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MEEN - 442/632 COMPUTER AIDED ENGINEERING

FINAL PROJECT

Design of a Mechanical Battery System

Authors: Presented to:


Angela Olinger, Hanumanth Reddy Yuval Doron
Palle, Sarah Rohmer, and Phillip
Wagner

5/5/2017
Contents
1. Project Description .................................................................................................................. 1
1.1. Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 1
1.2. Background ...................................................................................................................... 1
1.3. Initial Design ideas ........................................................................................................... 2
1.4. Objectives ......................................................................................................................... 3

2. Project Tasks............................................................................................................................ 4
2.1. Solar Powered Charging Design ...................................................................................... 4
2.2. Counterweight Design ...................................................................................................... 6
2.3. Shaft Design ..................................................................................................................... 7
2.4. Gearbox and Motor Design .............................................................................................. 9
2.5. Supporting Structure Design .......................................................................................... 11

3. Results ................................................................................................................................... 14
3.1. Complete Mechanical Battery Design.............................Error! Bookmark not defined.
3.2. Battery Operation ............................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
3.2.1. Discharge operation .................................................................................................... 14
3.2.2. Charge operation......................................................................................................... 16
3.3. Con clusions ................................................................................................................... 17

Appendices .................................................................................................................................... 19

References ......................................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.

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List of Figures

Figure 1.1: Figure shows a weight being lifted height (h), storing gravitational potential energy
[1] .................................................................................................................................................... 2
Figure 2.1: A map of the yearly global irradiance .......................................................................... 5
Figure 2.2: The design of the spool and shaft in Solid works......................................................... 8
Figure 2.3: Shaft and Spool Safety Factor of 5 ............................................................................... 8
Figure 2.4: The shaft sub-assembly modeled in Solid works ......................................................... 9
Figure 2.5: Design specifications of PMDC C34 series motor [9] ................................................. 9
Figure 2.6: C34-L80 series PMDC motor [9] ............................................................................... 10
Figure 2.7: Schematic of gravity battery....................................................................................... 11
Figure 2.8: The final design of the support structure modeled in Solidworks.............................. 12
Figure 2.9: Loading and fixtures of FEA ...................................................................................... 13
Figure 2.10: The FEA analyses of the support structure under the anticipated loading ............... 13
Figure 3.1: The complete and final design modeled in Solid works ............................................ 14

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List of Tables

Table 2.1: C34-L80 PMDC motor (generator) specifications [9]................................................. 10

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Abstract

Mechanical batteries are an economically and environmentally friendly method for storing
excess energy, a common problem with the use of solar panels. One form of a mechanical battery
is a gravity battery. The gravity battery converts the excess energy into potential mechanical
energy by using it to lift a weight. When the weight is lifted to its maximum height, the battery is
fully charged. As the weight is lowered, it produces mechanical energy that can be used. This
project details the design process and final result of such a battery. A weight is suspended by a
cable and shaft, mounted on a support structure. The energy storage is controlled by a permanent
magnet brushed DC motor that is connected to the shaft. All parts were selected to be purchased
from a manufacturer with the exception of the support structure. The structure was designed and
analysed using Solidworks CAD and FEA programs. Simulations were run to ensure that the
structure is stable while supporting the required load. The result is an assembly capable of storing
enough energy to provide 100 watts of power for 1 hour.

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1. Project Description
1.1. Introduction
This project is an overview of the design of a mechanical battery. As a response to climate
change, alternative energy sources are becoming increasingly popular. Unfortunately, alternative
energy sources such as wind and solar are not as consistent as traditional fossil fuels. For example,
solar energy can be used to produce electricity only in bright, sunny weather during the day,
however, the demand for electricity always exist even during the downtime of these energy
sources. This results in the need of a viable method to store energy in order to make the usage of
alternative energy sources practical.
Similar to the burning of fossil fuels, use of the traditional electro-chemical batteries is not
sustainable due to the adverse impact they can have on the environment. Batteries often contain
substances which are harmful to the environment, such as: cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel, and
lithium. When these batteries are disposed, the chemicals present in them change the composition
of the soil directly affecting the plant grown. They can also make their way into the water bodies
and harm living organisms, mutating their DNA. Disposing of these batteries in a way such that
these chemicals are contained can be expensive and wasteful. Mechanical batteries offer a much
more environmentally benign method for storing energy from these renewable energy sources.

1.2. Background
For as long as electricity has been in use, engineers have devised ways to store it. This has
historically involved the use of chemical reactions, high-speed flywheels, compressed gasses, and
gravity. Gravity batteries store energy in the form of gravitational potential energy. Gravitational
potential energy is quantified as the amount of work required to move an object a specified height
above an established datum. The datum can be fixed at any height and marks where the
gravitational potential energy is zero. If an object is below this datum, the energy is said to be
negative. This energy is calculated with the following equation:

= 1.1
Where is the gravitational potential energy of the system, is the mass of the
object, is the acceleration due to gravity, and is the height of the object above its zero.

Figure 1.1: Figure shows a weight being lifted height (h), storing gravitational potential
energy [1]
There are various methods of storing and manipulating this gravitational potential energy
so that it can be used to generate electricity on demand. One method, called pumped hydroelectric
storage, pumps water from a lower tank to a higher tank in low energy demand times. When the
demand on energy increases, the water in the higher tank is allowed to flow back down to the lower
tank as it turns a turbine that in turn generates power [2]. Another method involves using an electric
train to move a mass up a hill to store energy. Whenever energy is needed, the train will roll down
the hill and use its regenerative braking system to generate electricity, similar to the way a Prius
does [3].

1.3. Initial Design ideas


Design 1:
Our initial design consists of a solid block attached to a rope passing over a pulley at design
height while other end of the rope is attached to a piston like mechanism on the ground. In charged
state, the block would be at its maximum height and the piston at its maximum depth filled with
water on the top with a valve mechanism. During discharge, the valve is opened leaking the water

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stored on the piston, this allows the solid block to lower down while rotating the shaft of the
generator coupled to the pulley through gear box generating power. When it is about to charge,
either water from tides can be used near shores or pumped water can be used to push the piston
down. The major flaw in this design is a hole should be dug in the ground for the piston to be
lowered with depth equal to the height designed for the solid block.

Design 2:

Design 1 was modified a little to arrive at design 2. This design has a solid block attached
to a rope wound to a winch supported on a structure at the design height and coupled to a DC
motor for energy conversion. During discharge, the block is lowered and power is generated, while
during discharge the same generator powered by a solar panel acts as motor winding the rope to
the winch while lifting the solid block. This design requires a structure to support large weight and
supporting mechanisms installed at the design height which is costly process, as more material is
required to build structure supporting large weight at that height. This led to the design that is used
in this project.
The design outlined in this project uses gears and motor to control the height of the weight
suspended inside a hole. As the motor turns, coupling shaft rotates winding up the cable supporting
the suspended weight. This effectively lifts the weight and stores the energy. As the weight is
lowered down, the unwinding cable will again rotate the shaft, supplying mechanical power to the
same motor (acting as generator) which converts it into electrical energy.

1.4. Objectives
The main objective of this project was to design a mechanical battery that can supply 100
watts of continuous electric power for an hour. This includes the following 8 objectives:
1. Select a solar panel capable of charging the gravity battery within reasonable time
2. Determine the mass and height required for the suspended mass of the battery
3. Select a motor and generator capable of converting the power meeting requirements
4. Design a gearbox with suitable gear ratios to assist the motor in lifting the weight and
generator in producing the power
5. Determine the material and thickness of the shaft that will support the load
6. Select appropriate bearings for the shaft
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7. Design and analyze the structure to support the functioning of the system in Solid works
8. Model the entire system in Solid works
The objectives are represented in a manner that breaks the final assembly down into the
different components. This list does not include the requirements, reasoning, or process of
designing the system as a whole.

2. Project Tasks
This project requires that energy be stored as mechanical energy. In order to achieve this,
the first thing done was picking a weight and height that could store the required amount of energy.
This weight then had to be supported and moved with ease. This required the use of a motor and
gearbox to achieve the required torque. The gears required depended on the size of the shaft used
and the deflection of the shaft once it was supporting the weight. This size and deflection also
affected the bearings that were used. The support structure had to be designed in a way that all of
this could be mounted appropriately. In addition, the support structure had to be analyzed using
FEA to ensure that it was stable enough while supporting the system, this was done in Solid works.
Due to this interconnectedness of all the components, designing was an iterative process that
considered all parts, despite the tasks being broken up by the different components. So while the
design process detailed below is separated by components, they are all dependent upon one
another.

2.1. Solar Powered Charging Design


In order to determine how fast the battery will charge, the rate of energy coming in from
the outside source was required. Assuming the battery is storing energy coming from a solar panel,
the electrical power being produced by this solar panel was determined. The electric power
produced by a solar panel depends on a plethora of different factors, many of which vary on a
situational basis. The following formula was used to obtain a rough estimate of the amount of
power produced by a solar panel under a given set of conditions.

= 2.1

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Where is the total energy generated by the solar panel in a year measured in kWhs, is
the total area of the solar panel, is the total yield or efficiency of the solar panel, and is the
annual irradiation on tilted solar panels. All these numbers were multiplied by a dimensionless
performance ratio (), which is used to account for factors that may limit the performance of a
solar panel [4]. This includes losses due to the individual system used, such as an inverter and DC
cables, as well as factors due to the global location of the system such as temperature, shading,
weak irradiation, dust, and snow. The performance ratio of a solar panel can range from 0.5 to 0.9
and is typically around 0.75. For the purposes of this project a performance ratio of .75 was
assumed.
A GigaWatt 300 Watt solar panel was selected for this project. It has a 1.65 meter length
and a 0.997 meter width. This gives it a surface area of around 1.65 square meters. It also has an
efficiency, or yield, of 18.5% and a unit cost of $327.00 [5].
The following map was used to estimate the average yearly irradiance that will hit a tilted
solar panel [4].

Figure 2.1: A map of the yearly global irradiance

It was assumed that the solar panel will be located somewhere in the southwestern United
States and will therefore be subjected to a yearly irradiance of around 2000 kWh/m 2. Since this
equation calculates the amount of electricity produced by a solar panel over the course of a year,
the time of day and weather conditions are accounted for. Using the equation and inputs discussed
above, it was calculated that this solar panel would generate around 449 kWh of electricity every
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year. If this number is divided by 365 days and 12 daylight hours per day, an average daylight
power output of 102 watts is calculated. This number includes all types of weather and does not
consider how the intensity of sunlight changes throughout the day in a roughly sinusoidal fashion.
During peak hours, under bright weather conditions, the solar panel would be able to produce
around twice as much power as this.

2.2. Counterweight Design


The solid block was chosen such that it stores enough energy to provide 100 W of power
for one hour. Assuming the efficiency of the generator and the gears to be around 85%, the block
should store excess energy to account for these losses. The amount of energy stored by the block
can be varied either by changing the weight or storage height of the block. The energy stored by a
solid block of mass ( ) at a height ( ) is given by:

= 2.2.1

Where, is the energy stored in Joules, is the mass of solid block in kg, g is
acceleration due to gravity in m/s2, and is the height from the ground in meters. The energy
() required to deliver constant power ( ) for a time () is given by:

= = 100 3600 = 360000 2.2.2

Where, is energy in Joules, is power output in Watts and is the time in seconds.
Considering the efficiency of system (gearbox, DC motor and other components) to be 85%, to
have an output of 360000 J of energy from generator, the input that should be provided by the
block is given by:
360000
= 0.85 = = 423529.4118 = 2.2.3
0.85

By fixing the mass of the solid block as 1500 kg, the height can be calculated as follows:

(1500) (9.8) = 423529.4118 2.2.4

== 28.8115

To power for one hour using solid block with a height ( ), it should move with velocity
( ) given by:

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28.8115
= = = 0.008003 / 2.2.5
3600

The material of the solid block was chosen to be lead (Pb) owing to its corrosion resistance,
inexpensiveness, abundance, and high density (11340 kg/m3) [6]. To obtain the required mass, a
cylindrical lead cylinder of diameter 40 cm and length 105.26 cm was used. This weight was coated
to prevent runoff water being contaminated by the lead. A 7 x 19 Galvanized steel fiber strand
cable with a of 3/8 and a breaking strength of 64000 N was used to support the weight [7].

2.3. Shaft Design


To determine the shaft diameter required to support the weight, the driving factor was the
deflection of the shaft at the supporting bearings. The self-lubricating bearings from NSK
Americas that were selected had an allowable deflection of 0.05 radians [8]. A diameter of 5cm,
length of 1 meter, and material of AISI 1080 steel was chosen for the shaft since it only has a
deflection of 0.01 radians. This can be calculated by assuming the shaft is a simply supported beam
with a concentrated load in the center and using the following equation:
3 3
= 16 =
2.3.1
16 ( )( 4 )
4 2)

To support the shaft, NSK NP50 bearings with cast iron housings were selected [8]. These
have a dynamic load rating of 35000 N, and a static load rating of 23200 N. The bearings have a
safety factor of 1.5 in static loading due to the suspended weight of 1500 kg.
Designing the spool (or winch) was also very important in our design as it supports the
entire weight of the solid block and steel rope. By calculating the bending moment and deflection,
a minimum diameter of 3 cm was determined in order for the spool to have a deflection of less
than 2 mm. The final spool diameter of 11.62 cm was selected, having a deflection of 0.5 mm.
This selection was made after a few iterations to obtain the linear velocity of 0.008 m/s for the
block by varying the diameter of the spool from 3 cm to 20 cm and changing gear ratios to reduce
the angular velocity of motor from 1750 rpm to the angular velocity of the spool corresponding to
the required linear velocity with the chosen diameter.

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Figure 2.2: The design of the spool and shaft in Solid works

To verify the design of the spool and shaft, an FEA analysis was run by fixing the shaft at
the bearings and applying a 15000 N load simulating the force of the weight being lifted. The shaft
had an overall factor of safety of 5.

Figure 2.3: Shaft and Spool Safety Factor of 5

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Figure 2.4: The shaft sub-assembly modeled in Solid works

2.4. Gearbox and Motor Design

Figure 2.5: Design specifications of PMDC C34 series motor [9]

A permanent magnet brushed DC motor (PMDC) was chosen for this design since it can
be used as both the motor and generator when lifting the weight and when converting the
mechanical energy into electrical energy. Due to the amount of power needed to generate 100 Wh
while lowering the block, and the amount of torque needed to lift the block (1500 kg), the C34-
L80 PMDC motor with winding code 20 was selected as the generator (and motor) [9].

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Table 2.1: C34-L80 PMDC motor (generator) specifications [9]

Rated Torque (Nm) Rated Speed Peak Torque Rated Power Weight (g)
(RPM) (Nm) (Watts)

0.67 1750 7.838 122.9 4309.12

This means, when working as a motor, it supplies 122.9 Watts of power, spins at 1750 rpm,
and applies a load of 0.67 Nm constant torque. When working as a generator, it spins at 1750 rpm
with 0.67 Nm torque acting on it, producing 122.9 Watts of power. The power of the motor is
given by the following equation:

= 2.4.1

Where, is power in Watts, is the torque acting on the shaft of the motor in Nm, and
is the angular velocity of the shaft in rad/s. By fixing one of the variables (, , ) and changing
the other, the third can be varied to obtain a desired value.

Figure 2.6: C34-L80 series PMDC motor [9]

The gearbox is the most important component in our gravity battery. Without this we
cannot control the velocity of the block which means we cannot control how long we can generate
the power during discharging of the battery. Also, we cannot use the motor to lift the solid block
during the charging of the battery as the rated torque of the motor is 103 order less in magnitude
than the torque due to the load. After a few iterations with gear ratios and meshing, we arrived at
design of a gearbox with gear ratio of 1331:1, which converts the angular velocity of 183.26 rad/s
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at motor shaft to 0.13768 rad/s at the spool. The relation between the linear velocity of the block
( ), angular velocity of the spool ( ) and radius of the spool ( ) is given as

= 2.4.2

Figure 2.7: Schematic of gravity battery

The gearbox is coupled between the shaft of the motor and shaft on which the spool is
fixed. The torque is multiplied from 0.67 Nm at a point on the circumference of the shaft of the
motor to 891.77 Nm at a point on the circumference of the spool. The gearbox consists of gears
meshed as shown in the Figure 2.7. The material used for gears is cast iron grade 35 which has
BHN of 300 N/mm2 minimum. Spur gears are selected for their high efficiency and since they are
easy to design and install.

2.5. Supporting Structure Design


The supporting structure connects to the system by having the bearing housing mount to it
at two points along the top of the frame. Since the structure stands above the hole dug in the ground,
its length and width are driven by the size of the hole, and therefore, the size of the weight. Since
the weight needs to be slightly larger than a cube with 0.5m length edges, the width and length of
the support structure was picked to be 1m. ASME standard A36 structural steel is used as material
for building the entire structure. The height of the structure needs to be tall enough so that it is

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high enough to hold everything above the ground while being short enough to minimize the amount
of material needed as well as the threat of buckling. The height was chosen to be 0.5m tall. These
dimensions can be used to create the basic structure seen below.

FIGURE HERE - conceptual hand drawing here

Since the points where the weight is loaded are in the middle of the horizontal beams, some
extra legs were added below them to add support. Additional supports were added on either side
of this point in order to help distribute some of the load to the outer legs. The final design can be
seen below.

Figure 2.8: The final design of the support structure modeled in Solidworks

The stability of this design was tested by running FEA analysis on the structure. Once a
static study had been created, the bottom of the legs was constrained and the forces were added as
shown below.

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Figure 2.9: The setup of the FEA simulation is shown, the purple arrows mark the loading
points while the green arrows mark the fixed points

The results of the FEA show that the structure is sound as it has a minimum factor of safety
of 16. The FEA results can be seen in the figure shown below.

Figure 2.10: The FEA analyses of the support structure under the anticipated loading

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3. Results
3.1. Battery Operation
This section describes the operation of the complete mechanical battery. The mechanical
battery is composed of the components described in the sections above. Since all the components
used in this project, aside from the support structure, are available on the open market, the
designing, testing, and manufacturing fall into the consideration of a third party. The only thing
considered for those components was the price and not whether they met the required criteria for
this application.

Figure 3.1: The complete and final design modeled in Solid works

3.1.1. Discharge operation


Let us take the gravity battery in a fully charged condition. The position of the solid block
would be locked initially at the height ( ) from the bottom of the hole, which includes the
height ( ) designed to power the battery as well as the clearance required for the block
( ). The height traversed by the block to provide rated power for one hour would be, =
28.8115 . Once the lock is released, the block starts to move down with a velocity ( ) of
0.008 m/s, calculated from power requirements. As the block moves downwards, a force ( )
corresponding to its weight ( ) acts tangentially downwards at a radial distance ( ) from the
axis of the spool, creating a torque given by

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= ( ) ( ) = ( ) ( ) = (0.0581) (1500 9.8) = 854.94

This torque ( ) acting on the spool is reduced to torque ( ) at the motor shaft due to the
gear ratio of the gear box used as

1331
=
1

854.94
= 1331

= 0.642

As the block moves with velocity, =0.008 m/s, the spool rotates with an angular
velocity ( ) given by

0.008
= =
0.0581

= 1.3149 / = 1.3149

The angular velocity ( ) at the spool is increased to the angular velocity ( ) at the motor
shaft through the gearbox as

1331
=
1

= 1331
1.3149

= 183.259 / 1750

The power generated by the block ( ) with mass, , moving with velocity,
, is given by

= ( ) = (1500 9.8) 0.008

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If there are no mechanical losses in the gearbox and the DC motor, the power output of DC
motor ( ) with shaft rotating at angular velocity ( ) and torque acting on the shaft ( ) is

given by = () ( ) = 0.642 183.259 117

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But, as with every mechanical component there will be power losses associated with
friction and inertia of rotating gears, shafts, supporting bearings present in gearbox and DC motor.
So, accounting for all these losses and taking the total efficiency of this system (gearbox, DC motor
and other mechanical components) to be 85%, the net power output ( ) is given by
= 100

So, this design of gravity battery can provide power of 100 Watts continuously for one hour.

3.1.2. Charge operation


During the charging operation of the gravity battery, the weight used to generate power
should be lifted back to the desired height restoring its potential energy (maximum height for full
charge). The solar panel is used to produce the power required for the charging operation. The
time taken to charge the battery is majorly limited by the power input to the DC motor selected, in
this case it is the power produced by solar panel ( ), 102 Watts. From the total 15% power
losses, assuming 10% losses are due to DC motor, for a given power input, the power output of
the motor ( ) is given by

= = 0.90 102 = 91.8

To overcome the torque due to solid block, minimum torque of 0.64 Nm must be applied at the
motor shaft as calculated during discharge operation. For a given power output of the motor
( ) with constant torque ( ), the angular velocity ( ) is given by

91.8
= = = 143.4375 / 1369.72
0.64

Assuming 5% losses are due to gearbox, the power that can be delivered by gearbox ( ) to
the solid block is given by

= = 0.95 91.8 = 87.21

With power output of 87.21 Watts from the gearbox, the solid block of mass 1500 kg can be lifted
at a velocity (vblock) given by

87.21
= = 0.006 /
1500 9.8

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So, the time () required to charge the battery, which is same as the time required to lift the solid
block to the maximum height ( ), is given by

28.8115
= = 4802 = 1.33
0.006

So, by providing an input power of 102 Watts to the DC motor, the battery can be charged in 1.33
hour. The efficiency of this battery can be calculated by

100 1
= 73.5%
102 1.33

3.2. Cost Estimation


The cost of this design was estimated by totaling the costs of the different components.
The cost of the solar panel is $327 [1]. The motor costs $150 dollars [7]. Three of the gears can
be estimated to cost $50 while 4 cost $10, totaling at $190 [#]. Based on the prices of materials
and manufacturing, the gearbox housing can be estimated at $200. The support structure can be
broken down into labor costs and material costs. The labor costs include welding and cutting of
material and total to be around $100 dollars while the material cost can be estimated at $115. The
shaft that supports the weight is estimated at $20, the winch at $50, and the cable at $30. The
bearings and their housing can be estimated at $100 while the cost of the lead block itself can be
estimated at $300. The hole in which the weight will be suspended was modeled as a well and
costs $1500 to dig [#]. This brings the grand total for the system to be $3082.

3.3. Conclusions
This project successfully designed and analyzed a mechanical battery capable of
converting and storing excess electrical energy, from renewable energy sources, in the form of
gravitational potential energy of a solid weight with the help of mechanical advantage of gear
ratios. While solar energy is not being used, the battery converts the stored potential energy from
the solid weight into useful electrical energy with the help of a generator.
The design intent of providing 100 Watts of power for one hour per one full charge was
achieved by selecting proper material (lead) and mass (1500 kg) for solid block storing potential
energy, designing proper gear ratios (1331:1) and selecting an electric motor (C34-L80 W20) that

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can deliver required power. A solar panel was also selected that can provide enough power, 102
Watts, to completely charge the mechanical battery in a reasonable time of 1.33 hours. The
supporting structure for the entire system and other mechanical components required were
designed and analyzed in Solid works. The final design of the supporting structure has a minimum
factor of safety of 16, which has reasonable safety.
While it is possible to build such a gravity battery, the amount of space required, and cost
to construct such a system makes it highly impractical. Additionally, the mechanical nature of the
system guarantees energy losses due to friction and other effects, making this a highly inefficient
system.

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Appendices
Appendix A: Design Drawings

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20
21
22
23
24
25
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Appendix B: Detailed Calculations
Shaft Diameter Calculations:
= 1500
= 1
= 200
= ( )/16 = (3 )/(16 (/4) (/2)4 )
3

For D = 0.05 m, = 0.01

= (3 )/(48 (/4) (/2)4 )


For D = 0.05 m, = 0.005

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References
[1] K. Academy. (2017). Work and Energy. Available:
https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/work-and-energy/work-and-energy-
tutorial/a/what-is-gravitational-potential-energy
[2] E. s. Assosciation. (2017). Energy storage. Available: http://energystorage.org/energy-
storage/technologies/pumped-hydroelectric-storage
[3] WIRED. (2016). Forget Elon's Batteries-Fix The Grid With a rock-filled train on a hill.
Available: https://www.wired.com/2016/05/forget-elons-batteries-fix-grid-rock-filled-
train-hill/
[4] Photovoltaic-software. (2016). PHOTOVOLTAIC & SOLAR ELECTRICITY DESIGN
TOOLS. Available: http://www.photovoltaic-software.com/
[5] GoGreenSolar, "GigaWatt 300W Solar Panel," 2017.
[6] T. E. Toolbox, "Metals and Alloys - Densities," 2017.
[7] A. A. C. Corporation. (2017). Wire Rope. Available: http://www.chain-
cable.com/wirerope.htm
[8] nskamericas, "Self-Lube Bearings," 2017.
[9] moog, "Permanent Magnet DC Motors," 2017.

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Team Member Contributions
Angela Olinger
Shaft Design
Bearing Selection
Counterweight Design
Solidworks modeling

Hanumanth Reddy Palle


Motor Selection
Gear Box Design
Operation

Sarah Rohmer
Structure Design
Cost Estimation
Editing

Phillip Wagner
Solar Panel Selection
Drawings
Introduction

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