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2013

1
Chernov.Pvl@gmail.com
1

......................................................................................................................................................... 4
1. ...................................................................................... 7
1.1 ................................................................................................... 7
1.2 ................................................................................. 8
1.3 ..................................................................................................... 9
2. ..................................................... 11
2.1 - ................................................................................................... 11
2.2 .......................................................................................................... 17
2.3 ....................................................................................................................... 23
3. ................................... 27
3.1 ......................................................................... 27
3.2 ........................................................................................... 28
3.3 ................................................................................................ 31
3.4 ................................................................. 34
3.5 ........................................................................ 38
4. ......................................................................................................... 41
4.1 ......................................................................................................................... 41
4.2 ......................................................... 44
4.3 ........................................................... 50
4.4 ..................................................................................................... 54
4.5 ................................................................................................. 60
5. .............................................................................. 62
5.1 .................................................................................................................. 62
5.2 ................................................................................................. 67
5.3 ....................................... 71
5.4 .................................................................................... 77
6. , .................................................. 81
6.1 , .......................................... 81
6.2 ............................................................................. 86
6.3 ............................................................................ 91
6.4 ................................................................... 97
7. ........................................................................... 99
7.1 -.................................................................................................. 100
7.2 ........................................................... 102
7.3 - ............................................................................................. 104

2
7.4 ............................................................................................. 105
7.5 ............................................................................................................ 109
................................................................................................................................................. 113
1 -
..................................................................................................................................................................... 114
2 - ............... 115
3 ....................................................................................... 116
4 .............................................. 117
5 ................................................................................................. 118
6 : ..................................................................... 119
7 : ...................................................... 120
8 : ............... 121
9 ...................................................................................................... 122
10 ......................................................................................... 123
11 2D ..................................................................................... 125

3

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30
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31
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49
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Lecture 4).
50
1 e1 2 e2 ... N eN

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51
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52
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53
4.4

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12
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54
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56
1 2 (4.30)

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57
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,
.

59
4.5
:

1. .

2.
( ).

3.

.

4. .

5. ,
- ,
.

6.
,
, .

7. , , ,


:
2
.
*

8.
,
.

9. ( ),
, .

60
10.
14:
i
H t
(t ) U (t ) (0) e
(0)

14
5.2
61
5.

()
.
, . x
,
:
1

1 x1 2 x2 ... 2 (5.1)
...

,

(x). :
(x1) = 1.
( )
-.
3.4.

5.1
4
.
.
:
H T V (5.2)
H ; T
; V .
:
mv 2 p 2
T (5.3)
2 2m
p = mv ; m .

62
,
:

p i (5.4)
x

.
3.4. (5.2-5.4) ,
, :
p 2 2 2
H T V V V (5.5)
2m 2m x 2
, (x).
H (x),
2

2m
V(x)(x). , ,
.
:
( xi 1 ) 2 ( xi ) ( xi 1 )
' ' ( xi ) , (5.6)
x 2

2 1 0 ... ( x1 )

1 1 2 1 ... ( x 2 )
' ' ( xi ) (5.7)
x 2 0 1 2 ... ( x3 )

... ... ... ... ...

, (5.5)
:
2 V ( x1 ) 1 0 ...

2 1 2 V ( x2 ) 1 ...
H 2 (5.8)
2m x 0 1 2 V ( x3 ) ...

...
... ... ...

5 ,
,
63
. (5.8) ,
V, .
.
:
V(x) = kx2 (5.9)
.
.
, (5.9):
d
F (kx2 ) 2kx (5.10)
dx
( )
. (5.10) ,
:
F, x.
(5.9) .
, ,
,
..
4 MATLAB,
(5.8)
(5.9). m

.
5.1.
E (
), ,
.
,
E0 5.1

. ,

64
.
, ,
. ,
,
. .
,
.
. V(x),
. 5.2
V,
.
. 5.2
, E0,
E1, E2.

) )
5.2 ) ; )
.

() ,
.
.
, n
, n .
.
65

. ,
( 2.1),
,
.
, 1.2.
. .

.
V.
,
:
e2
V ( x) (5.11)
4 0 x

e (); 0
.
(, (5.11)
, , ).
(5.8)
(5.11).
5
MATLAB,
15.
5.3.

,
.
5.3

15
, (
).
66
( ). E0 = -13.6 ,

.
- ,

. (1.1)
. MATLAB
,
!

5.2
,
.
.
.
4
. ,
, .
. .
,
.
.
(. 3.3). 1
,
,
.
U :
(t ) U (t ) (0) (5.12)

67
(5.12) .

( t),
t, U
.
U ?
:
10.
:
i
H t
(t ) U (t ) (0) e
(0)
:
i
U (t ) exp H t (5.13)

H .
4.2 ,
: .
,
(4.5).
, , (
). .
:
U U 1 (5.14)

. :
.

:
U U U 1U 1 (5.15)

68
(5.15) ,
U ,

U 1 U ,
. ,
, .
,
:
U 1 2 U 1 U 2 (5.16)


.
3,
.
, (5.16) :
U 1U e1 2U e2 ... NU eN (5.17)
( 1 N ).
(5.16) ,
.
. (5.16) ,
.
.

.
.
. , , ,
, .., .
, , ,
, .

69
,
( ). .
(
) ,
( ).
(5.13).
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: (
?).
, .
, H (
!).
16.
( MATLAB
expm).
,
,
:

i H (5.18)
t
,
: ,
, .
(5.13).
. , (5.13)
t.
,
(3.20)

16
Matrix exponential.
70
,
:
H E (5.19)

(5.18), .
(5.13) .

5.3
10
.
U (t ) (0) :

(t ) U (t ) (0) (5.20)

,
.
:
x2
( x) d
2 1 / 4
exp ipx 2 (5.21)
2d

p , d
.

.

(5.21)
5.4. ,
.
5.4
. p = 8; d = 1.

(5.13). ,

71
, , ,
(5.8).
, V(x) .
. 6
MATLAB,
(5.13) (5.21) V=0
t.
,
. , ,
x t,

( 5.5).

5.5

,
. 8 ,
,
.
x ( ).
|(x)|2 x
72
( ).

.
.
: (5.21)
V=kx2. ,
. 7
MATLAB,
. (x)
2


5.6.

5.6

,
. ,
.
, ,
.
73
, ,
5.1, E3.
6
, .
(5.21) .
,
E3 5.7. 5.7
||2 .

) )
5.7 .
) ;
)
( x).

||2
, .
8 MATLAB,

. 5.8
.

( ). 5.5 5.6, ,
.

74
5.8
.

, ,
.
.
.
E3 N, x,
N(x) 5.7 (
).

. ,
5.9.
,
m v.
x.
,

5.9

75
mv2/2 mgx,
. ,
,
( ).
, .
(5.8)
V , (5.21)
(5.13).
9 MATLAB. 5.10

(
x).


,
.

||2,


.
, 5.10

-
, - .
.
,
,
.


76
(, ..). ,

.
,
,
.

, .

5.4

.
(x) -,

t.
. ,
(x,y) (x,y,z) .
,
( 5.11).
-,

. 5.11

77
, mxy
(x, y).

(5.21), :
( x, y) ( x) ( y) (5.22)

x2
( x) d 2
1 / 4
exp ip x x 2
2d

y2
( y) d
2 1 / 4
exp ip y y 2
2d

5.12 (5.22)
x.
(5.13)
-.
? :
Uxi

(
-
)
Uy j

( 5.13).
Uxi Uy j

. 5.12 . px = 7; py = 0.
,
(5.13), ,
V(x,y), ,
.
78
Uxi i- V,
Uy j j- .
2.2 4.3

.
. ,
5.19

. 10
MATLAB, . 5.13


. 5.14
.
, .
!

. 5.14

, ?
, .
, ,

79
. .
,
.

. 5.15 5.9
( x=0
xy). 11 MATLAB
.

. 5.15


. ,
,

.

:
.

80
6. ,
6.1 ,
:
. ,
x, x,
, x,
:
d
dx f ( x ) x
d
x f ( x) (6.1)
dx
x
(6.1) :
x x x x 0 (6.2)
d
x x; x
dx
x.
, x x
, (6.2) :
[ x , x ] 0 (6.3)
.
(6.2).
, ,
. , ,
:

f ( x, y) f ( x, y) (6.4)
y x x y

[ x , y ] 0 (6.5)
. ,
x, y .

81
,
,
:
[ A, B] AB BA (6.6)
A, B ; AB BA
.
(6.6)
.

.
? , :
,
.
(4.7),
x, y z.
:
0 1 0 i 1 0
x ; y ; z (6.7)
1 0 i0 0 1
, , [ x , y ] .

0 1 0 i i 0
x y ;
1 0 0 0 i
i
0 i 0 1 i 0
y x ;
i 0 1 0 0 i

i 0 i 0 2i 0 1 1 0 1
[ x , y ] x y y x z (6.8)
0 i 0 i 0 2i 2i 0 1 2i
:
1
[ y , z ] x (6.9)
2i
1
[ z , x ] y (6.10)
2i

82
(6.8-6.10) ,
.
.
- .
, - (
2.1). .

, ,
. , ,
0 90,
, , 45.
,
45.
, , P PB ,
(4.34) .
[ P , PB ] 0

, ,
,
.
.
, :
[ x , y ] [ y , x ] (6.11)

. , :
{ x , y } x y y x 0 (6.12)

( ).
( 6.2).

83

. ,
, (5.4) p x i x , ,
, :
[ p x , p y ] [ x , y ] 0 (6.13)
, (px, py, pz)
.
( x):
[ x, p x ] i (6.14)
(6.1) x,
x, ,
.
, ,
(4.5) , .
(6.14) ,
.
:
xp / 2 (6.15)
,
, .
: ,
. :
, , .
,
.

, ,
(6.15)
.

84
,
. , .
(6.14 6.15)
.
.

.
,
(5.13).
. ,
, .
17,
, ,
, ,
:
[ H , A ] 0 , A (6.16)
:
[ H , H ] 0 , (6.17)
.
, .
(6.17) , . ,
,
(, ).
,
,

.

17
.
85
6.2

, ,
, ,
. (
)
.

, .
, .
.
,
, .

( 6.1)18.
S1 S2
: D1 (
) D2 ( -). ,
,
S1 -, . 6.1
S2 -. , -
D1, -
D2.
- D1
D1 S1 , - D1 S 2 .
S1 ,
, ,
.

18

86
,

. p1 D1
S1
S2:
2 2
p1 D1 S1 D1 S 2 (6.18)

(,
-),
.
,
, , 9
. p2 D1
:
2
p2 D1 S1 D1 S 2 (6.19)

( 4.3),
, D1 S1 D1 S 2 a ,

=/2, :
p1 a 2 a 2 2a 2

p2 a a 2a 4a 2
2 2

p2 2 p1


/2 , .
.
.
,
.
:

87
1 S1 a1 ; 2 S 2 b2 (6.20)

2 S 1 a2 ; 1 S 2 b1 (6.21)
,
S1 1
S2 2,
:
1 S1 2 S 2 a1b2 ,

: a1 b2 .
2 2 . 6.2

, ,
S2 1
S1 2 :
2 S1 1 S 2 a2 b1 ,

, D
:
p a1 b2 a2 b1
2 2 2 2
(6.22)
, 1 2 .
:
a1 a2 a ; b1 b2 b .

(6.22) , ,
:
p1 2 a b
2 2
(6.23)
,
,
:
p2 a1b2 a2b1 4 a b
2 2 2
(6.24)
:
, ,
88
, ,
.
,
, N , ,
N+1 .
.
, ,
,
, 100%.

( ).
.
:
. (6.24) . ,
, .
(6.24) :
p2 a1b2 a2b1 0
2
(6.25)

, . ,
. :

.
,
.
. ,
(
). ,
(
), .

89
,
.

. ,
,
:
,
.
.

. .
. ,
, ,
.
.
? ,

, .
, .

, .
.

:
2
I ( x) ~ E ( x) (6.26)
,
,
. (6.26)
:

90
p ( x) ( x)
2
(6.27)
p x; (x)
x,
( ).
.
,
.
, , ,
. ,
, .

6.3

4.4 ,

, :
(6.28)

z,
. .
.
3,
.
(4.28):
1 1
S (6.29)
2 2


.
, S

91
. S
(entangled) .

, .
,
.
, c1 c2
c1 c2 ,


.
, .
( 50%,
50%, ). ,
( ).
.
,
,
. ,
,
. ,
.
, ,
,
.

,
.
,
.

92
.
6 10:

6.
,
, .

10.
:
i
H t
(t ) U (t ) (0) e
(0)

10 ,
, 6 ,
,
, .
,
U 1 (t )
. ,

.
6 .
,
.
(
) .
, 6.
:
c1 c2 (6.30)

, z. ,
,
. 1 ,
93
1 ,
( 6.3).

,
. 6.3
{+_}
:
1 1 2 1 (6.31)

1 ,
; 2 ,
.
, , 1

, , , (6.31)
.
, (6.29).


.
6
(6.31), |1|2 {
, } |2|2
{ , }.
.
6 ,
: - . -
, . 6.4

( 6.4).
,

, +1 , ,

94
-1,
:
1 ,1, 2 ,1, (6.32)

, .
..
6
,
6. , .

19.


,
, ,
.
,
4.3. 1

1 :
1 i ni (6.33)
i

1 i ni (6.34)
i

ni i- ; ,
.
:
1 1 i i ni (6.35)
i

19

.
95
i * i i i * ,
i i (.
4.24).

M, :
1, M 1 1, M 1 (6.36)
:
1, M 1 1, M 1 i ni , M 1 i ni , M 1 (6.37)
i i

,
(6.35). . ,
, i * i i *i . -
ni , M 1 ni , M 1
, .
.
.
6.

. ,
,
.
,
,
. ,

.

.
,

96
.
,
.

6.4

,
(6.14) . ,
,

( ).
,
.

,
,
.
(no-cloning theorem20).
,
z:
(6.33)


:
(6.34)


:
(6.35)

,
:

20
1982.:
Wootters, Zurek, Wojciech. A Single Quantum Cannot be Cloned. Nature 299: 802803. doi:10.1038/299802a0
97

1

2
, (6.36)


1
2


1
2

1


2
(6.37)

3, (6.36)
.
:


1
2


1
2

(6.38)

(6.37) (6.38) .

, ,
. ,
.

98
7.


(Gedanken Experiment),
.

.
,
( 7.1). ,
, (
, ..).
, - ,
, , ,
.
7.1.
, g = 9.8 /2 (
). 1g (
F = mg), .
, ,
g.

) )
. 7.1
, ,
,

99
.
. .

,
, (
),
( -, , ..).

,
. ,
.
, (
), ,
.
,
.

7.1 -


-,
7.2. S
B1, .
M1 M2
B2. ,
, D1. D2
.
S ,
,
D1.

100

B2, 50%

50% .
, ,
D1,
M1, D2
M2. . 7.2 -

,
,
.
.
,

.
,
-,
. ,
, .

. - .

,

( 7.3).

, .

,
(. 5.4, 5.14), -
101
,
.
B2.


. ,
(
).
S ,
S,
B1 . 7.3 -

( 9):
S (7.1)

,
, 6, S

7.2

-
21. , S
, .
,
. ,
S, S S ( 7.4).

21
(1911-2008) ,
. ,
.
102

.

,

- (
).
. 7.4

S S
,
( 7.5).
,
( ).
.




,

. 7.5


, .
,
,
,
.

103
7.3 -

-
, (
).
, ,
( ).
.
.
,
, ,
. ,
.
- ( 7.6).
, M2 .
, .
-

D1.
.


,

. . 7.6 -

,
B2 .

. ,
, 50%
50% . D1,
104
.
D2, , ,
, ,
.
25%
. - ,
:
.

7.4

,
, (quantum eraser).

7.7.
,
S,

- (
BBO),
. 7.7

. ,
:
1 1
, (7.2)
2 2
1,
. ,
, .
.
, ,
z y (4.7).
105
,
,
. ,
, ,
.
z, y. ()
:
, (7.3)

, (7.4)

.
( 7.7),
( ),
D1.
D2.
, . , ,
DS,
D2 .

,


.
,

. ,
,
( . 7.8

106
7.8)22.
.
(P1 P2 7.9).
-, ,
.

. -,
,
. ,
( 6 7).

) )
. 7.9

P1 P2 ,
.
90, ,

( 7.9).
, , .

, ,
, .

22
S. P. Walborn, M. O. Terra Cunha, S. Padua, and C. H. Monken. Double-
slit quantum eraser // Physical Review A, (65, 033818, 2002).
http://grad.physics.sunysb.edu/~amarch/Walborn.pdf
107
, .
D2 P ,
:


1
2
i , (7.5)

7.10 . ,
, , D2
(7.5), D1
() .

) )
. 7.10

.
z, 50%

50% ,

.
() .
,
, .
.

.
108
,
.


. BBO
P , BBO
D1, D1 ,
P. . ,
,
P .

7.5

23 ,
.
. ,
6,
, .
,
(6.14)

. ,
,
.
.
.

:
(7.6)

23
1993, 70 .
109
:
1. (4.28):

S
1
2
(7.7)

2. X ,
:

X (7.8)

3. Z , :

Z (7.9)

4. C x ,
:

C x a b c d a b c d , (7.10)

, C x
.
,

(, 5.2
). ,
, - .
:
1. (7.6), A,
.
2. (7.7),
A.
3. (7.7),
(7.6).
B.
:

110
1. C x ,
A.
2. x.
3. z.
4. B
.
5. B, ,
:
,
.
,
Z .
,
X .
,
Z , X .

24.

(7.7), 4.4,
B
( 7.11).
,
A
( ).
, (
) ,

24
1993 :
C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crpeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, W. K. Wootters. Teleporting an Unknown Quantum State
via Dual Classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Channels, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1895-1899 (1993)

111
A B
,
.

. 7.11

.
.

, ,
, ,
.

112

.

, , , ,
, . ,

. ,

. .
,
,
. ,
, .
,
,
. ,
,
.
,

,
. ( ),
1960-, .
,
.

113
1
-
%%
clear
n = 20; %
x = linspace(0, 5, n)';
y = x.^2; %

%%
h = (x(2)-x(1));

d = (- diag(ones(1,n-1),-1) + diag(ones(1,n-1),1));
D = d / (2 * h); % 1-

d2 = (diag(ones(1,n-1),1) - 2*diag(ones(1,n)) + diag(ones(1,n-1), -1));


D2 = d2/h^2; % 2-

I = tril(ones(n,n))*h; %

%%
dy = D*y; %
dy2 = D2*y; %
in = I*dy; %
%%
plot (dy(2:n-1)); % (y=2x)
figure
plot (dy2(2:n-1)); % (y=x)
figure
plot (in(2:n-1)); % y=2x (y=x.^2)

114
2
-
clear
%%
S1 = [ 0 1
1 0 ];

S2 = [ 0 -1i
1i 0 ];

S3 = [ 1 0
0 -1 ];

%% 3-

N = [1 0 0]'; % x

M = [1 1 0]'; % 45 x-y

%%

SdotN = S1*N(1)+S2*N(2)+S3*N(3); % (
)
SdotM = S1*M(1)+S2*M(2)+S3*M(3);

[V_SdotN,D] = eig(SdotN); %

[V_SdotM,D] = eig(SdotM);

amplitude = V_SdotM(:,1)'*V_SdotN(:,1); %

amplitude'*amplitude %

(1+cos(pi/4))/2 % ( )

115
3

clear

%%
S1 = [ 0 1
1 0 ];

S2 = [ 0 -1i
1i 0 ];

S3 = [ 1 0
0 -1 ];

S0 = [ 1 0
0 1 ];

%%
u = [1 0]'; % |u>
d = [0 1]'; % |d>
ud = kron(u,d); % |ud>
du = kron(d,u); % |du>
Singl = ud-du; % |ud>-|du>
Singl = Singl/norm(Singl); %

%%

P0 = (S3+S0)/2;
P45 = (((S1+S3)/sqrt(2))+S0)/2;
P90 = (S1+S0)/2;

%%
A = kron(P0, S0); %
notB = kron(S0, P45); %
notC = kron(S0, P90); %

%%
N_AnotB = (Singl'*A*notB*Singl); %
2*N_AnotB
N_AnotC = Singl'*A*notC*Singl

% 2 N_AnotB < N_AnotC -

116
4

clear
%%
n = 200; %

x = linspace(-4, 4, n)';
h = (x(2)-x(1));
Dsquared = (diag(ones(1,n-1),1) - 2*diag(ones(1,n)) + diag(ones(1,n-1), -
1))/h^2; %
V = x.^2; %

%%
H = -Dsquared + diag(V); %
[Vect,Val] = eig(H); %
Val=diag(Val);

%%
figure1 = figure;
axes1 = axes('Parent',figure1);
hold
for i=1:7
plot([-4 4],[Val(i) Val(i)] )
end
plot(x, V,'LineWidth',2,'Color',[1 0 0]);
ylim(axes1,[-1.5 15]);

117
5

clear
%%
n = 1000; %
l = 20e-10; %
me = 9.109E-31; %
h = 1.054E-34; %
e = 1.602E-19; %
e0 = 8.854E-12; %

%%
x = linspace(-l, l, n)';

dx = (x(2)-x(1));
Dsquared = (diag(ones(1,n-1),1) - 2*diag(ones(1,n)) + diag(ones(1,n-1), -
1))/dx^2; %
V = -1./abs(x); %
H = -((h^2)/(2*me))*Dsquared + ((e^2)/(4*pi*e0))*diag(V); %

[Vect,Val] = eig(H); %

dd=diag(Val)/1.602E-19; %%

%%
figure1 = figure;
axes1 = axes('Parent',figure1);
hold

lev = 0;
for i=1:5
lev = lev+2; %
plot([-1 1], [dd(lev) dd(lev)],'Color',[1 0 0], 'LineWidth', 2)
EnergyLevel = dd(lev)
end
plot([-2 2], [0 0],'Color',[0 0 1], 'LineWidth', 2,'LineStyle','--')

xlim(axes1,[-2 2]);
ylim(axes1,[-14 2]);

118
6 :

clear
%%
n = 200; % ( PC)

%
p = 4;
d = 1;
x = linspace(-10,10,n);
offset = 5;
wave = ( ( exp(1i*p*(x-offset)) ).*( exp(-((x-offset).^2)/(2*d^2)) ) )./(
(pi*d^2)^1/4 );
wave = wave';

%%
x = linspace(-4, 4, n)';
h = (x(2)-x(1));
Dsquared = (diag(ones(1,n-1),1) - 2*diag(ones(1,n)) + diag(ones(1,n-1), -
1))/h^2; %
V = 0; %

H = -Dsquared + diag(V); %

%%
t = 0.01; %
figure1 = figure;
axes1 = axes('Parent',figure1);
for i = 1:20 %

U = expm(-1i*t*H); %

wave1 = U*wave; %
t = t+0.01; % ( )
plot(real(wave1),'Color',[1 0 0]) %
% plot(abs(wave1).^2,'Color',[1 0 0]) %
ylim(axes1,[-1.5 1.5]);

pause(0.5); %
end

119
7 :

clear
%%

n = 200; % ( PC)

%
p = 4;
d = 1;
x = linspace(-10,10,n);
offset = 0;
wave = ( ( exp(1i*p*(x-offset)) ).*( exp(-((x-offset).^2)/(2*d^2)) ) )./(
(pi*d^2)^1/4 );
wave = wave';

%%
x = linspace(-4, 4, n)';
h = (x(2)-x(1));
Dsquared = (diag(ones(1,n-1),1) - 2*diag(ones(1,n)) + diag(ones(1,n-1), -
1))/h^2; %
V = 100*x.^2-1.5; %

%%
H = -Dsquared + diag(V); %
%%

t = 0.01; %
figure1 = figure;
axes1 = axes('Parent',figure1);

for i = 1:100 %

%%
U = expm(-1i*t*H); %
%%

wave1 = U*wave; %
%%

t = t+0.01; % ( )
plot(x, real(wave1),'Color',[1 0 0]) %
% plot(x, abs(wave1).^2,'Color',[1 0 0]) %
hold
plot(x, ((V+1.5)/100)-1.5)
ylim(axes1,[-1.5 3]);
hold
pause(0.2); %
end

120
8 :

clear
%%
n = 200; % ( PC)
x = linspace(-4, 4, n)';
h = (x(2)-x(1));
Dsquared = (diag(ones(1,n-1),1) - 2*diag(ones(1,n)) + diag(ones(1,n-1), -
1))/h^2; %
V = 100*x.^2-1.5; %

%%
H = -Dsquared + diag(V); %

%%
[Vect, Val] = eig(H);
%%

t = 0.01;
figure1 = figure;
axes1 = axes('Parent',figure1);

for i = 1:100 %

%%
U = expm(-1i*t*H); %
%%

wave = U*Vect(:,3); %

%%
t = t+0.02; % ( )
plot(x, real(wave),'Color',[1 0 0]) %
hold
plot(x, ((V+1.5)/100)-1.5)
ylim(axes1,[-1.5 1.5]);
hold
pause(0.2);
end

121
9

clear
%%

n = 200; % ( PC)

%
p = -4;
d = 1;
x = linspace(-10,10,n);
offset = -7;
wave = ( ( exp(1i*p*(x-offset)) ).*( exp(-((x-offset).^2)/(2*d^2)) ) )./(
(pi*d^2)^1/4 );
wave = wave';

%%
x = linspace(-6, 6, n)';
h = (x(2)-x(1));
Dsquared = (diag(ones(1,n-1),1) - 2*diag(ones(1,n)) + diag(ones(1,n-1), -
1))/h^2; %
V = ((x > 0).*(x<0.5))*60; %

%%
H = -Dsquared + diag(V); %
%%

t = 0.01; %
figure1 = figure;
axes1 = axes('Parent',figure1);

for i = 1:55 %

%%
U = expm(-1i*t*H); %

%%
wave1 = U*wave; %

t = t+0.01;
% plot(x, real(wave1),'Color',[1 0 0]) %
plot(x, abs(wave1).^2,'Color',[1 0 0]) %
hold
plot(x,V)
ylim(axes1,[-0.5 2]);
hold
pause(0.2); %
end

122
10

clear
%%

n = 70; % ( PC)

%
px = 7; % x-
d = 1;
x = linspace(-10,10,n);
offset = 5;
waveX = ( ( exp(1i*px*(x-offset)) ).*( exp(-((x-offset).^2)/(2*d^2)) ) )./(
(pi*d^2)^1/4 );
waveX = waveX'; % x-

py = 0; % y-
d = 1;
y = linspace(-10,10,n);
offset = 0;
waveY = ( ( exp(1i*py*(y-offset)) ).*( exp(-((y-offset).^2)/(2*d^2)) ) )./(
(pi*d^2)^1/4 );
waveY =waveY'; % y-

wave = waveY*waveX'; %

%%
h = x(2)-x(1);
Dsquared = (diag(ones(1,n-1),1) - 2*diag(ones(1,n)) + diag(ones(1,n-1), -
1))/h^2; %
V = ((x > 0).*(x<2))*60; % x-

Hx = -Dsquared + diag(V); % x-
Hx0 = -Dsquared; %% x-
Hy = -Dsquared; % y-

%%
t = 0; %
figure1 = figure;
axes1 = axes('Parent',figure1);

for tt=1:45 %

%%
Ux = expm(-1i*t*Hx); % x-
Ux0 = expm(-1i*t*Hx0); % x-
Uy = expm(-1i*t*Hy); % y-

%% x-
for i=1:n

if ((i>25&&i<30) || (i>40&& i<45)) %


wave(i,:) = (Ux0*wave(i,:)')';
else
wave(i,:) = (Ux*wave(i,:)')'; %
end

end

123
%% y-
for i=1:n
wave(:,i) = Uy*wave(:,i);
end

%%
[X,Y] = meshgrid(x,y);
mesh(X,Y,abs(wave))
zlim(axes1,[0 1.5]);

t=t+0.002;
pause(0.5); %
end

124
11 2D

clear
%%

n = 70; % ( PC)

%
px = 7; % x-
d = 1;
x = linspace(-10,10,n);
offset = 5;
waveX = ( ( exp(1i*px*(x-offset)) ).*( exp(-((x-offset).^2)/(2*d^2)) ) )./(
(pi*d^2)^1/4 );
waveX = waveX'; % x-

py = 0; % y-
d = 1;
y = linspace(-10,10,n);
offset = 0;
waveY = ( ( exp(1i*py*(y-offset)) ).*( exp(-((y-offset).^2)/(2*d^2)) ) )./(
(pi*d^2)^1/4 );
waveY =waveY'; % y-

wave = waveY*waveX'; %

%%
h = x(2)-x(1);
Dsquared = (diag(ones(1,n-1),1) - 2*diag(ones(1,n)) + diag(ones(1,n-1), -
1))/h^2; %
V = ((x > 0).*(x<0.3))*60; % x-

Hx = -Dsquared + diag(V); % x-
Hy = -Dsquared; % y-

%%
t = 0; %
figure1 = figure;

axes1 = axes('Parent',figure1);
for tt=1:43 %

Ux = expm(-1i*t*Hx); % x-
Uy = expm(-1i*t*Hy); % y-

%% x-
for i=1:n
wave(i,:) = (Ux*wave(i,:)')';
end

%% y-
for i=1:n
wave(:,i) = Uy*wave(:,i);
end

%%
[X,Y] = meshgrid(x,y);
mesh(X,Y,abs(wave))
zlim(axes1,[0 1.5]);

125
t=t+0.002;
pause(0.5); %
end

126