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FACULTY OF CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL

ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT OF WATER & ENVIROMENTAL ENGINEERING

WATER ENGINEERING LABORATORY

LAB REPORT
Subject Code BFC 21201
Code & Experiment Title MKA 01 ; BASIC HYDROLOGY AND INFILTRATION
RATE TEST
Course Code 2 BFF/1
Date 31/10/2011
Section / Group 5/2
Name AFANDI BIN ABD WAHID (DF100122)
Members of Group 1.MUHAMMAD IKHWAN BIN ZAINUDDIN (DF100018)
2.MOHD HASIF BIN AZMAN (DF100079)
3.MUHAMMAD HUZAIR BIN ZULKIFLI (DF100040)
Lecturer/Instructor/Tutor CIK AMNANI BIN ABU BAKAR
EN JAMILULLAIL BIN AHMAD TAIB
Received Date 14 NOVEMBER 2011

Comment by examiner Received


STUDENTS ETHICAL CODE
(SEC)
DEPARTMENT OF WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL
ENGINEERING
FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL
ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA
BATU PAHAT, JOHOR

I declare that I have prepared this report with my own efforts. I also
declare not receive or give any assistance in preparing this report and
make this affirmation in the belief that nothing is in, it is true

.
(STUDENT SIGNATURE)
NAME : AFANDI BIN ABD WAHID
MATRIC NO. : DF100122
DATE : 14 NOVEMBER 2011
STUDENTS ETHICAL CODE
(SEC)
DEPARTMENT OF WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL
ENGINEERING
FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL
ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA
BATU PAHAT, JOHOR

I declare that I have prepared this report with my own efforts. I also
declare not receive or give any assistance in preparing this report and
make this affirmation in the belief that nothing is in, it is true

.
(STUDENT SIGNATURE)
NAME : MUHAMMAD IKHWAN BIN ZAINUDDIN
MATRIC NO. : DF100018
DATE : 14 NOVEMBER 2011
STUDENTS ETHICAL CODE
(SEC)
DEPARTMENT OF WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL
ENGINEERING
FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL
ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA
BATU PAHAT, JOHOR

I declare that I have prepared this report with my own efforts. I also
declare not receive or give any assistance in preparing this report and
make this affirmation in the belief that nothing is in, it is true

.
(STUDENT SIGNATURE)
NAME : MOHD HASIF BIN AZMAN
MATRIC NO. : DF100079
DATE : 14 NOVEMBER 2011
STUDENTS ETHICAL CODE
(SEC)
DEPARTMENT OF WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL
ENGINEERING
FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL
ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA
BATU PAHAT, JOHOR

I declare that I have prepared this report with my own efforts. I also
declare not receive or give any assistance in preparing this report and
make this affirmation in the belief that nothing is in, it is true

.
(STUDENT SIGNATURE)
NAME : MUHAMMAD HUZAIR BIN ZULKIFLI
MATRIC NO. : DF100040
DATE : 14 NOVEMBER 2011
PART A : BASIC HYDROLOGY

1.0 OBJECTIVE
To identify the relationship between rainfall and runoff.

2.0 LEARNING OUTCOME


At the end of the course, students should be able to apply the knowledge and skills they
have learned to :
Understand the basic terms in hydrology
Understand the concept of watershed area including time of concentration (tc) and
outlet or concentration point
Understand the factors which influence the runoff

3.0 INTRODUCTION
Hydrological cycle

The hydrological cycle describes the constant movement of water above, on, and
below the Earth's surface. The cycle operates across all scales, from the global to the
smallest stream catchment and involves the movement of water along evapotranspiration,
precipitation, surface runoff, subsurface flow and groundwater pathways. In essence,
water is evaporated from the land, oceans and vegetation to the atmosphere, using the
radiant energy from the Sun, and is recycled back in the form of rain or snow. When
moisture from the atmosphere falls to the Earth's surface it becomes subdivided into
different interconnected pathways.
Precipitation (excluding snow and hail) wets vegetation, directly enters surface
water bodies or begins to infiltrate into the ground to replenish soil moisture. Excess
water percolates to the zone of saturation, or groundwater, from where it moves
downward and laterally to sites of groundwater discharge. The rate of infiltration varies
with land use, soil characteristics and the duration and intensity of the rainfall event. If the
rate of precipitation exceeds the rate of infiltration this leads to overland flow. Water
reaching streams, both by surface runoff and groundwater discharge eventually moves to
the sea where it is again evaporated to perpetuate the hydrological cycle.

Rainfall characteristics
Precipitation in arid and semi-arid zones results largely from convective cloud
mechanisms producing storms typically of short duration, relatively high intensity and
limited areal extent. However, low intensity frontal-type rains are also experienced,
usually in the winter season. When most precipitation occurs during winter, as in Jordan
and in the Negev, relatively low-intensity rainfall may represent the greater part of annual
rainfall. Rainfall intensity is defined as the ratio of the total amount of rain (rainfall depth)
falling during a given period to the duration of the period It is expressed in depth units per
unit time, usually as mm per hour (mm/h).

The statistical characteristics of high-intensity, short-duration, convective rainfall


are essentially independent of locations within a region and are similar in many parts of
the world. Analysis of short-term rainfall data suggests that there is a reasonably stable
relationship governing the intensity characteristics of this type of rainfall. Studies carried
out in Saudi Arabia (Raikes and Partners 1971) suggest that, on average, around 50
percent of all rain occurs at intensities in excess of 20 mm/hour and 20-30 percent occurs
at intensities in excess of 40 mm/hour. This relationship appears to be independent of the
long-term average rainfall at a particular location.
The surface runoff process
When rain falls, the first drops of water are intercepted by the leaves and stems of
the vegetation. This is usually referred to as interception storage. As the rain continues,
water reaching the ground surface infiltrates into the soil until it reaches a stage where the
rate of rainfall (intensity) exceeds the infiltration capacity of the soil. Thereafter, surface
puddles, ditches, and other depressions are filled (depression storage), after which runoff
is generated. The infiltration capacity of the soil depends on its texture and structure, as
well as on the antecedent soil moisture content (previous rainfall or dry season). The
initial capacity (of a dry soil) is high but, as the storm continues, it decreases until it
reaches a steady value termed as final infiltration rate.

The process of runoff generation continues as long as the rainfall intensity exceeds
the actual infiltration capacity of the soil but it stops as soon as the rate of rainfall drops
below the actual rate of infiltration. The rainfall runoff process is well described in the
literature. Numerous papers on the subject have been published and many computer
simulation models have been developed. All these models, however, require detailed
knowledge of a number of factors and initial boundary conditions in a catchment area
which in most cases are not readily available. For a better understanding of the difficulties
of accurately predicting the amount of runoff resulting from a rainfall event, the major
factors which influence the rainfall-runoff process are described below.

4.0 THEORY
Runoff is generated by rainstorms and its occurrence and quantity are
dependent on the characeristics of the rainfall event, i.e. intensity, duration and
distribution. The rainfall-runoff process is extremely complex, making it difficult to
model accurately. There are, in addition, other important factors which influence
the runoff generating process like natural surface detention, soil infiltration
characteristics and the drainage pattern formed by natural flow paths. The soil type,
vegetative cover and topography play as important roles. Rainfall and runoff are very
important hydrologic components because of their direct relations with water
resources quantity, flood, streamflow and design of dam and hydraulic structure.
5.0 EQUIPMENTS

Experiment tank Sprinkle 19-tube Plexiglass Switch


Filled with sand nozzle manometer cover box

Inclination Circulating Flow rate Supply Measurement


adjustment pump measurement tank weir

Figure 1: Basic Hydrological Instrument

Figure 2: Stopwatch Figure 3: Rain Gauge


6.0 PROCEDURE

Case 1: Flat and sandy soil surface profile (without slope)


Case 2: Flat and sandy soil surface with 1:100 slope profile.

i. The rail at side of the catchment area must be adjust to get the slope is zero, according
the requirement for Case 1.
ii. The steel ruler has been used to flat the sand or used our hand. That can be more easy
method.
iii. Set the time according the computer time.
iv. Put the rain gauge inside the rail and close the plastic curtains.
v. The pump has been switched on and starts the stop watch at the same time. The time
while start of rainfall has been recorded.
vi. The discharge and the reading from the rain gauge have been recorded every 30
second (during the rainfall).
vii. The pump has been switched off when the peak discharge achieved (after 3 discharge
reading with same value obtained) to stop the rainfall. The time while stop of rainfall
has been recorded.
viii. At the same time, record the discharge for each 30 second until 1020 second.
ix. The procedure has been repeated for case 2.
7.0 RESULT AND CALCULATION

CASE 1 CASE 2
Water Rain Water Rain
Time, t Level Discharge gauge Level Discharge gauge
reading reading
(s) (cm) (mm) (liter/min) (m3/s) (mm) (cm) (mm) (liter/min) (m3/s) (mm)
-6 -6
30 1.5 15 2.5 41.7 x 10 0.6 0.7 7 0.3 5 x 10 29.8
60 2.7 27 9.5 158 x 10-6 3.6 1.5 15 2.5 41.7 x 10-6 32.4
90 2.9 29 12.5 208 x 10-6 6.2 2.8 28 11.5 192 x 10-6 35.2
120 2.9 29 12.5 208 x 10-6 8.8 2.8 28 11.5 192 x 10-6 38.0
150 2.9 29 12.5 208 x 10-6 11.4 2.8 28 11.5 192 x 10-6 40.6
180 2.9 29 12.5 208 x 10-6 14.0 2.8 28 11.5 192 x 10-6 43.6
210 1.8 18 4.3 71.7 x 10-6 0 2.6 26 8.5 142 x 10-6 0
240 1.1 11 0.9 15 x 10-6 0 1.7 17 3.4 56.7 x 10-6 0
270 0.8 8 0.5 8.3 x 10-6 0 1.5 15 2.5 41.7 x 10-6 0
300 0.7 7 0.3 5 x 10-6 0 1.0 10 0.8 13.3 x 10-6 0
330 0.7 7 0.3 5 x 10-6 0 0.9 9 0.7 11.7 x 10-6 0
360 0.6 6 0.2 3.33 x 10-6 0 0.7 7 0.3 5 x 10-6 0
390 0.5 5 0.1 1.67 x 10-6 0 0.7 7 0.3 5 x 10-6 0
420 0.5 5 0.1 1.67 x 10-6 0 0.7 7 0.3 5 x 10-6 0
450 0.5 5 0.1 1.67 x 10-6 0 0.6 6 0.2 3.33 x 10-6 0
480 0.5 5 0.1 1.67 x 10-6 0 0.5 5 0.1 1.67 x 10-6 0
510 0.5 5 0.1 1.67 x 10-6 0
540 0.5 5 0.1 1.67 x 10-6 0
570 0.5 5 0.1 1.67 x 10-6 0
600
TOTAL FLOW, BASEFLOW AND DIRECT FLOW

CASE 1 CASE 2
3
TIME, t Total flow, Q Base flow Direct flow m /s Total flow, Q Base flow (x Direct flow m3/s
m3/s m3/s (Total flow Baseflow) (x 10-6) 10-6) (Total flow Baseflow)
30 41.7 x 10-6 41.7 x 10-6 0 5 x 10-6 5 x 10-6 0
60 158 x 10-6 37 x 10-6 121 x 10-6 41.7 x 10-6 4.5 x 10-6 37.17 x 10-6
90 208 x 10-6 33 x 10-6 175 x 10-6 192 x 10-6 4 x 10-6 187.7 x 10-6
120 208 x 10-6 29 x 10-6 179 x 10-6 192 x 10-6 4 x 10-6 187.7 x 10-6
150 208 x 10-6 25 x 10-6 183 x 10-6 192 x 10-6 3.8 x 10-6 187.9 x 10-6
180 208 x 10-6 21 x 10-6 187 x 10-6 192 x 10-6 3.5 x 10-6 188.2 x 10-6
210 71.7 x 10-6 17 x 10-6 54.7 x 10-6 142 x 10-6 3 x 10-6 138.7 x 10-6
240 15 x 10-6 13 x 10-6 2 x 10-6 56.7 x 10-6 3 x 10-6 53.7 x 10-6
270 8.3 x 10-6 8.3 x 10-6 41.7 x 10-6 2.5 x 10-6 39.17 x 10-6
300 5 x 10-6 5 x 10-6 13.3 x 10-6 2.25 x 10-6 11.05 x 10-6
330 5 x 10-6 11.7 x 10-6 2.1 x 10-6 9.57 x 10-6
360 3.33 x 10-6 5 x 10-6 2 x 10-6 3 x 10-6
390 1.67 x 10-6 5 x 10-6 2 x 10-6 3 x 10-6
420 1.67 x 10-6 5 x 10-6 1.8 x 10-6 3.2 x 10-6
450 1.67 x 10-6 3.33 x 10-6 1.7 x 10-6 1.63 x 10-6
480 1.67 x 10-6 1.67 x 10-6
510 1.67 x 10-6
540 1.67 x 10-6
570 1.67 x 10-6
600
TOTAL 230 x 10-6 901.7 x 10-6 TOTAL 45.15 x 10-6 1051.69 x 10-6
Calculation
For Discharge
Calculation
For Case 1
Calculation
For Case 2
8.0 QUESTION

1. Plot the discharge (unit m3/s) versus time (second) graph separately from the
above values for each cases.

CASE 1 CASE 2
TIME, t DISCHARGE, Q
3
(s) (m /s) (m3/s)
30 41.7 x 10-6 5 x 10-6
60 158 x 10-6 41.7 x 10-6
90 208 x 10-6 192 x 10-6
120 208 x 10-6 192 x 10-6
150 208 x 10-6 192 x 10-6
180 208 x 10-6 192 x 10-6
210 71.7 x 10-6 142 x 10-6
240 15 x 10-6 56.7 x 10-6
270 8.3 x 10-6 41.7 x 10-6
300 5 x 10-6 13.3 x 10-6
330 5 x 10-6 11.7 x 10-6
360 3.33 x 10-6 5 x 10-6
390 1.67 x 10-6 5 x 10-6
420 1.67 x 10-6 5 x 10-6
450 1.67 x 10-6 3.33 x 10-6
480 1.67 x 10-6 1.67 x 10-6
510 1.67 x 10-6
540 1.67 x 10-6
570 1.67 x 10-6
600
2. From the graph plotted, determine:

a) Time concentration
Case 1 : 90 < tc < 180
Case 2 : 90 < tc < 180

b) Rainfall duration
Case 1 : 3.30 PM to 3.33 PM
So, rainfall duration are 180 seconds.
Case 2 : 4.00 PM to 4.03 PM
So, rainfall duration are 180 seconds.

c) Peak discharge
Case 1 : when 180 seconds, discharge will be 208 x 10-6 m3/s.
Case 2 : when 180 seconds, discharge will be 192 x 10-6 m3/s.

d) Runoff volume

Runoff volume = Total Direct Flow


Case 1 :
DF = 901.7 x 10-6 m3/s
= 901.7 x 10-6 m3/s x 3600s
= 3.246 m3

Case 2 :
DF = 1051.69 x 10-6 m3/s
= 1051.69 x 10-6 m3/s x 3600s
= 3.786 m3
f) Rainfall intensity

Case 1 :
Rainfall intensity = rain gauge maximum
rain duration

= 14 mm
180 s

= 0.0778 mm/s

Case 2 :
Rainfall intensity = rain gauge maximum
rain duration

= 43.6 mm
180s

= 0.242 mm/s

g) Storage volume

Storage volume = Base flow x 3600s


Case 1 :
storage volume = 230 x 10-6 m3/s x 3600s
= 0.828 m3

Case 2 :
storage volume = 45.15 x 10-6 m3/s x 3600s
= 0.163 m3
3. Provide a table for all the results obtained from (2) and make comparison with
case 1 and 2.

Case 1 Case 2
Time concentration (s) 90 < tc < 180 90 < tc < 180
Rainfall duration (s) 180 s 180 s
Peak discharge (x10-6 m3/s) 208 191.7
Runoff volume (m3) 3.246 3.786
Rainfall intensity (mm/s) 0.0778 0.242
Storage volume (m3) 0.828 0.163

We conclude that, all of the deferent value in table between case 1 and case
2 because the slope. Case 1 without slope and case 2 with slope. We also observed
that the quantity of runoff decreased with increasing slope length.
9.0 DISCUSSION

Runoff is generated by rainstorms and its occurrence and quantity are dependent
on the characteristics of the rainfall event, i.e. intensity, duration and distribution. There
are, in addition, other important factors which influence the runoff generating process.
The rainfall-runoff process is extremely complex, making it difficult to model accurately.
There are , in addition, other important factors which influence the runoff generating
process like natural surface detention, soil infiltration characteristics and the drainage
pattern formed by natural flow paths. Factors affecting runoff are:

Soil type
The infiltration capacity is among others dependent on the porosity of a soil which
determines the water storage capacity and affects the resistance of water to flow into
deeper layers. Porosity differs from one soil type to the other. The highest infiltration
capacities are observed in loose, sandy soils while heavy clay or loamy soils have
considerable smaller infiltration capacities. The infiltration capacity depends furthermore
on the moisture content prevailing in a soil at the onset of a rainstorm. The initial high
capacity decreases with time (provided the rain does not stop) until it reaches a constant
value as the soil profile becomes saturated.

Vegetation
The amount of rain lost to interception storage on the foliage depends on the kind
of vegetation and its growth stage. Values of interception are between 1 and 4 mm. A
cereal crop, for example, has a smaller storage capacity than a dense grass cover. More
significant is the effect the vegetation has on the infiltration capacity of the soil. A dense
vegetation cover shields the soil from the raindrop impact and reduces the crusting effect
as described earlier. In addition, the root system as well as organic matter in the soil
increase the soil porosity thus allowing more water to infiltrate. Vegetation also retards
the surface flow particularly on gentle slopes, giving the water more time to infiltrate and
to evaporate. In conclusion, an area densely covered with vegetation, yields less runoff
than bare ground.
Slope and catchment size
Investigations on experimental runoff plots have shown that steep slope plots yield
more runoff than those with gentle slopes. In addition, it was observed that the quantity of
runoff decreased with increasing slope length. This is mainly due to lower flow velocities
and subsequently a longer time of concentration (defined as the time needed for a drop of
water to reach the outlet of a catchment from the most remote location in the catchment).
This means that the water is exposed for a longer duration to infiltration and evaporation
before it reaches the measuring point. The same applies when catchment areas of different
sizes are compared. The runoff efficiency (volume of runoff per unit of area) increases
with the decreasing size of the catchment i.e. the larger the size of the catchment the
larger the time of concentration and the smaller the runoff efficiency.

Rainfall-runoff processes
Apart from recording and/or forecasting rainfall itself, the next most important
problem is understanding and forecasting the runoff generated by the rainfall. This
difficult problem has attracted enormous amounts of attention and effort around the
world. There are possibly as many models for calculating rainfall-runoff, as there are
people who have a direct interest in the subject. Runoff generation from rainfall over a
catchment can be assumed to depend on factors such as :
Atmospheric conditions over the catchment (wind speed, direction, temperature,
humidity)
The surface cover (type, distribution, interception, take up, evapotranspiration)
Surface soil (type, permeability, porosity)
Terrain (slope, surface texture)
Geology (structure distribution, permeability, porosity, groundwater levels)
Generally the following processes are usually identified as taking place:
Evapotranspiration at the surface
Surface infiltration
Overland flow
Unsaturated zone flow
Saturated zone flow (groundwater)
Rainfall and runoff are very important hydrologic components because of their
direct relations with water resources quantity, flood, streamflow and design of dam and
hydraulic structure. To convert discharge volume in liter/min to m3/s , we use this
formula.

Q, liter 1 m3 1 min
min 1000 liter 60 s

Based on the graph discharge versus time in both case, we get the bell shape
graph. The value of discharge are increase when the time are increase. In case 1, the
storage volume are higest than the storage volume in case 2 but the value of runoff
volume in case 2 are higest than case 1.
10.0 CONCLUSION

As conclusion of this experiment, we fully understand how to identify the


relationship between rainfall and runoff and it process. Besides that, we also can verify
that when the rainfall increased, the runoff will also increase until it reached the time of
maximum discharge. The slope area has the shorter time of concentration than the flat
area.

Runoff is one of the most important hydrology component because of it


connection with the water source quantity, flood, design of dam and others hydraulic
control structure. Using the rain gauge, we can record the discharge and its time for each
area which is slope or flat.

From this experiment, we can apply this knowledge to design the dam or drain.
The applications of the basic hydrology system were very important to control the flood.
Besides that, we can also use this application to avoid the high cost for construction the
dam or drain. Then, we also have determined all factors that effected runoff such as
rainfall intensity, type of surfaces, rainfall duration, and others.
PART B : INFILTRATION TEST

1.0 OBJECTIVE
To identify the characteristics of the infiltration rate of water into soils in the field.

2.0 INTRODUCTION
Some of the precipitation that falls on land seeps into the ground where it is stored
in aquifers and is transported to streams and lakes by subsurface flow. The amount of
infiltration is influenced by the permeability and moisture content of the soil, the presence
of vegetation and the volume and intensity of precipitation. The amount of water in an
aquifer is indicated by the height of the water table (the upper boundary of aquifer). This
animation illustrates the effect of soil permeability (large particles have large spaces
between them and let more water in) and precipitation volume (large rain events can lead
to more infiltration) on the amount of water stored in the aquifer.

3.0 THEORY
The volume of water used during each measured time interval is converted
into an incremental infiltration velocity for both the inner ring and annular space
using the following equations; VIR = VIR / (AIR .t) where, VIR is the inner ring
incremental infiltration velocity(cm/hr), VIR is the volume of water used during time
interval to maintain constant head in the inner ring (mL), AIR is the internal area of inner
ring (cm2) and t is the time interval (hour). For the annular space between rings,
calculate as follows; VA = VA / (AA .t) where, VA is the annular space incremental
infiltration velocity (cm/hr), VA is the volume of water used during time interval to
maintain constant head in the annular space between the rings (mL), AA is the area of
annular space (cm2) and t is the time interval (hour). The infiltration rate calculated with
the inner ring should be the value used for results if the rates for the inner ring and
annular space differ. The difference in rates is due to divergent flow.
4.0 EQUIPMENT
Two stainless steels rings measure 12 and 24 diameter x 20 high and some other
equipment

Wood block used to absorb the blow from the sludge hammer

Inner ring be inserted inside the large ring Depth of the ring was measured
5.0 PROCEDURE

i. Hammer the outer ring at least 2/5 height ring into the soil. Use the timber to protect the
ring from damage during hammering. Keep the side of the ring vertical.
ii. Hammer the inner ring into the soil or construct an earth bund around the 2/5 height ring
to the same height as the ring and place the hessian inside the infiltrometer to protect the
soil surface when pouring in the water. Make sure the ring in the centre outer ring.
iii. Start the test by pouring water into the outer ring until the depth is 10cm. Wait the water
down until the depth is 5cm. Then add the outer or large ring with water until the depth is
10cm again. At the same time, add water to the space between the two rings or the ring
and the bund to the same depth. Do this quickly.
iv. The water in the bund or within the two rings is to prevent a lateral spread of water from
the infiltrometer.
v. Record the clock time when the test begins and note the water level on the measuring rod.
vi. After 1-2 minutes, record the drop in water level in the inner ring on the measuring rod
and add water to bring the level back to approximately the original level at the start of the
test. Record the water level. Maintain the water level outside the ring similar to that
inside.
vii. Continue the test until the drop in water level is the same over the same time interval. Take
readings frequently (e.g. every 1-2 minutes) at the beginning of the test until 35munites.
6.0 RESULT AND CALCULATIONS

Time, t (s) Inner (mm) Infiltration Capacity Infiltration


(mm) (mm/s)
120 98 0.817 0.817
240 96 1.217 0.400
360 94 1.478 0.261
480 93 1.672 0.194
600 91 1.824 0.152
720 90 1.949 0.125
840 90 2.056 0.107
960 89 2.149 0.093
1080 88 2.231 0.082
1200 88 2.304 0.073
1320 87 2.370 0.066
1440 86 2.430 0.060
1560 85 2.484 0.054
1680 84 2.534 0.050
1800 83 2.580 0.046
1920 82 2.623 0.043
2040 80 2.662 0.039
2160 80 2.699 0.037
2280 79 2.734 0.035
2400 78 2.767 0.033
2520 77 2.798 0.031
2640 76 2.827 0.029
2760 76 2.855 0.028
2880 74 2.881 0.026
3000 73 2.905 0.024
3120 73 2.928 0.023
3240 73 2.951 0.023
Calculation For
Infiltration Capacity
And
Infiltration Rate
6.0 QUESTIONS
1. Plot a graph of:
a. Infiltration capacity versus time (Refer graph)
b. Infiltration rate versus time (Refer graph)

2. From graph in 1(b), please identify the basic of infiltration rate.


From the graph of infiltration rate versus time, the basic of infiltration rate for
this soil is wet soils.

3. Sketch a graph of infiltration rate versus time for three different characteristic of
soils:

i. Dry soil:

For the dry soil, we can see that the infiltration occurred faster than
other soil. This is because, water easier to absorb to the dry soil because inside
the soil, they have a lot of void.
ii. Wet soil:

For the wet soil, infiltration not too fast. It is slow than saturated soil.
This is because they already have a water inside the soil. So, the water was
slowly to absorb inside the soil.

iii. Saturated soil:

For the saturated soil, infiltration occurred very slow because they have a lot of water
inside the saturated soil that wet soil.
7.0 DISCUSSION
From the experiment, we can see that the types of soils influence the infiltration
rates. For dry soils, infiltration occurred faster, water can absorb faster than wet soil and
saturated soil because inside the soil, they have a lot of void. For wet soil, infiltration
occurred in modest time between dry soil and saturated soil because they already contain
water inside the soil. So, water slowly absorb into the soil. For saturated soil, infiltration
occurred very slowly because they have a lot of water inside the saturated soil that wet
soil. From the experiment, we consider that the soil are wet, after plot a graph of
infiltration rate versus time. The process of infiltration is not too fast because they already
have water inside the soil. So, the water was slowly to absorb inside the soil during the
experiment was carried out.

8.0 CONCLUSION
As conclusion of this experiment we found that the infiltration rate is affected by
the type of soil that we used. The infiltration rate is faster in a dry soil, become slowly in a
wet soil and very slowly in a saturated soil. Therefore, the infiltration capacity was
affected by the porosity of the soil and moisture content of the soil.
REFERENCES

Books
1. John F.D.2001.Fluid mechanics.fourth edition, pp 865-870. London: Prentice Hall
2. Munson, B. R. 2002. Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, pp 621-658. John Wiley
and Sons, Inc
3. Simon, A. L.1997. Hydraulics, pp 487-490. Prentice Hall, Inc

Internet
http://www.connectedwater.gov.au/processes/hydrological.html

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