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Jin (Korean state)

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Not to be confused with the later Balhae kingdom, originally named Jin.

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Jin state
()

4th century B.C.2nd


century B.C.

Korea in 108 B.C.

Capital Not specified

Proto-Korean and
Languages
Dravidian[1][2][3]

Religion Korean shamanism,


Animism, Ancestor
worship

Government Political union

Historical era Ancient

Establishment 4th century B.C.

Succeeded by

Samhan 2nd century B.C.

Succeeded by

Mahan confederacy

Byeonhan confederacy

Jinhan confederacy

South Korea,
Today part of
North Korea

Jin
Hangul

Hanja

Revised Romanization Jin-guk

McCuneReischauer Chin'guk

Part of a series on the

History of Korea

Prehistory

Jeulmun
Mumun

Ancient

Gojoseon ? 108 BC

Jin state

ProtoThree Kingdoms

Buyeo

Goguryeo

Okjeo

Dongye

Samhan

o Ma

o Byeon

o Jin

Han Commanderies

Three Kingdoms

Goguryeo 37 BC 668 AD

Baekje 18 BC 660 AD

Silla 57 BC 935 AD

Gaya confederacy 42 562

NorthSouth States

Later Silla (Unified Silla) 57 BC 935 AD


Balhae 698 926

Later Three Kingdoms

Later Baekje 892 936

Later Goguryeo (Taebong) 901 918

Later Silla 57 BC 935 AD

Unitary dynastic period

Goryeo 918 1392

Joseon 1392 1897

Korean Empire 1897 1910

Colonial period

Japanese rule 1910 1945

Provisional Government 1919 1948

Division of Korea

Military Governments 1945 1948

North Korea 1948 present

South Korea 1948 present

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The state of Jin (Korean pronunciation: [tin]) was an early Korean Iron Age state which occupied
some portion of the southern Korean peninsula during the 2nd and 3rd centuries BC, bordering
the Korean kingdom Gojoseon to the north. Its capital was somewhere south of the Han River. It
preceded the Samhan confederacies, each of which claimed to be successors of the Jin state.[4]

Contents
1 Name

2 History

3 Archeology

4 Legacy

5 See also

6 References

o 6.1 Citations

o 6.2 Bibliography

Name
"Jin" is the Revised Romanization of Korean , originally written in Korean Chinese
characters (hanja). This character's Old Chinese pronunciation has been reconstructed as /*[d]r/
[5]
and originally referred to the 5th earthly branch of the Chinese and Korean zodiacs, a division
of the orbit of Jupiter identified with the dragon. This was associated with a bearing of 120
(between ESE and SE) but also with the two-hour period between 7 and 9 am, leading it to be
associated with dawn and the direction east.

A variant romanization is Chin.

History
It is not clear as to how well defined of an organized state Jin was. It seems likely that it was a
federation of small states much like the subsequent Samhan. For the state to be able to contend
with Wiman Joseon and send embassies to the court of Han Dynasty China, there was probably
some level of stable central authority. Korean historian Ki-baek Lee (1984, p. 24) also suggests
that the kingdom's attempt to open direct contacts "suggests a strong desire on the part of Chin
[Jin] to enjoy the benefits of Chinese metal culture." However, for the most part Wiman Joseon
prevented direct contact between Jin and China.[6]

King Jun of Gojoseon is reported to have fled to Jin after Wiman seized his throne and
established Wiman Joseon. Some believe that Chinese mentions of Gaeguk or Gaemaguk (
, Kingdom of armored horses) refers to Jin. Goguryeo is said to have conquered "Gaemaguk"
in 26 AD, but this may refer to a different tribe in northern Korea.

Records are somewhat contradictory on Jin's demise: it either became the later Jinhan, or
diverged into the Samhan as a whole. Archeological records of Jin have been found centered in
territory that later became Mahan.[4]

Archeology
Archaeologically, Jin is commonly identified with the Korean bronze dagger culture, which
succeeded the Liaoning bronze dagger culture in the late first millennium BCE.[4] The most
abundant finds from this culture have been in southwestern Korea's Chungcheong and Jeolla
regions. This suggests that Jin was based in the same area, which roughly coincides with the
fragmentary historical evidence.[citation needed] Artifacts of the culture are similar to Baiyue and are
found throughout southern Korea and were also exported to the Yayoi people of Kysh, Japan.
[7]

Legacy
Jin was succeeded by the Samhan: Mahan, Jinhan and Byeonhan. Chinese historical text,
Records of the Three Kingdoms says that Jinhan is the successor of Jin state, [8] while Book of the
Later Han writes that Mahan, Jinhan and Byeonhan were all the past Jin state and there were 78
states.[9]
The name of Jin continued to be used in the name of the Jinhan confederacy and in the name
"Byeonjin," an alternate term for Byeonhan. In addition, for some time the leader of Mahan
continued to call himself the "Jin king," asserting nominal overlordship over all of the Samhan
tribes.