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International Journal of Advanced Engineering, Management and Science (IJAEMS) [Vol-3, Issue-6, Jun- 2017]

https://dx.doi.org/10.24001/ijaems.3.6.2 ISSN: 2454-1311

Labour-Entrepreneurship Substitution
Mechanism: Determining Growth, Employment
and Wage in Nigeria
Chimaobi Valentine Okolo, Nicholas Attamah (Ph.D)

Department of Economics, Coal City University, Enugu, Nigeria

Department of Economics, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu, Nigeria

Abstract Finding a recipe that unlocks rapid growth and worked hard to forestall such circumstances through the
job creation should be the priority of emerging economies. formulation of theories tailored to suit their economies.
Several theories of growth, employment and wage Unfortunately, this is not the case in Nigeria. The Nigerian
determination were efficient for certain economies at economy has witnessed several recessions (SAP induced
different periods, but not for other emerging economies like recession in 1986, Global economic meltdown in 2008/2009,
Nigeria. This study presents the Labour-Entrepreneurship and the current recession of the Muhamadu Buhari led
Substitution mechanism as an idealistic model of growth, Administration), yet its policy makers have not carefully
employment and wage determination. It is uniquely designed articulated steps to model a pathway to sustained economic
to accumulate capital, substitute labour for growth and development, and where smart policies, such as
entrepreneurship as prospective supply of labour grows NEEDS were developed, successive governments
beyond its initial level, boost employment and output via discontinue those policies for their selfish plans. On the
new investments. Error correction mechanism of contrary, according to BGL Research and Intelligence
Autoregressive least square technique was used to measure economic note (2011), when David Cameron admitted that
the influence of labour-entrepreneurship substitution rate on the UK unemployment rate is disappointingly high, he
the new investment, and the t-statistics, adopting indicated that his government desires to see faster growth in
Benferrons multiple comparison adjusted probabilities was the economy. He maintained a certain level of continuity of
further used to measure the significance of the new his predecessors policies. Although he took it for granted
investment in determining gross domestic product in that when growth improves jobs are created, specific
Nigeria. The labour-entrepreneurship substitution rate theories and policies should focus on output and
showed significant and positive impact on the new employment generation. Similarly, leaders in developed and
investment as the new investment also showed significant emerging economies have their eyes on the GDP growth
and positive impact on economic growth in Nigeria. figure as the leading indicator to decline in poverty
Emerging and developed countries should develop the incidence through reduced unemployment, increased
labour-entrepreneurship substitution as this will increase household income and reduced inequality (BGL Research
investment and output while creating full employment in the and Intelligence, 2011).
country. Despite the impressive economic growth over the last 10
KeywordsEmployment, entrepreneurship, growth, years in Nigeria, unemployment and the incidence of
labour, substitution, wage. poverty has worsened since the year 2004 (BGL Research
and Intelligence, 2011). Nigerian economic statistics reveal
I. INTRODUCTION a puzzling contrast between rapid economic growth and
Economic meltdown is usually characterized by decline in quite minimal welfare improvements for much of the
output, employment, standard of living and a rise in poverty population (World Bank, 2013). According to the bank,
level and hunger. This was evidenced in the great depression annual growth rates that average over 7% in official data
that followed the World War II, the global economic during the last decade place Nigeria among the fastest
meltdown of 2008/2009 etc. Smart policy makers such as growing economies in the world, while poverty reduction
Lord Meynard Keynes, Rev. Thomas Malthus and others and job creation have not kept pace with population growth,

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International Journal of Advanced Engineering, Management and Science (IJAEMS) [Vol-3, Issue-6, Jun- 2017]
https://dx.doi.org/10.24001/ijaems.3.6.2 ISSN: 2454-1311
implying social distress for an increasing number of viii. Each category of labour belongs to a union of
Nigerians. persons with peculiar skill and abilities.
Unemployment and underemployment has remained a major ix. Wage is determined by the interaction of labour
development challenge and an intractable problem facing supply and demand, and government (government
most emerging economies, with ramifications for economic determines the minimum wage, salaries of
welfare, social stability and human dignity (Federal Ministry government policy makers and enforcers).
of Employment Labour and Productivity, 2003). According x. Employers cannot easily lay off workers without
to the ministry, the employment and poverty challenges paying some form of gratuity to laid off worker.
facing Nigeria are quite critical and there is an increasing xi. Technology complements labour. Technology
awareness at all levels of Government, employers and here refers to the advancement in (or development
workers organizations, of the urgent need for adequate of) capital intensive method of production (plants,
responses and comprehensive approach to address the machineries, computers, internets etc.)
problems. World Bank (2013) strongly recommends that Government controls the technology-labour
Nigeria finds a recipe to unlock rapid growth and job substitution rate.
creation in a larger part of the country. Therefore, the xii. Assumptions (i), (ii), (iii), (v), (vi), (x), and (xi)
objective of this study is to present the recipe that unlocks adjust to keep working population growth (labour
rapid growth and job creation (an Ideal pathway to boost supply) always lower than growth in investment.
output and employment) in emerging economies. The xiii. All agents are rationale (i.e. they all act in their
second section discusses the Idealistic (mixed economy) individual best interest).
theory of growth, employment and wage, section three, the xiv. There is no restriction to international trade and
methodology, section four discussion of findings, while the flow of capital (XcMc). Real investors exploit
conclusion is presented in section five. international product market, while financial
investors make international financial investments
II. AN IDEALISTIC THEORY OF OUTPUT AND with relatively better credit rates. Firms output
EMPLOYMENT and profit extends also to their ability to utilize
a. Assumptions: internal market opportunities.
i. Labour mobility is controlled. Workers do not xv. Government implements progressive tax system.
easily switch jobs. Therefore, there is no frictional xvi. Government utilizes tax revenues to compensate
unemployment. for changes in credit rates (iG) for new
ii. Workers substitute labour for entrepreneurship entrepreneurships in the short-run, and for
(LEs). expansionary objectives (oG)
iii. Workers utilize some form of gratuity (kY), xvii. This is a short-run model for period less than or
wage-income savings (wY), credits (c), and tax equal to ten (10) years.
incentives (t) to raise capital (K) for investments xviii. Senior and more experienced workers leave
[Financial and real investments]. employment before new workers. New workers
iv. Workers increase earnings via financial take longer time to build capital from savings.
investment (r) or real investment () or both (r, xix. There is always a match (technology or labour)
). for every vacancy.
v. Financial investors (FI) supply additional capital xx. Government has perfect knowledge of vacancies
(K) for real investments (RI). and qualified persons. Therefore, no time is spent
vi. Job matching is handled by an institution of searching for job or qualified labour.
government, controlling the activities of unions of xxi. Previous year investment income (IYt-1) influence
labour and employers. current years earnings (rt, t) via savings (s).
vii. Unions exist but they lack independent power to xxii. Government is an insignificant employer. The
match labour to suited jobs. However, they have private sector absorbs the crux of the labour force.
full power to restrict job switch to relevant sectors xxiii. Government imposes workers welfare policies on
for non members. They also provide suitable employers.
labour for job vacancies and vice versa. xxiv. Labour is highly specialized. Workers cannot
switch to another kind of job or sector without

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International Journal of Advanced Engineering, Management and Science (IJAEMS) [Vol-3, Issue-6, Jun- 2017]
https://dx.doi.org/10.24001/ijaems.3.6.2 ISSN: 2454-1311
training/learning, which takes time (formally or Earning from real investment derived from labour-
informally). There is no on-the-job training. entrepreneurship substitution is determined by capital
xxv. Entrepreneurship drives labour demand (Ld). accumulation savings from contract, wage, previous year
xxvi. Population growth (g) drives labour supply (Ls). investment income, credit from bank, technological input,
xxvii. Supply causes demand in the labour market. labour, international real investment, depreciation of capital
b. Earnings in the Labour-Entrepreneurship stock, investment expenditure (such as interest on loan, tax,
Substitution Mechanism expenses to acquire technology, and wage), and expenses
Here, we consider an ideal mixed economy model such as incurred on international trade.
Nigeria, which is driven by the private sector and the Therefore,
government. = sYk + sYw + sIYt-1 + c + A + L + XcMc e(A + L + t
Therefore, earning on financial investment in the economy is + Ii + XcMc) (2.2.3)
modeled thus; Expanding the equation,, we have;
r = f [sY(k, w, It-1), t, , XcMc] (2.1) = sYk + sYw + sIYt-1 + c + A + L + XcMc eA eL
Where, r = interest earning; s = savings; kY,wY = income et eIi + eXcMc (2.2.4)
from contract and wage respectively; t = tax incentive, = Again this is a profit maximizing model for labour-
depreciation [-ve] or appreciation [+ve] of money value (for entrepreneurship substitution. It replicates some features of
financial investment, could be ve or +ve given the time classical model economy and Keynesian model economy.
value of money [inflation]), IYt-1 = previous year income, The mechanism of adjusting the earning on real investment
and XcMc = net international fund flows. in idealistic labour-entrepreneurship substitution model is
To make it linear, explained in the model below;
r = skY + swY + sIYt-1 + t + XcMc (2.1.1) = p[sYk() + sYw() + sIYt-1() + c() + A() + L() +
Earning from financial investment is determined by savings XcMc()] () e(A + L + t + Ii + XcMc) () (2.2.5)
from contract income, wage income, previous year Where,
investment income, tax incentive to new financial sYk + sYw + sIYt-1 = K (capital accumulation by
investments (government decision to encourage new financial investor) (2.2.6)
entrepreneurs by reducing or implementing a zero tax policy sYk + sYw + sIYt-1 + c = K (capital accumulation by real
in the short-run), depreciation or appreciation of money investor) (2.2.7)
value, and investment in international financial markets. The Hence, Y = K + A + L, and R = pY. Where, Y is output, and
mechanism of adjusting the earning on financial investment p = price,
in the labour-entrepreneurship substitution model is to R = p(K + A + L + XcMc) (2.3)
increase savings on contract income, savings on wage Therefore,
income, savings on previous investment income, tax =Re (2.4)
incentive on new financial investment, and increasing Where, R = Revenue; e = Expenditure/Cost; and = Profit.
investment international financial markets. This is further In order to increase earning () at full employment of factor
explained in the equation below, using blue and red arrows; inputs, the firm may increase price of goods or reduce cost
r = skY() + swY() + sIYt-1() + t() + XcMc() () of factor inputs or try to maintain an optimal balance
(2.1.2) between increased production and minimized cost, while
Earning on real investment in is modeled thus; market price of goods remain stable. Firms revenue and
= f [sY(k, w, It-1), c, t, A, L, IE, , XcMc] (2.2) profit also extends to their ability to utilize internal market
Where, = profit; s = savings; kY, wY, c and t = same as in opportunities.
assumption (iii); IYt-1 = previous year income; A = c. Output in the Labour-Entrepreneurship
technology (the use of machines, computers, robots etc.); L Substitution Mechanism
= labour; Ie = investment expenditure, = depreciation of The idealistic economy model causes an increase in output,
capital stock (for real investments), XcMc = international driven by the labour-entrepreneurship substitution. The
trade balance. theory explains that senior and more experienced workers
To make it linear, retire to entrepreneurship, having accumulated capital from
= sYk + sYw + sIYt-1 + c + A + L + XcMc Ie wage, contracts, credit from banks, and having favourable
(2.2.2) policies from government. Some retire to financial
investments, supplying more capital for other workers who

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International Journal of Advanced Engineering, Management and Science (IJAEMS) [Vol-3, Issue-6, Jun- 2017]
https://dx.doi.org/10.24001/ijaems.3.6.2 ISSN: 2454-1311
retire to real investment. This will increase aggregate output K = sY(k + w + It-1) + c + lIk + iG (2.6.4)
and employment. The growth model below is a mixture of Capital (K) is derived from savings from contract, wage and
Solows output model and Keynesian growth model. previous year investment income, credit from bank and
Particular attention is given to the accumulation of capital government compensation of the change in credit rate and
and specific government intervention in encouraging depreciation of capital stock (for new real investments) and
investment in the financial and real sectors of the economy. tax subsidies and depreciation/ appreciation of money value
The model, which is effective in the short-run, explains (for new financial investments). Equations (2.6.1) and
private sector factor inputs, government intervention in (2.6.2) explains government tax subsidy to encourage new
private sector, government input in aggregate output, and the financial investment, and government compensation for
international sector. The model is derived below; change in credit rate to encourage new real investment.
IYL-E = f (K, A, L, G, XcMc) (2.5) G = f (iG, oG) (2.7)
To make it linear, G = iG + oG (2.7.1)
IYL-E = K + A + L + G + XcMc (2.5.1) Where, iG = government compensation for the change (if
Where, IYL-E = Output derived from labour-entrepreneurship any) in credit rate; oG = other government expenditures to
substitution; K = capital accumulated; A = Technology achieve desired macro objectives. The model therefore
(complements labour at a controlled rate); L = labour; and G becomes;
= government intervention in private sector; XcMc = net IYL-E = sY(k + w + It-1) + c + iG + t +A + L + oG + XcMc
international trade and capital flows. In (3.5), Investment (2.5.2)
income (output) derived from labour-entrepreneurship Imputing the short-run time factor into the model;
substitution depends on capital, technology, labour, and IYL-E = sY(kt + wt + wt-n + It-1) + ct + ct-n + i(Gt + Gt-n - c)
government intervention. Capital is accumulated from + tt + tt-n + At + At-n + Lt + oGt + XcMct (2.5.3)
various income sources. The capital accumulation with Where, n 10 years [short-run period].
government intervention is a modification of (2.2.6) and d. Employment and Wage Determination in the
(2.2.7). Labour-Entrepreneurship Substitution Mechanism
Therefore, government intervention modifies the model The labour-entrepreneurship substitution mechanism is
thus; designed to create vacancy in existing firms for the
K = sY(k + w + It-1) + iG + t (2.6.1) increasing supply of labour as well as create new
K = sY(k + w + It-1) + c + iG (2.6.2) entrepreneurship to absorb more labour. The market is not
Furthermore, considering that a part of the international fund saturated with competing entrepreneurships because
flow is illegal (lIk) and does not depend on world and local investors take advantage of the opportunities in the
interest rates but generally, on the weakness of national international market to expand their coverage and sell their
security, and specifically, the financial sector security. When products. This substitution mechanism shifts labour demand
an increasing number of illegal businesses, such as drug curve outward, causing a shortfall in supply of labour. This
businesses, human trafficking, money laundering etc shortfall is complemented by advancement in technology
emanate from a country, it could suggest a life style or value (which, according to assumption xi is controlled by
system of a people. While this is detrimental on the government). When there is an outward in the supply of
exploited nation, it forms capital accumulated for investment working population, the mechanism works to bring the
in the host nation. Therefore, capital accumulation includes market to equilibrium or in favour of labour supply over
the illegal funds, acquired from foreign countries and demand. The mechanism gradually sets in as government
invested in host country. anticipates growth in population (labour supply).
K = sY(k + w + It-1) + lIk + iG + t (2.6.3)

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International Journal of Advanced Engineering, Management and Science (IJAEMS) [Vol-3, Issue-6, Jun- 2017]
https://dx.doi.org/10.24001/ijaems.3.6.2 ISSN: 2454-1311

Fig. 1.

Fig. 1 shows wage determination and mobility of labour in from real investments (respectively derived from labour-
example A & B. Wage is determined by the interplay of entrepreneurship substitution). This is shown below;
labour demand and supply. Notice that an outward shift in LEs = rYL-E + IYL-E (2.9)
labour supply (S1) in example B caused wage to decline from Therefore, unemployment tends to zero if the following
initial equilibrium (e) to the new equilibrium (e 1). However, conditions are satisfied;
labour supply is less or equal to labour demand. His is U 0 = g () + I () + LEs () + iG () + A () + c ()
achieved by the labour-entrepreneurship substitution (2.8.1)
mechanism. This decline in wage due to an outward shift in or
labour supply may cause workers in sector (B) to desire to U 0 = g () + I () + LEs () + iG () + A () + c ()
move to sector (A), with higher wage (w1). Nevertheless, (2.8.2)
they remain in their current employment until the Furthermore, wage is determined in the model below,
government institution matches them with suitable job considering the assumption;
vacancy in the sector (A). Secondly, given that jobs require w = f [g, I, LEs, iG, A) (2.10)
specialization, requires training, which takes time, and the The mechanism therefore is;
fact that workers would have to start at a lower level w () = g () + I () + LEs () + iG () + A ()
compared to his/her current position, discourages perfect (2.10.1)
mobility of labour or
Furthermore an outward shift in demand in sectors A or B w () = g () + I () + LEs () + iG () + A ()
caused a shortfall in supply and a rise in wage level (w1). (2.10.2)
This was complemented by technology advancement until LEs + iG represent new investments. Population growth (g)
labour supply rose to (e1) in sector A and (e2) in sector B. represents supply of labour; while investment level (I)
Note that the rate of technology substitution for labour is represents labour demand.
influenced by government as priority is given to labour over III. METHODOLOGY
technology in the mechanism. This is also explained in the Ex-post facto research design was used to measure the
model below; impact of labour-entrepreneurship substitution rate on
E = f (g, I, LEs, iG, A, c) (2.8) investment (boosted by the substitution rate) in Nigeria [i.e.
Employment in this mechanism is derived from population the investment was derived as a function of interest rate and
growth (g), Investment (I), labour-entrepreneurship substitution rate]. Error correction mechanism of an
substitution (LEs), government compensation for incremental Autoregressive least square technique was used to measure
change in credit rate (iG), technological advancement (A), the influence of labour-entrepreneurship substitution rate on
and credit from bank (c). Labour-Entrepreneurship the new investment. The new investment value (IL-E.S)
substitution is further derived from interest earnings derived was tested for its determinant of economic growth in Nigeria
from financial investments and investment income derived using the t-statistics, adopting Benferrons multiple

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International Journal of Advanced Engineering, Management and Science (IJAEMS) [Vol-3, Issue-6, Jun- 2017]
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comparison adjusted probabilities and correlation analysis. LNILES(-1) = lagged value of the dependent variable
Prior to the test, the labour-entrepreneurship substitution rate [AR(-1)]
was determined by subtracting the growth rate of the gross RESID(-1) = lagged value of the residual (error
domestic product from the growth rate of total labour force. correction term)
The difference was added to the unemployment rate. e = the residual of error term
Therefore, the substitution rate is the rate at which b0 = constant
investment must grow beyond that, which is determined by b1, b2, b3 = parameter estimates (variable coefficients)
interest rate in order to clear unemployment and cause
growth in output in the country via the labour- IV. DISCUSSION
entrepreneurship substitution. This can also be considered The ADF unit root test showed that the Nigerian gross
as the rate at which employed labour must substitute for domestic product at 2010 constant basic prices, as reported
entrepreneurship/investment in order to create employment by the Central Bank of Nigeria in her 2014 Statistical bulletin
and increase output. was stationary at the second order of integration. Labour-
Furthermore, the investment derived from labour- Entrepreneurship substitution rate was stationary at the first
entrepreneurship substitution mechanism (using the order of integration. The new investment (ILES) was
substitution rate) was added to the original investment stationary at order of integration (1), while log of new
derived as a function of interest rate to arrive at the new investment (LNILES) was stationary at integration order (1)
investment scale (IL-E.S). The values of gross domestic (see appendix 5). A cointegration test of the Johansen
product, total labour force, investment, unemployment rate, method confirmed that the variables were cointegrated (see
labour-entrepreneurship substitution rate and the new appendix 6).
investment value (IL-E.S) are presented in the appendix. The The result of the error correction model (see appendix 1)
negative values of the L-E.S rate, less than zero, represent showed that the labour-entrepreneurship substitution rate
the rate at which technology must grow to complement the (LESR) and the auto regressive function of the new
shortfall in labour input (i.e. the rate at which effective investment (LNILESt-1) significantly determined the current
labour must grow to maintain the growth in output), while new investment (LNILES). Furthermore, the variables had
the positive rates, greater than zero, represent the L-E.Sr (i.e. positive impact on the dependent variable. It is therefore
the rate at which labour must substitute for entrepreneurship). evident that previous years value of the new investment
Data were sourced from various institutions. The gross significantly influences current years investment. Both
domestic product, investment (which is the sum total of all variables individually and jointly influenced current value of
credit to private sector and credit to all tiers of government) the new investment. The result further implies that the
was sourced from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) substitution rate significantly creates sufficient investment
statistical bulletin, total labour force was sourced from that absolves the unemployed labour and grows the economy
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development optimally. However, the adjustment in the residual to
(UNCTAD), and unemployment rate in Nigeria was sources equilibrium was not significant in 28 years, given the 55%
from the International Labour Organization (ILO). The speed of adjustment and due to the autoregressive function.
values of GDP growth rate and growth rate of total labour Serial correlation was not noticed in the result and the
force were calculated using the growth rate formula. residual had a constant variance (see appendix 2 & 3).
(Y2 Y1)/ Y1 (3.1) Therefore, the result can be relied for policy forecast.
We hypothesize that boosted investment is not significantly The extent of determination of the new investment (ILES) on
influenced by labour-entrepreneurship substitution rate and Nigerias economic growth was measured using the t-
previous year boosted investment. statistics and correlation. It was discovered, using
The basic model which tested the impact of labour- Bonferronis multiple comparison adjusted probabilities of
entrepreneurship substitution rate on the new investment (IL- covariance analysis that the new investments significantly
E.S) follows; determined output (GDP) in Nigeria. The correlation showed
LNILES = b0 + b1*LESR + b2*LNILES(-1) + b3*RESID(-1) that the new investment has 95.98% positive relationship
+e (3.2) with the gross domestic product in Nigeria and a coefficient
Where, of determination of 92.13%, holding other determinants
LNILES = Log of new investment boosted by LESR constant (see appendix 4).
LESR = Substitution rate

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International Journal of Advanced Engineering, Management and Science (IJAEMS) [Vol-3, Issue-6, Jun- 2017]
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Following the findings of the study, we reject the null
hypothesis and conclude that new (boosted) investment is
significantly influenced by both the labour-entrepreneurship
substitution rate and previous year boosted investment.

This study tries to answer certain questions of output,
employment and wage determination is a mixed economy
such as Nigeria. Although idealistic, its assumptions are
attainable and can be adopted to solve the problem of low
output and employment. The central theme of the theory is
the Labour-Entrepreneurship substitution mechanism.
Specifically, the theory developed the capital accumulation
model, short-run growth model, and wage and
unemployment adjustment mechanisms. The theory utilized
some form of gratuity payment as part of the capital
accumulation model. The study is crucial in boosting output
and employment in developing and developed nations as well
as aid developing countries such as Nigeria to recover from
recession and boom again. There is need for policy
adjustments in order to implement the mechanism.
Given the findings, the study recommends that developing
and developed countries build the labour-entrepreneurship
substitution mechanism in their growth model as this will
increase output as well as create employment that sufficiently
absolve the unemployed in the country.

[1] BGL Research and Intelligence (2011), Economic Note:
The Nigerias Paradox of Growth amidst High Poverty
Incidence. Retrieved from: www.bglgroupng.com on 5th
September, 2016.
[2] Federal Ministry of Employment, Labour and
Productivity (2003), National Employment Policy.
Retrieved from: www.google.com/national_-
employment_policy.pdf on 5th September, 2016.
[3] World Bank (2013), Nigeria Economic Report, The
World Bank, No. 1, May, 2013, 77684.

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