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Investigatory Projects- Physics (2015-16)


The material should be placed and bound in the following order:
1. Top Sheet of transparent plastic The top page of your
report should carry the following information in printed form
in neat block letters:
*Name of school with logo:
*Title of Project:
*Name of Student: *Class: *Roll Number:
*Date of submission: *Name of guide teacher:
2. Aim of Project
3. Apparatus required
4. Principle/theory
5. construction with labeled diagram,
6. Working
7. Observations and calculations
8. Result/ Conclusions
9. Applications,
10. Graphs,photos if any,
11. References/bibliography
12. Back cover of plastic: may be opaque or transparent

CLASS. XII Physics Topic: Summer HHW Session: 2015-16 Page 1

List of Investigatory Projects-XII PHYSICS
1. To study and construct Van de Graff generator-------------
------------------------------------------Rollno. 1B to 5B
2. To study and construct A.C.Generator/ Motor-------
--------------------------------------Roll no. 6B to 10B
3. To study and construct Transformer-----------------
--------------------------------------Roll no. 11B to 15B
4. To study single slit fraunhoffer Diffraction of
light---------------------------------Roll no. 16B to 20B
5. To study principle,construction and working of
reflecting and refracting telescope.-----------------------
--------------------------------------Roll no. 21B to 25B
6. Use of semiconductor devices (transistor) as
oscillator.----------------------------Roll no. 26B to 30B
7. To study Faraday`s law of EMI -----------------------
--------------------------------------Roll no. 1A to 5A
8. To study electromagnetic spectrum of radiation-------
------------------------------------Roll no. 6A to 10A
9. To study Zener diode characteristics and as voltage
regulator.--------------------------Roll no. 11A to 15A
10. To study varius logic gates with symbols,truth table
and applications.------------------ Roll no. 16A to 20A

CLASS. XII Physics Topic: Summer HHW Session: 2015-16 Page 2

11. To study the characteristics of B-H curve in
ferromagnetic substances and their uses.-----------------
--------------------------------------Roll no. 21A to 25A
12. To study application of eddy current as a metal
detector .---------------------------Roll no. 26A to 30A
13. To study semiconductor as full wave and half wave
rectifiers.-------------------------Roll no. 31A to 32A

Note: Complete the practical file,

activity file and the investigatory

project and submit the same

within one week after re opening

of school i.e.by 1st July 2015.

CLASS. XII Physics Topic: Summer HHW Session: 2015-16 Page 3

Session 2015-16
Name: Subject-physics Class-xii



CBSE 2009:
1.What is electrostatic potential due to electric dipole at an equatorial point ?
2.Draw 3 equipotential surfaces corresponding to a field that uniformly increases in
magnitude but remains constant along Z direction. How are these surfaces different
from that of a constant electric field along Z- direction?
3. Define Electric flux. Writ its S.I. unit. A charge q is enclosed by a spherical
surface of radius R. If the radius is reduced to half, how would the electric flux
through the surface change?
4.A +q point charge is kept in the vicinity of an uncharged conducting plate. Sketch
electric field lines originating from the point on the surface of the plate. Derive the
expressioojn for the electric field at the surface of a charged conductor.
5.A parallel plate capacitor is charged by a battery. After some time battery is
disconnected and dielectric slab (K) is inserted between the plates. How would
(i)capacitance(ii) electric field (iii) energy stored be affected? Justify your answer.
CBSE 2008:
6.Which orientation of an electric dipole in a uniform electric field would correspond
to stable equilibrium.
7.If the radius of Gaussian surface enclosing a charge is halved, how does the
electric flux through the Gaussian surface change?
8.Define the term electric dipole moment of a dipole. State its S.I. unit.
9. Two point charges 10x10-8C and -2x10-8C are separated by a distance of 60cm in
air. (i)Find at what distance from first charge, the electric potential is zero. (ii)
Also calculate the electrostatic potential energy of the system.
10. Two point charges 4Q and Q are separated by 1m in air. At what point on the
line joining the two charges is the electric field intensityl zero ?Also calculate the
electrostatic potential energy of the system of charges, taking the value of charge,
Q= 2x10-7C.
11. Derive an expression for the energy stored in a parallel plate capacitor. On
charging a parallel plate capacitor to potential V , the spacing between the plates is
halved, and a dielectric medium of K=10 is introduced between the plates, without
disconnecting the d.c source.
12.Explain using suitable expressions, how the (i) capacitance,(ii)electric field and
(ii) energy density of the capacitor change.
13.(a)Define electric flux. Write its S.I. units.
(b)The electric field components due to a charge inside the cube of side 0.1m are as
Ex= ax , where a=500N/C-m Ey =0 , Ez= 0

CLASS. XII Physics Topic: Summer HHW Session: 2015-16 Page 4

Calculate (i) the flux through the cube, and (ii) the charge inside the cube.
CBSE 2007:
14. Two point charges 4C and -2C are separated by a distance of 1m in air.
Calculate at what point on the line joining the two charges is the electric potential
15. State Gauss theorem . Apply this theorem to derive an expression for the
electric field intensity at a point for uniformly charged spherical shell.
16.Explain the underlying principle of working of a parallel plate capacitor. If two
similar plates, each of area A having surface charge densities + and - are
separated by a distance d in air , write expressions for i)electric field at points
between the plates. ii) p.d. between the plates iii) capacitance of capacitor so
CBSE 2006:
17.Define electric dipole moment. Is it a scalar or a vector quantity?
18.A point charge q is placed at O as shown in the figure.
Is Vp VQ positive or negative when (i)q >0 ,(ii) q< 0? O_______P____Q
Justify your answer.
19.Two capacitors of capacitance 6F and 12F are connected in series with a
battery. The voltage across the 6F is 2v. Compute the total battery voltage.
20. A parallel plate capacitor with air between the plates has a capacitance of
8F.The separation between the plates is now reduced by half and the space is filled
with K=5. Calculate the value of capacitance in the second case.
21. Using Gausss theorem, show mathematically that for any point outside the shell,
the field due to a uniformly charged thin shell is the same as if the entire charge of
the shell is concentrated at the centre. Why do you expect the electric field inside
the shell to be zero according to this theorem.
CBSE 2005:
22.An electrostatic field line cannot be discontinuous. Why?
23.How does the coulomb force between two charges depend on intervening
24. Two electric lines never intersect each other. Why?
25.Define Electric field intensity. Write its SI unit.Write the magnitude and direction of
E due to dipole of length 2a at the midpoint of line joining two charges.
26.A parallel plate capacitor is to be designed with voltage rating 1kV using a
material of K=3 and dielectric strength 107V/m.For safety we would like the field
never to exceed say, 10% of the dipole strength. What minimum area of the plates
is required to have a capacitance of 50pF?
27.A charge q is placed at the centre of line joining two equal charges Q. Show that
the system of three chages will be in equilibrium if q = -Q/4.
28.Two fixed charges +4e and +e are separated by a distance a. Where should the
third point charge be placed for it to be in equilibrium?
29. A 4F capacitor is charged by a 200V supply. The supply is then disconnected and
the charged capacitor is connected to another uncharged 2F capacitor. How much

CLASS. XII Physics Topic: Summer HHW Session: 2015-16 Page 5

electrostatic energy of the first capacitor is lost in the process of attaining the steady
30.State Gauss theorem . Apply this theorem to obtain the expression for the electric
field intensity at a point due to infinitely long , thin ,uniformly charged straight
CBSE 2004:
31.An electric dipole of length 4cm, when placed with its axis making an angle of
60o with uniform electric field experiences a torque of 4 /3Nm. Calculate the (i)
magnitude of electric field, (ii)the potential energy of dipole ,if the dipole has
charges of +8nC.
32.A 10F capacitor is charged by a 30V d.c. and then connected across an
uncharged 50F capacitor. Calculate (i) the final potential difference of the
combination, and (ii)the initial and final energies. How will you account for the
difference in energy?
33. State Gauss theorem . Using this theorem to obtain the expression for the
electric field intensity due to infinite plane sheet of charge of charge density C /m2.
34.State Gauss theorem . Use this theorem to obtain the expression for the E at any
point outside a uniformly charged spherical shell.
35. Name the property which differentiates the two kinds of charges.
36. What is a point charge in macroscopic sense?
37. What happens when we rub a glass rod with silk cloth?
38. Are new charges created during rubbing of silk cloth & glass rod?
39. What do you mean by grounding or earthing?
40. Explain Additivity of Charges.
41. What do you mean by conservation of charges?
42. What do you mean by quantisation of charge?
43. State Coulombs Law.
44. What is the value of E0 in S.I. unit?
45. Which property of Electric field E ensures it can be explained in terms of
electric potential V as E = -dv/dr?
46. Draw curve to represent variation of elec field strength E with reference to
dist r with centre of spherically symmetric charge dist.
47. 5000 lines of an electric field enter a given volume but only 3000 leave it.
Find the magnitude charge inside the given volume.
48. Sketch the lines of force due to two equal +ve charges placed near each
49. what would be the work done if a point charge +q is taken from a point A to
the pt B on the circumference of a circle with another point charge +q at the
50. Sketch graph to show how charge Q acquired by capacitor of capacitance C
varies with increase in potential difference between its plates.

CLASS. XII Physics Topic: Summer HHW Session: 2015-16 Page 6

1.a)Explain the principle of a capacitor. Also explain the effect of introducing
a dielectric slab between the plates of a parallel plate capacitor on its
b)A 600 p F capacitor is charged by a 200 V supply and is then disconnected
from the supply and is connected to another uncharged 600 p F capacitor.
How much electrostatic energy is lost in the process?
2. Define capacitance of capacitor. Give its S.I.unit. Prove that total electrostatic
energy stored in a parallel plate capacitor is 1/2 CV2. Also find energy density of
3. Discuss the principle, construction and working of a Van de Graff generator.
How is the leakage of charge minimized from the generator? Draw the well-
labelled diagram of the generator also.
4. What is meant by potential energy of an electric dipole when placed in an
external electric field? Show that the potential energy U of an electric dipole of
dipole moment p in a uniform field E is given by U = - p .E
5.a)Define potential difference between two points in an electric field.
b)Derive the relationship between electric field and the potential
c) Two isolated metallic solid spheres of radii r & 2R are charged; such that
both of these have same charge density the spheres are located far away
from each other & connected by a thin conducting wire. Find new charge
density on bigger sphere.

Note: Complete the assignment

and submitt on 17th june 2015(re-

opening day of school).

CLASS. XII Physics Topic: Summer HHW Session: 2015-16 Page 7

CLASS XII (2015-16) (THEORY)
Time: 3 hrs. Max Marks: 70

Unit I Electrostatics -----------------------------------------------8m

Unit II Current Electricity ----------------------------------------7m
Unit III Magnetic Effect of Current and Magnetism ----------8m
Unit IV Electromagnetic Induction and A.C.-------------------8m
Unit V Electromagnetic Waves-----------------------------------3m
Unit VI Optics------------------------------------------------------14m
Unit VII Dual Nature of Matter-----------------------------------4m
Unit VIII Atoms and Nuclei---------------------------------------6m
Unit IX Electronic Devices----------------------------------------7m
Unit X Communication Systems----------------------------------5m



Unit I: Electrostatics
Electric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulomb's law-force
between two point charges, forces between multiple charges;
superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.
Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field
lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a
CLASS. XII Physics Topic: Summer HHW Session: 2015-16 Page 8
dipole in uniform electric fleld. Electric flux, statement of
Gauss's theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely
long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and
uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and
outside). --------------------------------------------------March


Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a
point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential
surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point
charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field. Conductors
and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor.
Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance,
combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of
a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium
between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor. -----April

Unit II: Current Electricity-

Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor,
drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current;
Ohm's law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and
non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and
conductivity, Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors;
series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature
dependence of resistance.
Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell,
combination of cells in series and in parallel, Kirchhoff's laws and
simple applications, Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge.
Potentiometer - principle and its applications to measure potential
difference and for comparing EMF of two cells; measurement of
internal resistance of a cell. -----------------------------------April

CLASS. XII Physics Topic: Summer HHW Session: 2015-16 Page 9

Unit III: Magnetic Effects of Current and
Concept of magnetic field, Oersted's experiment. Biot - Savart
law and its application to current carrying circular loop.
Ampere's law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire.
Straight and toroidal solenoids, force on a moving charge in
uniform magnetic and electric fields, Cyclotron. Force on a
current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field, force
between two parallel current- carrying conductors-definition of
ampere, torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic
field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and
conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.


Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole
moment, magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron,
magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet)
along its axis and perpendicular to its axis, torque on a magnetic
dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an
equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; earth's magnetic field
and magnetic elements. Para-, dia- and ferro - magnetic
substances, with examples. Electromagnets and factors affecting
their strengths, permanent magnets.

Unit IV: Electromagnetic Induction and

Alternating Currents
Electromagnetic induction; Faraday's laws, induced EMF and
current; Lenz's Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual induction.

CLASS. XII Physics Topic: Summer HHW Session: 2015-16 Page 10

Alternating currents, peak and RMS value of alternating
current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations
(qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power
in AC circuits, wattless current. AC generator and transformer.

Unit V: Electromagnetic waves

Need for displacement current, Electromagnetic waves, their
characteristics, their Transverse nature (qualitative ideas only).
Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared,
visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary
facts about their uses.


Unit VI: Optics

Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula, refraction
of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres,
refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula,
lensmaker's formula, magnification, power of a lens, combination
of thin lenses in contact, combination of a lens and a mirror,
refraction and dispersion of light through a prism. Scattering of
light - blue colour of sky and reddish apprearance of the sun at
sunrise and sunset. Optical instruments: Microscopes and

CLASS. XII Physics Topic: Summer HHW Session: 2015-16 Page 11

astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their
magnifying powers.


Wave front and Huygen's principle, reflection and refraction of
plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of
reflection and refraction using Huygen's principle. Interference,
Young's double slit experiment and expression for fringe width,
coherent sources and sustained interference of light, diffraction
due to a single slit, width of central maximum, resolving power of
microscope and astronomical telescope, polarisation, plane
polarised light, Brewster's law, uses of plane polarised light and

Unit VII: Dual Nature of Matter and

Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard's observations; Einstein's
photoelectric equation-particle nature of light. Matter waves-
wave nature of particles, de-Broglie relation, Davisson-Germer
experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only
conclusion should be explained).

Unit VIII: Atoms and Nuclei

Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford's model of atom;
Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.

Composition and size of nucleus, Radioactivity, alpha, beta and
gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law.
Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon
CLASS. XII Physics Topic: Summer HHW Session: 2015-16 Page 12
and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission, nuclear

Unit IX: Electronic Devices


Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators
(qualitative ideas only) Semiconductor diode - I-V
characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier;
Special purpose p-n junction diodes: LED, photodiode, solar cell
and Zener diode and their characteristics, zener diode as a voltage
regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of
a transistor, transistor as an amplifier (common emitter
configuration), basic idea of analog and digital singals, Logic
gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR).

Unit X: Communication Systems

Elements of a communication system (block diagram only);
bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data); bandwidth of
transmission medium. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in
the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation, satellite
communication. Need for modulation, amplitude modulation and
frequency modulation, advantages of frequency modulation over
amplitude modulation. Basic ideas about internet, mobile
telephony and global positioning system (GPS)

The record to be submitted by the students at the time of their
annual examination has to include:

CLASS. XII Physics Topic: Summer HHW Session: 2015-16 Page 13

1) Record of at least 15 Experiments [with a minimum of 6
from each section], to be performed by the students.
2) Record of at least 5 Activities [with a minimum of 2 each
from section A and section B], to be demonstrated by the
3) The Report of the project to be carried out by the students.

Evaluation Scheme:
Two experiments one from each section 8+8 =16 Marks
Practical record [experiments and activities] 6 Marks
Investigatory Project 3Marks
Viva on experiments, activities project 5 Marks
Total 30 marks

1. To determine resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a
graph for potential difference versus current. -----April
2. To find resistance of a given wire using metre bridge and hence
determine the resistivity of its material ------------April
3. To verify the laws of combination (series) of resistances using
a metre bridge.-----------------------------------------April
4. To verify the laws of combination (parallel) of resistances
using a metre bridge. ---------------------------------June
5. To compare the EMF of two given primary cells using
potentiometer. -----------------------------------------june
6. To determine the internal resistance of given primary cell using
potentiometer. -----------------------------------------july
7. To determine resistance of a galvanometer by half-deflection
method and to find its figure of merit. -------------july
8. To find the frequency of AC mains with a sonometer.--july
CLASS. XII Physics Topic: Summer HHW Session: 2015-16 Page 14
Section A-Activities (For the purpose of demonstration only)

1. To measure resistance, voltage (AC/DC), current (AC) and

check continuity of a given circuit using multimeter.
2. To assemble a household circuit comprising three bulbs, three
(on/off) switches, a fuse and a power source.
3. To assemble the components of a given electrical circuit.
4. To study the variation in potential drop with length of a wire
for a steady current.
5. To draw the diagram of a given open circuit comprising at least
a battery, resistor/rheostat, key, ammeter and voltmeter. Mark the
components that are not connected in proper order and correct the
circuit and also the circuit diagram.

1. To find the value of v for different values of u in case of a
concave mirror and to find the focal length. -----------Aug
2. To find the focal length of a convex mirror, using a convex
lens. ---------------------------------------------------------Aug
3. To find the focal length of a convex lens by plotting graphs
between u and v or between 1/u and 1/v.---------------Sept.
4. To find the focal length of a concave lens, using a convex lens.
5. To determine angle of minimum deviation for a given prism by
plotting a graph between angle of incidence and angle of
deviation. ----------------------------------------------------Sept.
6. To determine refractive index of a glass slab using a travelling
microscope. --------------------------------------------------Oct.
7. To find refractive index of a liquid by using convex lens and
plane mirror.--------------------------------------------------Oct.

CLASS. XII Physics Topic: Summer HHW Session: 2015-16 Page 15

8. To draw the I-V characteristic curve for a p-n junction in
forward bias and reverse bias. -----------------------------Nov.
9. To draw the characteristic curve of a zener diode and to
determine its reverse break down voltage.---------------Nov.
10. To study the characteristic of a common - emitter npn or pnp
transistor and to find out the values of current and voltage gains.

SECTION B-Activities(For the purpose of demonstration)

1. To identify a diode, an LED, a transistor, an IC, a resistor and a

capacitor from a mixed collection of such items.
2. Use of multimeter to (i) identify base of transistor, (ii)
distinguish between npn and pnp type transistors, (iii) see the
unidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an LED, (iv)
check whether a given electronic component (e.g., diode,
transistor or IC) is in working order.
4. To observe refraction and lateral deviation of a beam of light
incident obliquely on a glass slab.

CLASS. XII Physics Topic: Summer HHW Session: 2015-16 Page 16