nsya

les^nsa

lesln sa

 

28

D istributions of Phonemes in General

 

28.1

Limitations

on D istributions

a)

No vowel may occur

after

any juncture.

b)

Geminate consonants do not

occur.

c)

/h

/d o e s

not

occur before

contours.

 

d)

No more than

one consonant may occur a fter

a

vowel,before

a

juncture,

except

a sequence /n /

+ a ffrica te

or sib ila n t.

R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner.

Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.

1 6

e) No native

morph begins with more than one

consonant pre­

f)

ceding a vowel,

except

some onomatopoeic

forms in

C+r.

/ f / ,

/ ? /,

/ d / ,

and / g/

occur only in

loans from Spanish.

They never occur before

any juncture,

or

at

the

end of

any morph.

g) For monolingual

speakers

the

occurrence

of

/ f /

and/or

/? /

is

extremely rare

or nonexistent.

 

h) For"monolingual

speakers the

occurence

of

/ d/

and / g/

except

after

existent.

juncture and between vowels- is

28.2

Sequences of

Phonemes

rare

or non­

a) VV sequences may occur.

All

 

b) /§ /)

/ s / ,

and /h /

may be prefixed

to

most root morphemes,

so

that

in native words

in it ia l

clu sters

of

/ s / ,

/ § /,

or

/h /

+C may occur

in the

environment #-V.

 

c) root morphs end in

Native

V,

C,

or hC^ where

is

/p

t/ck,

pt^tk/;

su ffix es

begin with V or C.

Most

d)

CC sequences,

and many hCC sequences,

occur between

vowels.

In loans

.

from Spanish a ll

or most

are found

in the