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World Conference on Transport Research - WCTR 2016 Shanghai. 10-15 July 2016
World Conference on Transport Research - WCTR 2016 Shanghai. 10-15 July 2016
Mapping out goods flow to Addis Ababa city, Ethiopia, and it
Mapping out goods flow to Addis Ababa city, Ethiopia, and it
impact on environment
impact on environment
Abel Kebedeaa, Girma Gebresenbetbb
a
Abel Kebede , Girma Gebresenbet
Addis Ababa Institute of Technology, Addis Ababa University, P.O.Box-385, Ethiopia
b
Division
a
of Ababa
Addis Transport and Logistics,
Institute Swedish
of Technology, University
Addis of Agri-Sciences,
Ababa University, P.O.Box-___,
P.O.Box-385, Sweden
Ethiopia
b
Division of Transport and Logistics, Swedish University of Agri-Sciences, P.O.Box-___, Sweden

Abstract
Abstract
The rapid growth of socioeconomic activity The rapid growth of socioeconomic activity in Addis Ababa city creates
The
hugerapid
demandgrowth
for of socioeconomic
delivery of goods activity
involvingTheurban
rapidfreight
growthtransport.
of socioeconomic
The rise in activity
demandin Addis Ababa
combined to city creates
the limited
huge demand for delivery of goods involving urban freight transport. The rise in demand combined
space of the city increases the manoeuvring difficulty of freight vehicles. These factors highly contribute to traffic to the limited
space of thetraffic
congestion, city increases the manoeuvring
accident and environmentaldifficulty of freight
degradation. The roadvehicles.
transport These factorsashighly
is serving contribute
the major transportto means
traffic
congestion,
of the countrytraffic
and accident and environmental
Addis Ababa degradation.
city has the largest share of The road transport
vehicular fleet. Theisobjective
serving asofthe
themajor
studytransport means
was to identify
of the country and Addis Ababa city has the largest share of vehicular fleet. The objective of the
the existing constraints of traffic congestion and exhaust emission from freight vehicles inside the city and map out study was to identify
the existing of
the benefits constraints of traffic
night delivery congestion and exhaust emission from freight vehicles inside the city and map out
system.
the benefits of night delivery system.
The study used classified vehicle count based in their loading capacity, travel time and travel length between the origin
The study
(freight usedand
gates) classified vehicle count
the destination pointsbased
in theincity
theircenter,
loading
andcapacity, travel
direct tail pipetime and travel
emission length between
measurement of COthe andorigin
CO2
(freight gates) and the destination points in the city center, and direct tail pipe emission measurement
gases from freight vehicles based on their age group as main input. The collected datas are analyzed by taking two of CO and CO2
gases from
different freight vehicles
scenarios basedcondition
of the current on their age
andgroup as main
the other input. The
by shifting collected
the freight datasmovement
vehicles are analyzed by night
to the takingtime.
two
different
The resultscenarios of theestimated
showed total current condition and the other
vehicle-kilometer by shiftingand
of 183,873.11 thevehicle-hour
freight vehicles movement
of 6,784.96 to the night
releasing 36.84time.
tons
The result showed total estimated vehicle-kilometer of 183,873.11 and vehicle-hour of 6,784.96
of CO2 and 100 kilogram of CO pollutant gases at each day. Whereas the night delivery reduces the travel time by 30 releasing 36.84 tons
of CO2 vehicle
40%, and 100- kilogram
kilometerofbyCO 6%pollutant gases at each
and vehicle-hour day. Whereas
by 33.49% the delivery
for every night delivery reduces
operation thethe
saving travel
totaltime by 30
emission
of40%,
CO2 vehicle
by 10.46% - kilometer
and CObyby6% and vehicle-hour
10.80% every singlebyday. 33.49%
It canforbeevery
deducteddelivery
that operation saving
night delivery the total
could be oneemission
of the
of CO2 by
solution 10.46%
to the andfreight
current CO bytransport
10.80%problem
every single day.Ababa
of Addis It can city.
be deducted that night delivery could be one of the
solution to the current freight transport problem of Addis Ababa city.
2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
2017 The under
Peer-review
Peer-review Authors. Published by
under responsibility
responsibility of Elsevier
of WORLDB.V.
WORLD CONFERENCE ON
CONFERENCE ON TRANSPORT
TRANSPORT RESEARCH
RESEARCH SOCIETY.
SOCIETY.
Peer-review under responsibility of WORLD CONFERENCE ON TRANSPORT RESEARCH SOCIETY.
Keywords:freight vehicles movement, vehicle-kilometer, vehicle-hour, exhaust emission, night delivery
Keywords:freight vehicles movement, vehicle-kilometer, vehicle-hour, exhaust emission, night delivery

2214-241X 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.


Peer-review under
2214-241X 2017 responsibility
The Authors. of WORLD
Published byCONFERENCE
Elsevier B.V. ON TRANSPORT RESEARCH SOCIETY.
Peer-review under responsibility of WORLD CONFERENCE ON TRANSPORT RESEARCH SOCIETY.

2352-1465 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.


Peer-review under responsibility of WORLD CONFERENCE ON TRANSPORT RESEARCH SOCIETY.
10.1016/j.trpro.2017.05.475
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1. Introduction

1.1 Study area

The study area was Addis Ababa city, Ethiopia. Addis Ababa is the capital city of Ethiopia located in the horn of
Africa with an estimated population of around 8 million. The city is also the seat of African Union (AU) and more
than 100 embassies of different countries.

1.2 Study background

Now days, the movement of goods from place to place plays an important role in the economic and life of the city
residents. The movement starts from the point of production and destined to consumers in the large cities.
According to the study made by CES in association with SABA Engineering (2005) road transport has been serving
the major means of transportation for both domestic and international transport services in Ethiopia. Samson F. et al.(
2006) outlined that about 80% of the vehicles in the country were found in Addis Ababa with yearly growth rate of
5% and 1,329.59 kilometer total length of road, out of which 29.70% was paved and 70.30% was unpaved with only
road gross density of 1.45%. A total of 82,195 tons of commodities move in to and out of the Addis Ababa on average
each day. Mainly the goods movement from outside to within the central area has the largest share of about 31.5%
(CES in association with SABA Engineering, 2005).
Berhanu G.(2000) indicated that Addis Ababa experiencing about 700 accidents per month which had share of
60% from all the accidents occurred in the country. Samson F. et al. (2006) also outlined that the accident showed
annual average growth of 31.4% between the years 1989 and 2002. The city also experience traffic congestion at
different places throughout the day, the average traffic congestion intensity in Addis Ababa expressed in vehicle
minute or person minute was very high and the result showed on average about 18,500 vehicle minute or 38 vehicle
days and 169,000 person minute or 352 person day had wasted at each intersection legs or congestion spot per day
(Taddesse W. et. al., 2011). City of Addis Ababa also facing another problem related to environmental issues. Vehicles
are considered to be the main source of air pollution. The level of air pollution is presumed to be high due to the
prevalence of old vehicles and substandard road infrastructures. As Kume A. et al. (2010) indicated recently there is
even a concern that the city might exceed the Carbon Monoxide (CO) 8-hour World Health Organization guideline.
The vehicular pollution have mainly caused exhaust emissions results from the combustion and evaporation of
fuel. Mathew (2012) pointed out that the chemical reactions occurring during combustion of fuel are:
during ideal combustion,
Fuel (HC) + Air (O2, N2) = CO2 + H20 + un affected Nitrogen, and
during the typical engine combustion,
Fuel (HC) + Air (O2, N2) = Unburned HC + NOx + CO + CO2 + H2O

Ehmke J. F. (2012) pointed out that the concepts of city logistics facilitates the integrated solutions for the
fundamental dilemma of urban freight transportation: on the one hand, and urban freight transportation is fundamental
to serve industrial and trade activities in urban areas on the other hand to ensure their competitiveness and negative
impacts of freight transportation should be limited. Many cities around the world are taking counter measures
concerning the problems for distribution of goods to the city centers.

1.2.2 Night delivery system


Basically the concept of night delivery lies in delivering to the city centers when there is very low activities in the
city and traffic movements on the roads. According to NICHES (2011), there exist so many potential benefits related
to night delivery of goods to the city centers, some of the benefits are:
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reduction of the congestion by using the road network during night hours
faster travel times for all vehicles
optimization of vehicle and manpower utilization
reduced emissions
consolidation and clustering of shipments, and
positive contribution to road safety

Mainly, the disadvantages related to night delivery of goods are the issues of truck noise to the residents and the
security conditions during delivery. For the successful implementation of this system, according to Nicolas G. et al.
(2005), many cities around the world uses pilot program applying the so called silent night delivery trial and
promote the use of cleaner and quitter vehicles for deliveries, example as the case of Barcelona city.

2. Objectives

The main objective of the study was to develop recommendable freight distribution system to the city centers of
Addis Ababa that improve the freight goods flow.
The specific objectives were to:

find out the convenient time of movement for freight goods delivery to the city
estimate the time spent and kilometer travel for freight goods delivery each day
estimate the environmental damage due freight goods delivery

3. Materials and methods

The main tasks under this research includes:


determining the flow of freight vehicles to and from Addis Ababa city
mapping out entry freight load movements and destinations inside Addis Ababa city
estimation vehicle-kilometer and vehicle-hour on freight delivery to the city and
estimation of exhaust emission from freight vehicles during delivery of goods

3.1 Data collection

The data collection process involved direct measuring of selected parameters and surveys from freight carriers and
operators.

3.1.1 Freight vehicles flow to and from Addis Ababa


The main five gates to and from the Addis Ababa city are:

Ambo gate
Bishoftu (Kality) gate
Dessie gate
Gojjam gate and
Jimma gate

Vehicle count made at each five gates to the city using Ethiopian Roads Authority vehicle classification categories
that based on the loading capacities, the category listed below:
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small trucks (less than 3 ton)


medium trucks (between 3 and 7 tons)
heavy trucks (between 7 and 12 tons) and
articulated trucks (more than 12 tons)

The counts were made on both the entry and exit freight traffics based on:

3 days 12 hours counting considered to show the variation of freight traffic over the normal working days
2 days 24 hours counting considered to show the variation of freight traffic over the day and night times of a day,
also the variation of weekend and weekdays traffic

3.1.2 Choice of destination and route assignment


The choice of destination for entry freight vehicles was mainly based on direct interview of freight operators and
freight track drivers, and structural data of the Addis Ababa city which shows the location of markets and other
facilities. Major freight gate were selected among the five gates to the city, having higher share of freight traffic entry
to the city. From the above points outlined, 5 major freight destinations were identified based on sample size of 50
freight vehicles from each four vehicle categories with total of 200 freight vehicles both for day and night times.
The data for the route assignment of delivery freight to destinations was collected from interviews of freight
operators and freight truck drivers with cross checking at the some locations. The sample of 10 freight vehicles from
each 4 freight trucks category at each identified 5 major destinations were considered both for the day and night
movements with a total sample of 400 freight vehicles.

3.1.3 Estimation of total vehicle-kilometer and vehicle-hour


Two major scenarios were identified for the estimation of total vehicle-kilometer and vehicle-hour:

Scenario 1: Analysis using the existing condition


The scenario considers the existing conditions of freight movements with their time distribution. In other words,
the data for the analysis were based on observed, counted and measured real condition scenario.

Scenario 2: Analysis by shifting all freight vehicles to night time


The scenario considers shifting of all movements of freight vehicles to the night time. The scenario considered
ideal condition created based on time shifting of the exiting freight vehicles movement to night time and thoroughly
use the data set in scenario-1.

The data sets used for estimation of total vehicle-kilometer and vehicle-hour were:

for scenario-1: freight traffic counting of 2 days for 24 hours, having separate summary of 12 hours of traffic by
categories of freight vehicles at day and night
for scenario-2: ideal condition created by shifting the whole freight vehicles at a single day to the night time
Total length of the route with their percentage preference to reach their destinations

3.1.4 Procedure for conducting exhaust emission measuring


The method applied for this study was the direct exhaust measurement. Direct emission measurement is the main
factor in the analysis of exhaust emission which was measured as tail pipe emissions from vehicle due to the burning
of fuel. According to VOLKSWAGEN AG. (2006), during measurements, the driving cycles of the vehicles was
executed on the roller dynamometer or vehicles inspection spot. Based on European Standards of Driving Cycles
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methods of conducting the measurement.

I. New European Driving Cycle (NECC) with 40 second lead time


In this type of measurement, the driving cycle takes 40 second lead time before the start of the measurement. This
40 second lead time was taken as the warm up period.

II. New European Driving Cycle (NECC) without 40 second lead time
The measuring cycle was started as soon as the driving cycle was started.

Characteristics

Cycle length 11,007 km

Average Speed 33.6 kph

Maximum Speed 120 kph

Fig. 1. NECC without 40 seconds lead time (VOLKSWAGON AG., 2006)

From the above procedure discussed, NECC without 40 second lead time was selected because of the main reasons:

No need to take the 40 second lead time or warm up time for measuring vehicular emissions, mainly due to the
fact that vehicles already travelled some kilometers before reaching the measuring spot

For this study, a simplified driving cycle procedure were developed for emission measurement based on the NECC
without 40 second lead time. The simplification of the procedure needed due to:

Part 2 (extra urban driving) on the NECC without 40 second lead time procedure found to be less important due to
the fact that in urban areas the observed maximum speed was not more than 60 kilometer per hour which imply
half of the value given in the procedure
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Characteristics
Cycle length 0.91 km
Average Speed 33.6 kph
Maximum Speed 50 kph
Fig. 2. Simplified procedure NECC without 40 seconds lead time

3.2 Data Analysis

3.2.1 Freight traffic


After the classified traffic count has conducted at each gate, then the result adjusted for weekdays, night and
seasonal adjustment. Weekdays adjustment considered the variation of traffic over the days of the week at the day
time. Night adjustment factor (NAF) considered adjusting traffic variation over a single day (24 hours). Seasonal
adjustment factor (SAF) considered adjusting traffic counting over different seasons of the year. The data set mainly
divide the year in to 3 different cycles showing average daily traffic of each seasons.

3.2.2 Freight destinations and route preferences


After 5 major destination areas inside the city were clearly identified, the percentage share of entry vehicles to
each destinations were determined to get freight vehicle destination matrix. The freight vehicle route choice matrix
determines the number of freight vehicles at the given category taking the chosen route corridor to reach their
destination. The freight vehicle destination matrix and freight vehicle route choice matrix were the basic inputs to
estimate the total vehicle kilometer and total vehicle hour at each day.

3.2.3 Total vehicle-kilometer and total vehicle-hour


In addition to the total length from the major gate to each destinations, the estimation of total vehicle kilometer
and total vehicle hour considers;

For scenario-1: The freight traffic using the preferred route to reach their destination at the day and night time
movements were considered.
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For scenario-2: From the freight traffic category, night traffic which was the percentage share of freight traffic for
the night movement with their route preference by vehicular is taken as an input.

3.2.4 Exhaust emission analysis


The exhaust emission measurement were conducted for two pollutants, CO and CO2. From the simplified
procedure, the cycle length was 0.91 km with an average speed of 33.6 Kph. The measured values were based on the
cycle length of 0.91 km and changed to per km amount. The measurement was made twice at each freight vehicle
category and age group, then the average value was taken as the emission factor for each kilometer travel. The
estimated total emission (in ton/day) for each vehicle category taken as the product of the emission factor at each age
group with the total vehicle-kilometer.

345785 9 34:78: 9 34;78;


Total vehicle kilometer
;
Total emission for pollutant ton day =
10C

Where:
EF = Emission factor for the corresponding age group (AG) at each vehicle category
AG1, AG2, and AG3 are age groups of freight vehicles
AG1 = vehicles with an age of less than 5 years
AG2 = vehicles with an age between 5 and 15 years
AG3 = vehicles older than 15 years

4. Results

4.1 Daily freight traffic

The study shows, on average a total of 10,725 freight vehicles had entered and 12,890 freight vehicles had left the
city of Addis Ababa each day. From the entering traffic the shares of 6.19%, 7.71%, 9.77%, 5.90% and 70.43% were
from the gate of Ambo, Dessie, Jimma, Gojjam and Kality respectively, with small truck, medium truck, heavy truck
and truck trailer shares of 23.55%, 27.25%, 26.31% and 22.90% respectively.

4.2 Freight destinations and route preference

As outlined above, the major gate is freight gate with higher entry vehicle share and then it will be chosen for
further analysis. Based on the results above Bishoftu (Kality) gate taken as the major gate with 70.43% share from
entering freight traffic. The data on destination preference were analyzed and results with 6 possible freight
destinations, and the results of route choice preference showed different routes to reach each destination as detailed
below in table 4.1.

Table 1. Details of destination and route choice preference results


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Destinations Routes

Code Particular names Code Particular names

Kality - Gotera major arterials D1-R1 Sides of major arterial on Kality - Gotera Road
D1
adjacent sides (Kality G)
Kality interchange - Gotera interchange - Le Gare - Piazza -
D2-R1
Merkato
D2 Merkato Area (M) D2-R2 Kality interchange - Gotera interchange - Old airport - Merkato
D2-R3 Kality interchange - Ayertena - Old airport - Merkato
D2-R4 Kality interchange - Megenagna - Sidist Kilo - Piazza - Merkato
D3-R1 Kality interchange - Gotera interchange - Kera - Le Gare
Kera - Le Gare Route adjacent sides Kality interchange - Lebu (junction before Jemo) - Kera - Le
D3 D3-R2
(Kera L) Gare
D3-R3 Kality interchange - Lafto - Kera - Le Gare
D4 Megenagna area (Meg A) D4-R1 Kality interchange - Bole airport - Megenagna
D5-R1 Kality interchange - Bole airport - Megenagna - CMC
D5 CMC Area (CMC)
D5-R2 Kality interchange - Bole airport - Gerji - Gurd Shola - CMC

Fig. 3. Map showing freight destination areas

From routes choice preference studies, the results of the analysis are presented on the following sections below;
For Destination D1: Kality Gotera major arterial adjacent sides, all the freight vehicles are moving on one road
which is D1-R1 having 100% shares of all the vehicles moving to destination D1 for both Scenario-1 and Scenrio-2.

Table 2. Route choice to destination D2: Merkato area at day and night time
Routes Small Truck Medium Truck Heavy Truck Truck Trailer
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Day Night Day Night Day Night Day Night


D2-R1 20% 60% 10% 50% 10% 50% 0% 30%
D2-R2 30% 20% 20% 20% 30% 10% 20% 0%
D2-R3 40% 0% 50% 10% 40% 10% 60% 30%
D2-R4 10% 20% 20% 20% 20% 30% 20% 40%

Table 3. Route choice to destination D3: Kera - Le Gare route adjacent sides at day and night
Small Track Medium Track Heavy Track Track Trailer
Routes
Day Night Day Night Day Night Day Night
D3-R1 20% 70% 10% 80% 10% 70% 0% 60%
D3-R2 40% 20% 60% 10% 50% 20% 60% 30%
D3-R3 40% 10% 30% 10% 40% 10% 40% 10%

For Destination D4: Megenagna area, all the freight vehicles are moving on one road which D4-R1 having 100%
shares of all the vehicles moving to destination D4 at both scenario-1 and scenario-2. Most of the road section is
passing via the ring road of the city.

Table 4. Route choice to destination D5: CMC area at day and night
Small Track Medium Track Heavy Track Track Trailer
Routes
Day Night Day Night Day Night Day Night

D5-R1 60% 50% 50% 60% 40% 70% 30% 80%


D5-R2 40% 50% 50% 40% 60% 30% 70% 20%

4.3 Total vehicle kilometer and vehicle hour

The summary of the result vehicle-kilometer and vehicle-hour for each vehicle category and destinations at the day
and night times for scenario -1 and scenario-2 is presented in the Tables below.

Table 5. Total vehicle-kilometer from major gate to destinations (scenario 1)

Total Percentage
Destinations Time of movement
(in kilometer) Share from total

Day 29,400.07
D1 17.04
Night 1,925.86

Day 80,917.91
D2 46.72
Night 4,985.34

Day 29,468.88 16.94


D3

Night 1,681.80

Day 17,869.88
D4 10.36
Night 1,181.69

Day 15,395.99
D5 8.94
Night 1,045.68
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10

Total Percentage
Destinations Time of movement
(in kilometer) Share from total

Total Vehicle-Kilometer (Day) 173,052.74

Total Vehicle-Kilometer (Night) 10,820.38

Total Vehicle-Kilometer 183,873.11

Table 6. Total vehicle-kilometer from major gate to the destinations (scenario 2)


Total
Destinations Time of movement
(in kilometers)

D1 31,325.93

D2 78,937.22

D3 Night 26,799.47

D4 19,051.57

D5 16,620.54

Total Vehicle-Kilometer 172,734.74

Table 7. Total vehicle-hour from major gate to the destinations (scenario 1)

Percentage Night as Percent of the


Destinations Time of movement Vehicle-hour
Contribution Day

Day 1,171.73
D1 17.96 3.99
Night 46.76

Day 3,119.13
D2
Night 135.34

Day 1,337.56
D3 20.55 4.23
Night 56.59

Day 297.83
D4 4.68 6.61
Night 19.69

Day 575.79
D5 8.85 4.26
Night 24.54

Total Vehicle-Hour (Day) 6,502.04

Total Vehicle-Hour (Night) 282.91

Total Vehicle-Hour 6,784.96

Table 8. Total vehicle-hour from major gate to the destinations (scenario 2)


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Destinations Time of movement Vehicle-hour


D1 760.54
D2 2,143.48
D3 Night 901.43

D4 317.53
D5 389.94
Total Vehicle-Hour 4,512.92

4.4 Exhaust emission analysis

The results of exhaust emission for both scenario-1 and scenario-2 are detailed in table below;

Table 9. Exhaust emission for both scenario-1 and scenrio-2 at each day
Pollutant amount (ton/day)
Emission gas Scenario-1 Scenario-2
Day Night Night
CO 0.0889 0.012 0.09

CO2 32.59 4.26 29.18

5. Discussion

5.1 Freight traffic analysis

The annual average daily traffic (AADT) for freight vehicles estimated to be 10,725 for entering and 12,890 for
leaving the city. The gate of Kality (Debrezeit) had taken highest share of 70.43% for entering and 73.98% for leaving
the city. These showed that freight activity of import and export are mainly take place between the city and the main
port of the country, port of Djibouti.
The entering freight through Kality gate distributes to many destinations in the city centers. Among the destinations
Merkato area (D2) had attracted the highest share of entering freight traffic with 38.5% or 2,897 vehicles per day. This
is due to the fact that the area is the biggest open market of the country.
A separate consideration of day and night time movements along with their route choice preference were taken.
For day time movements to skip the congested traffic at city centers most of freight vehicles preferred to travel via the
ring roads along the periphery of the city. The night movements from the gate of Kality to the destinations preferred
to travel along the shortest possible route crossing the city centers. For example, to reach Destination D2- Merkato
Area, take Routes D2-R1 (which is passing through the city center) and D2-R3 (entirely on the ring roads) with length
of 23.38 and 31.57 kilometers respectively.
As shown in Table 4.2, D2-R1 had higher route choice preference for the night time movements than the day time.
On the other hand, D2-R3 had higher route preference for the day time movement than the night time due to longer
length of travel along this route was not much favored for the night time movements.
The total travel time between the origin and destinations at the night time was much less when compared to that of
the day time to reach the same destination. The night time movement only taken 60 70% of the time taken by day
time movement to reach the same destination.

5.2 Total vehicle - hour and total vehicle - kilometer


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The estimated total vehicle-hour of Kality gate was 6,784.96 vehicle-hours per day for scenario-1 and 4,512.92
vehicle-hours per day for scenario-2. For scenario-1, among all destinations Merkato area had attracted the highest
shares of 47.97% and Megenagna area had attracted the lowest share of 4.68%. Since vehicle-hour is the time spent
to reach the destination along the preferred route, the night movements are good in reducing the travel time to reach
the same destination than the day time. For example, the night time movement taken an average of 39.43 minutes to
reach destination D2 along the route D2-R1which was nearly half of the average time needed for the day time
movement. From the total vehicle - hour result, the night time movement contributed about 4 - 6.61% of the total day
time movement contribution.
The estimated total vehicle-kilometer of Kality gate was 183,873.11 vehicle - kilometer per day for scenario-1 and
172,734.74 vehicle - kilometers per day for scenario-2. For scenario-1, among all destinations Merkato area had
attracted the highest shares of 46.72% and CMC area had attracted the lowest share of 9.62%.

Table 10. Comparison of scenario 1 and scenario 2


Total No. of Total Total
Scenario Time of Day
Freight Vehicles Vehicle - Hour Vehicle - Kilometer

Day 7082 6502.04 173,052.74

Day 1 0.918 24.436


Scenario 1
Night 472 282.91 10,820.38
Night 1 0.599 22.925
Night 7554 4512.92 172,734.74
Scenario 2
Night 1 0.597 22.867

This study showed that there was considerable reduction in the length and time to travel between the origin and
destination during the night time than day time movements. To reach to the same destination, freight vehicle operators
and drivers prefers longer kilometer route but less traffic route like the ring road at the ray time to skip the congestions
at the shortest routes passing along the city centers. The results showed that, for a single freight vehicle to deliver
goods need an average of 0.92 hour and 24.44 kilometer at the day time movement which was much higher compared
to 0.60 hour and 22.92 kilometer of the night time.

5.3 Exhaust emission analysis

These two estimated factors vehicle-kilometer and vehicle-hour are one or the other way directly linked with the
amount of exhaust emission from freight vehicles. These means higher values of those factors showed higher operation
time of the freight vehicles which resulted in higher exhaust emissions of gases in to the atmospheric air.

For scenario-1
As in table 4.9, there was a higher differences on exhaust emission percentage share showed between the day and
night time of movements that most of the movements of freight vehicles were takes place at the day time.

For scenario-2
From the result in table 4.9, the exhaust emission could reduce 7.66 tons of CO2 and 10 kg CO per day compared
to Scenario-1. from the results showed that, scenario-2 is good in reducing the amount of pollutant release than
scenario-1.

The other factor is the age of freight vehicles which had direct effect on the amount of exhaust emission. As the
age of freight vehicles goes older, then the amount of gases released from the vehicle increase. For example, from our
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Abel Kebede and Girma Gebresenbet/ Transportation Research Procedia 00 (2017) 000000 13

direct measurement the release of CO gas for truck trailer of age less than 5 years were 1.14 grams per vehicle-
kilometer and for age of greater than 15 years were 3.26 grams per vehicle-kilometer. These results showed that the
use of older freight vehicles increased the release of pollutant gases more than twice.

6. Conclusion

The study demonstrates urban freight delivery of goods for the city of Addis Ababa will show significant increase
in the future. Among all the gates of Addis Ababa city, Kality (Bishoftu) gate had taken the largest share of entry and
exit freight traffic.
It was observed that most of the vehicles for delivery of goods prefer to use ring roads via the periphery of the city
for the day time movements and shorter routes passing through the city centers at the night time. The movement of
freight vehicles in the city centers at the day time has contributed to delay and congestion at intersections and urban
arterial roads. The night time delivery of freight has a huge potential to promote as economically effective and
environmentally sustainable distribution system.
The concern for environmental degradation in Addis Ababa due to vehicular emission is quite poor mainly due to
the fact that little attention had given to the age of freight vehicles, especially to vehicle category of truck trailer with
the majority of the vehicles were very old and had contributed most of the pollutant gases.
The successive and continuous implementation of city logistics measures can give efficient solutions to the
problems of urban freight transport in economic and sustainable way.

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