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517.

977

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,
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-
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.

-
. -
, GPS-,
, .
[1, 2, 5, 6]
.
, [1],
.
Nomad 200 [1].

.
( ) e --
[3, 4]. -
[5],
, -
,
[6].

1
1
.
, | .
,
, ,
, ,
, .
.
, -
( ) (., ,
[2]).
-
.
"" , . 1.
x0 O0 y 0 ,
, x0 . -

O0 xOy
O0 x0 Ox
.
m | , J |
, , lf lr |
, v | , |
, | , f
r | , |
O0 x0 x , |
, ff fr | , -
.
" ".
-
(. . 1)
 
v sin + lf
f = arctg = f (v, , ) ,
 v cos  (1)
v sin lr
r = arctg = r (v, , ),
v cos
,
:

mvx0 mvy0 = fx0 , mvy + mvx0 = fy0 . (2)

J = M. (3)

vx0 = v cos vy0 = v sin |


, fx0 fy0 | , , M |
.

vx0 = v cos v sin , vy0 = v sin + v cos , (4)

(4) (2),

mv( + ) = fx0 sin + fy0 cos , mv = fx0 cos + fy0 sin . (5)

F | , . ,
,

fx0 = ff sin + F, fy0 = ff cos + fr . (6)

|
Mz = ff lf cos fr lr . (7)
(6) (5) c

ff cos + fr tg
= v,
mv cos v
J = ff lf cos fr lr ,

= , (8)

x = v cos( + ),

y = v sin( + ).

(8) ,
|| < /2.
(8) -
v. v u1 u2 (8)
v = u2 .
C [2], f , r 0 5-8
ff , fr , ,

ff = cf f , fr = cr r , (9)

3
,
. cf cr | , -
.
c (8) ,
sin() , cos() 1,
sin() , cos() 1.
(8) (9), (1) (8)
,
cf (f ) + cr r
= v =
mv v
cf f + cr r cf
= + u1 u2 ,
mv mv v

J = (cf (f ))lf + cr r lr = cf f lf + cr r lr + cf lf u1 .
, (1) ,
v + lf v lr
f = , r = . (10)
v v
(8)
cf f + cr r cf
= + u1 u2 ,
mv mv v
lf lr lf
= cf f + cr r + cf u1 ,
J J J
v = u2 ,
(11)
= ,
x = v cos( + ),
y = v sin( + ).

(11) . -
.

2
,

z1 = z2 , . . . , zn1 1 = zn1 , zn1 = f1 (z, ) + g11 (z, )u1 + g12 (z, )u2 ,
zn1 +1 = zn1 +2 , . . . , zn1 +n2 1 = zn1 +n2 , zn1 +n2 = f2 (z, ) + g21 (z, )u1 + g22 (z, )u2 , (12)
= f3 (z, ) + g31 (z, )u1 + g32 (z, )u2 ,

n1 + n2 < n, z = (z1 , . . . , zn1 +n2 )T , = (1 , . . . , m )T , n1 + n2 + m = n,


[7] n1 n2 . , n1 + n2 = n, (12)
.

4
(11)
n1 n2 .
(11)
cf f + cr r lr lf
A= ( + ) + ( cr r cf f ) +
mv J J

+ + v cos( + ) + v sin( + )
x y

cf lf cf
B1 = + , B2 = + .
mv J v v
(11)
x0 [5]

Hi = span(B1 , B2 , adA B1 , adA B2 , . . . , adiA B1 , adiA B2 ), i = 0, 1, . . . , 5,

adX Y = [X, Y ] | ( ) X Y , adi+1 X Y =


[X, adX Y ]. X() Y () | X Y -
i

, [X, Y ]()
Y () X()
[X, Y ]() = X() Y ().

, [B1 , B2 ] = 0, ..
. , -
H0 = span(B1 , B2 ) . v 6= 0
, , . -

.
, , (11)
n1 = n2 = 2, , .
(11) -
,

H1 = {B1 , B2 , adA B1 , adA B2 }.

adA B1 , adA B2 ,
lf cf
adA B1 = 1 + 2 +
J
sin( + )cf cos( + )cf
+ ,
m x m y

adA B2 = 3 + 4 (sin( + ) cos( + )) +
x

+(cos( + ) sin( + )) ,
y

5
i , i = 1, . . . , 4 | .
U1 ,
B1 , B2 , adA B1 adA B2 . 4- ,
lf c2f
, , . 6= 0.
Jm
, dim span(H1 ) = 4.
. H1
[B1 , adA B1 ], [B1 , adA B2 ], [B2 , adA B1 ], [B2 , adA B2 ], [adA B1 , adA B2 ].
[B1 , adA B1 ]. , -
U1 [B1 , adA B1 ].
, .
lf2 c4f
, 2 2
J mv
6= 0.
, U1 , -
, H1 , . , (11)
.
(11)
n1 = 2 n2 = 3, -
, H1 , .
G, -
B1 , B2 , adA B1 , adA B2 , [B1 , adA B1 ], [B2 , adA B1 ]. 6= 0.
, G = 0, ..
c (),
.
, , (11)
n1 = n2 = 2.
, H0
,
.
H0 .
.
,
c n1 = n2 = 2:


z1 = z2 , z2 = f1 (z, ) + g11 (z, )u1 + g12 (z, )u2 ,

z = z , z = f (z, ) + g (z, )u + g (z, )u ,
3 4 4 2 21 1 22 2
(13)


1 = f3 (z, ),

2 = f4 (z, ),

z = (z1 , z2 , z3 , z4 )T , = (1 , 2 )T .

6
, -
(11) 13, :

B1 = 0, B2 = 0,

. .
1 lf
+ = 0,



mv J (14)

+ = 0.


v v
H0 v 6= 0, (14)
e -
. : 1 = x, 2 = y, 3 = ,
.
(14),
J
4 = v .
mlf

, (11) (13),

z1 = x, z2 = LA x = v cos( + ),
z3 = y, z4 = LA y = v sin( + ), (15)
1 = , 2 = v mlJ f .

x = z1 , y = z3 , = 1 ,
p
v = z22 + z42 ,
= arctg( zz24 ) 1 , (16)
mlf z4
q
= ( (z22 + z42 )(arctg( ) 1 ) 2 ).
J z2
, z2 6= 0 ,
arctg atan2(z4 , z2 ), -
.
(11)
(13) (z, ),
,
. (13)
"":

7
z1 = z2 ,
cf f + cr r
z2 = sin( + )
m
cf
sin( + )u1 + (cos( + ) + sin( + ))u2 ,
m
z3 = z4 ,
(17)
cf f + cr r
z4 = cos( + ) +
m
cf
+ cos( + )u1 + (sin( + ) cos( + ))u2 ,
m
1 = ,
 
2 = crmr 1 + lr
lf
v.
(17) . -
(13), (17).

3

.
(11) ,
[0, T ].
, ..
(z (t), (t), u (t)). ,
(15) , x = x (t), y = y (t)
(z, ) .
z1 = x (t) = z1 (t), z3 = y (t) = z3 (t). z2 (t) = dz1 (t)/dt, z4 (t) =
dz3 (t)/dt, dz2 (t)/dt dz4 (t)/dt,
(13).
u1 , u2 . | t, 1 2 .
, , , G,
, t, 1 2 .
detG 6= 0 .
, , 1 (t) 2 (t) "-
" .
(17), G :

cf
sin( + ) cos( + ) + sin( + )
G= m .
cf
cos( + ) sin( + ) cos( + )
m

8
c
detG = mf . ,
.

! ! !!

u1 (t, 1 , 2 ) f1 (z (t), z (t), z (t), z (t), 1 , 2 ) z (t)
= G1 1 2 3 4
+ 2
, (18)
u2 (t, 1 , 2 ) f2 (z1 (t), z2 (t), z3 (t), z4 (t), 1 , 2 ) z4 (t)
z1 (t) = x (t), z3 (t) = y (t), z2 (t) = x (t), z4 (t) = y (t), z2 (t) = x (t), z4 (t) = y (t),
 cf f + cr r
z2 = sin( + )
cf m 
sin( + )u1 + (cos( + ) + sin( + ))u2 (16) ,
m
 cf f + cr r
z4 = cos( + ) +
cf m 
+ cos( + )u1 + (sin( + ) cos( + ))u2 (16) ,
m
t, 1 , 2 . ,
(13) zi (t), i = 1, . . . , 4,
1 (0), 2 (0),
1 2 . , 1 (t), 2 (t). -
t [0, T ], , (18),
u1 (t), u2 (t), .
! ! !!
u1 (t) f 1 (z
(t),
(t)) z
(t)
= G1 + 2 , (19)
u2 (t) f2 (z (t), (t)) z4 (t)
z (t) = (z1 (t), z2 (t), z3 (t), z4 (t))T , (t) = (1 (t), 2 (t))T .
, (z (t), (t), u (t)),
z1 , z3 -
(0).

1 2 ,
1 2 , , . -
.
,
t. t = 0 (13)
z1 (0), z2 (0), z3 (0), z4 (0), 1 (0), 2 (0), z2 (0) z4 (0).
(18) u1 u2 t = 0.
t = 0
(13),
t = t.
, t = t z (t), z2 (t), z4 (t) , (t)
. , (13) -
, (18)
.

9
,
k- , k + 1- .

,
[0, T ].
,
.
,
, -
.

4
(z (t), (t), u (t)).
u1 u2 | , -
, u1 = u1 (t) + u1 , u2 = u2 (t) + u2 .
. zi , i = 1, . . . , 4,
j , j = 1, 2 | . C (13)


z1 = z2 ,
z2 = f1 (z, ) + g11 (z, )(u1 (t) + u1 ) + g12 (z, )(u2 (t) + u2 ),






z = z ,
3 4
(20)


z4 = f2 (z, ) + g21 (z, )(u1 (t) + u1 ) + g22 (z, )(u2 (t) + u2 ),



1 = f3 (z, ),

2 = f4 (z, ),

zi = zi + zi , j = j + j , i = 1, . . . , 4, j = 1, 2. (20)


z1 (t) = z2 (t),
z2 (t) = f1 (z (t), (t)) + g11 (z (t), (t))u1 (t) + g12 (z (t), (t))u2 (t),





z (t) = z (t),

3 4

(21)


z4 (t) = f 2 (z (t), (t)) + g21 (z (t), (t))u1 (t) + g22 (z (t), (t))u2 (t),
1 = f3 (z (t), (t)),





2 = f4 (z (t), (t)),



z1 = z2 ,


z2 = f1 (z, , t) + g11 (z, , t)u1 + g12 (z, , t)u2 ,



z3 = z4 , (22)
z4 = f2 (z, , t) + g21 (z, , t)u1 + g22 (z, , t)u2 ,





= q(z, , t),

10

f1 (z, t) = f1 (z + z, + ) f1 (z (t), (t)) +


(g11 (z + z, + ) g11 (z (t), (t)))u1 (t) +
(g12 (z + z, + ) g12 (z (t), (t))) + u2 (t),
f2 (z, t) = f2 (z + z, + ) f2 (z (t), (t)) +
+ (g21 (z + z, + ) g21 (z (t), (t)))u1 (t) +
+ (g22 (z + z, + ) g22 (z (t), (t)))u2 (t),
q = (f3 (z + z, + ) f3 (z (t), (t)), f4 (z + z, + ) f4 (z (t), (t)))T ,

-
(22) [8] -

! ! !!
u1 f1 (z, , t) k 11 z1 + k 12 z2 + k 13 z3 + k 14 z4
= G1 ,
u2
f2 (z, , t) k21 z1 + k22 z2 + k23 z3 + k24 z4
(23)


z1 = z2 ,

z = k z k z k z k z ,
2 11 1 12 2 13 3 14 4
(24)


z3 = z4 ,
z4 = k21 z1 k22 z2 k23 z3 k24 z4 ,

:
= Kz,
z (25)
K

0 1 0 0
k11 k12 k13 k14
K= . (26)

0 0 0 1
k21 k22 k23 k24

K -
(24)
z.
, (15),
.
, (22) -
(23) , ,
, [11] .
1.

z = Kz, (27)

11
= q(z, , t), q(0, 0, t) = 0, (28)
, q(z, , t)
q
(z, ) = (0, 0), (z,) t -
(z, ) = (0, 0),
= q(0, , t) = 0,
(27) z = 0,
(27), (28)
(z, ) = (0, 0).
1 -
, [11] , -

(27) (22).
1
(17) z, :

z4
q
1 = 0 ( (z22 + z42 )(arctg 1 ) 2 ),
z2 q
z4 z4
q
2 = c1 (arctg 1 ) + c0 2 ( (z22 + z42 )(arctg 1 ) 2 )/ z22 + z42 (29)
z2 z2
z
q q
4
c0 ( (z22 + z42 )(arctg 1 ) 2 ) z22 + z42 .
z2

mlf lr + lf lf lr + lr2
c0 = , c1 = cr , c2 = cr .
J mlf mlf

p z (t) + z4
1 = 0 ( (z2 (t) + z2 )2 + (z4 (t) + z4 )2 (arctg( 4
z2 (t) + z2
1 (t) 1 ) 2 (t) 2 )
z (t)
p
0 ( z2 (t)2 + z4 (t)2 (arctg z4 (t) 1 (t)) 2 (t)),
2
z4 (t) + z4
 

2 = c1 arctg 1 (t) 1 +
z2 (t) + z2
p z (t) + z4
+ c0 ( ((z2 (t) + z2 )2 + (z4 (t) + z4 )2 )(arctg 4 (30)
z2 (t) + z4
c2
1 (t) 1 ) 2 (t) 2 )( p
(z2 (t) + z2 )2 + (z4 (t) + z4 )2
p
(z2 (t) + z2 )2 + (z4 (t) + z4 )2 )
z4 (t)
p
2 2
z4 (t)
+ c1 (arctg 1 (t)) c0 ( z2 (t) + z4 (t) )(arctg
z2 (t) z2 (t) !
c2 p
1 (t)) 2 (t)) p z2 (t)2 + z4 (t)2 .
z2 (t) + z4 (t)2
2

12
(z (t), (t)), z2 (t) > M2 > 0
|z (t)| < M1 , M1 , M2 | . , -
, -
z2 (t) ,
arctg(), -
atan2(a, b).
(30)
(z, ),
t
.

1 = c0 v (t)1 c0 2 ,
(31)
2 = 1 (t)1 + 2 (t)2 ,
p
v (t)= z2 (t)2 +z4 (t)2 , 1 (t) = c1 c0 v (t)(t), 2 (t) = c0 (t),
(t) = vc(t)
2
v (t) , ,
[12].
, -
1 . ,
(23).
, v (t) = v0 , (31) .
C
p
c0 c2 c20 c22 4v02 c0 c1
1,2 = . (32)
2v0
c0 , c1 , c2 v0 , Re1,2 < 0,
.

5
,
"" . . 2.
a | ,
. 1.
, -
| ,

13

 
v sin + lf
f 1 = arctg = f 1 (v, , ) ,
 v cos a 
v sin + lf
f 2 = arctg = f 2 (v, , ) ,
 v cos + lf 
v sin lr
r1 = arctg = r1 (v, , ),
 v cos a 
v sin lr
r2 = arctg = r2 (v, , ).
v cos + a

cf 1 (f 1 ) + cf 2 (f 2 ) + cr1 r1 + cr2 r2
= v =
mv v
cf 1 f 1 + cf 2 f 2 + cr1 r1 + cr2 r2 cf 1 + cf 2
= + u 1 u2 ,
mv mv v
J = (cf 1 (f 1 ) + cf 2 (f 2 ))lf + (cf 2 (f 2 ) cf 1 (f 1 ))a+
+(cr1 r1 + cr2 r2 )lr =
= (cf 1 f 1 + cf 2 f 2 )lf + (cf 2 f 2 cf 1 f 1 )au1 + (33)
+(cr1 r1 + cr2 r2 )lr + (cf 1 + cf 2 )lf u1 + (cf 1 cf 2 )au21 ,
v = u2 ,
= ,
x = v cos( + ),
y = v sin( + ).

a(cf 1 cf 2 )u21 .
(33)
cf 1 + cf 2
B1 = + 5 , B2 = + ,
mv v v
a(cf 2 f 2 cf 1 f 1 ) + lf (cf 1 + cf 2 )
5 = .
J
, r1 , r2 , f1 , f2
(10). B1 B2 ,
 
a cf2 cf1 cf1 (a + lf ) cf2 (a lf )
[B1 , B2 ] = + 2
+ 2
= 6 .
J v + a v a (v a) (v + a)
, B1 B2 .
span(B1 , B2 ). U ,
B1 , B2 [B1 , B2 ]. ,
U 5 6 , 5 6= 0 6 6= 0.
, span(B1 , B2 ) ,
span(B1 , B2 , [B1 , B2 ]). , -
B1 , B2 , [B1 , B2 ], -


, x

y

, , [B1 , [B1 , B2 ]] [B2 , [B1 , B2 ]],

14
, . ,
,
B1 , B2 , [B1 , B2 ] [B1 , [B1 , B2 ]], .
[B2 , [B1 , B2 ]].
span(B1 , B2 , [B1 , B2 ]) 1 = , 2 = x 2 = y
. 3 ,
, 5 = 0 6 = 0. ,
, "-
" , . ,

. (33)
(13).
(33) (12)

z1 = x, z2 = v cos( + ),
z3 = y, z4 = v sin( + ), (34)
1 = , 2 = .
2 . | -
. , ,
, -
, .

x = z1 , y = z3 , = 1 ,
p
v = z22 + z42 ,
(35)
= arctg( zz24 ) 1 ,
= 2 .

15
(33) ""

z1 = z2 ,
 cf f 1 + cf 2 f 2 + cr1 r1 + cr2 r2
z2 = sin( + ) 1
m
cf 1 + cf 2 
sin( + )u1 + (cos( + ) + sin( + ))u2 (35) ,
m
z3 = z4 ,
 cf f 1 + cf 2 f 2 + cr1 r1 + cr2 r2
z4 = cos( + ) 1 + (36)
m
cf 1 + cf 2 
+ cos( + )u1 + (sin( + ) cos( + ))u2 (35) ,
m
1 = |(35) ,

(cr1 r1 + cr2 r2 )lr (cf 1 f 1 + cf 2 f 2 )lf
2 = +
J 
(cf 2 f 2 cf 1 f 1 )a + (cf 1 + cf 2 )lf
+ u1 (35) .
J
-
1 (t), 2 (t) , -, .
, "" .
, -
z1 (t), z2 (t) 1 , 2 u1 u2 ,
.
,
.

6
1. "" [2]: m =
150 , J = 82 2 . lr = 0.4 , lf = 0.6 . cf cr
4480 6720 / ,
.
x y,

x = x (t) = z1 (t) = a sin(t), y = y (t) = z3 (t) = b cos(t), (37)

a = 4.5 , b = 3 , = /10, t [0, 10].


. 3 1 (t) 2 (t), . 4
| ,
x y 1 (0) = 0.055893, 2 (0) = 0.11408. ,
.

16
, (z (t), (t), u (t)).
.
, (23)
-
, 1.
(37) . , ,
c (31) .
(31) . , v (t) =
v0 . (32)
Re(1,2 ) < 2.5420, .
()

P A + AT P = Q,
!
0.45 0
A | , Q = , -
0 0.3
!
0.60646 0.00186
P .
0.00186 0.014024
V () = T P . -
V () W (t), -
, [13],
W1,1 (t) < 1.40 < 0, det(W (t)) > 1.26 > 0.
V () , [14, 15] -

.
. 5 1 ,

.
2. a = 0.4, cf 1 = cf 2 = cf /2,
cr1 = cr2 = cr /2. z1 z3 (37).
. 6 1 2
1 (0) 2 (0). ,
.

"" . -
, "" , (34),
, v (t) = v0 .
.

.

17
7
""
.
z1 (t) = 0.1t, z3 (t) = 0.2t.
, ,
. -
.
. 7 1 ,
. ,
1 = ,
,
" " ,
,
. ,
-
.


, -
. -
px ( ), py ( ), ,
, = f (t), t | .
-
,
.
06-07-89265
" 2006-2007 ."


[1] A. Stotsky, X. Hu, M. Egerstedt. Sliding mode control of a car like mobile robot using
single track dynamic model// Proc. of the 14th Word Congress of the IFAC, Beijing, China,
1999. V. B. Pp. 119-124.

[2] .., .., ..


. - .: , 2001. - 227 .

18
[3] .., .. -
// . { 1981. { . 258, 4. { . 805 - 809.

[4] .. //
. . { 1985. { 6. { . 103 - 112.

[5] .. .
// : .-
.: , 1991.

[6] .. , .. . -
// . { 1992. { . 28, .
1945-1952.

[7] ..
// N 512. ., 1988. .69 - 87.

[8] .., .. :
. .: - . .. , 2005. 520 .

[9] Isidori A. Nonlinear control systems. 3rd ed. London, 1995. - 587 p.

[10] .. ,.. . -
. - .: , 1999. - 494 .

[11] .. ,
// . .. . . " ",
N 4, 2006. C. 43 - 60.

[12] .. . .: , 1967.
- 472 .

[13] .. . .: , 1987. - 304 .

[14] Khalil H. Nonlinear systems. 3rd ed. Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 2002. - 750 .

[15] .. . .: ,
1959. - 211 .

19
. 1

""

20
. 2

21
. 3

1 , 2 .

22
. 4

23
. 5

(1 | , 2 |
).

24
. 6

(1 | ).

25
. 7

(1 | "" , 2 |
, 3 | ).

26