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. .

2 0 1 3
2

I 7
1 9
1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
1.8 q- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
1.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

2 25
2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.2 . . . . . . 26
2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
2.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.6 . . . . . 34

3 35
3.1 . . . . . . . 35
3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
3.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
3.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
3.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
3.4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
3.4.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

4 - 45
4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
4.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
4.1.2 . . . . . . . . 47

3
4

4.2 . . . . . . . . . 51
4.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
4.2.2 . . . . . . . . 52
4.2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
4.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
4.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
4.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
4.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

() , -
, , -
,
. -
, -
-
,
. -
,

.
, , -
, -
.
-
.
, -
, -
, -
, () , -
, .
p pp -
p ppp pp p p,
p p. I
. II ( ) -

.
p -
-
,
.
-
. , , -
: ah@icqt.org.

5
6
I

7
1

, -

. , -
, ,
(
[9]).
. -
, , ,
. ,

(,
,
).

1.1

, .
, d =
||. ()
:
X
P = {p1 , . . . , pd } ; p 0, p = 1.

X = {x1 , . . . , xd } ; x = x

9
10 1.

X P :
X
EP X = p x .

P = diag [p ] , X = diag [x ] , EP X = TrP X,

Tr .
d- Cd .

S = [sij ]i,j=1,...,d , S = S 0, TrS = 1.

X = [xij ]i,j=1,...,d , X = X.

X S -
:

ES X = TrSX. (1.1)

-
:
(P S), -
X. , ,
, -
(1.1).
, -
,
. -
, -
, XY = Y X. , -
. :
1. A(1) , . . . , A(m)
, , .. -
-
.
. A, B, -
. , A
, , A = diag[aj ], B = [bjk ].
AB BA = 0 (aj ak )bjk = 0. , aj 6= ak
bjk = 0. aj , , A, B -
- A = diag[a0j Ij ], B = diag[Bj ],
a0j , Ij , dj
1.2. 11

a0j , Bj dj dj -.
Bj , Bj ,
A .
X, Y ; XY 6= Y X, -
, .. , -
. -
. -

, -
. -
, ,
( ,
), .
. -

. , -
(
).
( ).

1.2
H - d- dim H =
d < , h|i, , H, -
; , -
, , h|i -
.
: H ( -
) |i; c, h| -
( -).
h|i . -
, , A = |ih|
1, |i A|i = |ih|i.
h|i = 1, |ih| |i.
{ei }i=1,...,d (...) H. -
H
d
X
|i = |ei ihei |i, (1.2)
i=1


d
X
|ei ihei | = I, (1.3)
i=1

I H.
12 1.

1. H,
(1.2).
-
, , |ii
|ei i.
(. . -
) . -

3
1X
(, ) = (i)k ( + ik , + ik ), (1.4)
4
k=0

(, ), -
,
(, ), H (
). , , -
A = B
h|Ai = h|Bi, H.
,
, .

1.3
- , -
, -
(
), .. S H, S 0, Tr S = 1.
S(H) .
-
. S = pS1 + (1 p)S2 ae,
, S1 S2
p : 1 p.
,
, .. S = pS1 +(1p)S2 , 0 < p < 1,
S = S1 = S2 . , -
, , -
-
. , ,
, -
. ()
, P 2 = P . ,
P = {1/d, . . . , 1/d} -
S = 1/d I.
: -
, ,
1.3. 13

, -, -
, -
.
2. S(H),
, () , S 2 =
S, .
. -
S
Xd X
S= si |ei ihei |, sj 0, sj = 1, (1.5)
i=1

si , |ei i S,
d = dim H. S ,
, , S . ,
S S = pS1 +(1p)S2 , 0 < p < 1.
S S 2 :

pS1 (I S1 ) + (1 p)S2 (I S2 ) + p(1 p)(S1 S2 )2 = S S 2 = 0. (1.6)

, , -
. , S1 = S2 = S,
. . S .
Ext(S)
S. :
3 (). S -
n- , S S
()
n + 1 :
n+1
X
S= pj Sj , Sj Ext(S).
j=1

Pd -

P P = {p1 , . . . , pd } -
d . p = 1, Pd
Rn , n = d 1.
, p ,
, 1. d ,
Pd
p . , -

.
2. , dim H = d, S(H) -
n = d2 1. H
() , n = d(d + 1)/2 1.
14 1.

(1.5) , -
( -
) n. ,
, ,
.
, -

( ). -
, .
-
(.
. 2.4).

1.4
-
. -

p 0
P = , 0 p 1.
0 1p

.
,
q-
,
dim H = 2.
: |i = 10 , |i = 01 .
2 2-:

10 01 0 i 1 0
I = 0 = , x = , y = , z = .
01 10 i 0 0 1

, S S(H)

1 1 + az ax iay 1
S(~a) = = (I + ax x + ay y + az z ). (1.7)
2 ax + iay 1 az 2
det S 0 -
(ax , ay , az ):
a2x + a2y + a2z 1.
, S(H) -
R3 .
a2x + a2y + a2z = 1 -
. , az = cos
ax + iay = sin ei , S(~a) = |~aih~a|, ~a = (ax , ay , az )

cos(/2) ei/2
|~ai = . (1.8)
sin(/2) ei/2
1.5. 15

,
1
|~aih~a| = (I + (~a)), (1.9)
2

(~a) = ax x + ay y + az z (1.10)
(~a)2 = I, Tr (~a) = 0. -
1/2 ~a ( )
~a 1 .
ax = ay = az = 0 ( ),
S = I/2.
(1.9)

~ a|.
(~a) = |~aih~a| |aih ~ (1.11)

|~ai, 1, -
... (1.11), 1, -
~a. , -
x , y , z .
-, S(~a)
(~b), [7].
3. , , -
(~b), |~b| = 1 S(~a), |~a| 1

Tr S(~a)(~b) = ~a ~b (1.12)

1.5

:
( ).
, -
,
. , , M S (x) -
S
M . ,
P P
, .. S = pj Sj , SM (x) = pj M
Sj (x).
j j
, -
.

.
1 q- , ,

.
16 1.

4[9]. S S
S(H)
X . , -
{Mx } H ,
X
Mx 0, Mx = I (1.13)
xX

S (x) = Tr SMx . (1.14)

, (1.13), -
2 H.
. A = A H (-
) A = t1 S1 t2 S2 , ti 0,
Si S(H). , A = A+ A
(A 0) A,

A1 A2
A = Tr A1 Tr A2 ,
Tr A1 Tr A2

.. Lin S(H) -
B(H)h H. f (S) -
S(H), A,
f (A) = t1 f (S1 )t2 f (S2 ). , ,
( 4 ). , f -

B(H).
P , A = [aij ] , f (A) =
ij mij aij = Tr AM , M . -
S (x), S (x) = Tr SMx . Tr SMx
S, (1.13).
,
. X -
M = {Mx }xX -
H.
-
, . .

Mx2 = Mx , Mx My = 0, x 6= y.

5. -
: Mx : Mx = Mx2 .
2 : () -
(POVM).
1.6. 17

H
.
x X R . -

X
xEx = X.
xX

,
. -
(1.1),

S (x) = Tr SEx .
,
, ... {|i} H
, .
X X
S= s |ih|, s 0, s = 1


P
= {}. X = x |ih|

X X
X= xEx , Ex = |ih|.
x :x =x
X x .
Ex , x = x,
a .
P Mx =
M (x|)|ih|. 0

M (x|) 1 X
M (x|) = 1, , (1.15)
x
.. X . , -
(-
) , x -
. , -
Mx2 = Mx , 0
1.

1.6 . -

{M j } -
X . {pj }
18 1.

M = {Mx ; x X }
X
Mx = pj Mxj ; x X.
j

, MX -
X .
,
. -
MX . -
, , -
.
-
-
.
5. M MX . -
, M MX
, [Mx , Mx0 ] 0, .

. M . ,
M = pM 1 + (1 p)M 2 , 0 < p < 1. , (1.6)

pMx1 (I Mx1 ) + (1 p)Mx2 (I Mx2 ) + p(1 p)(Mx1 Mx2 )2 = 0. (1.16)

Mx1 Mx2 Mx , M .
[Mx , Mx0 ] 0, 1 Mx -
, , Mx = diag[M (x|)]. ,
M , M (x|) = 0 1 x, , .. M
. 0 < M (x0 |0 ) < 1, (1.15)
x1 6= x0 , 0 < M (x1 |0 ) < 1. -
M , M (x0 |0 ) = M (x0 |0 ) , M (x1 |0 ) = M (x1 |0 )
M (x|) . M = 1/2M + + 1/2M , ..
M .
, -
, -
.
. -

( -
; ). ,
{M0 , M1 = I M0 }.
, -
P = M0 .
, |X | > 2, -
!
.
1.7. 19

1.7
{|i i} H ,
X
|i ihj | = I.
j

. -
.
( , )
,
X
|i = |j ihj |i,
j

X X X
A= |j ihj |A |k ihk | = |j ihk |hj |A|k i.
j k j,k

6. {|j i} ,

1) , .. {|j i} = {0};
2) P = [hj |k i] , .. P = P 2 .
{|j i} ( -
) .
X
G= |j ihj |
j

. |j i = G1/2 |j i .


. , , -
.. , ,
.
, ..

Mj = |j ihj |. (1.17)
, {|j i}

Mj = G1/2 |j ihj |G1/2 (1.18)

, |j ihj |3 .
6. (1.17) -
, Mx .
3 . . , -

. , 1978, .23, N2, 429-432. square-


root measurement.
20 1.

. M ,
X
cx |x ihx | = 0. (1.19)
x

> 0,

Mx =(1 cx )Mx 0, x X.

M , , M = 12 M + + 12 M .
M , , Mx+ = Mx = Mx . , (1.19)
cx = 0, . . M .
,

|x ihx | = pMx1 + (1 p)Mx2 , 0 < p < 1,

M ,

0 pMx1 |x ihx |.
|x ihx |
I hx |x i ,

|x ihx | |x ihx |
(I )Mx1 (I ) = 0,
hx |x i hx |x i

p |x ihx |
Mx1 (I ) = 0,
hx |x i

|x ihx |
Mx1 (I ) = 0.
hx |x i
2
Mx1 = x |x ihx | x = hx |Mx1 |x i/hx |x i .
P
x x |x ihx | = I, . .
X
(x 1)|x ihx | = 0.
x

, x = 1, Mx1 = Mx x, -
, M .

1.8 q-
7. ~aj ; j = 1, . . . , m
p R3 ,
Pm
j=1 ~aj = 0. 2/m|~aj i; j = 1, . . . , m
q- H,
m
2 X
|~aj ih~aj | = I. (1.20)
m j=1
1.8. Q- 21

, -
~aj ~a1 ; j = 2, . . . , m .
. , .. (1.20), -
(1.9). ,
|~aj ih~aj |, , -
6, , ,

Xm Xm Xm
1
0= cj |~aj ih~aj | = cj I + ( cj~aj ) .
j=1
2 j=1 j=1

m
X m
X
cj = 0, cj~aj = 0
j=1 j=1

m
X
cj (~aj ~a1 ) = 0.
j=2

R3 , -
,
.
m = 2 : ~a1,2 = (0, 0, 1). ... |~a1 i = | i, |~a2 i = | i


1 0 0 0
M1 = , M2 = .
0 0 0 1

m = 3 :
~a1 = (0, 0, 1), ~a2,3 = ( 3/2, 0, 1/2) (-). -
H
r r
2 1 2 1/2

|1 i = , |2,3 i =
3 0 3 3/2


2 1 0 2 1/4 3/4
M1 = , M2,3 = .
3 0 0 3 3/4 3/4

m = 4 :
~a1 = (0, 0, 1), ~a2 = ( 8/3, 0, 1/3), ~a2,3 =
( 2/3, 6/3, 1/3). H
r r r
1 1 1 1
|1 i = , |2 i = 1/ 3 , |3,4 i = 1/ 3 1/2 i 3/2
2 0 2 2/ 3 2 2/ 3 1/2 i 3/2
22 1.



1 1 0 1 1/3 2/3 1 1/3 2/3 1/2 i 3/2
M1 = , M2 = , M2,3 = .
2 0 0 2 2/3 2/3 2 c.c. 3/4

m = 3, 4 .
.

1.9
m = 4 = d2 , -
Mj ; j = 1, 2, 3, 4 .
,

S (j) = Tr SMj = hj |S|j i

S. , H,
dim H = d, , -.

Mj = d1 |j ihj |; j = 1, . . . , d2 ,

|j i , -
(SIC-POVM),

Tr Mj Mk = const,

[d2 (d + 1)]1 . SIC-


POVM , , d 67. -
, 4 .
7. , S -

Xd2
S= [d(d + 1)S (j) 1]Mj .
j=1

(
) . ,
(1.7) , q- -
ax = Tr Sx , ay = Tr Sy , az = Tr Sz . ,
3- -
x , y , z .
(mutual unbiasedness):
|hej |hk i|2 = const (1.21)
j, k. , H, dim H = d,
, (MUB). , -
d + 1,
4 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SIC-POVM
1.10. 23

1/d. d + 1 -
pk , p ; ,
.
.

1.10

.
8. {Mx }xX
H, dim H = d, |X | = n. -
e dim H
H, e n d, V : H H
e -
e
{Ex } H, ,
Mx = V Ex V.
, -
, , . |i, |i
H h|V V |i = h|i, .. V V = I.
V H V H H e
e
, H H. Mx -
Ex H :
Mx ...
Ex =
... ...
, -
.
. Hn n
H,

|1 i
|i = , j H,
|n i

X
h|0 i = hx |Mx |x0 i.
x

.
H0 = { Hn : h|i = 0} - Hn /H0 .
e (-
. H.
, n d Hn
).

|i
V |i = |i.
|i
24 1.

8. -
V H H. e
, ..
X
h|V V 0 i = h|Mx | 0 i = h|i,
x
P
Mx = I. ,
Hn
0
Ey |i = |y i .
0
h|V Ey V | 0 i = h|My | 0 i.
,
.
.
2

2.1
, c 1 , 2
P1 = {pi } , P2 = {qj }, . -

1 2 . ,
, -
P1 P2 = {pi qj }. -
P12 = {pij } ,

X X
pi = pij , qj = pij .
j i

-
: S1 = [sik ] , S2 = [rjl ]. ,
, -
S1 S2 = [sik rjl ] .

-
: S12 = s(ij)(kl) .

" # " #
X X
S1 = sik rjk , S2 = sij rik . (2.1)
k i

1 -
.
1 . entanglement, -

25
26 2.

, , -
,
P12 = i j .
,
.. S12 = [cij ckl ]. cij 6= ci cj , .
S1 , S2 , (2.1) .
,
!

.

2.2 -

e
.
Hi (i = 1, 2)
h|ii . -
, -
.

|1 i, |2 i |1 i |2 i |1 2 i (2.2)

Hi (i = 1, 2) H,

1. - |1 2 i H;

2. -

h1 2 |1 2 i = h1 |1 i1 h2 |2 i2 .

H -
, -
H1 H2 .
9. {ej1 }, {ek2 } H1 , H2 ,
{ej1 ek2 } H1 H2 dim H = dim H1
dim H2 .
, ...

|i = |i1 |i2 , |i = |i1 |i2 , |i = |i1 |i2 , |i = |i1 |i2 . (2.3)

, H1,2 Cd1,2 -
{c1j }, {c2k }, H
2.2. 27

[cjk ]. , H1 H2

d2
X
|i = |k i |e2k i,
k=1

|1 i
|i = . . . , (2.4)
|d2 i
|k i H1 , H1 H2
d2 = dim H2 H1 H1 .
X1,2 H1,2 -
H = H1 H2 ,

(X1 X2 )(1 2 ) = X1 1 X2 2 ,

. (2.4) -
H1 H2 d2 d2 -
X = [Xkl ] , H1 .
10. Sj H1 , S1 S2
H1 H2 .
T H = H1 H2 . -
T ( ) TrH2 T ; H1 ,

X
h|(TrH2 T )|i = h ek2 |T | ek2 i, , H.
k

11. ( -
{ek2 }). T = T1 T2 , TrH2 (T1 T2 ) = (Tr T2 )T1 .
,
-
-
.
. {Mj } H, -
H0 , 0 H0 -
{Ej } H H0 , ,

Mj = TrH0 (I |0 ih0 |)Ej .

. , Mj = V E fj V, V :
e
H H . H
e , , H,
H. e , dim H
e=
dim H d0 ,
e = H H = H H0 ,
H
28 2.

H0 = Cd0 , H
, H |0 i,

1
0

|0 i = . .
..
0
, H:
h|Mj |i = h 0 |Ej | 0 i = h| TrH0 (I |0 ih0 |)Ej |i.

, -
-
, S0 = |0 ih0 |.
.
, . .
() , -
(, ), -
. 4.2.2 ,
: ,
-
, ,
.

2.3
S12
H1 H2 . S12 , -
S1 S2 .
, |i12 H1 H2 ,
-,
.
,
d
1 X 1
|12 i = |ej i |e2j i (2.5)
d j=1

H1 H2 , d = dim H1 = dim H2 , {e1,2


j } -
H1,2 . H1 , H2
I/d.
-
, 2 :
2 ., , G. Lindblad, Quantum entropy and quantum measurements, Lect.

Notes Phys. 378, Quantum Aspects of Optical Communication, Ed. by C. Benjaballah, O.


Hirota, S. Reynaud, 1991, 71-80.
2.4. . 29

9[ ]. S12 = |ih| -
H1 H2 , S1 = TrH2 S12 ,
S2 = TrH1 S12 . S1 S2
j . ,
Xp
|i = j |e1j i |e2j i, (2.6)
j

{e1,2
j } S1 S2
.
. {e1j } H1 -
S1 ,
X
|i = |e1j i |h2j i, (2.7)
j

|h2j i H2 . -
|ih| H2
X X
hh2j |h2k i|e1k ihe1j | = j |e1j ihe1j | S1 , (2.8)
j,k j

hh2j |h2k i = j jk . , |e2j i = 1 |h2j i


j
j > 0, ,
H2 , S2 .
:
10[ ]. S1 H1 ,
H2 , H1 ,
|i H1 H2 , , S1 = TrH2 |ih|.
| 0 i H1 H2 ,
, U2 H2 , , | 0 i =
(I1 U2 )|i.
. S1 |i (2.6)
{e2j } H2 ,
H1 . | 0 i (2.6)
H2 . ,
.

2.4 .
( ) -
,
() 1935 . , -
, 1950-,
30 2.

1960- . q-, -
, 1/2, -
H dim H = 2.
, , -
,
1 h i
|i = |i |i |i |i ,
2

1 0
|i = , |i =
0 1
, , -
, z.

1 h i
|i = |i |i .
2
-
, |i , -
, . -
-
, .. , -
.
y -
, . ,
0. -
,
. , -
,
:
1) , ,
. , ,
-
, , -
;
2) -
, -
.
, -
.

, -
:
, -
-
, .
2.4. . 31

, -
. .
~a = (ax , ay , az ) , (~a) =
ax x + ay y + az z ~a. (~a)
1 ( ~a). -

S(~
a) S(~
a)
z }| { z }| {
(~a) = |(~a)ih(~a)| |(~a)ih(~a)| .
, ~a (, ), (1.8)
~a.

I + (~a)
S(~a) = .
2
, -
(~a) (~b) .
12. q-

h|(~a) (~b)|i = ~a ~b. (2.9)
, -
,
.
:
Xj , Yk (j, k = 1, 2) -
, |Xj | 1, |Yk | 1.
-

|EX1 Y1 + EX1 Y2 + EX2 Y1 EX2 Y2 | 2, (2.10)
E .

2 X1 Y1 + X1 Y2 + X2 Y1 X2 Y2 2.
, , , -
,
(X1
, X2 ) ,
Y1 Y2 .
, .
, , -
. ,
[1, 1].
q- -
, q- (~aj ) (j =
1, 2), (~bk ) (k = 1, 2), ~aj , ~bk (j, k = 1, 2) -
, .
32 2.

-
~a2
6 -
~b2
. -
@
I
@ -
@ 4 (2.9)

@ ~-
a1 (2.10) 2 2, -
. ,

~b1 -


, -
-
. 2.1: ~aj ~bk
,
. (-
, 19811982) -
-, -
.

2.5
() ,
. -
-: A B
C. C (i, j) 33
i A, j B. A 1
.. = 1; B 1 .. -
= 1. AB , i, j
. A B ,
: A j, B i. :
C A: 2, C B: 3

... ... ... . . . . . . 1
A : 1 1 1 B : ... ... 1
... ... ... ... ... 1

AB .
: A B -
3 3 1, , -
, .
A (. B)
1 (. 1). , -
< 1.
: A B -
,
, -
1!
2.5. 33

S = |iAB h|,
1 1
|iAB = (| iA | iB + | iA | iB ) = (| i + | i) . (2.11)
2 2

q-: A1 B1 A2 B2 :

|i = |iA1 B1 |iA2 B2 .

q- A1 A2 A, q- B1 B2 B
C.
A B , i j,
, q-,

0 z z 0 z z
x 0 0 x x x
x z z x y y
.
Xij i j ,
:
2
1. Xij = Xij Xij = 0 0 I, .. Xij
1;
2. i Xij ; j = 1, 2, 3 , .. -
, Xi1 Xi2 Xi3 = I.
i = 1, 2, 3, C, A -
Xij ; j = 1, 2, 3, +1 1,
A. A -
i. B
j.
3. , , A B i
j !
A B

Xij Xij |i = |i; i, j = 1, 2, 3,
A B
Xij (. Xij ) Xij A = A1 A2 (. B =
B1 B2 ). , A1 A2 B1 B2 -
|i, A
B ij 1, .. .

. -

, . -
, A B -
. , -
.
34 2.

2.6 -

(2.10)
, 2
4. , -
, .
(). Xj , Yk (j, k =
1, 2) , .. |Xj | 1, |Yk |
1, Xj Yk = Yk Xj . S

|ES X1 Y1 + ES X1 Y2 + ES X2 Y1 ES X2 Y2 | 2 2. (2.12)

q- AB (2.12)

Xj = (aj ) IB , Yk = IA (bk )
(2.11).


, -
. , -
II1 - -
-
, ( )
(
- - , -
(2.10))3 .

3 M. Junge, M. Navascues, C. Palazuelos, D. Perez-Garcia, V. B. Scholz, R. F. Werner,

Connes embedding problem and Tsirelsons problem, J. Math. Phys. 52, 012102 (2011)
3

3.1


. , II
.
:
1)
U : -
U . , S -
U SU .
2)
. -
|ex i, -
x.
S,
hex |Sex i |ex ihex |.
,
x,
X
S0 = |ex ihex |Sex ihex |, (3.1)
x

. , -
,
, .

, -
, .

35
36 3.

.
, , -

.
(
) Sx , x . -
x Sx ,
Sx . , x = 0, 1, S1 -
, S0 .
.
,
, .

. -
|ey i, y,
, x,

P (y|x) = hey |Sx ey i. (3.2)

, -
. -
,
.
4. ,
:
-
log dim H, -
, ...
H, ... ,
-
.

3.2
. , -
, - -
. ,
, ( -
- ).
A B, HA HB ,
SAB . , -
, ,
. A , -
x,
Ux HA .
AB Sx = (Ux IB )SAB (Ux IB ) ,
3.2. 37

, -
. , B
, ... |ey i HB .
, (3.2) x,
.
- -
, , -
, -
A B, , -
, . . -
. , - -
,
, -
.
A B, q-
, .
, , -
, A B, log 2 = 1
, , -
,

1 0
0 |0i = , 1 |1i = .
0 1

, -
1992 ., :

|e+ i = |00i + |11i, |e i = |00i |11i, |h+ i = |10i + |01i, |h i = |10i |01i

q- AB ( |0i, |1i
q-
1/ 2) |e+ i
, . . , -
q- A,

|e i = (z I)|e+ i, |h+ i = (x I)|e+ i, |h i = i(y I)|e+ i.

, AB
|e+ i, A 2
4 , ,
() q- B . ,
, B 2 -
.

.
38 3.

3.3
-
.
. -
, -
. , ,
, -
, -
. -
(no cloning). , -
. -
,
, , -

|i |i |i
| {z }
n

, -
. ,
( -
), ,
.
? ,
. -
,
,
1 . -
, , -
. , -
-
, , : -
, -
.
A B, , -
, . A
|i; ,
B |i, |i (
).
( ) A B
(q-).
1. AB |00i+
|11i.
1 C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crepeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, W. K. Wootters, Teleporting

an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channel, Phys.
Rev. Lett., vol 70, 1895-1899 1993.
3.3. 39

2. C A

|i = a|0i + b|1i.

CAB

(a|0i + b|1i) (|00i + |11i) = a|000i + b|100i + a|011i + b|111i.

3.

(a) A c-
CA;
(b) A ( 4 , 2
).
.

4. A B .

5. B
|i.

-
, . 3-
CA CNOT ( ):

|00i |00i, |01i |01i, |10i |11i, |11i |10i,

q- , q-
, ,
q-. , -
, 4- CA -
. q- C
H

1 1 1
H= .
2 1 1

1 1
|0i (|0i + |1i), |1i (|0i |1i),
2 2
.. /4.
CAB

a|000i + b|100i + a|011i + b|111i.

CNOT CA

a|000i + b|110i + a|011i + b|101i.


40 3.

H C

a(|000i + |100i) + b(|010i |110i) + a(|011i + |111i) + b(|001i |101i).

CA,

|00i(a|0i + b|1i) + |01i(a|1i + b|0i) + |10i(a|0i b|1i) + |11i(a|1i b|0i).

CA,
4- |00i, . . . , |11i. 00, 01, 10, 11
A B () . -
B


0 1 1 0 0 1
I = 0 , x = , z = , iy = ,
1 0 0 1 1 0

B a|0i + b|1i.
-
1997 .
, -
( 2004 .)

3.4
1981 . -
. :
- ,
, ..
, 1980 .) ,
. -
, , -
( ,
)
.

3.4.1
B = {0, 1}, B n = B n . f : B n B n .
, f , f (x) = f (y)
y = x , B n () . -
. 6= 0,
= 0 .
(-
f ).
O(2n/2 ), -
n. ( s f ,
3.4. 41

,
s(s 1)/2 2n 1 , s(s 1)/2 = 2n 1,
s 2n/2 ). , -
,
1 , .
O(n) ,
f .
. n-
Hn = H H .
| {z }
n
n q-;
. x n,
|xi ... Hn
1 X
Hn |xi = (1)xy |yi,
2n yB n

x y x B n , y B n 2.
Hn , Hn2 = I.
:
1. |0i =
|00 . . .i, :
Hn 1 X
|00 . . .i |yi.
2n yB n

-
.
2. , -
f :
!
X Uf X
|xi |zi |xi |z f (x)i,
x x

2, ..
XOR. ,
( ). , -
.
, -
- , , f -
. |zi c
, ,
. -
|0i,
!
X X
|xi |00 . . .i |xi |f (x)i.
x x
42 3.

3. ,
1 X X
(1)xy |yi |f (x)i.
2n
xBn yBn

4. 6= 0, f 2n1 .
, 2n1 (y, f (x)) -
2
1
[(1)xy + (1)(x+)y ]2 ,
2n
2(2n2) , y = 0, 0 .
,
y() y = 0.
n 1 ,
, .

1. y1 (), . . . , yn1 () , -
y = 0.

P{y1 (), . . . , yn1 () } e1 .

. y() 2n1 -
. y1 (), . . . , yk1 () , 2k1 -
. -

P{yk () y1 (), . . . , yk1 ()|y1 (), . . . , yk1 () } =
2n1 2k1 1
= n1
= 1 nk .
2 2

P{y1 (), . . . , yk () }
= P{yk () y1 (), . . . , yk1 ();
y1 (), . . . , yk1 () }

1
= 1 P{y1 (), . . . , yk1 () }.
2nk

P{y1 (), . . . , yn1 () }



1 1
= 1 n1 . . . 1
2 2
"n1 # " n1 #
X 1 X 1
= exp ln 1 k exp e1 .
2 2k
k=1 k=1
3.4. 43

5) m , (1 e1 )m . -
1 n 1
, , , .

O(n) Uf -
O(2n/2 ) f .
? , ,
Uf , -
f ,
-
. . , ,
, ,
.

3.4.2
, 1994 ., -
N 2n . -
-
, : -
-
.
1/3 2/3
O(2cn log n ). ( )
, .

O(n2 log n log log n).
: N 2800 -
, -
1 . -

f (x) = ax (mod N ), a . -
, r
ar/2 1 N , -
.
Uf . f (x) -
( -

Hn ). . [5, 2].

3.4.3
. , ,
F : B n B, F (x0 ) = 1, F (x) = 0,
x 6= x0 . x0 , F
.
x F (x) = 1,
44 3.

N 2n .
N = 2n/2 ,
.
, ,
|xi, x B n , UF ,

UF |xi = |xi, x 6= x0 , UF |x0 i = |x0 i.


1 X 1
|x0 i = |xi, 0 = arcsin .
N 1 x6=x N
0

:
1.

Hn 1 X
|0i |xi = | (0 )i,
N x

|()i = sin |x0 i + cos |x0 i.

|0i , ,
|x0 i, |x0 i.
2.
U = Hn JHn UF , J , J|0 . . . 0i =
|0 . . . 0i, J|xi = |xi, x 6= 0.

13. ,

U |()i = |( + )i,


N 1
sin = 2 ,
N
. . U ,
|x0 i, |x0 i.

U m , m (/4) N , -
|(m )i, m = 0 + m /2 :
|(m )i |x0 i, , N .
, -
F -
UF ,
.
4

4.1 -

4.1.1
X , -
X = {1, . . . , |X |},
p{px }, x X px .
X
X
H(X) = px log px , (4.1)
xX

0 log 0 = 0 ( log, ,
).
14. 0 H(X) log |X |, -
, -
.
H(X) , -
X.
.
, -
-
p. w = (x1 , . . . , xn ) X -
n. |X |n = 2n log |X | .
, -
n log |X |, .e. n log |X | . , -
, p - ,

45
46 4. -

. -
,
:
11. X1 , . . . , Xn , . . . -
p = {px },
n
1X
log pxi H(X) . (4.2)
n i=1

, , > 0 n0 ,
n n0
n
1X
P log pxi H(X) < > 1 . (4.3)
n i=1

, w = (x1 , . . . , xn )
Pn
1
pw = px1 . . . pxn = 2n n i=1 log pxi
(4.4)

(4.3) -
: c w, pw , -,

2n(H(X)+) < pw < 2n(H(X)) . (4.5)



:

1. 2n(H(X)+) .

2. n , ,
(1 )2n(H(X)) .

3. - .

,
n(H(X) + )
- - (
).
. , ,
n(H(X) ), -
, n ( 15 ).
c
N 2nH(X) , H(X) -
( )
. , px = 1/|X |
H(X) = Hmax (X) = log |X | .
4.1. 47

4.1.2

p(y|x) -
X Y, . . -
, y Y, , x X . -
-
:

I(X; Y ) = H(X) H(X|Y ), (4.6)


P
H(X) = x px log px (), H(X|Y ) -
Y ,
:
P P P px,y px,y
H(X|Y ) = py H(X|Y = y) = y py x
y log =
py py
P P
= x,y px,y log px,y + y py log py = H(X, Y ) H(Y ).

H(X, Y ) (X, Y ), -
px,y = p(y|x)px .
(4.6),
, X Y ,

I(X; Y ) = H(X) + H(Y ) H(X, Y ) = H(Y ) H(Y |X), (4.7)

H(Y ) , -
, H(Y |X) -
, . -
: , H(X) H(X|Y )
x log x ( 16 ). -
: H(XY ) H(X) + H(Y ). , I(X; Y ) = 0 ,
X Y : px,y = px py .
, p(y|x) -
, .

C = max I(X; Y ), (4.8)


{px }

{px }.

X Y -
p
1 q q1 . X Y
@ 0, 1,
@
@ (1 p) p.
@
@ h(p) = p log p (1 p) log(1 p), (4.9)
0
q @q 0
p
. 4.1:

48 4. -

I(X; Y ) =
H(X) h(p). ,

C = 1 h(p), (4.10)

: p0 = p1 = 1/2.
, -
n ,


x1 y1


x2 y2
n
x = .. .. = yn

.
.



xn yn

p(y n |xn ) = p(y1 |x1 ). . .p(yn |xn ). Y n


X n . , Cn =
maxX n I(X n ; Y n ) : Cn+m Cn + Cm . ,
, , :
2.
n
X
I(X n ; Y n ) I(Xi ; Yi ). (4.11)
i=1

. :
n
X
H(X1 , . . . , Xn ) = H(Xi |X1 , . . . , Xi1 ), (4.12)
i=1

, :

H(X, Y ) = H(X) + H(Y |X). (4.13)

I(X n ; Y n ) = H(Y n ) H(Y n |X n ) =


Xn
= H(Y n ) H(Yi |Y1 , . . . , Yi1 , X n ) =
i=1
n
X
= H(Y n ) H(Yi |Xi ),
i=1

Yi Xi , ,
n
X n
X
n n
I(X ; Y ) (H(Yi ) H(Yi |Xi )) = I(Xi ; Yi ).
i=1 i=1
4.1. 49

(4.11), , ,
Cn = nC.
. (W, V ) N p(y|x)
N w(1) , . . . , w(N ) n
Y n N
V (0) , V (1) , . . . , V (N ) Y n . V (1) , . . . , V (N )
a : y n
V (j) ; j = 1, . . . , N , , w(j) ;
y n V (0) , -
. ,

Pe (W, V ) = max 1 p(V (j) |w(j) ) , (4.14)
1jN

p(V (j) |w(j) ) = P(Y n V (j) |X n = w(j) ).

1 X
N
P e (W, V ) = 1 p(V (j) |w(j) ) Pe (W, V ), (4.15)
N i=1

, ,
Pe (W, V ).
3. 2N
P e (W, V ) < . N ,
Pe (W, V ) < 2.

. , 2N
N + 1 p(V (j) |w(j) ) 2, -
N - . 2N -
1
P e (W, V ) 2N 2(N +1) > ,
.

4 ( ). X, Y Xb=
b b
X(Y ) X Pe = P (X(Y ) 6=
X),

H(X|Y ) h(pe ) + pe log(|X | 1) 1 + pe log |X |. (4.16)

. E ,

0, b )=X
X(Y
E= (4.17)
1, .

H(E|X) = H(E, X) H(X)

H(E|X, Y ) = H(E, X|Y ) H(X|Y ) = 0, (4.18)


50 4. -

b -
E (X, X),
(X, Y ).

H(X|Y ) = H(E, X|Y )H(E|Y ) + H(X|E, Y )


H(E) + (1 pe )H(X|E = 0, Y ) + pe H(X|E = 1, Y ) =
= h(pe ) + pe log(|X | 1) 1 + pe log |X |,

, H(X|E = 0, Y ) , -
E = 0 , X, Y .
12 ( ).

pe (n, N ) = min P e (W, V )


W,V

N - -
n. n

0 R < C ( );
pe (n, 2nR ) 6 0 R > C ( );

1 R > C ( ).

R = lognN -
.

. -
N w(1) , . . . , w(N ) n Y n
N + 1 V (0) , V (1) , . . . , V (N ) Y n . Z
, 1, . . . , N -
b n ) Z, Z(Y
N1 Z(Y b n ) = j, Y n V (j) .

nC = Cn I(Z; Y n ) = H(Z) H(Z|Y n )


b n ) 6= Z} log N.
log N 1 P {Z(Y
| {z }
=P e (W,V )

N = 2nR W, V ,

nC nR 1 pe (n, 2nR )nR,


C 1
(1 pe (n, 2nR )) ,
R nR
n R > C:

C
lim inf pe (n, 2nR ) 1 > 0.
n R
4.2. 51

, -
1 , .
N w(1) , . . . , w(N ) , -
P {w(j) = (x1 , . . . , xn )} = px1 . . . pxn ,
{px } , -
I(X; Y ). , 2nH(X) (2nH(Y ) )
( ), 2nH(Y |X)
w.
, ,
, ,
, ,

2nH(Y )
N = 2n(H(Y )H(Y |X)) = 2nI(X;Y ) . (4.19)
2nH(Y |X)

, N 2nC . ,
; , , ,
, [10], [11].
, ,
-
.

4.2 -

4.2.1
,
.
Sj ,
j = 1, . . . , n. .
, -
, .
-
.
() , . . -
M = {Mk }. k, ,
j, pM (k|j) = Tr Sj Mk .
j, , ,
pM (j|j). , j
j (, j = 1/n.)
1 . , , .

, .: , 1953, 7-87.
52 4. -


n
X
P{M } = j pM (j),
j=1

1 P{M }, -
, P{M }.
, maxj pM (j| j),
.
, , -
. (4.7) -
J (j ) K (k
)

J {M } = H(K) H(K|J)
| {z } | {z }

XX X X X
= pM (k|j)j log pM (k|l)l + j pM (k|j) log pM (k|j)
k j l j k

X X p (k|j)
= j pM (k|j) log P M ,
j
pM (k|l)l
k
l

4.2.2


n
X X n
P{M } = j Tr Sj Mj = Tr( j Sj Mj ).
j=1 j=1
| {z }
Wj

,
( n
)
X
Mn = M = {Mk }k=1,...,n : Mk 0, Mk = I
k=1

. ( ) -
, -
. P{M } , ..
nX o X
P p M = p P{M }.

, -
.
4.2. 53

13. P{M } -
Mn . M 0
, 0
,

1) (0 Wk )Mk0 = 0;

2) 0 Wk .

max{P{M } : M Mn } = min{Tr : Wk , k = 1, . . . , n}. (4.20)

. .
M 0 , M Mn -
,
X 2) X
P{M } = Tr Wk Mk Tr 0 Mk
k k

1) X
= Tr 0 = Tr Wk Mk0 P{M 0 }.
k

:
17. B 0 B(H) A1 , A2 , A1 A2 ,
Tr A1 B Tr A2 B, ,
A1 B = A2 B.
.
2

P M k = Xk , Xk ,
2
k Xk = I. , -
P{M } Mn
X X
Tr Wk Xk2 Tr ( Xk2 I), (4.21)
k k

,
Xk . Xk0 , Xk = Xk0 + Yk ,
(4.21) . 2 ,

Tr[(Wk )Xk0 + Xk0 (Wk )]Yk = 0,


Tr(Wk )Yk2 0
Yk , ..

(Wk )Xk0 + Xk0 (Wk ) = 0, Wk 0.


54 4. -

2) . Mk0 = (Xk0 )2 , -
Tr( Wk )Mk0 = 0,
1).
18. , -
(4.20).
-
. , -
.

1. Wk ( Sk ) ,
, -
X
Wk = Wk ()|ih|.

X
0 = max Wk ()|ih|,
k

max Wk () Wk (); k = 1, . . . , n; Mk0 =


P k
1k ()|ih|; 1k k , -

k { : 0 () = Wk ()} = {}.

: k- ,
Wk () . ,
.
, -
Mn (. 7).
e1 2 ( 19 ). -
6
31 . -

-
Q
@Q 0 -
s
Q M = {M0 , M1 }, M0,1
e@
R
0
0, M1 = I M0 ,
. 4.2: -
. M02 = M0 , -
"-
"M2 = {0 M0 I} ( 20 ). ,
.
. S0 , S1 -
.

= 0 S0 M0 + 1 S1 M1 = 1 S1 + (0 S0 1 S1 )M0

, [M0 , 0 S0 1 S1 ] = 0. 1 S1
(0 S0 1 S1 )M0 0, a 0 S0

(0 S0 1 S1 )M0 (0 S0 1 S1 ).
4.2. 55

M0 = 1(0,) (0 S0 1 S1 ), . .
0 S0 1 S1 , -
.
1
max P{M } = Tr[1 S1 + (0 S0 1 S1 )+ ] = [1 + k0 S0 1 S1 k1 ],
2
kT k1 = Tr |T | T . |T | = T+ + T ,
T+ (T ) () T , .
. ,
() .
S0 = |0 ih0 |, S1 = |1 ih1 |. -
{|e0 i, |e1 i}, M0 = |e0 ihe0 |, M1 = |e1 ihe1 |.
|e0 i 0
0 |0 ih0 | 1 |1 ih1 |, max P{M } = 1 + 0 . -
0 |0 ih0 | 1 |1 ih1 |, (. [8]).
0 = 1 = 1/2 ,
|0 i, |1 i (. 4.2)
1 p
max P{M 0 } = 1 + 1 | h1 |0 i| 2 .
2
21. , n -
|j i; j = 1, . . . , n,
.
|ej i; j = 1, . . . , n, . [8].
3 . (
1 -
AK ) -
A (. 4.3)
A " #
A -0 cos 2j
3
|j i = , j = 0, 1, 2. (4.22)
sin 2j
3

Sj = |j ihj |,
2 , -
,
. 4.3: 1/2.



cos2 2j
3 cos 2j
3 sin 3
2j
Sj =
cos 2j
3 sin 3
2j
sin2 2j
3

1 cos 4j
3 sin 4j
3
= I+ . (4.23)
2 sin 4j
3 cos 4j
3

2
X 4j
ei 3 = 0,
j=0
56 4. -

2
X 3
Sj = I,
j=0
2
2
Mk0= 3 Sk .
, , j = 1/3, {Mk0 }
. . Sj2 =
Sj ,
X2 2
1 2 2X 1
0 = Sj Sj = Sj , = I.
j=0
3 3 9 j=0 3

I/3 = 0 Sj /3 ( 2))

0 1 2 1
Sj Sj = (I Sj )Sj = 0
3 3 3

1) .
, max P{M } = Tr 0 = 2/3. -
.

M0 = |e0 ihe0 |, M1 = |e1 ihe1 |, M2 = 0, |e0 i, |e1 i,
. ,

1 + 3/2 2
max P{M } = < = max P{M }.
M 3 3 M M

,
(.. -

)
! , -

.
, ,
M3 (
), -
.

4.2.3
m S1 , . . . , Sm ,
M = {Mk }; k = 1, . . . , n,
.
n . A priori n
m.
M.
4.2. 57

, pM (k|j) = Tr Sj Mk , -

X X h X i
J {M } = j pM (k|j) log pM (k|j) log pM (k|l)l , (4.24)
j k l

j .
5. J {M } M, ..

J {pM (1) + (1 p)M (2) } pJ {M (1) } + (1 p)J {M (2) }.

M , -
, J {M }
. .
6. J {M } -
p(k|j) -
j .
,
.
. p(k|j)
P
0, p(k|j) = 1.
k
XX h X i
J {M } = p(k|j)j log p(k|j) log p(k|l)l .
k j l

x -
k
X h X i
p(k|j) j log p(k|j) log( p(k|l) l ) ,
| {z } | {z } | {z }
j ||| |||
l |||
xj xj xl


X h X i
f (x) = j xj log xj log xl l .
j l

xj ,

f (x) h X i
= j (1 + log xj ) (1 + log xl l )
xj
l

( log )
P
2 f (x) j j k X 2 f (x) X j ( j j cj )2
2
= kj P ; cj ck = cj P .
xj xk xj l xl xj xk j
xj l l xl
j,k
l
58 4. -

-,
X X cj X X l
j cj j xj l xl c2j ,
j
x j xl

f , , -
.
22. -
.
, M.

7. M 0 -
M , J {M 0 } J {M }.
. , j1 , j2 -
M , (
),
h X i
pM (j1 |i) log pM (j1 |i) log pM (j1 |l)l +
l
h X i
+pM (j2 |i) log pM (j2 |i) log pM (j2 |l)l
l
h
{pM (j1 |i) + pM (j2 |i)} log pM (j1 |i) + pM (j2 |i)
| {z }
M 0
X i
log l pM (j1 |i) + pM (j2 |i)
l

1/2:
1 1
p (j1 |i)[. . .] + pM (j2 |i)[. . .]
2 M 2
X [. . .]
pM (j1 |i) + pM (j2 |i) [. . .]
log log .
2 2 2
i.
f.
142 . S1 , . . . Sm -
1 , . . . , m , M 0 ,
max J {M } = J {M 0 } ,
M
1, .. Mj0 = |j ihj |j=1,...,n , -
n d2 , d = dim H. Sj
, n d(d + 1)/2.
2 E. B. Davies, Information and quantum measurement, IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory 24,

no. 6, 596-599 (1978).


4.2. 59

. M f0 , M f0 = {Mf0 ,..., M
f0 ,...}.
1 j
,
-
,
:
X X X
0X= xj |ej ihej | = xj |ej ihej | xj = |j ihj |,


|j i = xj |ej i. " M 0 = {|j ihj |}j=1,...,n
( j
.) 7 , J {M 0 } J {M f0 }.
0
6 22, , M ,
Mj0 = |ej ihej | (j = 1, . . . , n).
6 , |j ihj | .
d-
d2 (d(d + 1)/2 ).
, .
1.
Sj = |j ihj |; j = 0, 1.
-
= |h0 |1 i|. , 0 , 1 .
, n = 3 (d = 2, .)
, -
,
(.. ), n = 2
(, 1994).
, 0 = 1 = 1/2.
!
1+ 1 2
max J {M } = 1 h (4.25)
M 2

, -
0 , 1 (. 4.2),
.
2. -
(4.23) 2/3
1 e0 . ,
6
AK m d(d + 1)/2 = 3. ,
A , -
A Mk = 32 |ek ihek |k=0,1,2 ,
AH -0
ek k (. . 4.2.3; 23 ). ,
e1 HH e2

H
j ,
, ek = k .
, , -
2

. 4.4: -

3-
.
60 4. -

. -
: max J {M } = log(3/2) 0.585,
M
max J (M ) 0.458.
M -

3. n -
. ,
- m = n -
, . 3 ,

. 7, -
-
d(d + 1)/2 = 6 (-
,
).
, 4 , -
, -
-
m = n. -
, -
(, , ).
-
, .

4.3
, -
, , . -
, |1 i, . . . , |a i -
p1 , . . . , pa ( ).
(), .. -
w = (x1 , . . . , xn ), xj {1, . . . , a}.
|w i = |x1 i |xn i pw =
px1 pxn . |w ihw |
Sw Hd Hn .
,
,
.

X
Fn = pw hw |Sw |w i;
w

3 P. W. Shor, On the number of elements needed in a POVM attaining the accessible

information, Arxiv:quant-ph/0009077.
4 E. B. Davies, Information and quantum measurement, IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory 24

N6, pp. 596-599 1978.


4.3. 61

,
P .
S = sj |ej ihej |
: X
H(S) = sj log sj = Tr S log S. (4.26)
j

:
1) 0 H(S) log d,
( ), S = I/d.
2) H(U SU ) = H(S), U (
).
3) H(S1 S2 ) = H(S1 ) + H(S2 ) ().
, ,
, -
, .. .
Pa
155 . S p = x=1 px |x ihx |.
1) , > 0 n -
Hd Hn d 6 2n(H(S p )+) -
Sw Hd , Fn > 1 ;

2) Hd d 6 2n(H(S p )) Sw
Hd Fn < n.

.
,
.
a
X
px |x ihx | = S p
x=1

S p ,
, 2nH(S p )
. ( -
: , 1, . . . , a
p1 , . . . , pa , ,
P -
, N 2nH(p) , H(p) = x px log px ).
.
1) H -
X
Sp = j |ej ihej |. (4.27)
j

5 R.Jozsa, B. Schumacher, A new proof of the quantum noiseless coding theorem, J.


Modern Optics 41, no. 12, 2343-2349 1994.
62 4. -

J = (j1 , . . . , jn ), J = j1 . . . jn , |eJ i = |ej1 i |ejn i, -


S p
n X
Sp = J |eJ iheJ |.
J

J
n o
Jn, = J : 2n(H(S p )+) < J < 2n(H(S p )) ,

E , -
|eJ i, J Jn, . EHn -
. :

S
dim EHn = Tr E 6 Tr 6 2n(H(S )+) . (4.28)
2n(H(S )+)
Hd = EHn , -

E|w ihw |E
Sw = .
hw |E|w i

X X
Fn = pw hw |Sw |w i = pw hw |E|w i
w w
X X
= Tr E( pw |w ihw |) = Tr ESpn = J . (4.29)
w JJn,

J = {j1 . . . jn } .

P{2n(H(S p )+)) < J < 2n(H(S p ))) } =


n
1X
= P{H(S p ) < log jk < H(S p ) + }
n
k=1

1X n

= P{ log jk H(S p ) < }, (4.30)
n
k=1
Pa
E{ log () } = x=1 x log x H(S p ).
Fn 1 n .
2) Sw -
Hd d, Pd Hd . Sw 6 Pd
X X n
Fn = pw hw |Sw |w i 6 Tr Pd pw |w ihw | = Tr Pd S p
w
4.4. 63

E , -
/2, /2.
n n n n
Tr S p EPd + Tr S p (1 E)Pd 6 Tr Pd kS p Ek + Tr S p (1 E) 6

6 d2n(H(S p )/2) + 6 2n/2 + < (4.31)
2 2
n.

4.4

, -
(
). -
, -
x, () x Sx
. ,
: x = 0,
; x = 1,
.
.
w =
{x1 , . . . , xn }, Sw :

x1
.. S x1


.

w= .
= Sw Hn = H H
..

Sxn
xn
, w -
Sxj ,
.
(n)
M = {Mwb }
n
H ( w, b , -
w).
b ; ,
Hn -
, -
. M
-
, , .
, M , pM (y|x) = Tr Sx My
(n)
, pM (n) (w|w)
b = Tr Sw Mwb n-.
-
. p X
64 4. -

M ,

X X h X i
I1 (p, M ) = px pM (y|x) log pM (y|x) log pM (y|z)pz ,
x y z

,
,
max I1 (p, M ) = C1 .
p,M

, n-
p(n) n M (n) Hn ,

In (p, M )
X X h X i
= pw pM (n) (w|w)
b log pM (n) (w|w)
b log b 0 )pw0 ,
pM (n) (w|w
w w
b w0

max In (p(n) , M (n) ) = Cn .


p(n) ,M (n)

: -
Cn = nC1 , d = 2 ( -
) Cn > nC1 (
). ,
n- ()
, -
,
.
,
. , -
(. . ) , -
.

() .
, , -
, .
. (W, M ) n N
W = {w(1) , . . . , w(N ) } M = {Mj }
Hn j = 0, 1, . . . , N ; 0
.

N N
1 X 1 X
P e (W, M ) = [1 pM (j| w(j) ) ] = [1 Tr Swj Mj ]
N j=1 | {z } N j=1



4.4. 65

min P e (W, M ) = pe (n, N )


W,M
N , n.

( ! )
X X
C = max H px Sx px H(Sx ) ,
p
x x

H(S) (4.26).
16 ( 6 ). n
1) pe (n, 2nR ) 0, R < C ( );
2) pe (n, 2nR ) 9 0, R > C ( );
( : pe (n, 2nR ) 1, n ).

C . , C limn Cn /n, Cn =
max In (p, M ). ( 12) -
, 16 C C .
, 16 , C = C .
Sx = |x ihx | ,
!
X
C = max H px |x ihx | .
p
x

1) , C log d. ,
,
,
. ,
, . -
, -
|ex ihex |, x = 1, . . . , d, px = d1 . ,
, ,
. , , -
,
.
(4.22) -
0 , 1 , 2 .
2
X 1
px |x ihx | = I
x=0
2

, , -
C = 1 , -
. , -
, .
6 A.S. Holevo, The capacity of quantum channel with general signal states. IEEE Trans.

Inform. Theory, 1998, v. 44, N1, 269-273; Arxiv quant-ph/9611023, 1996, B.


Schumacher, M. D. Westmoreland, Sending classical information via noisy quantum channel,
Phys. Rev. A. 56, 131-138 1997.
66 4. -

24.
!
1+ 3/2
C1 = 1 h 0, 645
2

- p0 = p1 = 1/2, p2 = 0
-
(. 1 4.3).
25. -
0 , 1 . ,

1
C = h ,
2



max I1 (p, M ) = C1
p,M

(4.25). ( 1) -
C /C1 log(1)
.

. , C1 < C
nC1 < Cn , n.

4.5


17 ( ).
p M
X X
I1 (p, M ) H px Sx px H(Sx ), (4.32)

, pi Si
.
26. pi Si , -
M = {|ek ihek |}, {ek } ... -
pi Si .
, 7 , -
, , -
.
7 . . , , -

. . ., 1973, .9, N3, 3-11.


4.5. 67

(-
, , , ),
(4.32), . II.
().
S0 , S1 . St = (1 t)S0 + tS1 ,

(t) = H(St ) (1 t)H(S0 ) tH(S1 ), t [0, 1]. (4.33)

M = {My } , Pt (y) = Tr St My = (1
t)P0 (y) + tP1 (y) St

JM (t) = I1 (p, M ),

p = {1 t, t}. ,

(0) = (1) = 0; IM (0) = IM (1) = 0.

, (t) , IM (t):

(t)00 IM (t)00 , t [0, 1]. (4.34)

, ,

(t) IM (t), t [0, 1]. (4.35)

D = S1 S0
X
St = sk Ek
k

St . -
8 .
8.
X
00 (t) = (Tr Ek DEj D)f (sk , sj ), t > 0, (4.36)
k,j

log a log b
f (a, b) = , a 6= b; f (a, a) = a1 . (4.37)
ab

2
f (a, b) , 0 < a, b 1,
a+b
, a = b, -
X 2
00 (t) Tr Ek DEj D , (4.38)
sk + sj
k,j

8 ibid.
68 4. -

, Tr Ek DEj D = 0
k 6= j. , [D, St ] = 0, .. [S0 , S1 ] = 0,

X
Tr[D, St ] [D, St ] = (sk sj )2 Tr Ek DEj D.
k,j

27. ,
X 2
Lt = Ek DEj
sk + sj
k,j


1
St Lt [St Lt + Lt St ] = D,
2

X 2
Tr Ek DEj D = Tr DLt = Tr St L2t . (4.39)
sk + sj
k,j

Lt -
St , (4.39)
.
(4.38), (4.39) ,

00 (t) Tr St L2t , (4.40)

, [S0 , S1 ] = 0.
00 (t) 0, (t) [0, 1].
M = {My } , Pt (y) = Tr St My =
(1 t)P0 (y) + tP1 (y) St .
D(y) = P1 (y) P0 (y) = Tr DMy . -
diag[Pt (y)] St -
, (4.40)
X D(y)2
00
IM (t) = . (4.41)
y
Pt (y)

(4.34).
p p
D(y) = Tr My St Lt My
p p
= < Tr My St Lt My
p p p p
= < Tr My St St Lt My
= < Tr A B,
p p
A = St My , B = St Lt My .

| Tr A B|2 Tr A A Tr B B,
4.5. 69

D(y) Tr St My Tr Lt St Lt My . (4.41),
X
00
IM (t) Tr Lt St Lt My = Tr St L2t 00 (t),
y

[S0 , S1 ] 6= 0 .
. -
Sx ; x = 0, 1, . . . , k, -

p = {px ; x = 0, 1, . . . , k}
9 .
, -
.
N = 2N R , R > C , W =
{w(1) ,..., w(N ) } ,
M = {Mj ; j = 0, 1, . . . , N }. -
X 1, . . . , N ( ),
1/N. -
Y 0, 1, . . . , N. -
I(X; Y ) = H(X) H(X|Y ), H(X) = log N = nR -
. -
: H(X| Y ) 1 + P(X 6= Y ) log N . ,
max I(X, Y ) nR(1pe (n, 2nR ))1 (
).
(4.32)
" !#
X X
I(X; Y ) max H p w Sw ) pw H(Sw ) = C(n) .
p
w w

(n) (n)
9. C : C = nC .
. n = 2, H =
H1 H2 , i Si1 , j Sj2 . ,

X X
max H pij Si1 Sj2 pij H(Si1 Sj2 ) = max[ ] + max [ ].
pij 1pi 2 pj
ij ij

, max max , -
pij pij =pi pj

!
X X X X
H p1i Si1 p2j Sj2 = H p1i Si1 + H p2j Sj2 ,
i j i j

9 ibid.
70 4. -

(n)
C nC .

(. . 7.2),
X X X
H pij Si1 Sj2 H p1i Si1 + H p2i Si2 ,
P P
p1i = pij , p2j = pij .
j i
, nC nR[1 pe (n, 2nR )] 1, .. pe (n, 2nR ) 1 C /R
1/nR, R > C , pe (n, 2nR ) 0 n .
.

4.6

-
Sx = |x ihx |10 ,
!
X
C = max H px Sx .
p
x

,
, -
. . R < C . ,
pe (n, 2nR ) 0.

1 X
N
1 hw(j) |Mj w(j) i = P e (W, M ),
N j=1

W M. -
Mj |w(j) ihw(j) |,
, Mj ,
.
, ,
4.3.
a
X
px |x ihx | = S p ,
x=1


P p , ,
.. H ( x px Sx ) = C . , 2 = C R > 0 -
E Hn, = EHn
n
S p .
10 P. Hausladen, R. Jozsa, B. Schumacher, M. Westmoreland, W. Wootters, Classical

information capacity of a quantum channel, Phys. Rev. A 54, no. 3, 1869-1876 1996.
4.6. 71


|ew(j) i = E|w(j) i Hn, (4.42)
P
N
G = |ew(j) ihew(j) | (4.42).
j=1
Hn, . G1/2
G, 0 -
Hn, . W
M , square-root measurement (1.18):

M0 = I E, Mj = G1/2 |ew(j) ihew(j) |G1/2 , j = 1, . . . , N.

(W, M )
N
1 X
P e (W ; M ) = (1 |hew(j) |G1/2 |ew(j) i|2 ).
N j=1

1 2 = (1 )(1 + ) 2(1 ),
N
2 X
P e (W ; M ) (1 hew(j) |G1/2 |ew(j) i)
N j=1

N
1 X
= (2 Tr Sw(j) 2 Tr Sw(j) G1/2 ). (4.43)
N j=1

G1/2 .

2x1/2 3 + x, x 0.

,
2G1/2 3E + G.
(4.43),
N
1 X
P e (W ; M ) (2 Tr Sw(j) 3 Tr Sw(j) E + Tr Sw(j) G).
N j=1

,
N
X
G=E Sw(j) E
j=1

Tr Sw(j) E = Tr ESw(j) E Tr[ESw(j) E]2 ,



N
1 X X
P e (W ; M ) [2 Tr Sw(j) (I E) + Tr ESw(j) ESw(k) E]. (4.44)
N j=1
k6=j
72 4. -

.
, .
, ,
-
.
w(1) , . . . , w(N ) , -

P (w = (i1 , . . . , in )) = pi1 . . . pin


( p -
).
. ,
n
Sw(j) = |w(j) ihw(j) | = S p .

, ,
w(j) , w(k) ,
n n
P e (W, M ) 2 Tr S p (I E) + (N 1) Tr(ES p E)2
n n
2 Tr S p (I E) + (N 1)kS p Ek.
,
n
n n
Tr S p (I E) , kS p Ek 2n(C ) .
N = 2nR 2n(C 2) ,
,

pe (n, 2nR ) P e (W, M ) 2 + 2n 3

n. , pe (n, 2nR ) 0 R < C .




A H, A , A ,

h|A i = hA|i , H. (4.45)
A , A = A . () -
P , , P 2 = P .
P
L = { : P |i = |i}.
kk = 1, |ih|
|i.
P , {ei }iI ,
iI |ei ihei | = P ,
{ei }iI .
U , U U = I; -
U U = I.
U , U U = P ;
U U = Q . U -
P Q ,
.
18[ ] -
A , -
ai ,
d
X
A= ai |ei ihei |. (4.46)
i=1

,
{a}

X
Ea = |ei ihei |.
i:ai =a

73
74 4. -

spec(A) = {a} -
A.
X
A= aEa . (4.47)
aspec(A)


. {Ea } -
:
X
Ea Ea0 = aa0 Ea , Ea = I. (4.48)
aspec(A)

H
{Ea }, A
a.
A , A 0, h|Ai
0 H.
: a 0 a spec(A).
, -
A = B B B.
A -
C = A = A1/2 , C 2 = A.
A

A = A+ A , (4.49)
P P
A+ = a>0 aEa , A = a<0 aEa , -
A.
19[ ] A H

A = U |A| = |A |U, (4.50)



|A| = A A , U .
supp A A -
,
. -
supp |A|.
-
, , -
.
, |A| - , U
.
T
d
X
Tr T = hei |T ei i, (4.51)
i=1
4.6. 75

{ei } .
28. , -

Tr A = Tr A, Tr AB = Tr BA. (4.52)
,
Tr |ih|A = h|Ai. (4.53)
, A, B 0

Tr AB 0 (4.54)

, AB = 0.
76 4. -

[1] ... , . , 1970.


[2] . . , : -
. 52, N6, 53-112, 1997.
[3] . , . , . , .
1999.
[4] . , .
1964.

[5] . . , . , -
, . ., .: , 2006.
[6] . . , . . ,
-. .-: 2001.
[7] . , . , . , .
8. . , 1986.
[8] . , . .:
, 1978.

[9] . . , -
. 2- ., .-: , 2003.
[10] . . , , , . .:
2010. . I, II.
[11] .. , -
, .: 2011.

77