Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 9

2017611 BeowulfWikipedia

Beowulf
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Beowulf(/beowlf,bio/[2]OldEnglish:[beowulf])isanOldEnglishepicpoemconsistingof3,182alliterativelines.ItmaybetheoldestsurvivinglongpoeminOldEnglishandis
commonlycitedasoneofthemostimportantworksofOldEnglishliterature.Adateofcompositionisamatterofcontentionamongscholarstheonlycertaindatingpertainstothemanuscript,
Beowulf
whichwasproducedbetween975and1025.[3]TheauthorwasananonymousAngloSaxonpoet,referredtobyscholarsasthe"Beowulfpoet".[4]

ThepoemissetinScandinavia.Beowulf,aherooftheGeats,comestotheaidofHrothgar,thekingoftheDanes,whosemeadhallinHeorothasbeenunderattackbyamonsterknownas
Grendel.AfterBeowulfslayshim,Grendel'smotherattacksthehallandisthenalsodefeated.Victorious,BeowulfgoeshometoGeatland(GtalandinmodernSweden)andlaterbecomeskingof
theGeats.Afteraperiodoffiftyyearshaspassed,Beowulfdefeatsadragon,butisfatallywoundedinthebattle.Afterhisdeath,hisattendantscrematehisbodyanderectatoweronaheadlandin
hismemory.

ThefullpoemsurvivesinthemanuscriptknownastheNowellCodex.Ithasnotitleintheoriginalmanuscript,buthasbecomeknownbythenameofthestory'sprotagonist.[5]In1731,the
manuscriptwasbadlydamagedbyafirethatsweptthroughAshburnhamHouseinLondonthathadacollectionofmedievalmanuscriptsassembledbySirRobertBruceCotton.[6]TheNowell
CodexiscurrentlyhousedintheBritishLibrary.

Contents
1 Historicalbackground
2 Summary
2.1 Firstbattle:Grendel
2.2 Secondbattle:Grendel'sMother
2.3 Thirdbattle:TheDragon
3 Authorshipanddate
4 Manuscript
4.1 Provenance FirstpageofBeowulfinCottonVitelliusA.xv
4.2 Writing
4.3 Transcriptions Author(s) Unknown
4.4 Translations Language WestSaxondialectofOldEnglish
4.5 Debateoveroraltradition
5 Sourcesandanalogues Date c.7001000AD(dateofpoem),
6 Dialect c.9751010AD(dateof
7 Formandmetre manuscript)[1]
8 Interpretationandcriticism
9 Artisticadaptations Stateof Manuscriptsuffereddamagefrom
10 Seealso existence firein1731
11 References Manuscript(s) CottonVitelliusA.xv
11.1 Notes
11.2 Citations Firstprinted Thorkelin(1815)
11.3 Sources edition
12 Externallinks Genre Epicheroicpoetry
Verseform Alliterativeverse
Length c.3182lines
Historicalbackground
Subject ThebattlesofBeowulf,the
Theeventsinthepoemtakeplaceovermostofthesixthcentury,aftertheAngloSaxonshadstartedtheirjourneytoEnglandandbeforethebeginningoftheseventhcentury,atimewhenthe Geatishhero,inyouthandoldage
AngloSaxonswereeithernewlyarrivedorwerestillinclosecontactwiththeirGermanickinsmeninNorthernGermany.ThepoemmayhavebeenbroughttoEnglandbypeopleofGeatish Personages Beowulf,Hygelac,Hrothgar,
origins.[7]IthasbeensuggestedthatBeowulfwasfirstcomposedinthe7thcenturyatRendleshaminEastAnglia,astheSuttonHooshipburialalsoshowscloseconnectionswithScandinavia, Wealheow,Hrothulf,schere,
andalsothattheEastAnglianroyaldynasty,theWuffingas,mayhavebeendescendantsoftheGeatishWulfings.[8][9]OthershaveassociatedthispoemwiththecourtofKingAlfredtheGreator Unferth,Grendel,Grendel's
withthecourtofKingCnuttheGreat.[10] mother,Wiglaf,Hildeburh.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beowulf 1/9
2017611 BeowulfWikipedia
Thepoemdealswithlegends,wascomposedforentertainment,anddoesnotseparatebetweenfictionalelementsandrealhistoricevents,suchastheraidbyKing
HygelacintoFrisia.ThoughBeowulfhimselfisnotmentionedinanyotherAngloSaxonmanuscript,[11]scholarsgenerallyagreethatmanyoftheotherpersonalities
ofBeowulfalsoappearinScandinaviansources.(Specificworksaredesignatedinthefollowingsection).[12]Thisdoesnotonlyconcernpeople(e.g.,Healfdene,
Hrogar,Halga,Hroulf,EadgilsandOhthere),butalsoclans(e.g.,Scyldings,ScylfingsandWulfings)andsomeoftheevents(e.g.,theBattleontheIceofLake
Vnern).ThedatingoftheeventsinthepoemhasbeenconfirmedbyarchaeologicalexcavationsofthebarrowsindicatedbySnorriSturlusonandbySwedish
traditionasthegravesofOhthere(datedtoc.530)andhissonEadgils(datedtoc.575)inUppland,Sweden.[13][14][15]

InDenmark,recentarchaeologicalexcavationsatLejre,whereScandinaviantraditionlocatedtheseatoftheScyldings,i.e.,Heorot,haverevealedthatahallwas
builtinthemid6thcentury,exactlythetimeperiodofBeowulf.[16]Threehalls,eachabout50metres(160ft)long,werefoundduringtheexcavation.[16]
Ohthere'smound
ThemajorityviewappearstobethatpeoplesuchasKingHrogarandtheScyldingsinBeowulfarebasedonrealhistoricalpeoplefrom6thcenturyScandinavia.[17]
Approximatecentralregionsoftribes LiketheFinnesburgFragmentandseveralshortersurvivingpoems,BeowulfhasconsequentlybeenusedasasourceofinformationaboutScandinavianpersonalitiessuchasEadgilsandHygelac,and
mentionedinBeowulf,withthe aboutcontinentalGermanicpersonalitiessuchasOffa,kingofthecontinentalAngles.
locationoftheAnglesinAngeln.See
ScandzafordetailsofScandinavia's 19thcenturyarcheologicalevidencemayconfirmelementsoftheBeowulfstory.EadgilswasburiedatUppsalaaccordingtoSnorriSturluson.WhenEadgils'mound(totheleftinthephoto)wasexcavated
politicalfragmentationinthe6th in1874,thefindssupportedBeowulfandthesagas.Theyshowedthatapowerfulmanwasburiedinalargebarrow,c575,onabearskinwithtwodogsandrichgraveofferings.Theseremainsincludea
century. FrankishswordadornedwithgoldandgarnetsandataflgamewithRomanpawnsofivory.HewasdressedinacostlysuitmadeofFrankishclothwithgoldenthreads,andheworeabeltwithacostly
buckle.TherewerefourcameosfromtheMiddleEastwhichwereprobablypartofacasket.ThiswouldhavebeenaburialfittingakingwhowasfamousforhiswealthinOldNorsesources.Ongentheow's
barrowhasnotbeenexcavated.[13][14]

Summary
TheprotagonistBeowulf,aherooftheGeats,comestotheaidofHrothgar,kingoftheDanes,whosegreathall,Heorot,isplaguedbythemonsterGrendel.BeowulfkillsGrendel
FindsfromEadgils'mound,left,excavatedin1874atGamla withhisbarehandsandGrendel'smotherwithagiant'sswordthathefoundinherlair.
Uppsala,Sweden,supportBeowulfandthesagas.Ongentheow's
Laterinhislife,BeowulfbecomeskingoftheGeats,andfindshisrealmterrorizedbyadragon,someofwhosetreasurehadbeenstolenfromhishoardinaburialmound.Heattacks
barrow,right,hasnotbeenexcavated. [13][14] thedragonwiththehelpofhisthegnsorservants,buttheydonotsucceed.BeowulfdecidestofollowthedragontoitslairatEarnans,butonlyhisyoungSwedishrelativeWiglaf,
whosenamemeans"remnantofvalour",[a]darestojoinhim.Beowulffinallyslaysthedragon,butismortallywoundedinthestruggle.Heiscrematedandaburialmoundbythesea
iserectedinhishonor.

Beowulfisconsideredanepicpoeminthatthemaincharacterisaherowhotravelsgreatdistancestoprovehisstrengthatimpossibleoddsagainstsupernaturaldemonsandbeasts.Thepoemalsobeginsinmediasresorsimply,"inthemiddleof
things",whichisacharacteristicoftheepicsofantiquity.AlthoughthepoembeginswithBeowulf'sarrival,Grendel'sattackshavebeenanongoingevent.Anelaboratehistoryofcharactersandtheirlineagesisspokenof,aswellastheir
interactionswitheachother,debtsowedandrepaid,anddeedsofvalour.Thewarriorsformakindofbrotherhoodlinkedbyloyaltytotheirlord.

Firstbattle:Grendel

BeowulfbeginswiththestoryofHrothgar,whoconstructedthegreathallHeorotforhimselfandhiswarriors.Inithe,hiswifeWealhtheow,andhiswarriorsspendtheirtimesingingandcelebrating.Grendel,atrolllikemonstersaidtobe
descendedfromthebiblicalCain,ispainedbythesoundsofajoyhecannotshare,attacksthehall,andkillsanddevoursmanyofHrothgar'swarriorswhiletheysleep.Hrothgarandhispeople,helplessagainstGrendel,abandonHeorot.

Beowulf,ayoungwarriorfromGeatland,hearsofHrothgar'stroublesandwithhisking'spermissionleaveshishomelandtoassistHrothgar.

BeowulfandhismenspendthenightinHeorot.BeowulfrefusestouseanyweaponbecauseheholdshimselftobetheequalofGrendel.[20]WhenGrendelentersthehall,Beowulf,whohasbeenfeigningsleep,leapsuptoclenchGrendel's
hand.[21]GrendelandBeowulfbattleeachotherviolently.[22]Beowulf'sretainersdrawtheirswordsandrushtohisaid,buttheirbladescannotpierceGrendel'sskin.[23]Finally,BeowulftearsGrendel'sarmfromhisbodyattheshoulderand
Grendelrunstohishomeinthemarsheswherehedies.[24]

Secondbattle:Grendel'sMother

Thenextnight,aftercelebratingGrendel'sdefeat,HrothgarandhismensleepinHeorot.Grendel'smother,angrythathersonhasbeenkilled,setsouttogetrevenge.Sheviolentlykillsschere,whoisHrothgar'smostloyalfighter.

Hrothgar,BeowulfandtheirmentrackGrendel'smothertoherlairunderalake.Unferth,awarriorwhohaddoubtedhimandwishestomakeamends,presentsBeowulfwithhisswordHrunting.Afterstipulatinganumberofconditionsto
Hrothgarincaseofhisdeath(includingthetakinginofhiskinsmenandtheinheritancebyUnferthofBeowulf'sestate),Beowulfjumpsintothelake,atthebottomofwhichhefindsacaverncontainingGrendel'sbodyandtheremainsofmen
thatthetwohavekilled.Grendel'smotherandBeowulfengageinfiercecombat.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beowulf 2/9
2017611 BeowulfWikipedia
Atfirst,Grendel'smotherappearstoprevail.Beowulf,findingthatHruntingcannotharmhisfoe,putsitasideinfury.Beowulfisagainsavedfromhisopponent'sattackbyhisarmour.BeowulftakesanotherswordfromGrendel'smotherand
slicesherheadoffwithit.TravellingfurtherintoGrendel'smother'slair,BeowulfdiscoversGrendelandsevershishead.ThebladeofBeowulf'sswordtouchesGrendel'stoxicblood,andinstantlydissolvessothatonlythehiltremains.Beowulf
swimsbackuptotherimofthepondwherehismenwaitingrowingdespair.CarryingthehiltoftheswordandGrendel'shead,hepresentsthemtoHrothgaruponhisreturntoHeorot.HrothgargivesBeowulfmanygifts,includingthesword
Ngling,hisfamily'sheirloom.Theeventspromptalongreflectionbytheking,sometimesreferredtoas"Hrothgar'ssermon",inwhichheurgesBeowulftobewaryofprideandtorewardhisthegns.[25]

Thirdbattle:TheDragon

Beowulfreturnshomeandeventuallybecomeskingofhisownpeople.Oneday,fiftyyearsafterBeowulf'sbattlewithGrendel'smother,aslavestealsagoldencupfromthelairofadragonatEarnans.Whenthedragonseesthatthecuphas
beenstolen,itleavesitscaveinarage,burningeverythinginsight.Beowulfandhiswarriorscometofightthedragon,butBeowulftellshismenthathewillfightthedragonaloneandthattheyshouldwaitonthebarrow.Beowulfdescendsto
dobattlewiththedragon,butfindshimselfoutmatched.Hismen,uponseeingthisandfearingfortheirlives,retreatintothewoods.Oneofhismen,Wiglaf,however,ingreatdistressatBeowulf'splight,comestohisaid.Thetwoslaythe
dragon,butBeowulfismortallywounded.AfterBeowulf'sdeath,heisrituallyburnedonagreatpyreinGeatlandwhilehispeoplewailandmournhim,fearingthatwithouthim,theGeatesaredefenselessagainstattacksfromsurroundingtribes.
Afterwards,abarrow,visiblefromthesea,isbuiltinhismemory.(Beowulflines27123182).[26]

Authorshipanddate
BeowulfwaswritteninEngland,butissetinScandinaviaitsdatinghasattractedconsiderablescholarlyattention.Thepoemhasbeendatedtobetweenthe8thandtheearly11thcenturies,withsomerecentscholarshipofferingwhathasbeen
called"acohesiveandcompellingcaseforBeowulf'searlycomposition."[27][28]However,opiniondiffersastowhetherthecompositionofthepoemisnearlycontemporarywithitstranscription,whetheritwasfirstwritteninthe8thcentury,or
ifaprotoversionofthepoemwasperhapscomposedatanevenearliertime(possiblyasoneoftheBear'sSonTales)andorallytransmittedformanyyears,thentranscribedinitspresentformatalaterdate.AlbertLordfeltstronglythatthe
manuscriptrepresentsthetranscriptionofaperformance,thoughlikelytakenatmorethanonesitting.[29]J.R.R.TolkienbelievedthatthepoemretainstoogenuineamemoryofAngloSaxonpaganismtohavebeencomposedmorethanafew
generationsafterthecompletionoftheChristianisationofEnglandaroundAD700,[30]andTolkien'sconvictionthatthepoemdatestothe8thcenturyhasbeendefendedbyTomShippey,LeonardNeidorf,RafaelJ.Pascual,andR.D.Fulk,
amongothers.[31][32][33]

Theclaimtoanearly11thcenturydatedependsinpartonscholarswhoarguethat,ratherthanthetranscriptionofatalefromtheoraltraditionbyanearlierliteratemonk,Beowulfreflectsanoriginalinterpretationofanearlierversionofthe
storybythemanuscript'stwoscribes.Ontheotherhand,somescholarsarguethatlinguistic,paleographical,metrical,andonomasticconsiderationsaligntosupportadateofcompositioninthefirsthalfoftheeighthcentury[28][34][35][36]in
particular,thepoem'sregularobservationofetymologicallengthdistinctions(MaxKaluza'slaw)hasbeenthoughttodemonstrateadateofcompositioninthefirsthalfoftheeighthcentury.[32][33]However,scholarsdisagreeaboutwhetherthe
metricalphenomenadescribedbyKaluza'sLawproveanearlydateofcompositionorareevidenceofalongerprehistoryoftheBeowulfmeter[37]B.R.Hutcheson,forinstance,doesnotbelieveKaluza'sLawcanbeusedtodatethepoem,while
claimingthat"theweightofalltheevidenceFulkpresentsinhisbook[b]tellsstronglyinfavorofaneighthcenturydate."[38]

Manuscript
Beowulfsurvivesinasinglemanuscriptdatedonpaleographicalgroundstothelate10thorearly11thcentury.Themanuscriptmeasures245185mm.[39]

Provenance

Thepoemisknownonlyfromasinglemanuscript,whichisestimatedtodatefromclosetoAD1000,inwhichitappearswithotherworks.TheBeowulfmanuscriptisknownastheNowellCodex,gaining
itsnamefrom16thcenturyscholarLaurenceNowell.Theofficialdesignationis"BritishLibrary,CottonVitelliusA.XV"becauseitwasoneofSirRobertBruceCotton'sholdingsintheCottonlibraryin
themiddleofthe17thcentury.Manyprivateantiquariansandbookcollectors,suchasSirRobertCotton,usedtheirownlibraryclassificationsystems."CottonVitelliusA.XV"translatesas:the15thbook
fromtheleftonshelfA(thetopshelf)ofthebookcasewiththebustofRomanEmperorVitelliusstandingontopofit,inCotton'scollection.KevinKiernanarguesthatNowellmostlikelyacquiredit
throughWilliamCecil,1stBaronBurghley,in1563,whenNowellenteredCecil'shouseholdasatutortohisward,EdwarddeVere,17thEarlofOxford.[10]

TheearliestextantreferencetothefirstfoliationoftheNowellCodexwasmadesometimebetween1628and1650byFranciscusJunius(theyounger).[10]TheownershipofthecodexbeforeNowell
remainsamystery.[10]

TheReverendThomasSmith(16381710)andHumfreyWanley(16721726)bothcataloguedtheCottonlibrary(inwhichtheNowellCodexwasheld).Smith'scatalogueappearedin1696,andWanley's
in1705.[40]TheBeowulfmanuscriptitselfisidentifiedbynameforthefirsttimeinanexchangeoflettersin1700betweenGeorgeHickes,Wanley'sassistant,andWanley.InthelettertoWanley,Hickes
respondstoanapparentchargeagainstSmith,madebyWanley,thatSmithhadfailedtomentiontheBeowulfscriptwhencataloguingCottonMS.VitelliusA.XV.HickesrepliestoWanley"Icanfind
nothingyetofBeowulph."[41]KiernantheorisedthatSmithfailedtomentiontheBeowulfmanuscriptbecauseofhisrelianceonpreviouscataloguesorbecauseeitherhehadnoideahowtodescribeitor
Remountedpage,BritishLibrary becauseitwastemporarilyoutofthecodex.[42]
CottonVitelliusA.XV
ItsuffereddamageintheCottonLibraryfireatAshburnhamHousein1731.Sincethen,partsofthemanuscripthavecrumbledalongwithmanyoftheletters.Rebindingefforts,thoughsavingthe
manuscriptfrommuchdegeneration,havenonethelesscoveredupotherlettersofthepoem,causingfurtherloss.KevinKiernan,inpreparinghiselectroniceditionofthemanuscript,usedfibreoptic
backlightingandultravioletlightingtoreveallettersinthemanuscriptlostfrombinding,erasure,orinkblotting.[43]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beowulf 3/9
2017611 BeowulfWikipedia
Writing

TheBeowulfmanuscriptwastranscribedfromanoriginalbytwoscribes,oneofwhomwrotethefirst1939linesandasecondwhowrotetheremainder,withadifferenceinhandwritingnoticeableafterline1939.[10]Thescriptofthesecond
scribeisarchaic.[10]Whilebothscribesappeartoproofreadtheirwork,thereareneverthelessmanyerrors.[44]Thesecondscribetoiledoverthepoemformanyyears"withgreatreverenceandcaretorestoration".[10]Theworkofthesecond
scribebearsastrikingresemblancetotheworkofthefirstscribeoftheBlicklinghomilies,andsomuchsothatitisbelievedtheyderivefromthesamescriptorium.[10]FromknowledgeofbooksheldinthelibraryatMalmesburyAbbeyand
availableassourceworks,andfromtheidentificationofcertainwordsparticulartothelocaldialectfoundinthetext,thetranscriptionmayhavebeenmadethere.[45]

Transcriptions

IcelandicscholarGrmurJnssonThorkelinmadethefirsttranscriptionsofthemanuscriptin1786andpublishedtheresultsin1815,workingaspartofaDanishgovernmenthistoricalresearchcommission.Hemadeonehimself,andhad
anotherdonebyaprofessionalcopyistwhoknewnoAngloSaxon.Sincethattime,however,themanuscripthascrumbledfurther,makingthesetranscriptsaprizedwitnesstothetext.Whiletherecoveryofatleast2000letterscanbeattributed
tothem,theiraccuracyhasbeencalledintoquestion,[c]andtheextenttowhichthemanuscriptwasactuallymorereadableinThorkelin'stimeisuncertain.

Translations

In1805,thehistorianSharonTurnertranslatedselectedversesintomodernEnglish.[47]Thiswasfollowedin1814byJohnJosiasConybearewhopublishedanedition"inEnglishparaphraseandLatinversetranslation."[47]In1815,Grmur
JnssonThorkelinpublishedthefirstcompleteeditioninLatin.[47]N.F.S.Grundtvigreviewedthiseditionin1815andcreatedthefirstcompleteversetranslationinDanishin1820.[47]In1837,JohnMitchellKemblecreatedanimportantliteral
translationinEnglish.[47]In1895,WilliamMorris&A.J.WyattpublishedtheninthEnglishtranslation.[47]ManyretellingsofBeowulfforchildrenalsoappearedaroundthebeginningofthe20thcentury.[48]In1909,FrancisBartonGummere's
fulltranslationin"Englishimitativemeter"waspublished,[47]andwasusedasthetextofGarethHinds'sgraphicnovelbasedonBeowulfin2007.

Duringtheearly20thcentury,FrederickKlaeber'sBeowulfandTheFightatFinnsburg[49](whichincludedthepoeminOldEnglish,anextensiveglossaryofOldEnglishterms,andgeneralbackgroundinformation)becamethe"centralsource
usedbygraduatestudentsforthestudyofthepoemandbyscholarsandteachersasthebasisoftheirtranslations."[50]

Agreatnumberoftranslationsareavailable,inpoetryandprose.AndyOrchard,inACriticalCompaniontoBeowulf,lists33"representative"translationsinhisbibliography,[51]andithasbeentranslatedintoatleast23otherlanguages.[52]

SeamusHeaney's1999translationofthepoem(referredtobyHowellChickeringandmanyothersas"Heaneywulf"[53])waswidelypublicized.TranslatingBeowulfisoneofthesubjectsofthe2012publicationBeowulfatKalamazoo,
containingasectionwith10essaysontranslation,andasectionwith22reviewsofHeaney'stranslation(someofwhichcompareHeaney'sworkwiththatofAngloSaxonscholarRoyLiuzza).[54]R.D.Fulk,ofIndianaUniversity,publishedthe
firstfacingpageeditionandtranslationoftheentiremanuscriptintheDumbartonOaksMedievalLibraryseriesin2010.[55]

J.R.R.Tolkien'slongawaitedtranslation(editedbyhisson,Christopher)waspublishedin2014asBeowulf:ATranslationandCommentary.[56][57]ThisalsoincludesTolkien'sownretellingofthestoryofBeowulfinhistale,SellicSpell.

Debateoveroraltradition

ThequestionofwhetherBeowulfwaspasseddownthroughoraltraditionpriortoitspresentmanuscriptformhasbeenthesubjectofmuchdebate,andinvolvesmorethansimplytheissueofitscomposition.Rather,giventheimplicationsofthe
theoryoforalformulaiccompositionandoraltradition,thequestionconcernshowthepoemistobeunderstood,andwhatsortsofinterpretationsarelegitimate.

ScholarlydiscussionaboutBeowulfinthecontextoftheoraltraditionwasextremelyactivethroughoutthe1960sand1970s.Thedebatemightbeframedstarklyasfollows:ontheonehand,wecanhypothesiseapoemputtogetherfromvarious
talesconcerningthehero(theGrendelepisode,theGrendel'smotherstory,andthefiredrakenarrative).Thesefragmentswouldhavebeentoldformanyyearsintradition,andlearnedbyapprenticeshipfromonegenerationofilliteratepoetsto
thenext.Thepoemiscomposedorallyandextemporaneously,andthearchiveoftraditiononwhichitdrawsisoral,pagan,Germanic,heroic,andtribal.Ontheotherhand,onemightpositapoemwhichiscomposedbyaliteratescribe,who
acquiredliteracybywayoflearningLatin(andabsorbingLatinatecultureandwaysofthinking),probablyamonkandthereforeprofoundlyChristianinoutlook.Onthisview,thepaganreferenceswouldbeasortofdecorativearchaising.[58][59]
Thereisathirdviewthatseesmeritinbothargumentsaboveandattemptstobridgethem,andsocannotbearticulatedasstarklyastheycanitseesmorethanoneChristianityandmorethanoneattitudetowardspaganismatworkinthepoemit
seesthepoemasinitiallytheproductofaliterateChristianauthorwithonefootinthepaganworldandoneintheChristian,himselfperhapsaconvert(oronewhoseforebearshadbeenpagan),apoetwhowasconversantinbothoralandliterary
compositionandwascapableofamasterful"repurposing"ofpoetryfromtheoraltradition.

However,scholarssuchasD.K.Crownehaveproposedtheideathatthepoemwaspasseddownfromrecitertoreciterunderthetheoryoforalformulaiccomposition,whichhypothesisesthatepicpoemswere(atleasttosomeextent)improvised
bywhoeverwasrecitingthem,andonlymuchlaterwrittendown.Inhislandmarkwork,TheSingerofTales,AlbertLordreferstotheworkofFrancisPeabodyMagounandothers,saying"thedocumentationiscomplete,thorough,andaccurate.
ThisexhaustiveanalysisisinitselfsufficienttoprovethatBeowulfwascomposedorally."[60]

ExaminationofBeowulfandotherOldEnglishliteratureforevidenceoforalformulaiccompositionhasmetwithmixedresponse.While"themes"(inheritednarrativesubunitsforrepresentingfamiliarclassesofevent,suchasthe"armingthe
hero",[61]ortheparticularlywellstudied"heroonthebeach"theme[62])doexistacrossAngloSaxonandotherGermanicworks,somescholarsconcludethatAngloSaxonpoetryisamixoforalformulaicandliteratepatterns,arguingthatthe
poemsbothwerecomposedonawordbywordbasisandfollowedlargerformulaeandpatterns.[63]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beowulf 4/9
2017611 BeowulfWikipedia
LarryBensonarguedthattheinterpretationofBeowulfasanentirelyformulaicworkdiminishestheabilityofthereadertoanalyzethepoeminaunifiedmanner,andwithdueattentiontothepoet'screativity.Instead,heproposedthatother
piecesofGermanicliteraturecontain"kernelsoftradition"fromwhichBeowulfborrowsandexpandsupon.[64][65]Afewyearslater,AnnWattsarguedagainsttheimperfectapplicationofonetheorytotwodifferenttraditions:traditional,
Homeric,oralformulaicpoetryandAngloSaxonpoetry.[65][66]ThomasGardneragreedwithWatts,arguingthattheBeowulftextisoftoovariedanaturetobecompletelyconstructedfromsetformulaeandthemes.[65][67]

JohnMilesFoleywrote,referringtotheBeowulfdebate,[68]thatwhilecomparativeworkwasbothnecessaryandvalid,itmustbeconductedwithaviewtotheparticularitiesofagiventraditionFoleyarguedwithaviewtodevelopmentsoforal
traditionaltheorythatdonotassume,ordependupon,ultimatelyunverifiableassumptionsaboutcomposition,andinsteaddelineateamorefluidcontinuumoftraditionalityandtextuality.[69][70][71][61]

Finally,intheviewofUrsulaSchaefer,thequestionofwhetherthepoemwas"oral"or"literate"becomessomethingofaredherring.[72]Inthismodel,thepoemiscreated,andisinterpretable,withinbothnoetichorizons.Schaefer'sconceptof
"vocality"offersneitheracompromisenorasynthesisoftheviewswhichseethepoemasontheonehandGermanic,pagan,andoralandontheotherLatinderived,Christian,andliterate,but,asstatedbyMonikaOtter:"...a'tertiumquid',a
modalitythatparticipatesinbothoralandliteratecultureyetalsohasalogicandaestheticofitsown."[73]

Sourcesandanalogues
NeitheridentifiedsourcesnoranaloguesforBeowulfcanbedefinitivelyproven,butmanyconjectureshavebeenmade.TheseareimportantinhelpinghistoriansunderstandtheBeowulfmanuscript,aspossiblesourcetextsorinfluenceswould
suggesttimeframesofcomposition,geographicboundarieswithinwhichitcouldbecomposed,orrange(bothspatialandtemporal)ofinfluence(i.e.whenitwas"popular"andwhereits"popularity"tookit).Therearefivemaincategoriesin
whichpotentialsourcesand/oranaloguesareincluded:Scandinavianparallels,earlyIrishliteraturesourcesandanalogues,classicalsources,ecclesiasticalsources,andechoesinotherOldEnglishtexts.[74]

EarlystudiesintoScandinaviansourcesandanaloguesproposedthatBeowulfwasatranslationofanoriginalScandinavianwork,butthisideahasbeendiscarded.In1878,GubrandurVigfssonmadetheconnectionbetweenBeowulfandthe
Grettissaga.ThisiscurrentlyoneofthefewScandinaviananaloguestoreceiveageneralconsensusofpotentialconnection.[75]TalesconcerningtheSkjldungs,possiblyoriginatingasearlyasthe6thcenturywerelaterusedasanarrativebasis
insuchtextsasGestaDanorumbySaxoGrammaticusandHrlfssagakraka.SomescholarsseeBeowulfasaproductoftheseearlytalesalongwithGestaDanorumandHrlfssagakraka,andsomeearlyscholarsofthepoemproposedthatthe
lattersagaandBeowulfshareacommonlegendaryancestry,Beowulf'sHrothulfbeingidentifiedwithHrlfKraki.PaulBeekmanTaylorarguedthattheYnglingasagawasproofthattheBeowulfpoetwaslikewiseworkingfromGermanic
tradition.[76]

FriedrichPanzeattemptedtocontextualiseBeowulfandotherScandinavianworks,includingGrettissaga,undertheinternationalfolktaletype301B,or"TheBear'sSon"tale.However,althoughthisfolkloristicapproachwasseenasastepinthe
rightdirection,"TheBear'sSon"talewasseenastoouniversal.Later,PeterJrgensen,lookingforamoreconciseframeofreference,coineda"twotrolltradition"thatcoversbothBeowulfandGrettissaga:"aNorse'ecotype'inwhichahero
entersacaveandkillstwogiants,usuallyofdifferentsexes".[77]

ScholarswhofavoredIrishparallelsdirectlyspokeoutagainstproScandinaviantheories,citingthemasunjustified.WilhelmGrimmisnotedtobethefirstpersontolinkBeowulfwithIrishfolklorehowever,MaxDeutschbeinisthefirstperson
topresenttheargumentinacademicform.HesuggestedtheIrishFeastofBricriuasasourceforBeowulfatheorythatwassoondeniedbyOscarOlson.SwedishfolkloristCarlWilhelmVonSydowarguedagainstbothScandinavian
translationandsourcematerialduetohistheorythatBeowulfisfundamentallyChristianandwrittenatatimewhenanyNorsetalewouldhavemostlikelybeenpagan.[78]

Inthelate1920s,HeinzerDehmersuggestedBeowulfascontextuallybasedinthefolktaletype"TheHandandtheChild,"duetothemotifofthe"monstrousarm"amotifthatdistancesGrettissagaandBeowulfandfurtheralignsBeowulfwith
Irishparallelism.JamesCarneyandMartinPuhvelalsoagreewiththis"HandandtheChild"contextualisation.CarneyalsotiesBeowulftoIrishliteraturethroughtheTinBFrechstory.Puhvelsupportedthe"HandandtheChild"theory
throughsuchmotifsas(inAndersson'swords)"themorepowerfulgiantmother,themysteriouslightinthecave,themeltingoftheswordinblood,thephenomenonofbattlerage,swimmingprowess,combatwithwatermonsters,underwater
adventures,andthebearhugstyleofwrestling."[79]

AttemptstofindclassicalorLateLatininfluenceoranalogueinBeowulfarealmostexclusivelylinkedwithHomer'sOdysseyorVirgil'sAeneid.In1926,AlbertStanburroughCooksuggestedaHomericconnectionduetoequivalentformulas,
metonymies,andanalogousvoyages.[80]In1930,JamesA.WorkalsosupportedtheHomericinfluence,statingthatencounterbetweenBeowulfandUnferthwasparalleltotheencounterbetweenOdysseusandEuryalusinBooks78ofthe
Odyssey,eventothepointofbothcharactersgivingtheherothesamegiftofasworduponbeingprovenwrongintheirinitialassessmentofthehero'sprowess.ThistheoryofHomer'sinfluenceonBeowulfremainedveryprevalentinthe1920s,
butstartedtodieoutinthefollowingdecadewhenahandfulofcriticsstatedthatthetwoworksweremerely"comparativeliterature",[81]althoughGreekwasknowninlate7thcenturyEngland:BedestatesthatTheodoreofTarsus,aGreek,was
appointedArchbishopofCanterburyin668,andhetaughtGreek.SeveralEnglishscholarsandchurchmenaredescribedbyBedeasbeingfluentinGreekduetobeingtaughtbyhimBedeclaimstobefluentinGreekhimself.[82]

FrederickKlaeber,amongothers,arguedforaconnectionbetweenBeowulfandVirgilnearthestartofthe20thcentury,claimingthattheveryactofwritingasecularepicinaGermanicworldrepresentsVirgilianinfluence.Virgilwasseenasthe
pinnacleofLatinliterature,andLatinwasthedominantliterarylanguageofEnglandatthetime,thereforemakingVirgilianinfluencehighlylikely.[83]Similarly,in1971,AlistairCampbellstatedthattheapologuetechniqueusedinBeowulfisso
rareinepicpoetryasidefromVirgilthatthepoetwhocomposedBeowulfcouldnothavewrittenthepoeminsuchamannerwithoutfirstcomingacrossVirgil'swritings.[84]

ItcannotbedeniedthatBiblicalparallelsoccurinthetext,whetherseenasapaganworkwith"Christiancolouring"addedbyscribesorasa"Christianhistoricalnovel,withselectedbitsofpaganismdeliberatelylaidonas'localcolour',"as
MargaretE.Goldsmithdidin"TheChristianThemeofBeowulf,".[85]BeowulfchannelsthebooksofGenesis,Exodus,andDaniel[86]initsinclusionofreferencestotheGenesiscreationnarrative,thestoryofCainandAbel,Noahandtheflood
myth,theDevil,Hell,andtheLastJudgment.[85]

Dialect

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beowulf 5/9
2017611 BeowulfWikipedia

ThepoemmixestheWestSaxonandAngliandialectsofOldEnglish,thoughitpredominantlyusesWestSaxon,asdootherOldEnglishpoemscopiedatthetime.[87]

ThereisawidearrayoflinguisticformsintheBeowulfmanuscript.ItisthisfactthatleadssomescholarstobelievethatBeowulfhasenduredalongandcomplicatedtransmissionthroughallthemaindialectareas.[10]Thepoemretainsa
complicatedmixofthefollowingdialecticalforms:Mercian,Northumbrian,EarlyWestSaxon,KentishandLateWestSaxon.[10]ThereareinBeowulfmorethanthirtyonehundreddistinctwords,andalmostthirteenhundredoccurexclusively,
oralmostexclusively,inthispoemandintheotherpoeticaltexts.Considerablymorethanonethirdofthetotalvocabularyisalienfromordinaryproseuse.Thereare,inroundnumbers,threehundredandsixtyuncompoundedverbsinBeowulf,
andfortyofthemarepoeticalwordsinthesensethattheyareunrecordedorrareintheexistingprosewritings.Onehundredandfiftymoreoccurwiththeprefixge(reckoningafewfoundonlyinthepastparticiple),butoftheseonehundred
occuralsoassimpleverbs,andtheprefixisemployedtorenderashadeofmeaningwhichwasperfectlyknownandthoroughlyfamiliarexceptinthelatestAngloSaxonperiod.Thenounsnumbersixteenhundred.Sevenhundredofthem,
includingthoseformedwithprefixes,ofwhichfifty(orconsiderablymorethanhalf)havege,aresimplenouns,atthehighestreckoningnotmorethanonefourthisabsentinprose.Thatthisisdueinsomedegreetoaccidentisclearfromthe
characterofthewords,andfromthefactthatseveralreappearandarecommonaftertheNormanConquest.[88]

Formandmetre
AnOldEnglishpoemsuchasBeowulfisverydifferentfrommodernpoetry.AngloSaxonpoetstypicallyusedalliterativeverse,aformofverseinwhichthefirsthalfoftheline(theaverse)islinkedtothesecondhalf(thebverse)through
similarityininitialsound.Inaddition,thetwohalvesaredividedbyacaesura:"OftScyldScefing\\sceaenareatum"(l.4).Thisverseformmapsstressedandunstressedsyllablesontoabstractentitiesknownasmetricalpositions.Thereisno
fixednumberofbeatsperline:thefirstonecitedhasthree(OftSCYLDSCEFING,withictusonthesuffixING)whereasthesecondhastwo(SCEAenaREATum).

Thepoethasachoiceofepithetsorformulaetouseinordertofulfillthealliteration.WhenspeakingorreadingOldEnglishpoetry,itisimportanttorememberforalliterativepurposesthatmanyofthelettersarenotpronouncedinthesameway
asinmodernEnglish.Theletterh,forexample,isalwayspronounced(Hrogar:[hrogar]),andthedigraphcgispronounced[d],asinthewordedge.Bothfandsvaryinpronunciationdependingontheirphoneticenvironment.
Betweenvowelsorvoicedconsonants,theyarevoiced,soundinglikemodernvandz,respectively.Otherwisetheyareunvoiced,likemodernfinfatandsinsat.SomeletterswhicharenolongerfoundinmodernEnglish,suchasthorn,
,andeth,representingbothpronunciationsofmodernEnglishth,as//inthingand//thisareusedextensivelybothintheoriginalmanuscriptandinmodernEnglisheditions.Thevoicingofthesecharactersechoesthatoffand
s.Botharevoiced(asinthis)betweenothervoicedsounds:oer,laleas,suern.Otherwisetheyareunvoiced(asinthing):unor,su,sofst.

KenningsarealsoasignificanttechniqueinBeowulf.Theyareevocativepoeticdescriptionsofeverydaythings,oftencreatedtofillthealliterativerequirementsofthemetre.Forexample,apoetmightcalltheseathe"swanroad"orthe"whale
road"akingmightbecalleda"ringgiver."TherearemanykenningsinBeowulf,andthedeviceistypicalofmuchofclassicpoetryinOldEnglish,whichisheavilyformulaic.Thepoemalsomakesextensiveuseofelidedmetaphors.[89]

J.R.R.Tolkienarguedthatthepoemisanelegy.[90]

Interpretationandcriticism
ThehistoryofmodernBeowulfcriticismisoftensaidtobeginwithJ.R.R.Tolkien,[91]authorandMertonprofessorofAngloSaxonatUniversityofOxford,whoinhis1936lecturetotheBritishAcademycriticisedhiscontemporaries'
excessiveinterestinitshistoricalimplications.[92]HenotedinBeowulf:TheMonstersandtheCriticsthatasaresultthepoem'sliteraryvaluehadbeenlargelyoverlookedandarguedthatthepoem"isinfactsointerestingaspoetry,inplaces
poetrysopowerful,thatthisquiteovershadowsthehistoricalcontent..."[93]

Inhistoricalterms,thepoem'scharacterswouldhavebeenNorsepagans(thehistoricaleventsofthepoemtookplacebeforetheChristianisationofScandinavia),yetthepoemwasrecordedbyChristianAngloSaxonswhohadlargelyconverted
fromtheirnativeAngloSaxonpaganismaroundthe7thcenturybothAngloSaxonpaganismandNorsepaganismshareacommonoriginasbothareformsofGermanicpaganism.BeowulfthusdepictsaGermanicwarriorsociety,inwhichthe
relationshipbetweenthelordoftheregionandthosewhoservedunderhimwasofparamountimportance.[94]

StanleyB.GreenfieldhassuggestedthatreferencestothehumanbodythroughoutBeowulfemphasisetherelativepositionofthanestotheirlord.Hearguesthattheterm"shouldercompanion"couldrefertobothaphysicalarmaswellasathane
(Aeschere)whowasveryvaluabletohislord(Hrothgar).WithAeschere'sdeath,HrothgarturnstoBeowulfashisnew"arm."[95]Inaddition,Greenfieldarguesthefootisusedfortheoppositeeffect,onlyappearingfourtimesinthepoem.Itis
usedinconjunctionwithUnfer(amandescribedbyBeowulfasweak,traitorous,andcowardly).GreenfieldnotesthatUnferisdescribedas"attheking'sfeet"(line499).Unferisalsoamemberofthefoottroops,who,throughoutthestory,
donothingand"generallyserveasbackdropsformoreheroicaction."[96]

Atthesametime,RichardNortharguesthattheBeowulfpoetinterpreted"DanishmythsinChristianform"(asthepoemwouldhaveservedasaformofentertainmentforaChristianaudience),andstates:"Asyetwearenoclosertofindingout
whythefirstaudienceofBeowulflikedtohearstoriesaboutpeopleroutinelyclassifiedasdamned.Thisquestionispressing,given...thatAngloSaxonssawtheDanesas'heathens'ratherthanasforeigners."[97]Grendel'smotherandGrendelare
describedasdescendantsofCain,afactwhichsomescholarslinktotheCaintradition.[98]

Otherscholarsdisagree,however,astothemeaningandnatureofthepoem:isitaChristianworksetinaGermanicpagancontext?ThequestionsuggeststhattheconversionfromtheGermanicpaganbeliefstoChristianoneswasaveryslow
andgradualprocessoverseveralcenturies,anditremainsuncleartheultimatenatureofthepoem'smessageinrespecttoreligiousbeliefatthetimeitwaswritten.RobertF.Yeagernotesthefactsthatformthebasisforthesequestions:

ThatthescribesofCottonVitelliusA.XVwereChristianisbeyonddoubtanditisequallycertainthatBeowulfwascomposedinaChristianisedEngland,sinceconversiontookplaceinthesixthandseventhcenturies.Yettheonly
BiblicalreferencesinBeowulfaretotheOldTestament,andChristisnevermentioned.Thepoemissetinpagantimes,andnoneofthecharactersisdemonstrablyChristian.Infact,whenwearetoldwhatanyoneinthepoem
believes,welearnthattheyarepagans.Beowulf'sownbeliefsarenotexpressedexplicitly.Heofferseloquentprayerstoahigherpower,addressinghimselftothe"FatherAlmighty"orthe"WielderofAll."Werethosetheprayersof

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beowulf 6/9
2017611 BeowulfWikipedia

apaganwhousedphrasestheChristianssubsequentlyappropriated?Or,didthepoem'sauthorintendtoseeBeowulfasaChristianUrhero,symbolicallyrefulgentwithChristianvirtues?[99]

Thelocationofthecompositionofthepoemisalsodeeplydisputed.In1914,F.W.Moorman,thefirstprofessorofEnglishLanguageatLeedsUniversity,claimedthatBeowulfwascomposedinYorkshire,[100]butE.TalbotDonaldsonclaimed
thatitwasprobablycomposedmorethantwelvehundredyearsago,duringthefirsthalfoftheeighthcentury,andthatthewriterwasanativeofwhatwasthencalledWestMercia,locatedintheWesternMidlandsofEngland.However,thelate
tenthcenturymanuscript"whichalonepreservesthepoem"originatedinthekingdomoftheWestSaxonsasitismorecommonlyknown.[101]Donaldsonwrotethat"thepoetwhoputthematerialsintotheirpresentformwasaChristianand...
poemreflectsaChristiantradition".[101]

Artisticadaptations
Seealso
ListofBeowulfcharacters
OnTranslatingBeowulf
SuttonHoohelmet#Beowulf

References DavidWoodardappearsasboth
BeowulfandGrendelinthestage
Notes productionExplodingBeowulf
(Berlin,2010)
a."wg"means"fight,battle,war,conflict"[18]and"lf"means"remnant,leftover"[19]
b.Thatis,R.D.Fulk's1992AHistoryofOldEnglishMeter.
c.Forinstance,byChaunceyBrewsterTinkerinTheTranslationsofBeowulf,[46]acomprehensivesurveyof19thcenturytranslationsandeditionsofBeowulf.

Citations
1.Hanna,Ralph(2013).IntroducingEnglishMedievalBookHistory:Manuscripts, 15."Ottar'sMound"(https://web.archive.org/web/20070826234854/http://www.raa.se/ 28.Neidorf,Leonard,ed.(2014),TheDatingofBeowulf:AReassessment(https://bo
theirProducersandtheirReaders.LiverpoolUniversityPress. cms/extern/en/places_to_visit/our_historical_sites/ottar_s_mound.html).Swedish oks.google.com/books?id=TBEABQAAQBAJ),Cambridge:D.S.Brewer,
2.Jones,Daniel(2003)[1917],PeterRoach,JamesHartmannandJaneSetter,eds., NationalHeritageBoard.Archivedfromtheoriginal(http://www.raa.se/cms/exter ISBN9781843843870
EnglishPronouncingDictionary,Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress, n/en/places_to_visit/our_historical_sites/ottar_s_mound.html)on26August2007. 29.Lord,Albert(2000).TheSingerofTales,Volume1(https://books.google.com/boo
ISBN3125396832 Retrieved1October2007. ks?id=JrvQdPMXGmAC).Cambridge,MA:HarvardUniversityPress.p.200.
3.Chase,Colin.(1997).ThedatingofBeowulf.pp.922.UniversityofToronto 16.Niles,JohnD.(October2006)."Beowulf'sGreatHall"(http://www.historytoday.c 30.Tolkien1958,p.127.
Press om/johndniles/beowulf%E2%80%99sgreathall).HistoryToday.56(10):40 31.Shippey,Tom(2007),"TolkienandtheBeowulfpoet",RootsandBranches,
4.Robinson2001,?:'Thenameofthepoetwhoassembledfromtraditionthe 44. WalkingTreePublishers,ISBN9783905703054
materialsofhisstoryandputthemintheirfinalformisnotknowntous.' 17.Anderson,CarlEdlund(1999)."FormationandResolutionofIdeological 32.Neidorf,LeonardPascual,Rafael(2014)."TheLanguageofBeowulfandthe
5.Robinson2001:'LikemostOldEnglishpoems,Beowulfhasnotitleintheunique ContrastintheEarlyHistoryofScandinavia"(http://www.carlaz.com/phd/cea_phd ConditioningofKaluza'sLaw"(http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s1106101
manuscriptinwhichitsurvives(BritishLibrary,CottonVitelliusA.xv,whichwas _chap4.pdf)(PDF)(Ph.D.thesis).UniversityofCambridge,DepartmentofAnglo 49400x).Neophilologus.98(4).pp.657673.doi:10.1007/s110610149400x
copiedroundtheyear1000AD),butmodernscholarsagreeinnamingitafterthe Saxon,Norse&Celtic(FacultyofEnglish).p.115.Retrieved1October2007. (https://doi.org/10.1007%2Fs110610149400x).
herowhoselifeisitssubject'. 18."Wg"(http://bosworth.ff.cuni.cz/035625).BosworthTollerAngloSaxon 33.Fulk,R.D.(2007)."OldEnglishMeterandOralTradition:ThreeIssuesBearing
6.Mitchell&Robinson1998,p.6(https://books.google.com/?id=uujn741w2Y4C& Dictionary.Retrieved23October2014. onPoeticChronology"(http://www.jstor.org/stable/27712658).JournalofEnglish
pg=PA6). 19."Lf"(http://bosworth.ff.cuni.cz/021034).BosworthTollerAngloSaxon andGermanicPhilology.106.pp.304324.
7.Abrams&Greenblatt1986,p.19. Dictionary.Retrieved23October2014. 34.Lapidge,M.(2000)."TheArchetypeofBeowulf".AngloSaxonEngland.29.
8.Beowulf(duallanguageed.).NewYork:Doubleday.1977. 20.Beowulf,675687 pp.541.doi:10.1017/s0263675100002398(https://doi.org/10.1017%2Fs0263675
9.Newton,Sam(1993).TheOriginsofBeowulfandthePreVikingKingdomof 21.Beowulf,757765 100002398).
EastAnglia.Woodbridge,Suffolk,ENG:Boydell&Brewer.ISBN085991361 22.Beowulf,766789 35.Cronan,D(2004)."PoeticWords,Conservatism,andtheDatingofOldEnglish
9. 23.Beowulf,793804 Poetry".AngloSaxonEngland.33.pp.2350.
10.Kiernan1996,footnote69p.162,90,258,257,171,xixxx,xix,3,4,277278, 24.808823 36.Fulk,R.D.(1992),AHistoryofOldEnglishMeter
2334,29,29,60,62,footnote69162 25.Hansen,E.T.(2008)."Hrothgar's'sermon'inBeowulfasparentalwisdom". 37.Weiskott,Eric(2013)."PhantomSyllablesintheEnglishAlliterativeTradition"
11.Noted,forexample,byJohnGrigsby,Beowulf&Grendel2005:12. AngloSaxonEngland.10.doi:10.1017/S0263675100003203(https://doi.org/10.10 (http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.1086/669478?uid=3739696&uid=2&uid=4&uid
12.Shippey,TA(Summer2001)."WickedQueensandCousinStrategiesinBeowulf 17%2FS0263675100003203). =3739256&sid=21104609985971).ModernPhilology.110(4).pp.44158.
andElsewhere,NotesandBibliography".IntheHeroicAge(5). 26.Beowulf(http://faculty.mu.edu.sa/public/uploads/1348946962.7014beowulf.pdf) doi:10.1086/669478(https://doi.org/10.1086%2F669478).
13.Klingmark,Elisabeth.GamlaUppsala,Svenskakulturminnen59(inSwedish). (PDF),SA:MU. 38.Hutcheson,B.R.(2004),"Kaluza'sLaw,TheDatingof"Beowulf,"andtheOld
Riksantikvariembetet. 27.S.Downey(February2015),"ReviewofTheDatingofBeowulf:A EnglishPoeticTradition",TheJournalofEnglishandGermanicPhilology,103
14.Nerman,Birger(1925).Detsvenskariketsuppkomst.Stockholm. Reassessment",ChoiceReviewsOnline,52(6),doi:10.5860/CHOICE.187152(htt (3):299,JSTOR27712433(https://www.jstor.org/stable/27712433)
ps://doi.org/10.5860%2FCHOICE.187152) 39."CottonMSVitelliusAXV"(http://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/FullDisplay.aspx?ref
=cotton_ms_vitellius_a_xv).BritishLibrary.Retrieved30May2014.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beowulf 7/9
2017611 BeowulfWikipedia
40.Joy,EileenA.(2005)."ThomasSmith,HumfreyWanley,andthe'LittleKnown 58.Blackburn,FA(1897),"TheChristianColoringofBeowulf",PMLA,12:21017, 80.Cook1926.
Country'oftheCottonLibrary"(http://www.bl.uk/eblj/2005articles/pdf/article1.pd doi:10.2307/456133(https://doi.org/10.2307%2F456133) 81.Andersson1998,p.138.
f)(PDF).ElectronicBritishLibraryJournal:2.Retrieved19November2014. 59.Benson,LarryD(1967),Creed,RP,ed.,"ThePaganColoringofBeowulf",Old 82.Bede,EcclesiasticalHistory,V.24
41.Joy2005,p.24. EnglishPoetry:fifteenessays,Providence,RhodeIsland:BrownUniversity 83.Haber,TomBurns(1931),AComparativeStudyoftheBeowulfandtheAeneid,
42.Kiernan1996,p.7374. Press,pp.193213 Princeton
43.Kiernan,Kevin(16January2014)."ElectronicBeowulf3.0"(http://ebeowulf.uky. 60.Lord1960,p.198. 84.Andersson1998,p.140141.
edu/).UofKentucky.Retrieved19November2014. 61.Zumthor1984,pp.6792. 85.Irving,EdwardB.,Jr."ChristianandPaganElements."ABeowulfHandbook.
44.LeonardNeidorf(2013)."ScribalerrorsofpropernamesintheBeowulf 62.Crowne,DK(1960),"TheHeroontheBeach:AnExampleofCompositionby Eds.Bjork,RobertE.andJohnD.Niles.Lincoln,Nebraska:Universityof
manuscript"(http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=onlin ThemeinAngloSaxonPoetry",NeuphilologischeMitteilungen,61 NebraskaPress,1998.17592.Print.
e&aid=9099642&fileId=S0263675113000124).AngloSaxonEngland.42. 63.Benson,LarryD(1966),"TheLiteraryCharacterofAngloSaxonFormulaic 86.Andersson1998,p.142143.
pp.24969.doi:10.1017/s0263675113000124(https://doi.org/10.1017%2Fs02636 Poetry",PublicationsoftheModernLanguageAssociation,81:33441, 87.Slade,Benjamin(21December2003)."AnIntroductiontotheStructure&
75113000124). doi:10.2307/460821(https://doi.org/10.2307%2F460821) MakingoftheOldEnglishpoemknownasBeowulforTheBeowulfandthe
45.Lapidge,Michael(1996).AngloLatinliterature,600899.London:Hambledon 64.Benson,Larry(1970),"TheOriginalityofBeowulf",TheInterpretationof BeowulfcodexoftheBritishMuseumMSCottonVitelliusA.xv"(https://www.h
Press.p.299.ISBN1852850116. Narrative,Cambridge,MA:HarvardUniversityPress,pp.144 eorot.dk/beowulfvorwort.html).BeowulfonSteorarume.Retrieved18January
46.Tinker,ChaunceyBrewster(1903),TheTranslationsofBeowulf(http://www.gute 65.Foley,JohnM.OralFormulaicTheoryandResearch:AnIntroductionand 2017.
nberg.org/etext/25942),Gutenberg AnnotatedBibliography.NewYork:Garland,1985.p.126 88.Girvan,Ritchie(1971),BeowulfandtheSeventhCenturyLanguageandContent
47.Osborn,Marijane."AnnotatedListofBeowulfTranslations"(https://web.archive. 66.Watts,AnnC.(1969),TheLyreandtheHarp:AComparativeReconsiderationof (print),NewFellerLane:LondonEC4:Methuen&Co
org/web/20141121165748/https://acmrs.org/academicprograms/onlineresources/b OralTraditioninHomerandOldEnglishEpicPoetry,NewHaven,CT:Yale 89.Abrams&Greenblatt2006,pp.2933.
eowulflist).Archivedfromtheoriginal(https://acmrs.org/academicprograms/onl UniversityPress,p.124,ISBN0300007973 90.Tolkien1958,p.31.
ineresources/beowulflist)on21November2014.Retrieved21November2014. 67.Gardner,Thomas."HowFreeWastheBeowulfPoet?"ModernPhilology.1973.p. 91.Orchard2003a,p.7.
48.Jaillant(2013)(https://www.academia.edu/3765663/A_Fine_Old_Tale_of_Adventu 11127. 92.Tolkien2006,p.7.
re_Beowulf_Told_to_the_Children_of_the_English_Race_18981908) 68.Foley,JohnMiles(1991),TheTheoryofOralComposition:Historyand 93.Tolkien1958,p.7.
49.Beowulf(http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/beowulfoe.html)(inOld Methodology,Bloomington:IUP,pp.109f 94.Leyerle,John(1991)."TheInterlaceStructureofBeowulf".InFulk,Robert
English),Fordham 69.Buml,FranzH."VarietiesandConsequencesofMedievalLiteracyand Dennis.InterpretationsofBeowulf:ACriticalAnthology(https://books.google.co
50.Bloomfield,Josephine(June1999)."BenevolentAuthoritarianisminKlaeber's Illiteracy",Speculum,Vol.55,No.2(1980),pp.24344. m/books?id=_sU0bTfcIjYC&pg=PA155).IndianaUP.pp.14667.ISBN9780
Beowulf:AnEditorialTranslationofKingship"(http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/mod 70.Havelock,EricAlfred(1963),AHistoryoftheGreekMind,1.PrefacetoPlato, 253206398.Retrieved17August2013.
ern_language_quarterly/v060/60.2bloomfield.pdf)(PDF).ModernLanguage Cambridge,MA:BelknapPressofHarvardUniversityPress 95.Greenfield1989,p.59.
Quarterly.60(2). 71.Curschmann,Michael(1977),"TheConceptoftheFormulaasanImpedimentto 96.Greenfield1989,p.61.
51.Orchard2003a,pp.4,32930. OurUnderstandingofMedievalOralPoetry",MedievaliaetHumanistica,8:63 97.North2006,p.195.
52.Schulman&Szarmach2012,p.4. 76 98.Williams,David(1982),CainandBeowulf:AStudyinSecularAllegory,
53.Chickering2002. 72.Schaefer,Ursula(1992),"Vokalitat:AltenglischeDichtungzwischenMundlichkeit UniversityofTorontoPress
54.Aaij2013,p.. undSchriftlichkeit",ScriptOralia(inGerman),Tbingen:GunterNarr,39 99.Yeager,RobertF."WhyReadBeowulf?"(http://www.neh.gov/news/humanities/1
55.Sims,HarleyJ.(2012)."Rev.ofFulk,Beowulf"(http://www.heroicage.org/issue 73.Otter,Monika."Vokalitaet:AltenglischeDichtungzwischenMuendlichkeitund 99903/yeager.html).NationalEndowmentForTheHumanities.Retrieved
s/15/reviews.php#fulk).TheHeroicAge.15. Schriftlichkeit"(http://serials.infomotions.com/bmcr/bmcr9404ottervokalitaet.tx 2October2007.
56.Flood,Alison(17March2014)."JRRTolkientranslationofBeowulftobe t).BrynMawrClassicalReview.Retrieved19April2010. 100.F.W.Moorman,EnglishPlaceNamesandtheTeutonicSagas',inOliverElton
publishedafter90yearwait"(https://www.theguardian.com/books/2014/mar/19/jr 74.Andersson1998,p.125. (ed.),EnglishAssociationEssaysandStudies,vol.5(Oxford:Clarendon,1914)
rtolkienbeowulftranslationpublished).TheGuardian.Retrieved21March 75.Andersson1998,p.130131. p.75f
2014. 76.Andersson1998,p.133. 101.Tuso,FJoseph(1975),Beowulf:TheDonaldsonTranslationBackgroundsand
57.Acocella,Joan(2June2014)."SlayingMonsters:Tolkien's'Beowulf' "(http://ww 77.Andersson1998,p.134. SourcesCriticism,NewYork:Norton&Co
w.newyorker.com/arts/critics/books/2014/06/02/140602crbo_books_acocella?curre 78.Andersson1998,p.135.
ntPage=all).TheNewYorker.Retrieved2June2014. 79.Andersson1998,p.137.

Sources
Anderson,Sarah,ed.(2004),Introductionandhistorical/culturalcontexts, Chickering,HowellD.(2002),"Beowulfand'Heaneywulf':review",TheKenyon Jaillant,Lise."AFineOldTaleofAdventure:BeowulfToldtotheChildrenofthe
LongmanCultural,ISBN0321107209. Review,new,24(1):16078. EnglishRace,18981908."ChildrensLiteratureAssociationQuarterly38.4
Andersson,TheodoreM.(1998),"SourcesandAnalogues",inBjork,RobertE. Cook,AlbertStanburrough(1926),BeowulfianandOdysseanVoyages,New (2013):399419(https://www.academia.edu/3765663/A_Fine_Old_Tale_of_Adven
Niles,JohnD.,ABeowulfHandbook,Lincoln,Nebraska:UniversityofNebraska Haven:ConnecticutAcademyofArtsandSciences ture_Beowulf_Told_to_the_Children_of_the_English_Race_18981908)
Press,pp.12548,ISBN9780803261501 Creed,RobertP(1990),ReconstructingtheRhythmofBeowulf,Universityof Lerer,Seth(Jan2012),"DraggingtheMonsterfromtheCloset:Beowulfandthe
Carruthers,Leo(2011),"RewritingGenres:BeowulfasEpicRomance",in Missouri,ISBN9780826207227. EnglishLiteraryTradition"(http://old.ragazine.cc/2012/01/beowulfsethlerer/),
Carruthers,LeoChaiElsholz,RaeleenSilec,Tatjana,Palimpsestsandthe Damico,Helen(1984),Beowulf'sWealhtheowandtheValkyrieTradition, Ragazine.
LiteraryImaginationofMedievalEngland,NewYork:Palgrave,pp.13955, Madison:UniversityofWisconsinPress,ISBN9780299095000. Lord,Albert(1960),TheSingerofTales(https://books.google.com/books?id=Jrv
ISBN9780230100268 Tolkien,J.R.R.(2002),Drout,MichaelD.C.,ed.,BeowulfandtheCritics, QdPMXGmAC),Cambridge,MA:HarvardUniversityPress.
Chadwick,NoraK.(1959),"TheMonstersandBeowulf",inClemoes,Peter,The ArizonaCenterforMedievalandRenaissanceStudies Mitchell,BruceRobinson,FredC(1998),Beowulf:aneditionwithrelevant
AngloSaxons:StudiesinSomeAspectsofTheirHistory,London:Bowes& Greenfield,Stanley(1989),HeroandExile,London:HambletonPress. shortertexts(https://books.google.com/?id=uujn741w2Y4C),Oxford,UK
Bowes,pp.171203,OCLC213750799(https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/21375079 "AnthropologicalandCulturalApproachestoBeowulf"(http://www.heroicage.or Malden,MA:Blackwell.
9) g/issues/5/toc.html),TheHeroicAge(5),SummerAutumn2001. Neidorf,Leonard,ed.(2014),TheDatingofBeowulf:AReassessment(https://bo
Chance,Jane(1990),"TheStructuralUnityofBeowulf:TheProblemof Kiernan,Kevin(1996),BeowulfandtheBeowulfManuscript(https://books.googl oks.google.com/books?id=TBEABQAAQBAJ),Cambridge:DSBrewer,
Grendel'sMother",inDamico,HelenOlsen,AlexandraHennessey,New e.com/books?id=Yv8cnwEACAAJ),AnnArbor,MI:UniversityofMichigan, ISBN9781843843870.
ReadingsonWomeninOldEnglishLiterature,Bloomington,IN:Indiana ISBN0472084127. Nicholson,LewisE,ed.(1963),AnAnthologyofBeowulfCriticism,NotreDame:
UniversityPress,pp.24861. UniversityofNotreDamePress,ISBN0268000069.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beowulf 8/9
2017611 BeowulfWikipedia
North,Richard(2006),"TheKing'sSoul:DanishMythologyinBeowulf", Robinson,FredC(2001),TheCambridgeCompaniontoBeowulf,Cambridge: Trask,RichardM(1998),"PrefacetothePoems:BeowulfandJudith:Epic
OriginsofBeowulf:FromVergiltoWiglaf,Oxford:OxfordUniversityPress. CambridgeUniversityPress,p.143 Companions",BeowulfandJudith:TwoHeroes,Lanham,MD:UniversityPress
Orchard,Andy(2003a),ACriticalCompaniontoBeowulf,Cambridge:DS Schulman,JanaKSzarmach,PaulE(2012),"Introduction",inSchulman,Jana ofAmerica,pp.1114.
Brewer KSzarmach,PaulE,BeowulfandKalamazoo,Kalamazoo:MedievalInstitute, Zumthor,Paul(1984),Englehardt,MarilynCtransl,"TheTextandtheVoice",
(2003b),PrideandProdigies:StudiesintheMonstersoftheBeowulf pp.111,ISBN9781580441520. NewLiteraryHistory,16
Manuscript,Toronto:UniversityofTorontoPress Tolkien,JohnRonaldReuel(1997)[1958].Beowulf:TheMonstersandthe
Criticsandotheressays.London:HarperCollins.

Externallinks
MediarelatedtoBeowulfatWikimediaCommons
WorksrelatedtoBeowulfatWikisource
QuotationsrelatedtoBeowulfatWikiquote
FulldigitalfacsimileofthemanuscriptontheBritishLibrary'sDigitisedManuscriptswebsite(http://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/FullDisplay.aspx?index=0&ref=Cotton_MS_vitellius_a_xv)
Beowulf(http://epublib.info/beowulfdownloadepub)ePub/Mobiversion
ElectronicBeowulf,ed.byKevinKiernan,4thonlineedn(UniversityofKentucky/TheBritishLibrary,2015),http://ebeowulf.uky.edu/ebeo4.0/start.html
BeowulfmanuscriptinTheBritishLibrary'sOnlineGallery,withshortsummaryandpodcast(http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/onlineex/englit/beowulf/)
AnnotatedListofBeowulfTranslations:TheListArizonalCenterforMedievalandRenaissanceStudies(http://www.acmrs.org/academicprograms/onlineresources/beowulflist)
onlinetext(http://www.sacredtexts.com/neu/ascp/a04_01.htm)(digitisedfromElliottvanKirkDobbie(ed.),BeowulfandJudith,AngloSaxonPoeticRecords,4(NewYork,1953))
Beowulfintroduction(http://www.exodusbooks.com/category.aspx?id=8211)ArticleintroducingvarioustranslationsandadaptationsofBeowulf
Beowulf(https://librivox.org/search?title=Beowulf&author=UNKNOWN&reader=&keywords=&genre_id=0&status=all&project_type=either&recorded_language=&sort_order=catalog_date&search_page=1&search_form=advanced)
publicdomainaudiobookatLibriVox
ThetaleofBeowulf(Sel.3.231)(http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/view/PRSEL0000300231/1)adigitaleditionoftheproofsheetswithmanuscriptnotesandcorrectionsbyWilliamMorrisinCambridgeDigitalLibrary

Retrievedfrom"https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Beowulf&oldid=783986664"

Categories: Beowulf AngloSaxonpaganism Englishfolklore Englishheroiclegends EpicpoemsinEnglish Geats Scandinavianfolklore HistoryoftheGermanicpeoples Medievallegends Worksofunknownauthorship

Thispagewaslasteditedon5June2017,at21:09.
TextisavailableundertheCreativeCommonsAttributionShareAlikeLicenseadditionaltermsmayapply.Byusingthissite,youagreetotheTermsofUseandPrivacyPolicy.WikipediaisaregisteredtrademarkoftheWikimedia
Foundation,Inc.,anonprofitorganization.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beowulf 9/9