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# ..

2005
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, ( 1)
( 2) 2004
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. -
,
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154
.. . , , -
(
LATEX). -
, ,
( -
) .
, ,
. ,
a_l_barabanov@mail.ru .
,
, , .

, , ,
.. , .. , .. , .. ,
.. , .. , .. , .. , .. -
, .. , .. . -
.. ..
, -
-
. .. -

.

..

c .. , 2005

1.

H0 , |ki -
, , , -
,

## H0 |ki = Ek0 |ki.

( H0 ) -
.
.
,

H = H0 + V

, |ki Ek0 -
H0 , V H0 ,
, . |n i
En H
.
V , , -
Ek0
. , .. -
,

hV i hH0 i, 1,

,
.
|n i En -
:

(H0 + V )|n i = En |n i.

|ki
, |n i -

X
|n i = cnk |ki.
k

3
cnk .

,
H0 .
|n i
, :
X X X
H0 cnk |ki + V cnk |ki = En cnk |ki,
k k k

X X X
cnk Ek0 |ki + cnk V |ki = En cnk |ki.
k k k

hm|, :
X X X
cnk Ek0 hm|ki + cnk hm|V |ki = En cnk hm|ki.
k k k

H0
hm|ki = mk .
X
0
cnm Em + cnk Vmk = En cnm ,
k

## Vmk hm|V |ki.

En cnk :
X
0
(En Em )cnm = cnk Vmk .
k

,
:
(0) (1) (2)
En = En + En + En + . . . ,

## (0) (1) (2)

cnk = cnk + cnk + cnk + . . . ,

4
, . ., ,
(2)
En 2 . :

|n i = |n i(0) + |n i(1) + . . . ,

X X
(0) (1)
|n i(0) = cnk |ki, |n i(1) = cnk |ki, ...
k k

En cnk ,
:
(0) (1) 0 (2) (0) (1) (2)
(En + En + En + . . . Em )(cnm + cnm + cnm + . . .) =
X (0) (1) (2)
= (cnk + cnk + cnk + . . .)Vmk .
k

, 1-, 2-
.. , -
:
0 (0) (0)
0- : (En Em )cnm = 0,
X (0)
1- : (En(0) Em
0
)c(1) (1) (0)
nm + En cnm = cnk Vmk ,
k

X (1)
2- : (En(0) Em
0
)c(2) (1) (1) (2) (0)
nm + En cnm + En cnm = cnk Vmk ,
k

## En(0) = En0 , c(0)

nm = nm ,

(0)
.. |n i(0) = |ni En =
= En0 H -
H0 (, ,
).
1-

(En0 Em
0
)c(1) (1)
nm + En nm = Vmn .

5
n = m,
En(1) = Vnn .
n 6= m,
Vmn
(En0 Em
0
)c(1)
nm = Vmn c(1)
nm = .
En0 0
Em
(1)
cnn .
1-
|n i: X (1)
|n i ' |n i(0) + |n i(1) = |ni + cnk |ki =
k
X (1)
= (1 + c(1)
nn )|ni + cnk |ki.
k6=n

, -
.
: X (1)
|1 + c(1) 2
nn | + |cnk |2 = 1.
k6=n

, -
.
. :

|1 + c(1) 2
nn | = 1.

(1)
, cnn = i ,
. 1- n-
:
X (1) X (1)
|n i = (1 + i)|ni + cnk |ki = ei |ni + cnk |ki.
k6=n k6=n

|n i ei ,
n- :
X (1)
|n i = |ni + cnk |ki.
k6=n

6
, ,

c(1)
nn = 0.

, 1-
n- -
Vnn . , Vnn = 0, n-
2- . :
X (1)
(En0 Em
0
)c(2) (1) (2)
nm + Vnn cnm + En nm = cnk Vmk .
k

n = m,
X Vkn X |Vnk |2
En(2) = 0 Vnk = .
E0 Ek En0 Ek0
k6=n n k6=n

, Vkn = Vnk V .
, , , -
H0 , -
. ,

, H0 ,
, .
.

## H0 |ni = En0 |ni, = 1, 2 . . . kn ,

kn n- .
-
H :

(H0 + V )|n i = En |n i.

X
|n i = cn,k |ki.
k

7
, , -
En cn,k :
X
0
(En Em )cn,m = cn,k Vm,k .
k

En cn,k
:
(0) (1) (1)
En = En + En + . . . = En0 + En + . . . ,

## (0) (1) (1)

cn,k = cn,k + cn,k + . . . = c nk + cn,k + . . .

(0) (0)
En cn,k ,

H
H0 .
n = m -
:
(1)
X
En c = c Vn,n ,

X (1)
(Vn,n En )c = 0.

, kn ( = 1, 2 . . . kn ) kn
c ( = 1, 2 . . . kn ).

(1)
det kVn,n En k = 0

(1)
kn - En .
.
(1)
kn En ( = 1, 2 . . . kn ).
, -
n- kn
V .
(1)
En ' En0 + En
8

X
|n i ' c |ni.

2.

V (t) . ,
t = 0, .. V (t) 0
t < 0.

, V (t)
V , -
T .
T :

i~ = H.
t
t || -
:

||
~ |Ei Ej | ||,
t
|Ei Ej | . ,
,

|| t|Ei Ej |
1,
|| ~

t
.
T:
~
t T.
|Ei Ej |
9
t = 0 |ii,
..
|i (0)i = |ii.
T ,
:
|( )i ' |(0)i = |ii.
, t >

H 0 = H0 + V ,

|k0 i . |( )i -
|k0 i:
X
|( )i = ak |k0 i.
k

## ak = hk0 |( )i ' hk0 |ii

, i- -
k-
.

,
|(t)i :

|(t)i
i~ = (H0 + V (t))|(t)i,
t
:
|(0)i = |ii.
|(t)i
X 0t
Ek
|(t)i = ak (t)|kiei ~ ,

10
, -
H0 . :

ak (0) = ik .

-
:
X 0t
Ek X 0t
Ek
i~ ak (t)|kiei ~ + ak (t)|kiEk0 ei ~ =
k k

X 0t
Ek X 0t
Ek
= ak (t)H0 |kiei ~ + ak (t)V (t)|kiei ~ .
k k

## H0 |ki = Ek0 |ki, :

X 0t
Ek X 0t
Ek
i~ ak (t)|kiei ~ = ak (t)V (t)|kiei ~ .
k k

hn|, :
0t
En X 0t
Ek
i~an (t)ei ~ = ak (t)Vnk (t)ei ~ ,
k

## Vnk (t) = hn|V (t)|ki,

iX 0 E 0 )t
(Ek n
an (t) = ak (t)Vnk (t)ei ~ .
~
k

an (t), n = 1, 2 . . .
,

hV (t)i hH0 i, 1,

-
.
-
:

## an (t) = a(0) (1) (2)

n (t) + an (t) + an (t) + . . . ,

11
, .., ,
(2)
an 2 . , :

## an (0) = a(0) (1) (2)

n (0) + an (0) + an (0) + . . . = ni .

a(0)
n (0) = ni , a(1)
n (0) = 0, a(2)
n (0) = 0, ...

-
:

i X (0) (1)
0 E 0 )t
(Ek n
a(0) (1)
n (t) + an (t) + . . . = (ak (t) + ak (t) + . . .)Vnk (t)ei ~ .
~
k

, -
:

a(0)
n (t) = 0 a(0)
n (t) = const.

a(0) (0)
n (t) = an (0) = ni .

, 1- :

i X (0) 0 E 0 )t
(Ek n
a(1)
n (t) = ak (t)Vnk (t)ei ~ .
~
k

(0)
ak (t) = ki ,

i (E 0 E 0 )t
i i ~ n
a(1)
n (t) = Vni (t)e ,
~

(1)
an (0) = 0.

Zt
i (Ei0 En0 )t0

a(1)
n (t) = Vni (t0 )ei ~ dt0 .
~
0

12
,

, V (t)
t +.
Z
+
i (Ei0 En
0 )t

a(1)
n (+) = Vni (t)ei ~ dt.
~
0

, i- n- -
1-
+ 2
Z
1 (E 0 E 0 )t
w(i n) = |a(1) (+)|2
= V (t)ei i ~ n
dt .
n 2
~ ni

0

V (t) ,

T , ..
~
0 T.
|Ei En0 |
, w(i n) .
.

, -
. , , ,
-
().

:
V (t) = V eit + V + eit .
1- -
i- n- :
Zt Zt
i (E 0 En
i i
0 +~)t0
i (Ei0 En
0 ~)t0

a(1)
n (t) = Vni e ~ dt Vin ei
0 ~ dt0 ,
~ ~
0 0

13

Vni = hn|V |ii Vin = hn|V + |ii.
, :
(Ei0 En
0 +~)t (Ei0 En
0 ~)t

ei ~ 1 e
i ~ 1
a(1)
n (t) = Vni 0 0
+ V in 0 0
.
Ei En + ~ Ei En ~

.
-
|ii Ei0 .
~

Ef = Ei0 + ~.
(1)
, an (t)
En0 ,
(0)
En0 ' Ei + ~.
(1)
an (t)
:
t
Vni ,
~

1
V.
|Ei0 En0 | in

t -
T , ..
~
t T,
|Ei0 En0 |
(1)
an (t) ,

(E 0 E 0 +~)t
(1)
(E 0 En
i i 2~
0 +~)t
sin i 2~n
an (t) = 2iVni e .
Ei0 En0 + ~
:

Ef = Ei0 + ~, n = En0 Ef .
14
i- n-
:

sin2 (n t/2~)
win (t) = |a(1) 2
n (t)| = 4|hn|V |ii|
2
.
2n

win (t) n ( Ef )
.

win (t) 2 2
6 |hn|V~|ii|
2
t

- 6~
t - 4~
t - 2~
t
2~
t
4~
t
6~
t
0 -
n

, t -
En0 Ef

2~
' n .
t

tE ' 2~,

t -
E .
.
, -
, .. En0 En0 + En0
(En0 )En0 . (E) -
.
i- -
: Z
Pif (t) = win (t)(En0 )dEn0 .

hn|V |ii -

15
(En0 ) En0 ,
Z
+
2 sin2 (n t/2~)
Pif (t) = 4|hf |V |ii| (Ef ) dn .
2n

n t
x= ,
2~
:
Z
+
2t sin2 x 2t
Pif (t) = |hf |V |ii|2 (Ef ) 2
dx = |hf |V |ii|2 (Ef ).
~ x ~

. , , -
, .. ,
Pif (t) 1.
-

Pif (t)
wif = .
t
1- -
:
2
wif = |hf |V |ii|2 (Ef ).
~
.
, -
,
t = 0 ( -
) V (V + = V ).
= 0, Ef = Ei0 .
W (t) ,
( ) t
i- . , W (0) = 1.
t :
W (t + t) = W (t)(1 wif t).
16
t 0 :
dW
= wif W (t).
dt
( ):
t 1
W (t) = ewif t = e , = .
wif

3.

-
, U (r),
: 2
p
i~ = + U (r) .
t 2m

:

p2
E= + U (r),
2m

E i~ , p p = i~.
t

, -
-
.
:

E 2 = p2 c2 + m2 c4 .

17
, -

2
~2 2 = (~2 c2 + m2 c4 ).
t
, -

. -,
. , -
-
, .
I -
, -
. -, ,
,
j. , -
, ..
.
,

2
~2 = ~2 c2 + m2 c4
t2
,

2
~2 = ~2 c2 + m2 c4
t2
, , :

2 2
~2 2 = ~2 c2 ( ).
t t2

:

1
= ( ).
c2 t t t

:

+ div j = 0.
t

18
-
:
~
j = ( ).
2mi
, -
,
1 2mi
2 + div j = 0,
c t t t ~
, , .
:

i~
= .
2mc2 t t

, -
.

-
. -
:
1) ;
2) (, x0 = ct) (x1 = x, x2 =
= y, x3 = z) .
m
:
mc
+A +B +C +D = 0,
(ct) x y z ~

c ~
, mc/~ (~/mc
m).
:

i~ = i~c 1 + 2 + 3 + mc2 .
t x y z

19
-
:

i~ = H.
t
:

H = i~c 1 + 2 + 3 + mc2 ,
x y z

p + mc2 ,
H = c p = i~.
i -
i~/t.

i~ i~ = i~ H = H i~ = H 2 ,
t t t t

2
~2 = H 2 .
t2
,
. :

H 2 = ~2 c2 + m2 c4 .

H,

## (ci pi + mc2 )(ci pi + mc2 ) = ~2 2 + m2 c4 ,

, , , ,
pi , .. (i + i )pi , .
,

i + i = 0 i = i .

, i -
. , , .

20

H 2 :
(i~ci i + mc2 )(i~cj j + mc2 ) =

= ~2 c2 i j i j i~mc3 (i + i )i + m2 c4 2 .
-
:
i j i j + j i j i i j + j i
i j i j = = i j .
2 2
,
H 2 = ~2 c2 + m2 c4
, -
:
i j + j i

= ij ,

2

2 = 1,

i + i = 0.
, , ,
p + mc2
H = c
. , i -
:
i+ = i , + = .
, -
. .., -
, i ,
U (U + U = 1), i0 = U i U + .
,
,
2
i = 1,

2 = 1,
21
i 1.
, ( -
) i0 0 ,
1.
, , . -
, A,
X
Sp A = Aii ,
i

.
, -
, :
!
X X X X
Sp (AB) = Aij Bji = Bji Aij = Sp (BA).
i j j i

,
i = i
, :

i = i .

Sp (i ) = Sp (i ) = Sp (i ) = Sp (i ) Sp (i ) = 0.

i = i

i , :

= i i ,

Sp () = Sp (i i ) = Sp (i i ) = Sp () Sp () = 0.

, -
, , ,

Sp (i0 ) = Sp (U i U + ) = Sp (i U + U ) = Sp (i ) = 0.
22
, ,
i0 0 1, : -
i .

2 2. , , :

0 1 0 i 1 0
1 = , 2 = , 3 = .
1 0 i 0 0 1

(i+ = i )
:
i2 = 1, i j = j i (i 6= j).
. -
1 , 2 , 3
.
4 4. (..
2 2) -
( ):

0 I 0
= , = ,
0 0 I
I .

, ,

i~ p + mc2 ) H,
= (c
t
,

1
2
= 3

4
1 , 2 , 3 4 , . -
, :
+ = (1 2 3 4 ).
23

I
. , -
. , , -
,

i~ + mc2 ,
= i~c
t
+ . + ,

+
i~ = i~c(+ )
+ mc2 + ,
t
. , , :

+ +
i~ + = i~c(+() + (+ ) ).
t t

+ div j = 0,
t

= + = |1 |2 + |2 |2 + |3 |2 + |4 |2 > 0
,

j = c+

.
:
Z
+ d3 r = 1.
R3

24
4.

,

i~ = H, p + mc2 ,
H = c
t
, .
, , -
E
Et
E (r, t) = E (r)ei ~ ,

E (r) H:

HE (r) = EE (r).

E, .. :

p + mc2 E (r) = EE (r).
c

H p ,

p + mc2 , p] = 0,
[c

E (r)
, : pr
E (r) = uei ~ ,

u1
u2
u= , =
u1
, =
u3
,
u3 u2 u4
u4
, -
.
,
pr pr
p + mc2 uei ~ = Euei ~ ,
c
25
-
u:
p + mc2 u = Eu,
c

0 2 I 0
cp + mc =E .
0 0 I

2- -
:

+ mc2 = E,
cp

mc2 = E.
cp

:

(mc2 E) + cp = 0,

+ (mc2 + E) = 0.
cp

:

mc2 E p
c
det
c
= 0,
p mc + E
2

(m2 c4 E 2 ) + c2 (
p)(
p) = 0.
( ):

## p) = i j pi pj = (ij + ieijk k )pi pj = p2 + ik eijk pi pj .

p)(
(

, pi pj , eijk -
i j, .
:

m2 c4 E 2 + p2 c2 = 0.

, E p
: p
E = p2 c2 + m2 c4 .

26
p
E= p2 c2 + m2 c4 > 0,

cp
= 2
,
mc + E

## || ||, cp E ' mc2 v c.

, ,
2- , :

prEt
(r, t) ' ei ~ .
0

2-
1/2.
,
1/2.
,
p
E = p2 c2 + m2 c4 < 0,

cp
= .
mc2 + |E|

|| ||, cp |E| ' mc2 ,
..
0 prEt
(r, t) ' ei ~ .

, -

.
-
.
(
1/2 ).
, ,
27
, -
. -
E1 < 0
E2 > 0
E2 |E1 |.
E2 > 0 -
E1 < 0, |E1 | + E2 ,
( )
.

e -
. :
r
2 v2 e
L = mc 1 2 e + Avv ,
c c
(r, t) A(r, t) -
. -
:
L e mv
P= = p + A, p = p ,
v c 1 v 2 /c2
() :
L mc2
=v L = E + e, E=p .
v 1 v 2 /c2
-
,
E 2 = p2 c2 + m2 c4 ,
-
:
e 2
2
( e) = P A + m2 c4 .
c
, -
:
2
e 2
i~ e = c2 i~ A + m2 c4 .
t c
28
-
. ,
-
, :

e
i~ e = c i~ A + mc2 ,
t c

e
i~ i~ A + mc2 + e.
= c
t c
,
1/2
, ,

i~ = H,
t
:
e
i~ A + mc2 + e.
H = c
c

, E -
mc2 . -
:

2
i mc~ t (r, t)
(r, t) = e .
(r, t)

:

mc2 t mc2 t
mc2 ei ~ + i~ ei ~ =
t

e mc2 t mc2 t
p A ei ~
= c + mc2 ei ~ +
c

mc2 t
+ e ei ~ .

29
2
, , eimc t/~ -
,
:

2 0 e
mc + i~ =c p A +
t 0 c

2 I 0
+ mc + e .
0 I

:

2 e

mc + i~ =
c p A + mc2 + e,
t c

e

mc2 + i~ p A mc2 + e,
= c
t c

e
i~ t = c
p A + e,
c

e

2mc2 + i~ = c p A + e.
t c
. -
:

|e| mc , i~ mc2 ||.
2
t

-
v/c
e
p A
' c , || ||.
2mc
,

(r, t) mc2 t
(r, t) ' ei ~
0

(r, t).
30
-
, ,
v/c, :
e
e p A
i~ p A
= c c + e.
t c 2mc
:
e e e e
p A p A = i j pi Ai pj Aj =
c c c c
e e
= (ij + ik eijk ) pi Ai pj Aj =
c c

e 2 e e e2
= p A + ik eijk pi pj pi Aj Ai pj 2 Ai Aj .
c c c c

,
pi Aj = i~(i Aj (r, t)) + Aj pi .
, -
pi pj , (Ai pj + Aj pi ) Ai Aj eijk ,
.
:
e e
p A p A =
c c
e 2 e
= p A + ik eijk (i~(i Aj )) =
c c
e 2 e~
= p A H,
c c
H = rot A .
2-
1/2
. -
,
e 2
p A e~
i~ = c H + e,
t 2m 2mc
31
. , ,
,

i~ = H,
t
,
e 2
p A e~
H = c H + e,
2m 2mc

1/2 .
, A = 0 H = 0, -

p2
H = + U (r)
2m
,
U (r) = e(r)
e.
, H, -

.

s =
2
,
e~ e~
H = sH = H.
2mc mc
,
:
e~ e
=
s = (~s).
mc mc
-
M L -
.
mi ei (i = 1, 2 . . . N ) M L :
X ei X
M= [ri vi ], L = mi [ri vi ].
i
2c i

32
, ei /mi = e/m = const, ..
,
e
M= L,
2mc
e/2mc
.
( )

() ~s e/mc,
.. . -
e/mc -
.

5.
v/c

-
, ,
.
v/c. -
. (A = 0 H = 0)
,
2
p
i~ = + U (r) ,
t 2m

U (r). , -
, ,

e2
U (r) = .
r
, -
v/c
( ,
U ).
33
, -
v/c.
,
U (r) ( -
, .. A = 0 H = 0):

i~ = H, p + mc2 + U (r).
H = c
t

H t. -
E :
Et
E (r, t) = (r)ei ~ ,
(r) :

p + mc2 + U (r) (r) = E(r).
c
, ,
,
v/c.
:
E = mc2 + E 0 , |E 0 | mc2 .
, , -
:
(r)
(r) = .
(r)
:

0 (r) I 0 (r)
p + mc2 +
0 (r) 0 I (r)

(r) (r)
+ U (r) = (mc2 + E 0 ) .
(r) (r)
2-
(r) (r):

c p + mc2 + U = mc2 + E 0 ,

c p mc2 + U = mc2 + E 0 ,
34

c p + U = E 0 ,

c p = (2mc2 + E 0 U ).
:
1
(r) = c p(r) =
2mc2 + E 0 U (r)

1
= c p(r) '
2mc2 (1 + (E 0 U (r))/2mc2 )

1 E 0 U (r)
' 1 p(r).
2mc 2mc2

,
|| ||, v c,
2-
(r).

1 E 0 U (r)
c p 1 p(r) + U (r)(r) = E 0 (r).
2mc 2mc2

,

E 0 U (r) E0 U (r)
1 = 1 + ,
2mc2 2mc2 2mc2

. -
:

E0 E0
p 1 p = 1 i j pi pj =
2mc2 2mc2

E0 E0
= 1 (ij + i eijk k ) pi pj = 1 p2 .
2mc2 2mc2

, pi pj
eijk .

35

2
E0 p 1 U (r)
1 (r) + U (r)(r) + p p (r) = E 0 (r),
2mc2 2m 2m 2mc2

p2 1
+ U (r) (r) + 2 c2
p U (r) p (r) =
2m 4m
| {z }
| {z }
.
H0

0 p2
=E 1+ 2 2
(r).
|4m{zc }
.

! . ,
Z
h|i = + d3 r = 1

Z
(+ + + ) d3 r = 1,

-
v/c. ,
:

p
(r) ' (r),
2mc
+
+ ( , -
). :
Z !
+ + p p
+ d3 r = 1,
2mc 2mc

Z
p2
+ 1 + d3 r = 1.
4m2 c2
36
, :

h|i =
6 1.

p2
h| 1 + |i = 1,
4m2 c2

v/c :
2
p2
h| 1 + |i = 1
8m2 c2

p2 p2
h 1+ | 1 + i = 1.
8m2 c2 8m2 c2
, 2-
:
p2
(r) = 1 + (r),
8m2 c2
:

h|i = 1.

, (r).
-
:

p2 p2
(r) = 1 (r) T (r), T = 1 .
8m2 c2 8m2 c2

:

1 0 p2 p2
H0 T +
( p)U
(r)( p)T = E 1 + 1 ,
4m2 c2 4m2 c2 8m2 c2

1 0 p2
H0 T +
( p)U
(r)( p)T = E 1 + .
4m2 c2 8m2 c2

37
T , :
1
T H0 T + T ( p)T = E 0 .
p)U (r)(
4m2 c2
, ,

H 0 (r) = E 0 (r),

, -
E 0 U (r).
:
2
0 p 1
H = T + U (r) T + T ( p)T .
p)U (r)(
2m 4m2 c2
| {z }
H0

, -
H0 v/c.
H 0 -
:
2
p
T + U (r) T =
2m
2
p2 p2 p2 p2
= 1 + 1 U (r) 1 '
2m 8m2 c2 8m2 c2 8m2 c2

p2 p2 p2 p2
' 1 + U (r) U (r) U (r) 2 2 =
2m 4m2 c2 2
8m c 2 8m c

p2 p4 1 1
= + U (r) p2 U (r) U (r)p2 .
2m 8m3 c2 8m2 c2 8m2 c2

p2 U :

p2 U = pi pi U = pi (pi U ) + pi U pi =

## = (p2 U ) + 2(pi U )pi + U p2 .

38
H 0 :
1 1
p)U (r)(
T ( p)T ' p)U (r)(
( p) =
4m2 c2 4m2 c2
1
= (ij + i eijk k ) pi U pj =
4m2 c2
1
= (ij + i eijk k ) ((pi U )pj + U pi pj ) =
4m2 c2
1
= 2 2
(pi U )pi + i k eijk (pi U )pj + U p2 .
4m c

, H 0
v/c :

p4 1 1 1
H 0 = H0 3 2
2 2
(p2 U ) 2 2
(pi U )pi U p2
8m c 8m c 4m c 8m2 c2
1 1 i 1
2 2
U p2 + 2 2
(pi U )pi + 2 2
k eijk (pi U )pj + U p2 .
8m c 4m c 4m c 4m2 c2
,
. :

H 0 = H0 + V1 + V2 + V3 ,

p4 1 i
V1 = , V2 = (p2 U ), V3 = k eijk (pi U )pj
8m3 c2 8m2 c2 4m2 c2

H0 .
-
.

v/c

V1
. , -
K E

39
mc2 . :
r
p p2
K = p c + m c mc = mc 1 + 2 2 mc2 '
2 2 2 4 2 2
m c

p/mc1 p2 p4 p2 p4
' mc2 1 + 2 2
4 4
mc2 = .
2m c 8m c 2m 8m3 c2

1 2 ~2
V2 = (p U ) = U
8m2 c2 8m2 c2
-
,
( ). , ,
. ,
-
= 2c/. -
,
.
. , ,
, ~. ~ -
2mc2 , C ,
2~c ~
' 2mc2 C = ,
C mc
: . C -
m. -
, -
, C .
, -
:
U = hU (r + r) U (r)i,
r , :
ij
hri = 0, h(r)i (r)j i = h(r)2 i, (r)2 ' 2C .
3
:
~2
U ' U,
6m2 c2
40
-
V2 .
, V3 ,
U = U (r). :

i ~ U 0 (r) ~U 0 (r)
V3 = k eijk (pi U (r))pj = k eijk ri pj = sL,
4m2 c2 4m2 c2 r 2m2 c2 r

L = [r p] . -
V3 - .
-
. e
= (e/mc)~s
, (r), ..
U (r) = e(r). , r
v , , ()

L = m[r v].

0 (r)
E = (r) = r.
r
,
v/c -

1
H = [E v].
c
, -
:
~e0 (r) ~U 0 (r)
H =
Vm = 2
s[r v] = 2 2 sL,
mc r m c r

H
V3 . ,
v/c, - -
, , v/c.

41
6.

s = 1/2 U (r)
:

p2
H0 = E, H0 = + U (r).
2m

H0 ,
,
Z
+ d3 r = 1,

-
, ,
Z
= , |(r)|2 d3 r = 1, + = 1.

H0 , , l2 lz . -
:

(r) = R(r)Ylm (, ),

Ylm (, ) = h, |lmi
l2 lz -
( ). ,
1 1
l = L = [r p] = i[r ]
~ ~
.
|si s2
sz .
. H0 -

42
l2 , lz , s2 sz , H0
, :

= R(r)|lmi|si.

, -
, -
:
H = H0 + V1 + V2 + V3 ,

p4 ~2 ~2 U 0 (r)
V1 = , V2 = U (r), V3 = sl.
8m3 c2 8m2 c2 2m2 c2 r
, V1 V2 -
, .. l2 , lz , s2 sz .
V3 , ,
- :

~2 U 0 (r)
V3 Us. o. = f (r)sl, f (r) = .
2m2 c2 r
:

, :

| {z }
0

## [(sl), sz ] = [sx lx , sz ] + [sy ly , sz ] + [sz lz , sz ] = isy lx + isx ly 6= 0.

| {z }
0

, , , , -
:
[sl, sz + lz ] = 0.
43
, ,

j = s + l,

. -
,

## [Us. o. , l2 ] = 0, [Us. o. , s2 ] = 0, [Us. o. , jz ] = 0.

, -
:

H = H00 + Us. o. ,

H00 ,
l2 , lz , s2 sz . , H00 -
jz . , H -
l2 , s2 jz . , H
j2 .
:
j2 = (s + l)2 = s2 + 2sl + l2 .
l2 s2 . , H00
sl = sx lx + sy ly + sz lz , -
li sj .
sl Us. o.
f (r). ,

[H, j2 ] = 0.

,
, H U (r) -
l2 , s2 , j2 jz .
,
j2 jz .

44

j1 j2 , -
. -
,

[j1i , j2j ] = 0, i, j.

|j1 m1 i j21 j1z , :

## j21 |j1 m1 i = j1 (j1 + 1)|j1 m1 i, j1z |j1 m1 i = m1 |j1 m1 i,

m1 = j1 , j1 + 1 . . . j1 . -
:

## j22 |j2 m2 i = j2 (j2 + 1)|j2 m2 i, j2z |j2 m2 i = m2 |j2 m2 i,

m2 = j2 , j2 + 1 . . . j2 .
, 1+2, -
j21 , j1z , j22 j2z . -
:

## |j1 m1 j2 m2 i |j1 m1 i|j2 m2 i.

(2j1 + 1)(2j2 + 1) .
1 2:

j = j1 + j2 .

: j21 , j22 , j2 jz .
|jm(j1 j2 )i -
, :

## j2 |jm(j1 j2 )i = j(j + 1)|jm(j1 j2 )i, jz |jm(j1 j2 )i = m|jm(j1 j2 )i,

1 , 2 , j(j + 1) m
. ,
j , ,
, j m :
j, j + 1 . . . j.
45
, -
j1 j2 , |j1 m1 i |j2 m2 i, ,
-, j (, , 1 2 ) , -, -
|jm(j1 j2 )i |jmi ( j1 j2
j2 jz ).

|j m (j1 j2 )i
|j1 m1 i|j2 m2 i,
:
X jm
|jm(j1 j2 )i = Cj1 m1 j2 m2 |j1 m1 i|j2 m2 i.
m1 ,m2

Cjjm 1 m1 j2 m2

. j21 j22 ,
:

## 1 = j1 (j1 + 1), 2 = j2 (j2 + 1).

.
1) , jz = j1z + j2z . jz
, j1z + j2z
, :
X jm
m|jmi = Cj1 m1 j2 m2 (m1 + m2 )|j1 m1 i|j2 m2 i.
m1 ,m2

Cjjm
1 m1 j2 m2
0, m 6= m1 + m2 ,

, ,

Cjjm
1 m1 j2 m2
6= 0, m = m1 + m2 .

,
:
X jm
|jmi = Cj1 m1 j2 (mm1 ) |j1 m1 i|j2 m m1 i.
m1

46
2) , mmax = jmax . C , mmax =
= m1max + m2max = j1 + j2 . , jmax = j1 + j2 .
, j = jmax m = mmax = jmax -
, m1 =
= m1max = j1 m2 = m2max = j2 , :

## |jmax jmax i = Cjj11j+j 2 j1 +j2

1 j2 j2
|j1 j1 i|j2 j2 i Cjj11j+j 2 j1 +j2
1 j2 j2
= 1.

3) jmin . ,
jmin = |j1 j2 |. . j2 6 j1
jmin = j1 j2 . |jmi
:
jX
1 +j2 jX
1 +j2 jX
1 +j2

(2j + 1) = 2 j+ =
j=j1 j2 j=j1 j2 j=j1 j2

(j1 j2 ) + (j1 + j2 )
= 2 (2j2 + 1) + (2j2 + 1) = (2j1 + 1)(2j2 + 1).
2
, , .
, , j21 , j22 ,
2
j jz :
X jm
|jmi = Cj1 m1 j2 m2 |j1 m1 i|j2 m2 i.
m1 ,m2

j ( )
|j1 j2 | j1 + j2 , .. j -
|j1 j2 |, |j1 j2 | + 1 . . . j1 + j2 . j
m z
j, j + 1, . . . j.
-
. :

Cjj11j+j 2 j1 +j2
1 j2 j2
= 1.

, , j1 = 1/2
j2 = 1/2.

47
. 1/2 + 1/2

,
() s1 = 1/2 s2 = 1/2. -
s21 , s1z , s22 s2z :
1 1 1 1
| 1 i| 2 i, 1 = , 2 = .
2 2 | 2 {z 2}
4

S = s1 + s2 ,
s21 , s22 , S2 Sz :

|SSz i, S = 0, Sz = 0, S = 1, Sz = 1, 0, 1 .
| {z }
4

:
X 1 1
|SSz i = C SS
1
z
1 | 1 i| 2 i.
2 1 2 2 2 2
1 ,2

:
11 1 1
=| i, =| i.
22 2 2
,
C 11
1 1 1 1 = 1.
2 2 2 2

|11i :
11 11
|11i = | i| i (1)(2).
22 22

:

## S = Sx iSy = (s1x + s2x ) i(s1y + s2y ) = s1 + s2

48
|11i:

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
S |1 1i = s1 | i | i+| i s2 | i .
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
, -
:
p
j |j mi = (j m)(j m + 1) |j m 1i.

, :
p
S |11i = (1 + 1)(1 1 + 1)|10i = 2 |11i,

:
r
11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
s1 | i = ( + )( + 1) | i = | i.
22 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
, :

1 1 1 11 11 1 1
|10i = | i| i + | i| i
2 2 2 22 22 2 2

1
((1)(2) + (1)(2)) .
2
,
1
C 11 0 1 1 1 = C 11 011
12 = .
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

S |10i:

1 1 1 11 11 1 1
S |10i = | i s2 | i + s1 | i | i .
2 2 2 22 22 2 2
:
p
S |10i = (1 + 0)(1 0 + 1) |1 1i = 2 |1 1i,

:

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
| i| i + | i| i = 2 | i| i.
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
49
:
1 1 1 1
|1 1i = | i| i (1)(2),
2 2 2 2
:
C 11 1
1 1
21
= 1.
2 2 2

,
S = 1:
|1 1i = (1)(2),

1
|1 0i = ((1)(2) + (1)(2)) ,
2

|1 1i = (1)(2).

, -
S = 0,

|00i = C 01 01 1
12 (1)(2) + C 00
1
1 1 1 (1)(2).
2 2 2 2 2 2 2

, -, :
2 2

h00|00i = 1 C 01 01 1 1 + C 01 0 1 1 1 = 1,
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

, -,
, , ,
1 1
h10|00i = 0 C 01 01 1
12 + C 01 0 1 1 1 = 0.
2 22 2 2 2 2 2 2

:
1
C 01 011
12 = C 01 0 1 1 1 = .
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
, , -

50
:
1
|00i = ((1)(2) (1)(2)) ,
2

|11i = (1)(2),

1
|10i = ((1)(2) + (1)(2)) ,
2

|1 1i = (1)(2).

7. .

s, (r, ),
r
( z). N
, (r1 , 1 , r2 , 2 . . . rN , N ),
1- r1 1 z, 2- -
r2 2 z ..
:

xi = (ri , i ),

(x1 , x2 . . . xN ) N .
i- j- (). -
,

(x1 , x2 . . . xi . . . xj . . . xN ) (x1 , x2 . . . xj . . . xi . . . xN )

: -
ri i z,
rj j z.
:

|(x1 , x2 . . . xi . . . xj . . . xN )| = |(x1 , x2 . . . xj . . . xi . . . xN )| ,
51
, , , -
, :

(x1 , x2 . . . xi . . . xj . . . xN ) = ei (x1 , x2 . . . xj . . . xi . . . xN ).

Pij :

## Pij (x1 , x2 . . . xi . . . xj . . . xN ) = (x1 , x2 . . . xj . . . xi . . . xN ).

, i- j- , :

Pij = P , |P | = 1.

, P 1
1. :

Pij Pij = P2 = 1 P = 1.

,
, -
-
( -
): () P 1,
() P
1. ,

.

-
, , Ze
. ( -
) :

## p21 p2 Ze2 Ze2 e2

H = + 2 + .
2m 2m r1 r2 |r1 r2 |
,

H(r1 , 1 , r2 , 2 ) = E(r1 , 1 , r2 , 2 ),
52
:
(r1 , 1 , r2 , 2 ) = (r1 , r2 )(1 , 2 ),
H .
, (1 , 2 ) -
s21 , s1z , s22 s2z , :
(1 , 2 ) = 21 1 (1 ) 12 2 (2 ).

:
(r1 , 1 , r2 , 2 ) = (r2 , 2 , r1 , 1 )

## (r1 , r2 )(1 , 2 ) = (r2 , r1 )(2 , 1 ).

, -
SSz (1 , 2 ),
S Sz z:
1
00 (1 , 2 ) = ((1 )(2 ) (1 )(2 )) ,
2

11 (1 , 2 ) = (1 )(2 ),

1
10 (1 , 2 ) = ((1 )(2 ) + (1 )(2 )) ,
2

1 1 (1 , 2 ) = (1 )(2 ),

1 11 1 1 1
() = h | i, () = h | i.
2 22 2 2 2
, SSz (1 , 2 ) -
1 2 , S = 1, , S = 0.
,
,
:
(r1 , r2 ) = (r2 , r1 ), S = 0,

(r1 , r2 ) = (r2 , r1 ), S = 1.
53
, (r1 , r2 ), -
E, -
,
H = E,
, ,
r1 r2 .
-
. -
,
H = H0 + V ,
H0 -
,
p2 Ze2
H0 = H(1) + H(2), H(i) = i ,
2m ri
V ,
e2
V = ,
|r1 r2 |
.
:
H0 (0) (r1 , r2 ) = E (0) (0) (r1 , r2 ).
H0
, , ,
(0) (r1 , r2 ) = n1 l1 m1 (r1 )n2 l2 m2 (r2 ),

Z 2 e2 1 1
E (0) = En1 + En2 = + 2 ,
2a n21 n2
a = ~2 /me2 . E (0) -
n1 = n2 = 1.
, (ground state)
-
:
(0)
g.s. (r1 , r2 ) = 1s (r1 )1s (r2 ).

54
r1 r2 . -
-
S = 0.
1- -
:

(1) e2 5Ze2
Eg.s. = h(0)
g.s. | |(0)
g.s. i = .
|r1 r2 | 8a
-

. :
(1)
Eg.s. 5
(0)
= .
Eg.s. 8Z

, Z = 2 ( ) (
) . , -
,
.
-
. -
: n1 = 1 n2 = n > 1,
:

## (0) (r1 , r2 ) = 1s (r1 )nlm (r2 ),

, , n1 = n > 1 n2 = 1, , -
,
(0) (r1 , r2 ) = nlm (r1 )1s (r2 ).
, -
.

, -
r1 r2 , :
(0) 1
S=0 (r1 , r2 ) = (1s (r1 )nlm (r2 ) + nlm (r1 )1s (r2 )) ,
2

(0) 1
S=1 (r1 , r2 ) = (1s (r1 )nlm (r2 ) nlm (r1 )1s (r2 )) .
2
55
, , -
, (..
).
, , 1- , :

(0) e2 (0)
E (1) = hS | | i = J K,
|r1 r2 | S
S = 0 +, S = 1 .
:
e2
J = h1s (1)nlm (2)| |1s (1)nlm (2)i,
|r1 r2 |

e2
K = h1s (1)nlm (2)| |1s (2)nlm (1)i.
|r1 r2 |
J , K
, .

Ze2 /a, a/Z
Ze.
,
n1 = 1, n2 = n > 1.
, (1, n). -
, , -
, , S
. ,
S, -
.

S -
, . -
,
, ,
S ,
.
-
.

56
8.

H ,
En n , :

Hn = En n , n = 0, 1, 2 . . .

n ,

hi |j i = ij ,

.
, -
,
h|i = 1.
n :
X
= a n n .
n

an :
X
|an |2 = 1.
n

, hEi ,
,
E0 , :

## hEi = h|H|i > E0 .

,
X X X
hEi = h an n |H| an0 n0 i = an an0 En0 nn0 =
n n0 n,n0
X X
2 2
= En |an | > E0 |an | = E0 .
n n

P, 0 (
|a0 |2 n |an |2 ), hEi E0 , .
57

:
1) ,
q i ( ):

= (q, 1 , 2 , . . .);

2) , -
,
h|H|i E(1 , 2 , . . .);
3) E i ,
i0 .
, -
( q, 10 , 20 , . . .) 0 (q) -
. .
, , hEi = E0 ,
, ( q, 10 , 20 , . . .)
0 (q), ,

H0 = E0 0 .

-
. -

-
: Z(r1 +r2 )
(0)
g.s. (r1 , r2 ) = 1s (r1 )1s (r2 ) e
a .
, , , -
. -
. -
g.s. (r1 , r2 )
Z 0 , Z 0 < Z.
,
:
Z 0 (r1 +r2 )
g.s. (r1 , r2 ) = Ce a ,

58
Z 0 , C
. Z 0 ,

## hg.s. |H|g.s. i = E(Z 0 ),

, , E(Z 0 ), :
5
Z0 = Z .
16

, , N -
. Ze.
:
X N N
X
p2i Ze2 X e2
H = + , rij = |ri rj |,
i=1
2m i=1 ri r
i<j ij

X N X
X N
... = ...
i<j i=1 j=i+1

-
,

( ):

## i (xi ) i (i) = i (ri ) 21 i (i ),

i (i) ,
Z
i+ i d3 ri = 1.

59
:
N
X X
p2i Ze2 e2
h|H|i = h| |i + h| |i =
i=1
2m ri i<j
rij

X p2i Ze2 X e2
= hi | |i i + hi (i)j (j)| |i (i)j (j)i.
i
2m ri i<j
rij

, i k . -
-
, h|H|i.
, -
,
k , :

p2k Ze2 X e2
hk | |k i + hj (j)k (k)| |j (j)k (k)i = hk |Hk |k i,
2m rk rjk
j6=k

p2k Ze2 X e2
Hk = + hj | |j i.
2m rk rjk
j6=k

hk |Hk |k i ,
k Hk ,
k , :

Hk k = k k ,

p2
Ze 2 X e 2
k + hj | |j i k (xk ) = k k (xk ).
2m rk rjk
j6=k

k- :
Z
Ze2 X e2 3
Uk (rk ) = + |j |2 d rj ,
rk rjk
j6=k

:
p2k
+ Uk (rk ) k (xk ) = k k (xk ).
2m
60
-
k = 1, 2 . . . N .
N N k (xk ):
2
pk
+ Uk (rk ) k (xk ) = k k (xk ), k = 1, 2 . . . N.
2m

Uk j (xj ),
j 6= k. -
.
:
(0) (0) (1) (1)
i Ui i Ui ...
(n)
, lim Ui = Ui -
n
i- .

-
-
xi xj . . -
, -
.
1 , 2 . . . N :

1 (x1 ) 1 (x2 ) . . . 1 (xN )

1 2 (x1 ) 2 (x2 ) . . . 2 (xN )
= det .
N! ... ... ... ...

N (x1 ) N (x2 ) . . . N (xN )

, i
( , -
). , :
-
.
k (xk )

61
:

p2
Ze 2 X e 2
k + hj (j)| |j (j)i k (xk )
2m rk rjk
j6=k

X e2
hj (j)| |k (j)ij (xk ) = k k (xk ).
rjk
j6=k

.
-
, U (rk ), k- -
:
Ze2 X e2
Uk (rk ) = + hj | |j i U (rk ).
rk rjk
j6=k

. k (xk ) k- -
,
2
pk
+ Uk (rk ) k (xk ) = k k (xk ),
2m

Uk (rk )
. :

## k (xk ) = Rnk lk (rk )Ylk mk (k , k ) 21 k (k ).

,
n, -
( ) l,
( z) m
z. -
, -
, .
, n l,
62
. -
: X X
mi = 0, i = 0.
i i
-
, , .
-
,
X X
L = li , S = si ,
i i

li si -
.

, L S -
H .
H, L2 , Lz , S2 Sz .
,
LLz SSz = |ELLz SSz i,
E.
(nl) k < 2(2l + 1)
( ), ,
(nl)k . , -
,
S ,
-, L,
E = E(L, S).
L S ( -
) , :
2S+1
L.
(2L + 1)(2S + 1) (
Lz Sz ). , -
E S (
S) L.
63
:

J = L + S.

: H, L2 , S2 , J2
Jz . ,
X
JJz
|EJJz (LS)i = CLL z SSz
|ELLz SSz i,
Lz Sz

(2L+1)(2S+1) ,
2S+1 L. , J |L S| L + S.

- -
:
Us.o. = A LS.
Us.o. Lz Sz -
H. , , -
. , , .
J , -
:
J2 = L2 + 2LS + S2 .
-
:

J2 L2 S2
Us.o. = A .
2
, Us.o. |EJJz (LS)i.
|EJJz (LS)i
( 1- E):
J(J + 1) L(L + 1) S(S + 1)
EJ = hJJz |Us.o. |JJz i = A .
2
J, Jz ,
J (2J + 1).
, , ..
Ze. , ,
64
, .. -
.
, -
:
J(J + 1) J(J 1)
EJ EJ1 = A = A J,
2

EJ J.
.

9.

H.
:
1
A(r) = [H r], div A(r) = 0.
2
i- :
e 2
pi Ai e~
H(i) = c + Ui (ri ) si H, Ai = A(ri ).
2m mc
, :
e 2 e e e2
pi Ai = p2i pi Ai Ai pi + 2 A2i .
c c c c

pi Ai = i~ (i A(ri )) + Ai pi ,
, div A = 0,
e 2 e e2 e e2
pi Ai = p2i 2 Ai pi + 2 A2i = p2i [H ri ] pi + 2 A2i =
c c c c c

e e2 e~ e2
= p2i [ri pi ] H + 2 A2i = p2 li H + 2 A2i .
c c c c
65
,
:
X p2 e~ e2 e~

i 2
H = li H + A + Ui (ri ) si H + Us.o. =
i
2m 2mc 2mc2 i mc

X p2
i
= + Ui (ri ) + Us.o. + V ,
i
2m

V :
e~ X e~ X e2 X 2
V = li H si H + Ai =
2mc i mc i 2mc i

e~ e~ e2 X 2
= LH SH + Ai =
2mc mc 2mc i

e2 X 2
= B (L + 2S)H + Ai .
2mc i

e~
B =
2mc
.
H, , -
. , -, -
V , A , ,
H, H . z H,
V :
V = B H(Lz + 2Sz ).
.

( )

, -

:
B H |EJ EJ1 |.
66
, -

EJ = E + EJ ,
E = E(L, S) EJ ,
- Us.o. . -
-
Jz . -
( ). -
-
.
,
X p2
i
H = + Ui (ri ) + Us.o. +V ,
i
2m
| {z }
H0

H0 V .
|EJ JJz (LS)i H0 -
. V -

|JJz i = |EJ JJz (LS)i,
|JJz i ( 1- -
EJ ):
EJJz = hJJz |V |JJz i.
V |JJz i :
hJJz |V |JJz0 i = B HhJJz |Lz + 2Sz |JJz0 i =

= B HhJJz |Jz + Sz |JJz0 i = B H Jz Jz Jz0 + hJJz |Sz |JJz0 i .

-, -
, Sz |JJz i. ,
X X JJ 0
JJz
hJJz |Sz |JJz0 i = CLL z SSz
CLLz0z SSz0 hLz Sz |Sz |L0z Sz0 i =
Lz ,Sz L0z ,Sz0

X JJ 0
X
JJz JJz
= CLLz SSz
CLLzz SSz Sz = Jz Jz0 (CLL z SSz
)2 Sz .
Lz ,Sz Lz ,Sz

67
,

X
hJJz |V |JJz0 i = B HJz Jz0 Jz + JJz
(CLL z SSz
)2 Sz
Lz ,Sz

.
, EJJz |JJz i
Sz , X
JJz
hJJz |Sz |JJz i = (CLL z SSz
)2 Sz ,
Lz ,Sz

.
.
, |JJz i S
-
J,

, ,

, C -

## hJJz |J S |JJz i = hJJz |J J |JJz i,

JS J2 .

J = L + S

J S = L J2 2JS + S2 = L2 ,

:
J2 + S2 L2
JS = .
2
C :
J(J + 1) + S(S + 1) L(L + 1)
C= .
2J(J + 1)
68
,

## J(J + 1) + S(S + 1) L(L + 1)

hJJz |Sz |JJz i = Jz .
2J(J + 1)

:

J(J + 1) + S(S + 1) L(L + 1)
EJJz = B HJz 1 +
2J(J + 1)

EJJz = B Hg(J)Jz ,

J(J + 1) + S(S + 1) L(L + 1)
g(J) = 1+
2J(J + 1)
.

B Hg(J),
, ,
J. -
, .
- g(J) = 1, -
B H, .

( )

B H |EJ EJ1 |,

V -
- Us.o. .
,
X p2
i
H = + U (ri ) + Us.o. + V ,
i
2m

69
Us.o. .
:
X p2
i
H = + Ui (ri ) +V ,
i
2m
| {z }
H0

V = B H(Lz + 2Sz ).
, V -
,

H0 . :

|Lz Sz i :

## ELz Sz = hLz Sz |V |Lz Sz i = B H(Lz + 2Sz ).

, -
B H ( ).

-
, :

S = 0, L = 0, J = 0.

-
:

e2 X 2
V = B H(Lz + 2Sz ) + Ai .
2mc2 i

70
, V 1- 2- (
, ) -
.
V ,
H. 1- :

e2 X 1
E = hS=L=J=0 | [H ri ]2 |S=L=J=0 i =
2mc2 i 4

e2 H 2 X 2 2 H 2
= h0 |ri sin i | 0 i = ,
8mc2 i 2

e2 X
= h0 |ri2 sin2 i |0 i > 0
4mc2 i
.

10.

(r, t)
A(r, t). , , -
:

= 0, div A = 0.

:
1 A
E= , H = rot A.
c t

, A(r, t) :
r
X 2~c2
A(r, t) A(r) = a e eikr + a+ ikr
e e .
V

71

t r , , :

## hA(r, t)i = h(t)|A(r)|(t)i,

|(t)i .
A(r)
V .
(k, e ), k , e -
(e e0 = 0 ). , e k,
: = 1, 2.
: =
= kc.
:
2 2 2
kx = nx , ky = ny , kz = nz ,
Lx Ly Lz

Lx , Ly Lz
V = Lx Ly Lz , nx , ny nz .

X X 1
HF = HF = ~(a+
a + ),
2

a a+
-
:

a , a+
0 = .
0

HF , -
.
HF ,
:
1
HF |n i = EF |n i, EF = ~(n + ), n = 0, 1, 2 . . .
2
a+ a -
, :

a+
|n i = n + 1 |n + 1i, a |n i = n |n 1i.
72
n .
.
|F i HF
: Y
|F i = |n i |{n }i.

,
X 1
EF = ~(n + ).
2

, n
.

,
A(r, t) ,

div A(r, t) = 0.

:
2 !
X pj ec Aj
H = j Hj + Us.o. ,
+ Uj (rj ) B
j
2m

## Aj = A(rj , t), Hj = H(rj , t).

e 2 2e e2
pj Aj = p2j Aj pj + 2 A2j ,
c c c
div A = 0. -
:

H = HA + V ,

!
X p2j
HA = + Uj (rj ) + Us.o.
j
2m

73
,

e X e2 X 2 X
V = Aj pj + A j B j Hj

mc j 2mc2 j j

-
. :

H = HA + HF + V ,

!
X p2j
HA = + Uj (rj ) + Us.o.
j
2m

,
X 1
H = ~(a+
a + )
2

e X e2 X 2 X
V = Aj pj + A j B j Hj

mc j 2mc2 j j

.
,
r
X 2~c2
Aj = A(rj ) = a e eikrj + a+ ikrj
e e ,
V

r
X 2~c2
Hj = H(rj ) = i[k e ]a eikrj i[k e ]a+
e
ikrj
.
V

|ki HA ,

74
EAk .
|{n }i HF ,

## HF |{n }i = EF |{n }i,

EF .

H0 = HA + HF .
,

H0 |i = E|i,

:
|i = |ki|{n }i, E = EAk + EF .
|i -
.
V -
. , -
, t = 0 + |i i

Ei = EAi + EF i .
|f i

Ef = EAf + EF f

1- -

2
dwif = |hf |V |i i|2 d(Ef ).
~
, V -
. -
+ :

EAi + EF i = EAf + EF f .

## EAi > EAf EF i < EF f , , -

. ,
.

75
, EAi < EAf EF i > EF f ,
.

11.

-
|ii |f i
, (
). , -
+ -

## |i i = |ii|0, 0 . . .i, |f i = |f i|0, 0 . . . 1k , 0 . . .i.

|ii |f i -
k e . (-
EF )
:
EF = ~ = EAi EAf .
-
d k :
2
dwif = |hf |V |i i|2 d(Ef ),
~
d(Ef ) .

V -
-
. V :
e X X
V = A(rj )pj B j H(rj ) V1 + V2 .

mc j j

V1 V2 .
, V1 :
e e ~
V1 Ap A ,
mc mc a
76
a . V2
:
e~ e ~
V2 kA A ,
mc mc c
V1 V2 ~/a ~/c. ~
:

~ EAi EAf e2 e2 ~ 1 ~ ~
= ' = ' .
c c ca ~c a 137 a a
, V2 V1 . :
e X
V = A(rj )pj .
mc j

e2 ~ e2 1
~k ka ' 1.
~c a ~c 137
k 1/, , , , a, -
, . -
a
. , ,
ka 1 .

:
dNf
d = , dEf = d(~) = ~c dk.
dEf

, -
d dEf ,
(k 2 d)dk. -
k dNf :

k 2 ddk V k 2 ddk
dNf = = .
2 2 2 (2)3
Lx Ly Lz

77
:

V k 2 ddk V 2 d
d = = .
(2)3 ~c dk (2)3 ~c3

d k -
e :

2 V 2 d
dwif (k, e ) = |hf |V |i i|2 .
~ (2)3 ~c3
. :

hf |V |i i =
e X
= hf |h0, 0 . . . 1k , 0 . . . | A(rj )pj |0, 0 . . .i|ii =
mc j

r
e X 2~c2
= e h0, 0 . . . 1k , 0 . . . |a+
|0, 0 . . .i
mc V

X
hf |eikrj pj |ii.
j

, = (k, e ),
:

h1k |a+
k |0i = 1.

:
e r 2~ X
hf |V |i i = e hf |eikrj pj |ii,
m V j

-
.
78
, -
a. ka 1,
.
. -
:

hf |pj |ii.

p2j p2xj
[xj , HA ] = [xj , ] = [xj , ]=
2m 2m
1 1 i~
= pxj [xj , pxj ] + [xj , pxj ]pxj = pxj .
2m 2m m
, j-
:
im
pj = [rj , HA ].
~
pj , -
:
im
hf |pj |ii = hf |rj HA HA rj |ii =
~
im(EAi EAf )
= hf |rj |ii = imhf |rj |ii.
~
, :
r r
X 2~ 2~

hf |V |i i = ie e hf |rj |ii = i e hf |d|ii,
j
V V

X
d = erj
j

.
:
hf |d|ii dif .

79
V
:
r
2~
hf |V |i i = i e dif .
V
, e
k d :

2 2~ V 2 d 3
dwif (k, e ) = |e dif |2 = |e dif |2 d.
~ V 3
(2) ~c 3 2~c3

,
.
-
(e1 , e2 , n), n
k. dif , :

## dif = (dif e1 )e1 + (dif e2 )e2 + (dif n)n,

: X
|dif |2 = |dif e |2 + |dif n|2 .
=1,2

:
X
|e dif |2 = |dif |2 |dif n|2 .
=1,2

, -
:
3
dwif (k) = 3
|dif |2 |dif n|2 d.
2~c
( -
) .
:
I
1 1
hni nj i ni nj d = ij .
4 3
80

I
4 3 2 1 2 4 3
wif = dwif (k) = 3
|d if | |d if | = |dif |2 .
2~c 3 3~c3

W (t) ,
|ii, :

## W (t) = ewif t = et/ .

= 1/wif -
|ii |f i.

12.

. -
() , -

p = ~ k,
Oz. -
, . ,
a,

U (r) 0, r > a.

, a U (r)
. -
.
,

H(r) = E(r),

p2
H = + U (r).
2m
81
, E < 0, . -
, ,
, :

(r) 0 r .

, , :

~2 k 2
E= > 0.
2m
: (r)?
, -,
-
. -
, -
.
r
:
eikr
(r) eikr + f (, ) , r .
r
r 1/r, -
(
) r ,
, 1/r2 . -
, - r.
f (, ) .
,
( -
) .

-
, d.
dN/dt , -
. , -
:
dN
j .
dt

82

,

dN/dt
d = , [d] = 2 .
j

,
.
-
:
~ ~
j= ( ) ( ..),
2mi 2mi
.. .
:
~ ~ ~k
j = jz |=eikz = (eikz ikeikz ..) = (ik (ik)) = .
2mi 2mi m
, :
dN
= j r2 d,
dt

ikr
ikr
~ e e
j = jr |=f (, ) eikr = f f .. .
r 2mi r r r

j , r
, 1/r2 , :

~ 2 ik ~k 1
j = |f | .. = |f (, )|2 2 .
2mi r2 m r

, -
:
~k
dN/dt m |f (, )|2 r12 r2 d
d(, ) = = hk
= |f (, )|2 d.
j m

(-
) f (, ).

83

-
:

~2 ~2 k 2
+ U (r) (r) = (r).
2m 2m

2m/~2
:
2mU (r)
( + k 2 )(r) = (r).
~2
-
.
,

( + k 2 )0 (r) = 0,

,
2mU (r)
( + k 2 )1 (r) = (r),
~2
:
(r) = 0 (r) + 1 (r).
-
, G(r r0 ),
:

( + k 2 )G(r r0 ) = (r r0 ).

,
Z
2mU (r0 )
1 (r) = G(r r0 ) (r0 )d3 r0 ,
~2

= 0 + 1 . , ( + k 2 )
, :
Z
2mU (r0 ) 2mU (r)
( + k 2 )1 (r) = (r r0 ) (r0 )d3 r0 = (r).
~2 ~2
84
.
, r0
,

( + k 2 )G(r) = (r).

G(r) : Z
G(r) = A(q) eiqr d3 q.

, Z
1
(r) = eiqr d3 q.
(2)3
, :
1
(q 2 + k 2 )A(q) = .
(2)3

,
1
A(q) = .
(2)3 (k 2 q 2 )

, :
Z
1 1
G(r) = eiqr 2 d3 q =
(2)3 k q2

Z
Z
2 2 1
= q dq 2 eiqr cos q sin q dq .
(2)3 k q2
0 0

sin q dq = d cos q = dx

x, :

Z Z1 1
iqr cos q iqrx 1 iqrx 1 iqr iqr
e sin q dq = e dx = e = iqr (e e ).
iqr 1
0 1

85
G(r) :
Z

1 q 2 dq 1 iqr
G(r) = (e eiqr ) =
(2)2 k 2 q 2 iqr
0

Z Z

1 qdq qdq
= eiqr eiqr =
(2)2 ir k2 q2 k2 q2
0 0

Z
+
i qdq iqr
= e .
(2)2 r q2 k2

-
. r > 0,
. -
:
q = k, q = k.
4 .
( , , -
q = k ) ,
.
, :

k k + i,

. :
Z
+
i qeiqr dq
G(r) = =
(2)2 r (q (k + i))(q + (k + i))

i qeiqr eikr
= 2i Res|q=k+i = .
(2)2 r (q (k + i))(q + (k + i)) 4r
0.
r r r0 , :
0
eik|rr |
G(r r0 ) = .
4|r r0 |
86

,
(r) = 0 (r) + 1 (r),
:
Z 0
1 2m eik|rr |
(r) = 0 (r) U (r0 )(r0 )d3 r0 .
4 ~2 |r r0 |
, , . ,
(r),
. ,

.
, -
, r0 < a.
r0 < a r r ,
.. r
r0 /r. :
r
|r r0 | ' r r0 n, n = ,
r
0 0
eik|rr | eikrikr n
' .
|r r0 | r
,
r , 1/r.
, (r) :
Z ikr iknr0
m e e
(r)|r = 0 (r) U (r0 )(r0 )d3 r0 =
2~2 r
Z
eikr m 0
= 0 (r) eiknr U (r0 )(r0 )d3 r0 .
r 2~2
,
:
eikr
(r)|r = eikr + f (, ) .
r
87
, , 0 -
,
0 (r) = eikr ,
, . -
:
Z
m 0
f (, ) = 2
eiknr U (r0 )(r0 )d3 r0 .
2~
, -

:
Z ik|rr0 |
m e
(r) = eikr U (r0 )(r0 )d3 r0 .
2~2 |r r0 |
r
.
.

, U (r) .
,
,
' 0 = eikr .
-
: Z
m 0 0
f (, ) ' ei(kk )r U (r0 )d3 r0 .
2~2
k0 = kn .
(, , 1-
).
-
:
|1 | |0 | = 1.
1 (r) r = 0, -
: Z
m eikr0
ikr0 3 0
|U | e d r 1,
2~2 r0

88
- .
.
1) , ka 1. , -
, :
m|U |a2 ~2
1 |U | .
~2 ma2
2) , ka 1. -
. -
, :
m|U |a2 1 ~2
1 |U | ka.
~2 ka ma2

13.

. -
, , ..

U = U (r).

, -
:

U (r) 0, r > a.

a .
-
:

~2 k 2

H(r) = E(r), E = > 0,
2m

ikr
(r) = eikr + f () e ,

r .
r
f () . ,
Oz .
89
() -
,
,

## 0 (r) = eikr = eikr cos ,

, , . -

.
-
:

[H, l2 ] = 0, [H, lz ] = 0.

, H, l2 lz -
. -
:

(r) = Rl (r)Ylm (, ).

-
:
! !
~2 1 2 l2 ~2 k 2
2
r 2 + U (r) (r) = (r).
2m r r r r 2m

, :

~2 1 2 l(l + 1) ~2 k 2
r + U (r) R l (r) = Rl (r).
2m r2 r r r2 2m

E = ~2 k 2 /2m > 0 -
:

l = 0, 1, 2 . . .

, :
X
(r) = clm Rl (r)Ylm (, ).
lm

90
, -
, .
:
Ylm (, ) Plm (cos )eim .
, -
, m = 0.
:
r
2l + 1
Yl 0 () = Pl (cos ).
4
Rl (r),
:
X
(r) = Rl (r)Pl (cos ).
l

. -
-

.
, U (r)
l.
, b
p = ~k.
:
l
bp = ~l b= .
k
b -
a, .
, -
,
l
b = > a l > ka,
k
U (r).

91
,

Rl (r) -
:
ul (r)
Rl (r) = .
r
ul (r) :

~2 00 ~2 l(l + 1) ~2 k 2
ul (r) + U (r) + 2
ul (r) = ul (r)
2m 2mr 2m

( 2m/~2 )

00 2mU (r) l(l + 1)
ul (r) + + ul (r) = k 2 ul (r).
~2 r2

x = kr.

( k 2 ) :

2mU (r) l(l + 1)
u00l (x) + + ul (x) = ul (x)
~2 k 2 x2

2mU (r) l(l + 1)
u00l (x) + ul (x) + ul (x) = 0.
~2 k 2 x2

r>a U (r) = 0.
ul (x) -
( ) :

l(l + 1)
u00l (x) ul (x) + ul (x) = 0.
x2

Rl (x) = ul (x)/x.
l = 0,
u000 (x) + u0 (x) = 0,

92

u0 = sin x u0 = cos x.
,
sin x cos x
R0 (x) = R0 (x) = .
x x
l > 1 -
( x > ka) :
l
l 1 d sin x
Rl (x) = jl (x) (x)
x dx x
l
1 d cos x
Rl (x) = nl (x) (x)l .
x dx x
-
. jl (x) nl (x)
. -
:
x 0,

xl (2l 1)!!
jl (x) , nl (x) ,
(2l + 1)!! xl+1

(1)!! = 1;
x ,
l l
sin(x 2 ) cos(x 2 )
jl (x) , nl (x) .
x x

-
.

(+) ()
hl (x) hl (x), -
:
()
hl (x) jl (x) inl (x).

93
x :

() 1 l l
hl (x) sin x i cos x =
x 2 2

## (i) i(xl/2) eix

= e = (i)l+1 .
x x
, r > a :

() (+) (+) ()
Rl (kr) = Al hl (kr) + Bl hl (kr) = Al hl (kr) + Sl hl (kr) .

:
X () (+)

(r)|r>a = Al hl (kr) + Sl hl (kr) Pl (cos ).
l

, -
(U 0 r). , , -
:

## 0 (r) = eikr = eikr cos .

,
r > 0.
-
: X
eikr = (2l + 1) il jl (kr)Pl (cos ) =
l

X 2l + 1
() (+)
= il hl (kr) + hl (kr) Pl (cos ).
2
l

, U 0 Al Sl
:
2l + 1 l
Al = i, Sl = 1.
2

94
, U (r)
, r > a. r > a
:
X () (+)
(r)|r>a = Al (hl (kr) + Sl hl (kr))Pl (cos ) =
l
X () (+)
= Al (hl (kr) + hl (kr))Pl (cos )
l

X (+)
Al (1 Sl )hl (kr)Pl (cos ).
l

, , Al -
eikr .
Al ,
2l + 1 l
Al = i,
2
r .
(+)
hl (x), :
X (+)
Al (1 Sl )hl (kr)Pl (cos )
l

X 2l + 1 eikr
il (1 Sl )(i)l+1 Pl (cos ) =
2 kr
l
!
i X eikr eikr
= (2l + 1)(1 Sl )Pl (cos ) = f () .
2k r r
l

, r > a,
, :
X 2l + 1 () (+)
(r)|r>a = il (hl (kr) + Sl hl (kr))Pl (cos ) =
2
l

X 2l + 1 (+) eikr
= eikr il (1 Sl )hl (kr)Pl (cos ) eikr + f () ,
2 r
l

95
r . -

:
i X
f () = (2l + 1)(1 Sl )Pl (cos ).
2k
l

, -
:
d
= |f ()|2 .
d
, f (), -
.
f ()
Sl , l = 0, 1, 2 . . . -
Sl . l
Rl (r) 0 6 r < a.
r = a

() (+)
Rl (r)|r>a = Al hl (kr) + Sl hl (kr)

Sl . , l > ka Sl -
. l > ka
. -
, .

14. .

-
U (r) a. ,

:
X 2l + 1 () (+)
(r)|r>a = il (hl (kr) + Sl hl (kr))Pl (cos ),
2
l

96
:
eikr
(r)|r eikr + f ()
.
r
-
:
2
d i X

= |f ()|2 = (2l + 1)(1 Sl )Pl (cos ) .
d 2k
l

:
Z
d
e = d,
d
:
1 X X
e = 2
(2l + 1)(1 Sl ) (2l0 + 1)(1 Sl0 )
4k 0
l l
Z
Pl (cos )Pl0 (cos )d sin d.

,
Z
2
Pl (cos )Pl0 (cos ) sin d = ll0 ,
2l + 1
:
1 X 2 X
e = 2
2 (2l + 1)2 |1 Sl |2 = 2 (2l + 1)|1 Sl |2 .
4k 2l + 1 k
l l

, -

, ,
. , :

## (r)|r>a = () (r) + (+) (r),

97

X 2l + 1 ()
() (r) = il hl (kr)Pl (cos ),
2
l

X 2l + 1 (+)
(+) (r) = il Sl hl (kr)Pl (cos ).
2
l
r ,

## () eikr (+) eikr

hl (kr) il+1 , hl (kr) (i)l+1 ,
kr kr
:
!
i X eikr
()
(r) (1)l (2l + 1)Pl (cos ) ,
2k r
l
!
i X eikr
(+)
(r) (2l + 1)Sl Pl (cos ) .
2kr r
l

, ,
:

~ ()
jr() = () .. =
r 2mi r
!2
~ 1 X eikr eikr
l
= (1) (2l + 1)Pl (cos ) .. .
2mi 4k 2 r r r
l

, 1/r2 ,
:

jr() =
r

!2
~ 1 X 1 1
l
= (1) (2l + 1)Pl (cos ) ik ik =
2mi 4k 2 r2 r2
l

!2
~k 1 X
l
= 2 (1) (2l + 1)Pl (cos ) .
mr 4k 2
l

98
,
, :

jr(+) =
r

!2
~ (+) X
(+) ~k 1
= .. = (2l + 1)Sl Pl (cos ) .
2mi r mr2 4k 2
l

, -
, :
Z
dN ()
= |jr() |r2 d.
dt
-
, :
dN () ~k 1 X 2 ~k X
= 2
2 (2l + 1)2 = (2l + 1).
dt m 4k 2l + 1 m k2
l l

,
, :
Z
dN (+)
= |jr(+) |r2 d,
dt
:
dN (+) ~k 1 X 2 ~k X
2 2
= 2 (2l + 1) |S l | = (2l + 1)|Sl |2 .
dt m 4k 2 2l + 1 m k2
l l

, :
dN () dN (+)
= |Sl | = 1.
dt dt
Sl :
Sl = e2il ,
l l- . -
:
|1 Sl |2 = |1 e2il |2 = |eil eil |2 = 4 sin2 l ,
99
:
4 X
e = 2 (2l + 1) sin2 l .
k
l

,
, l ka.
, ka 1. -
s- (l = 0)
:
4
e = 0 = 2 sin2 0 .
k

0 = ,
2
-
:
4
0max = a2 .
k2
.

, -
,
.
:
dNie /dt
ie = ,
j

dNie dN () dN (+) ~k X
= = (2l + 1)(1 |Sl |2 )
dt dt dt m k2
l
, -
, j = ~k/m . -
:
X
ie = 2 (2l + 1)(1 |Sl |2 ).
k
l

100

-
:
X
t = e + ie = 2 (2l + 1)(|1 Sl |2 + 1 |Sl |2 ) =
k
l

X
= (2l + 1)(1 2Re Sl + |Sl |2 + 1 |Sl |2 ) =
k2
l

2 X
= (2l + 1)(1 Re Sl ).
k2
l

, = 0
:
i X
f (0) = (2l + 1)(1 Sl ).
2k
l

,
1 X
Im f (0) = (2l + 1)(1 Re Sl ).
2k
l

-
0 :
4
t = Im f (0).
k
.

101

1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
5. v/c . . . . . 33
6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
7. . . . . . . . . . . 51
8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
12. . . . . . . . . . . . .81
13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89
14. . . 96

102

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