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in

CIRCULAR MOTION

1. ANGULAR DISPLACEMENT

Introduction: Angle subtended by position vector of a particle moving

along any arbitrary path w.r.t. some fixed point is called angular

displacement.

.in

ee

itj

ki

ac

S

cr

(i) Angular displacement is a vector quantity.

(ii) Its direction is perpendicular to plane of rotation and given by

right hand screw rule.

Note: Clockwise angular displacement is taken as negative and anticlockwise

displacement as positive.

arc linear displacement

angle = =

radius radius

(iii) For circular motion S = r

(iv) Its unit is radian (in M.K.S)

Note : Always change degree into radian, if it occurs in numerical

problems.

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360o

Note : 1 radian = radian = 180

2

(v) It is a dimensionless quantity i.e. dimension [M0L0T0]

Angular Displacement

Ex.1 A particle completes 1.5 revolutions in a circular path of radius 2 cm.

The angular displacement of the particle will be -

(in radian)

(A) 6 (B) 3

(C) 2 (D)

Sol. (D) We have angular displacement

linear displacement

=

radius of path

S .in

=

r

Here, S = n(2r)

ee

= 1.5 (2 2 102) = 6 102

6 10 2

= = 3 radian

2 10 2

itj

ki

2. ANGULAR VELOCITY

ac

particle moving in circular path.

cr

(ii) Its direction is same as that of angular displacement i.e.

perpendicular to plane of rotation.

Note : If the particle is revolving in the clockwise direction then the

direction of angular velocity is perpendicular to the plane

downwards. Whereas in case of anticlockwise direction the

direction will be upwards.

(iii) Its unit is Radian/sec

(iv) Its dimension is [M0L0T1]

2.1 Average Angular Velocity :

Total angular displacement

av =

Total time taken

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The intantaneous angular velocity is defined as the angular velocity at

some particular instant.

Instantaneous angular velocity

d

= lim =

t 0 t dt

Note: Instantaneous angular velocity can also be called as simply angular

velocity.

Ex.2 A particle revolving in a circular path completes first one third of

circumference in 2 sec, while next one third in 1 sec. The average

angular velocity of particle will be :

(in rad/sec)

(A)

2

3

(B)

3

.in

4 5

ee

(C) (D)

3 3

Total angular displacement

Sol. (A) We have av =

itj

Total time

For first one third part of circle,

ki

angular displacement,

ac

S 2r /3

1 = 1 =

r r

For second one third part of circle,

cr

2r /3 2

2 = = rad

r 3

Total angular displacement,

= 1 + 2 = 4/3 rad

Total time = 2 + 1 = 3 sec

4 /3

av = rad/s

3

4 2

= = rad/s

6 3

Hence correct answer is (A)

Ex.3 The ratio of angular speeds of minute hand and hour hand of a watch

is -

(A) 1 : 12 (B) 6 : 1

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(C) 12 : 1 (D) 1 : 6

Sol. (C) Angular speed of hour hand,

2

1 = = rad/sec

t 12 60

angular speed of minute hand,

2 12

2 = rad/sec 2 =

60 1 1

Hence correct answer is (C).

1 2

Ex.4 The angular displacement of a particle is given by = 0t + t ,

2

where 0 and are constant and 0 = 1 rad/sec, = 1.5 rad/sec2. The

angular velocity at time, t = 2 sec will be (in rad/sec) -

.in

(A) 1 (B) 5

(C) 3 (D) 4

ee

1

Sol. (D) We have = 0t + t2

2

d

itj

= 0 + t

dt

ki

will be

ac

d

= = 0 + 2

dt t2sec

cr

= 1 + 2 x 1.5 = 4 rad/sec

Hence correct answer is (D)

d d ds

We have= =

dt ds dt

1

. v

r

ds arc

[ d= , angle =

dr radius

ds

and v = = linear velocity]

dt

v = r

In vector form, v r

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Note :

(i) When a particle moves along a curved path, its linear velocity at a

point is along the tangent drawn at that point

(ii) When a particle moves along curved path, its velocity has two

components. One along the radius, which increases or decreases

the radius and another one perpendicular to the radius, which

makes the particle to revolve about the point of observation.

vsin

(iii) = =

t r .in

ee

itj

ki

ac

cr

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Ex.5 A particle moves in a circle of radius 20cm with a linear speed of

10m/s. The angular velocity will be -

(A) 50 rad/s (B) 100 rad/s

(C) 25 rad/s (D) 75 rad/s

Sol. The angular velocity is

v

=

r

Hence v = 10 m/s

r = 20 cm = 0.2 m,

= 50 rad/s

Hence correct answer is (A)

The rate of change of angular velocity is defined as angular

acceleration.

If be change in angular velocity in time t, then angular

ee

acceleration

d

itj

lim =

t 0 t dt

ki

(ii) Its direction is that of change in angular velocity

ac

(iv) Dimension : M0L0T2

cr

Ex.6 The angular velocity of a particle is given by = 1.5 t 3t2 + 2, the time

when its angular acceleration decreases to be zero will be -

(A) 25 sec (B) 0.25 sec

(C) 12 sec (D) 1.2 sec

Sol. 2

(B) Given that = 1.5t 3t + 2

d

= = 1.5 6t

dt

When = 0

1.5 6t = 0

1.5

t = = 0.25 sec

6

Hence correct answer is (B)

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ACCELERATION

Linear acceleration = Rate of change of linear

velocity

dv

a = ....(i)

dt

Angular acceleration = Rate of change of angular velocity

d

= ....(ii)

dt

From (i) & (ii)

a dv d(r)

= =

d d

d

=r [ r is constant] = r

d .in

a =r

In vector form a = r

ee

Ex.7 A particle is moving in a circular path with velocity varying with time as

itj

ki

(A) 4 rad/sec2 (B) 40 rad/sec2

ac

Sol. (C) Given v = 1.5 t2 + 2t

cr

Linear acceleration a

dv

= = 3t + 2

dt

This is the linear acceleration at time t

Now angular acceleration at time t

a 3t 2

= =

r 2 10 2

Angular acceleration at

t = 2 sec

3 22 8

()at t = 2sec = = 102

2 10 2 2

= 4 102 = 400 rad/sec2

Hence correct answer is (C)

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(i) With constant velocity a = 0, s = ut = 0 , = t

(ii) With constant (i) Average velocity (i) Average angular

acceleration v u velocity

vav =

2 2

av = 1

2

(ii) Average (ii) Average angular

acceleration acceleration

v u 1

aav = aav = 2

t t

v u (iii) = av. t =

(iii) s = vav t = t

2 1 2

t

2

(iv) v = u + at (iv) 2 = 1 + t

.in

1 2

(v) s = ut + at 1

2 (v) = 1t + t2

1 2 2

ee

(vi) s = vt at 1

2 (vi) = 2t t2

2

(vii) v2 = u2 + 2as

(vii) 2 = 1 + 2

2 2

itj

1

(viii) Sn = u + (2n 1

2 (viii) n = 1 + (2n

ki

1)a 2

displacement in 1)

ac

displacement in

cr

nth sec

(iii) With variable ds (i) = d/dt

(i) v =

acceleration dt (ii) d = dt

(ii) ds = v dt d d

(iii) = =

dv dv dt d

(iii) a = =v

dt ds (iv) d = dt

(iv) dv = a dt (v) d = d

(v) v dv = a ds

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Ex.8 A grind stone starts from rest and has a constant-angular acceleration

of 4.0 rad/sec2.The angular displacement and angular velocity, after 4

sec. will respectively be -

(A) 32 rad, 16 rad/sec (B) 16rad, 32 rad/s

(C) 64rad, 32 rad/sec (D) 32 rad, 64rad/sec

Sol. Angular displacement after 4 sec is

1

= 0t + t2

2

1 1

= t2 = 4 42

2 2

= 32 rad

Angular velocity after 4 sec

= 0 + t

= 0 + 4 4 = 16 rad/sec

Hence correct answer is (A)

.in

ee

Relation Between Angular Velocity & Angular Acceleration

Ex.9 The shaft of an electric motor starts from rest and on the application of

itj

first 2 seconds after it starts after which = 0. The angular velocity

ki

ac

(C) 30/4 rad/sec (D) 4/30 rad/sec

Sol. (A) Given = 3t t 2

cr

d

= 3t t2

dt

d = (3t t2)dt

3t2 t3

= c

2 3

at t = 0, = 0

2 3

3t t

c = 0,=

2 3

Angular velocity at

t = 2 sec, t = 2 sec

3 8 10

= (4) = rad/sec

2 3 3

Since there is no angular acceleration after 2 sec

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10

Hence correct answer is (A)

(i) A body or particle moving in a curved path always moves

effectively in a circle at any instant.

(ii) The velocity of the particle changes moving on the curved path,

this change in velocity is brought by a force known as centripetal

force and the acceleration so produced in the body is known as

centripetal acceleration.

(iii) The direction of centripetal force or acceleration is always towards

the centre of circular path.

.in

ee

itj

ki

ac

cr

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11

v2

P2 (t + t)

r v1 v2

O

v1

P1 (t) v

in circular path of velocities

radius r

The triangle OP1P2 and the velocity triangle are similar

PP AB

12 =

P1O AQ

s v .in

= [| v1 | = | v2 | = v]

r v

v

v = s

ee

r

v v s

=

t r t

itj

v v s

lim = lim

ki

t 0 t r t0 t

v v2

ac

ac = v= = r2

r r

This is the magnitude of centripetal acceleration of particle

cr

a = v

c

(ii) The direction of ac would be the same as that of v

(iii) Because velocity vector at any point is tangential to the circular

path at that point, the acceleration vector acts along radius of the

circle at that point and is directed towards the centre. This is the

reason that it is called centripetal acceleration.

Centripetal Acceleration

Ex.10 A ball is fixed to the end of a string and is rotated in a horizontal circle

of radius 5 m with a speed of 10 m/sec. The acceleration of the ball will

be -

(A) 20 m/s2 (B) 10 m/s2

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12

2

v

Sol. (A) We know a =

r

Hence v = 10 m/s, r = 5 m

(10)2

a= = 20 m/s2

5

Hence correct answer is (A)

Linear Velocity Relation

Ex.11 A body of mass 2 kg lying on a smooth surface is attached to a string 3

m long and then whirled round in a horizontal circle making 60

revolution per minute. The centripetal acceleration will be -

(A) 118.4 m/s2 (B) 1.18 m/s2

(C) 2.368 m/s2 (D) 23.68 m/s2

Sol. (A) Given that the mass of the particle,

.in

ee

m = 2 kg

radius of circle = 3 m

Angular velocity = 60 rev/minute

itj

60 2

= rad/sec

ki

60

= 2 rad/sec

ac

The linear velocity

cr

v = r

= 2 3 m/s

= 6 m/s

The centripetal acceleration

v 2 (6 )2

= = m/s2

r 3

= 118.4 m/s2

Hence correct answer is (A)

If v = velocity of particle,

v

r = radius of path

v

Fc

Then necessary centripetal force

Fc

Fc

Fc = mass acceleration

Fc

v

v

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13

v2

Fc = m

r

This is the expression for centripetal force

(i) It is a vector quantity

(ii) In vector form

mv 2 mv 2

Fc = . r = 2 r

r r

= m2r r = m2 r = m ( v )

negative sign indicates direction only

| Fc | = m ( v )

(iii) For circular motion :

| Fc | = m (v sin 90) = mv

Note :

1. .in

Centripetal force is not a real force. It is only the requirement for

circular motion.

ee

2. It is not a new kind of force. Any of the forces found in nature such

as gravitational force, electric friction force, tension in string

reaction force may act as centripetal force.

itj

ki

ac

the rate of 10 revolutions per 31.4 seconds. The centripetal force acting

on the body is -

(A) 0.2 N (B) 0.4 N

cr

(C) 2 N (D) 4 N

2

mv

Sol. (A) F = = mr2

r

Here m = 0.10 kg,

r = 0.5 m

2n 2 3.14 10

and = =

t 31.4

= 2 rad/s

F = 0.10 0.5 (2)2 = 0.2

Hence correct answer is (A)

Ex.13 A body of mass 4 kg is moving in a horizontal circle of radius 1 m with

an angular velocity of 2 rad/s. The required centripetal force, will be -

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14

(C) 16 Dyne (D) 1.6 Dyne

Sol. 2 2

(A) F = mr = 4 1 2 = 16 N

Hence correct answer is (A)

Ex.14 The safe velocity required for scooterist negotiating a curve of radius

200 m on a road with the angle of repose of tan1 (0.2) will be-

(A) 20 km/hr (B) 200 m/s

(C) 72 km/hr (D) 72 m/s

Sol. (C) As the centripetal force is supplied by the frictional force, hence

mv 2 v2

mg = 0.2 =

r 200 10

= tan1 (0.2) = tan1 () = (0.2)]

.in

v = 20 m/s

18

The safe speed is 20 = 72 km/hr

ee

5

Hence correct answer is (C).

itj

ki

ac

cr

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15

Centripetal Force

Ex.15 A body of mass 4 kg is tied to one end of a rope of length 40 cm and

whirled in a horizontal circle. The maximum number of revolutions per

minute it can be whirled so that the rope does not snap as the rope can

with stand to a tension of 6.4 Newton, will be -

(A) 1.91 (B) 19.1

(C) 191 (D) 1910

Sol. (B) Tension in the rope = mr2 = mr 42n2

Maximum tension = 6.4 N

6.4 = 4 0.4 4 2n2

Number of revolutions per minutes

= 60/= 19.1

Hence correct answer is (B)

.in

Ex.16 A certain string which is 1 m long will break, if the load on it is more

than 0.5 kg. A mass of 0.05 kg is attached to one end of it and the

particle is whirled round a horizontal circle by holding the free end of

ee

the string by one hand. The greatest number of revolutions per minute

possible without breaking the string will be-

itj

(C) 99.5 (D) 9.95

ki

Radius of circular path = 1 m

ac

0.5 9.8 N = 4.9 N

cr

tension in the string is 4.9 N

4.9 4.9

i.e. mr2 = 4.9 2 = = = 98

mr 0.05 1

= 98 n = n = 98

= 1.1576 rev/sec = 94.5 rev/min

Hence correct answer is (B)

8.1 Uniform circular motion

8.2 Non Uniform Circular Motion :

8.1 Uniform Circular Motion :

If m = mass of body,

r = radius of circular orbit,

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16

v = magnitude of velocity

ac = centripetal acceleration,

at = tangential acceleration

In uniform circular motion :

(i) | v1 | = | v2 | = | v3 | = constant v2

v1

i.e. speed is constant

v3

(ii) As | v | is constant ac

so tangential acceleration at = 0

at = 0

(iii) Tangential force Ft = 0

.in Fc

Ft =0

(iv) Total acceleration

ee

v2

a= a2c at2 = ac = (towards the centre)

r

itj

Note:

(i) Because Fc is always perpendicular to velocity or displacement,

ki

(ii) Circular motion in horizontal plane is usually uniform circular

ac

motion.

(iii) There is an important difference between the projectile motion

cr

In projectile motion, both the magnitude and the direction of

acceleration (g) remain constant, while in circular motion the

magnitude remains constant but the direction continuously

changes.

Hence equations of motion are not applicable for circular motion.

Remember that equations of motion remain valid only when both

the magnitude & direction of acceleration are constant.

8.1.1 Hint to solve numerical problem :

(i) Write down the required centripetal force

(ii) Draw the free body diagram of each component of system.

(iii) Resolve the forces acting on the rotating particle along radius and

perpendicular to radius

(iv) Calculate net radial force acting towards centre of circular path.

(v) Make it equal to required centripetal force.

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17

.in

ee

itj

ki

ac

cr

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18

Centripetal Force

Ex.17 A body of mass m is attached with a string of length . If it is whirled in

a horizontal circular path with velocity v. The tension in the string will

be -

2 mv 2

(A) mv (B)

m mv 2

(C) (D)

v2 2

Sol. (B) Required centripetal force ,

mv 2

Fc =

Here centripetal force is provided by the tension in the string

v

T m

.in

mv 2

ee

mg

itj

mv 2

T = Fc =

ki

ac

Ex.18 A satellite of mass m is revolving around the earth of mass M in circular

cr

GM Gm

(A) (B)

r r

GM Gm

(C) (D)

mr Mr

Sol. The required centripetal force,

FC = (towards the centre)

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19

GMm

FG =

r2

(This force will provide required centripetal force)

Therefore FC = FG

mv 2 GMm

=

r r2

GM

v =

r

Hence correct answer is (A)

Note :

(i) From above example we see that orbital velocity of a body is

independent to its mass

(ii) If we are asked to find out time period of above body then time

period can be calculated as .in

2r r3

T= = 2

v GM

ee

T2 r3 this is Kepler's law.

itj

Centripetal Force

Ex.19 Three identical particles are connected by three strings as shown in fig.

ki

most particle is v. Then T1 : T2 : T3 will be - (Where T1 is tension in the

ac

cr

m m m

O

(A) 3 : 5 : 7 (B) 3 : 5 : 6

(C) 3 : 4 : 5 (D) 7 : 5 : 3

Sol. (B) For A :

vc vB vA

O

T3 C T2 B T1 A

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20

mvA2

=

3

(net force towards centre = T1)

This will provide required centripetal force particle at A,

mvA2

T1 =

3

For B :

Required centripetal force

m(vB2 )

=

2

Remember i.e. angular velocity, of all the particles is same

v v v

= A = B = C

3 2

Note: .in

When a system of particles rotates about an axis, the angular velocity

of all the particles will be same, but their linear velocity will be

ee

different, because of different distances from axis of rotation i.e. v =

r.

Thus for B, centripetal force

itj

2mv2A

=

ki

9

Net force towards the centre

ac

2mv2A

T2 T1 =

9

cr

2mv2A 5mv2A

T2 = + T1 =

9 9

(Putting value of T1)

For C :

mvC2 mvA2

Centripetal force. =

3 9

Net force towards centre = T3 T2

mv2A

T3 T2 =

9

mvA2

T3 = + T2

9

6mvA2

T3 =

9

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21

1 5 6

Now T1 : T2 : T3 = : : = 3 : 5 : 6

3 9 9

Note:

It is to be pondered from the above example that as the velocity is

increased continuously, the innermost string will break first i.e. T3 > T2

> T1

Hence correct answer is (B)

This is the best example of uniform circular motion A conical pendulum

consists of a body attached to a string, such that it can revolve in a

horizontal circle with uniform speed. The string traces out a cone in the

space.

(i) The force acting on the bob are

(a) Tension T (b) weight mg

.in

ee

itj

ki

ac

cr

centripetal force and the vertical component T cos balances the

weight of bob

mv 2

T sin =

r

and T cos = mg

From these equation

v4

T = mg 1 2 2 ....(i)

rg

v2

and tan = ....(ii)

rg

Also if h = height of conical pendulum

OP r

tan = = ....(iii)

OS h

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22

2 v2 g

= 2 =

r h

The time period of revolution

h cos

T = 2 = 2

g g

[where OS = ]

Ex.20 A particle describes a horizontal circle on the smooth surface of an

inverted cone. The height of the plane of the circle above the vertex is

9.8 cm. The speed of the particle will be -

(A) 9.8 m/s (B) 0.98 m/s

(C) 0.098 m/s (D) 98 m/s .in

Sol. (B) The force acting on particle are

(i) Weight mg acting vertically downward

ee

(ii) Normal reaction N of the smooth surface of the cone.

mv 2

(iii) Reaction of the centripetal force acting radially

r

itj

outwards.

ki

obtain

ac

mv 2

N cos = and N sin = mg

r

Nsin

cr

mg

=

Ncos mv 2 /r

rg

tan = 2

v

r

But tan =

h

r rg

= 2

h v

v = hg = 9.8 9.8 10 2

= 0.98 m/s

Hence correct answer is (B)

Ex.21 A string of length 1 m is fixed at one end and carries a mass of 100 gm

at the other end. The string makes 2/ revolutions per second about a

vertical axis through the fixed end. The angle of inclination of the string

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23

with the vertical, and the linear velocity of the mass will respectively be

- (in M.K.S. system)

(A) 5214', 3.16 (B) 5014', 1.6

(C) 5214', 1.6 (D) 5014', 3.16

Sol. (A) Let T be the tension, the angle made by the string with the

vertical through the point of suspension.

The time period

h 1

t = 2 = = /2

g frequency

g

Therefore = =4 T

h h

h 1

=

g 16

h g .in mg

cos = = = 0.6125 = 52 14'

16

Linear velocity

ee

= ( sin ) =1 sin 52 14' 4 = 3.16 m/s

Hence correct answer is (A)

itj

ki

ac

| v | constant constant

i.e. speed constant

i.e. angular velocity constant

cr

v = magnitude of velocity of particle

r = radius of circular path

= angular velocity of particle,

then v = r

(iii) Tangential acceleration :

dv

at =

dt

ds

where v = and s = arc - length

dt

(iv) Tangential force :

Ft = mat

(v) Centripetal force :

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24

mv 2

Fc = = m2r

r

(vi) Net force on the particle :

F = Fc + F t

F = Fc2 Ft2

If is the angle made by [Note angle between Fc and Ft is 90] F

with Fc, then

F

tan = t

Fc

F

= tan1 t

Fc

Angle between F & Ft is (90 )

(vii) Net acceleration towards the centre

.in

= centripetal acceleration

ee

v2 F

ac = = 2r = c

r m

(viii) Net acceleration,

itj

F

a = a2c a2t = net

ki

m

The angle made by 'a' with ac,

ac

a F

tan = t = t

ac Fc

cr

ac

ac

at

Special Note :

(i) In both uniform & non-uniform circular motion Fc is perpendicular

to velocity ; so work done by centripetal force will be zero in both

the cases.

(ii) In uniform circular motion Ft = 0, as at = 0, so work done will be

zero by tangential force.

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done by tangential force in this case.

Rate of work done by net force in non-uniform circular motion =

Rate of work done by tangential force

dW dx

P= = Ft . v = Ft .

dt dt

Ex.22 A particle of mass m is moving in a circular path of constant radius r

such that its centripetal acceleration a c is varying with time t as ac =

k2rt2, where k is a constant. The power delivered to the particle by the

forces acting on it will be -

(A) mk2t2r (B) mk2r2t2 .in

(C) m2k2t2r2 (D) mk2r2t

Sol. (D) Centripetal acceleration,

v2

ee

ac = = k2 rt2

r

Variable velocity

itj

v = k2r2t2 = k r t

ki

dv

F=m =mkr

ac

dt

The power delivered by the force is,

P = Fv = mkr krt = mk2r2t

cr

Ex.23 A car is moving in a circular path of radius 100 m with velocity of 200

m/sec such that in each sec its velocity increases by 100 m/s, the net

acceleration of car will be -

(in m/sec)

(A) 100 17 (B) 10 7

(C) 10 3 (D) 100 3

Sol. (A) We know centripetal acceleration

(tangential velocity)2

ac =

radius

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(200)2

= = 400 m/sec2

100

at

ac

O

Tangential acceleration

at = 100 m/sec2 (given)

anet = a2c a2t 2acat cos90o

= ac2 at2

= (400)2 (100)2

.in

= 100 17 m/s2

ee

[Remember the angle between at i.e. the tangential acceleration

and ac i.e. the radial acceleration, is always 90]

itj

ki

ac

depends on distance covered (s) as T = as2, where a is constant. The

force acting on the particle as a function of s will be

cr

1/2

s2 2as

(A) 2as 1 2 (B)

R R

2as

(C) 2as s2 R2 (D)

R

Sol. (A) The kinetic energy

T = as2

1

mv2 = as2

2

mv 2 2as2

=

R R

Centripetal force or Radial force,

2as2

Fc = .... (1)

R

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2a

v= s .... (2)

m

dv 2a ds

=

dt m dt

2a

= v .... (3)

m

Using (2) and (3) gives tangential acceleration,

dv 2a

at = = .v

dt m

2

2a 2a

= s= s

m m

m at = 2as

.in

Tangential force,

Ft = mat = 2as

ee

therefore

itj

ki

2

2as2

R (2as)

2

=

ac

s2

= 2as 1

cr

R2

Hence correct answer is (A)

Note:

In the above example the angle made by F from the centripetal

acceleration will be

Fc Fc

Ft

Ft 2as R

tan = = 2

=

Fc 2as /R s

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This is the best example of non-uniform circular motion.

When the body rises from the bottom to the height h apart of its

kinetic energy converts into potential energy

Total mechanical energy remains conserved

Total (P.E. + K.E.) at A = Total (P.E. + K.E.) at P

1 1

0 + mu2 = mgh + mv2

2 2

v = u 2gh = u 2g(1 cos )

2 2

.in

[Where is length of the string]

ee

Tension at a point P :

itj

mv 2

ki

=

ac

T mg cos , which provides required centripetal force.

cr

mv 2

T mg cos =

2

v

T = m [ g cos + ]

m 2

= [u g (2 3cos )]

(b) Tangential force for the motion

Ft = mg sin

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(ii) Results :

B

u

A

mvA2

TA = + mg

(Here = 0)

mu2

TA = + mg

.in

(b) Tension at point B :

mv B2

TB = mg

ee

mu2

TB = 5mg

itj

( = 180)

ki

mv C2

ac

TC =

mu2

TC = 2mg

cr

(Here = 90)

Thus we conclude that

TA > T C > TB

and also TA TB = 6 mg

TA TC = 3 mg

TC TB = 3 mg

(iii) Cases :

(a) If u > 5g

In this case tension in the string will not be zero at any of

the point, which implies that the particle will continue the

circular motion.

(b) If u = 5g

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In this case the tension at the top most point (B) will be

zero, which implies that the particle will just complete the

circular motion.

(c) Critical Velocity : The minimum velocity at which the

circular motion is possible

The critical velocity at A = 5g

The critical velocity at B = g

The critical velocity at C = 3g

Also TA = 6 mg, TB = 0, TC = 3 mg

(d) If 2g < u < 5g

In this case particle will not follow circular motion. Tension

in string becomes zero somewhere between points C & B

whereas velocity remain positive. Particle leaves circular

.in

path and follow parabolic trajectory

ee

itj

ki

ac

(e) If u = 2g

In this case both velocity and tension in the string becomes

cr

circular path.

(f) If u < 2g

The velocity of particle remains zero between A and C but

tension will not be zero and the particle will oscillate about

the point A.

Ex.25 A particle of mass m tied with a string of length is released from

horizontal as shown in fig. The velocity at the lowest portion will be -

(A) g (B) 2g

1 1

(C) g (D) g

2 2

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According to conservation of energy

(K.E. + P.E.) at A = (K.E. + P.E.) at B

A

O

mg

1 2

0 + mg = mv + 0

2

v = 2g

Hence correct answer is (B) .in

Maximum Velocity in Vertical Circular Motion

ee

Ex.26 A 4 kg balls is swing in a vertical circle at the end of a cord 1 m long. The

maximum speed at which it can swing if the cord can sustain maximum

itj

(A) 6 m/s (B) 36 m/s

ki

ac

2

mv

Sol. (A) Maximum tension T = + mg

r

mv 2

cr

= T mg

r

4v 2

or = 163.6 4 9.8

1

v = 6 m/s

Hence correct answer is (A)

Ex.27 The string of a pendulum is horizontal. The mass of the bob is m. Now

the string is released. The tension in the string in the lowest position is -

(1) 1 mg (2) 2 mg

(3) 3 mg (4) 4 mg

Sol. (C) The situation is shown in fig. Let v be the velocity of the bob at the

lowest position. In this position the P.E. of bob is converted into K.E.

hence -

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32

1 2

mg = mv

2

v2= 2g ....(1)

If T be the tension in the string,

mv 2

then T mg = ....(2)

From (1) & (2) T = 3 mg

Hence correct answer is (C) .in

Critical Velocity at Minimum Point in Vertical Circular Motion

ee

Ex.28 A ball is released from height h as shown in fig. Which of the following

condition hold good for the particle to complete the circular path?

itj

ki

ac

5R 5R

cr

(A) h (B) h

2 2

5R 5R

(C) h < (D) h >

2 2

Sol. (B) According to law of conservation of energy

(K.E + P.E.) at A = (K.E + P.E) at B

1

0 + mgh = mv2 + 0

2

v = 2gh

But velocity at the lowest point of circle,

5R

v 5gR 2gh 5gR h

2

Hence correct answer is (B)

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33

Ex.29 The roadway bridge over a canal is the form of an arc of a circle of

radius 20 m. What is the minimum speed with which a car can cross the

bridge without leaving contact with the ground at the highest point (g =

9.8 m/s2)

(A) 7 m/s (B) 14 m/s

(C) 289 m/s (D) 5 m/s

Sol. (B) The minimum speed at highest point of a vertical circle is given by

vc = rg = 20 9.8 = 14 m/s

Hence correct answer is (B)

Ex.30 A cane filled with water is revolved in a vertical circle of radius 0.5 m

and the water does not fall down. The maximum period of revolution

.in

must be

(A) 1.45 (B) 2.45

ee

(C) 14.15 (D) 4.25

Sol. (A) The speed at highest point must be

2

itj

v > gr , v = r = r

T

2

ki

r > rg

T

ac

2r r 0.5

T< < 2 < 2 < 1.4 sec

rg g 9.8

cr

Hence correct answer is (A)

Ex.31 A particle of mass m slides down from the vertex of semi-hemisphere,

without any initial velocity. At what height from horizontal will the

particle leave the sphere-

2 3

(A) R (B) R

3 2

5 8

(C) R (D) R

8 5

Sol. (A) Let the particles leaves the sphere at height h,

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34

mv 2

= mg cos N

R

When the particle leaves the sphere

i.e. N = 0

mv 2

= mg cos

R

v2 = gR cos ....(1)

According to law of conservation of energy

(K.E. + P.E.) at A = (K.E. + P.E.) at B

1

0 + mgR = mv2 + mgh

2

2

v = 2g (R h) ....(2)

.in

ee

2

From (1) & (2) h = R

3

2

itj

Also cos =

3

ki

ac

Ex.32 A body of mass m tied at the end of a string of length is projected

cr

5 3

(A) (B)

3 5

1 2

(C) (D)

3 3

Sol. (A) Let the body will have the circular path at height h above the

bottom of circle from figure

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35

mv 2

= T + mg cos

On leaving the circular path

T=0

mv 2

= mg cos

v2 = g cos ....(1)

According to law of conservation of energy

(K.E. + P.E.) at A = (K.E. + P.E.) at B

1

0 + 2mg = mv2 + mgh

2

2

v = 2g(2 h) ....(2)

5

From (1) & (2) h =

3

h

in

Also cos =

e.

Hence correct answer is (A)

e

9. BANKING OF TRACKS

itj

When a vehicle moves round a curve on the road with sufficient speed,

there is a tendency of over turning for the vehicle. To avoid this the

ki

ac

banking

(i) Let there be vehicle on a road having slope . R = normal reaction

of the ground

cr

R sin R cos

It provides necessary It balances the weight

centripetal force of the vehicle

mv 2

R cos = mg

R sin =

r

v2

tan =

rg

This equation gives the angle of banking required.

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Rcos B

R

Rsin

A

O

mg

Let there be a car moving on a road moving on a curved path.

2a distance between the wheels

h height of centre of gravitiy above the ground

The force acting on car are.

(i) Weight of car W = mg acting downward

.in

(ii) Normal reactions of ground Ra and Rb on inner and outer wheels

respectively

(iii) The force of friction Ra and Rb

ee

itj

mv 2

ki

W = mg = Ra + Rb & Ra +Rb =

r

ac

2

mv

(Ra + Rb) =

r

mv 2

cr

mg =

r

This gives maximum speed for skidding,

vmax = rg

Taking moments about B, we get,

mv 2

Ra . 2a + h mg a = 0

r

mg v2h

Ra = 1

2 rag

If we take moments about A, we get

mg v2h

Rb = 1

2 rag

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car increases.

v2h

When =1

rag

Ra = 0

i.e. inner wheel tends to loose contact with the earth.

v2h

When >1

rag

Ra = Negative

i.e. the car overturns outwards.

Thus the maximum speed for no overturing is given by

v2h

1 =0

rag .in

rag

vmax =

h

ee

itj

Ex.33 A vehicle of mass 1000 kg is moving along a curved both of length 314

m with a speed of 72 km/hr. If it takes a turn of 90, the centripetal

ki

(A) 20 N (B) 200 N

ac

1

Sol. As the vehicle has a turn of 90, the length of the path is the part of

cr

4

the circle of radius r.

Hence length of the path

2r

= 314 =

4

4 314

or r = = 200 m

2

mv 2

Centripetal force, Fc =

r

2

1000 5

= 72

200 18

= 2000 N

Hence correct answer is (C)

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Ex.34 For a heavy vehicle moving on a circular curve of a highway the road

bed is banked at an angle corresponding to a particular speed. The

correct angle of banking of the road for vehicles moving at 60 km/hr

will be - (If radius of curve = 0.1 km)

(A) tan1(0.283) (B) tan1(2. 83)

(C) tan1(0.05) (D) tan1(0.5)

50

Sol. (A) v = 60 km/hr = m/s

3

r = 0.1 km = 100m

v2

tan = = 0.283

rg

= tan1 (0.283)

Hence correct answer is (A)

in

Ex.35 A train has to negotiate a curve of radius 400 m. By how much should

e.

the outer rail be raised with respect to inner rail for a speed of 48

km/hr. The distance between the rail is 1 m.

e

(A) 12 m (B) 12 cm

(C) 4.5 cm (D) 4.5 m

itj

2

v

Sol. (C) We know that tan = ..... (1)

ki

rg

Let h be the relative raising of outer rail with respect to inner rail.

ac

Then

h

tan = ...... (2)

cr

( = separation between rails)

v2

From (1) & (2) , h = x

rg

120

Hence v = 48 km/hr = m/s,

9

(r = 400 m, = 1m),

(120 /9)2 1

h= = 0.045 m = 4.5 cm

400 9.8

Hence correct answer is (C)

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39

POINTS TO REMEMBER

1. Centripetal force does not increase the kinetic energy of the

particle moving in circular path, hence the work done by the force

is zero.

2. Centrifuges are the apparatuses used to separate small and big

particles from a liquid.

3. The physical quantities which remain constant for a particle

moving in circular path are speed, kinetic energy and angular

momentum.

4. If a body is moving on a curved road with speed greater than the

speed limit, the reaction at the inner wheel disappears and it will

leave the ground first.

5. On unbanked curved roads the minimum radius of curvature of

the curve for safe driving is r = v2/g, where v is the speed of the

.in

vehicle and is small.

6. If r is the radius of curvature of the speed breaker, then the

maximum speed with which the vehicle can run on it without

ee

leaving contact with the ground is v = (gr)

7. While taking a turn on the level road sometimes vehicles overturn

itj

8. If h is the height of centre of gravity above the road, a is half the

ki

mv 2

wheel base then for road safety .h < mg . a, Minimum

ac

r

safe speed for no overturning is v = (gar /h) .

cr

a distance r from axis of rotation, the maximum angular velocity of

the platform, = (g /r) , where is the coefficient of friction

between the object and the platform.

10. If an inclined plane ends into a circular loop of radius r, then the

height from which a body should slide from the inclined plane in

order to complete the motion in circular track is h = 5r/2.

11. Minimum velocity that should be imparted to a pendulum to

complete the vertical circle is (5g) , where is the length of the

pendulum.

12. While describing a vertical circle when the stone is in its lowest

position, the tension in the string is six times the weight of the

stone.

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13. The total energy of the stone while revolving in vertical circle is

(5/2) mg.

14. When the stone is in horizontal position then the tension in the

string is 3mg and the velocity of the stone is (3g) .

15. If the velocity of the stone at the highest point is X mg, then the

tension at the lowest point will be (X + 6)mg.

16. If a body of mass m is tied to a string of length and is projected

with a horizontal velocity u such that it does not complete the

motion in the vertical circle, then

(a) the height at which the velocity vanishes is

u2

h=

2g

(b) the height at which the tension vanishes is

u2 g

.in

h=

3g

17. K.E. of a body moving in horizontal circle is same throughout the

ee

path but the K.E. of the body moving in vertical circle is different

at different places.

itj

ki

ac

cr

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