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Four Laning of Barasat-Krishnagar Section of h[II-34 from Km 31.

000 to Km
11.5.000 in the State of West Bengal Under NHDP on Phase-Ilf on l)esign ,
Build, Finance, Operate and Transfer@BFOT) Toll Basis

Detailed Project Report


Vo1ume-l Main Report (P1)

Krishnagar
a
Palsit

@ ProjectRoad

Sumifted y.' Sumifted fo.'

General Manager (Tech)


. Engineers. Planners. Scientists. Economists National Highways Authority of lndia
Plot No. 41, Sector- 18, Near Maruti lndustrialArea,
G- 5 & 6, Sector- 10, Dwarka, New Delhi
Gurgaon, Haryana
Ph :25074100
Fax: 25093507
Feasibility and Detailed Project Report for Rehabilitation and
Upgrading to 4/6 Lane Divided Garriageway of

Barasat - Baharampore (km 31 to km 193) section of


NH 34 in the state of West Bengal

Volume I Draft Detailed Proiect Report: Package-l


CONTENTS
Executive Summary
Chapter 1: Project Description

Ghapter 2: Road and Bridge lnventory

Ghapter 3: Summary of Survey and lnvestigations

Ghapter 4: Traffic Survey and Analysis

Ghapter 5: Summary of EIA/IEE and Action Plan

Ghapter 6: Summary of Resettlement PIan

Ghapter 7: Design Basis, Standards and Specifications

Ghapter 8: Pavement and Preliminary Bridge Design

Chapter 9: lmprovement Proposals

Ghapter l0: Road Safety Audit

Chapter 11: Gost Estimates

Chapter 12: Economic Analysis

Ghapter 13: Conclusions and Recommendations


Detailed Project Report Feasibility & DPR for 4/6 laning from Barasat to Baharampore
Volume-l: Main Report (P l) (km 31 to km 193) section of NH34 in the state of West Bengal

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

E.1 Project Background

National Highway NH-34 is the principal north-south road transport route from Kolkata to
the norlhern extremities of West Bengal via NH-31, which it joins at Dalkhola around
453 kilometres from Kolkata. The NH-34 road is predominantly a two lane road
throughout which crosses the north-south railway system and other rail routes at
numerous locations either at level crossings or at bridges under or over the rail track.

The Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MoSRT&H), Government of lndia


through National Highways Authority of lndia (NHAI), has decided to take up the
development of 416 lane divided Carriageway of Barasat -
Baharampore (km31 to
km193) for safe and efficient movement of traffic under this contract. The Contract has
been awarded to Louis Berger Group, lnc., USA as consultant to carry out the Feasibility
Study and preparation of Detailed Project Report for Rehabilitation and upgrading to
4l6Lane divided carriageway of the captioned section of NH34.

The project road section is divided in to 2 packages as follows:


ffi
Package 2: From Krishnagar (km 1 15.00) to Baharampore (km 193.00)
This executive summary deals with the engineering surveys and improvement proposals
along the Package-1: From Barasat to Krishnagar, Package No NHDP-ll|/BOTA/VB|O1 o't
NHAI.

8.2 Traffic Data and Analysis

The present traffic conditions are very homogeneous along the project road, around
17901 - 20397 Passengers Car Unit (PCU) per day in Base Year 2Q07.

The growth rates worked out from 2 sources i.e. from Socio Economic Data and
Registered Motor Vehicles have been compared to arrive at rational traffic projections. A
comparative statement on the growth rates and proposed growth for Traffic loading on
the project road is presented below.

Gomparison of Traffic Growth Rates and proposed Growth Rates


Sl No Descriotion 2/3 Wheeler l%l Car U"l Bus (%l Truck (%)
1 Socio economic 8.5-9.5 6.6-7.3 6.6-7.3 6.5-7.3
2 Reqistered Motor Vehicle 12.6il10.3 7.6 7.4 6.8
3 Proposed uo to 2015 7.0 7.0 7.0
4 Proposed bevond 2015 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0

The growth factors for car, bus and Trucks are proposed as above considering the
project is proposed to be implemented through BOT Format and Traffic is the main
issue to the Entrepreneurs. The consultant has followed the above growth rate for the
traffic projection.
Following parameters has been assumed for forecasting traffic.
. Base Year 2007
. Traffic Growth Rate
. Seasonal factor 1.0

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L-l
Detailed Project Report Feasibility & DPR for 416 laning from Barasat to Baharampore
Volume-l: Main Report (P l) (km 31 to km 193) section of NH34 in the state of West Bengal

The projected traffic levels for proposed two project packages have been presented
below.

Projected Traffic AADT for the Project Road (From km 3l to km 115)


Year AADT Traffic in pcu Remarks
All Motorised Ail Non- Total
Traffic Motorised Traffic
2007 17901 2496 20397 Based on Primary Data
2009 20494 2648 23142 Base / Current vear
2010 21929 2727 24656 Start of Concession Period
2015 30756 3162 3391 B
2020 39254 JOOC 42919
2025 50099 4249 54348
2029 60896 4783 65678 End of Concession Period

The Main objective of this study is to improve the project road section of the National
Highway to dual 2-lane carriageway facility. The two-lane carriageway will cater up to
15000 PCUs/day as per IRC: 64 - 1990 "Guidelnes for Capacity of Roads in Rural
Areas". The present traffic volume (AADT) is around 23,142 has already exceeded the
Design Service Volume of two lane road. Therefore, for capacity augmentation by
improvement to 4-lane divided carriageway with paved shoulders is warranted
immediately.

E.3 Alignment and Engineering


The existing road alignment is proposed to be retained in most of the sections. ln some
locations the existing alignment is slightly modified with in the ROW so as to improve the
poor geometrics. Except in a few places where improvement of alignment is considered
very essential, which involves land acquisition is given below:
Start Ghainage End Ghainage Length
S. No. (km) Remark
lkml lkm)
1 33.800 34.200 0.50 Realionment due to sharo curve
2 55.660 56.1 00 0.40 Realiqnment due to sharp curve
Realignment due to sharp curve and highly
3 95.200 97.800 1.90
skew anqle at railwav line crossino
4 112.000 112.500 0.50 Realiqnment due to sharp curve
Total Lenoth 3.30
8.4 Bypasses
It was proposed to provide bypass for Amdanga and Barajaguli in consultation with
NHAI officials. The tentative alignment marked on topo maps was formally approved by
NHAI. But the detailed topographic survey could not carry out due to resistance from
local people and the proposal of bypasses was dropped from the study. lt is confirmed
from the client that the project will go ahead without provision of any bypasses.

E.5 Proposed Gross-section of Highway

E.5.1 Design Speed


The design speed for the project road has been proposed as under:
Rulino 100 km/hour
Vlinimum 30 km/hour

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Detailed Project Report Feasibility & DPR for 4/6 laning from Barasat to Baharampore
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E.5.2 Gross-Sectional Details


Sarriageway 2x7.00 14.00 m
Shvness (oaved strio) 2 x 0.50 1.00 m
raved 2x 1.50 3.00 m
Shoulders
Jnoaved 2x1.5 1.00 m
lural 4.50 m
Vledian
Jrban 1.20 m
Footpath/Drain/Utilitv corridor I Varies
- Cross-section - Type A1 & 81 To be used in Built-up Section with concentric widening
- Cross section - Type A2 & 82 To be used in Rural section with eccentric widening
- Cross section - Type C1 To be used in realignment section
- Cross Section - Type C2 To be used in approaches to ROB/Under pass
- Cross Section - Type D1 To be used in Superelevated sections

E.6 Service Road


No Service road is proposed at this stage to cut down the cost and make the project
financially viable in BOT Format.

E.7 Materials
During preliminary surveys and investigations, suitable sources of all construction
materials were identified. Samples were collected from all the sources identified. Based
on visual evaluation and based on secondary data, data indicate that sufficient sources
of suitable materials available are at around 185 km from the Project Road.

E.8 Pavement Design


The objective of the project is to improve the existing two-lane Carriageway and
widened to 4-lane divided carriageway. Based on Pavement Condition Survey and
secondary data, the pavement design for new carriageway/ widening and strengthening-
overlay has been carried out. The thickness requirements for the flexible pavement have
been worked out based on the Guidelines stipulated in the IRC: 37-2001 and IRC: 81-
1998. The details of proposed pavement composition forthe project road are given in
Table below:
New GonstructionMideninq Overlav over existinq road
GSB WMM DBM BC DBM BC
200 250 150 50 65-1 60 50

E.9 Proposal for Culverts


The condition of most of the existing culverts is poor and many culverts required
reconstructions due to geometric improvements (HorizontalA/ertical). Some culverts
which are structurally good, proposed for widening in addition many new culverts are
proposed as per requirements. Total no. of culverts proposed is as follows:

Slab Culverts: 36 Nos reconstruction, 18 Nos widening and 80 Nos new construction.
Pipe Culverts: 3 Nos reconstruction and 14 Nos widening.

E.10 ProposalforBridges
There are 2 \llalor Bridges, 5 Minor Bridges, 4 ROB and 1 RUB proposed. For 2ltllalor
bridges, 2 minor bridges and 1 ROB existing bridges are retained and additional 2 Lane

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Detailed Project Report Feasibility & DPR for 4/6 laning from Barasat to Baharampore
Volume-l: Main Report (P l) (km 31 to km 193) section of NH34 in the state of West Bengal

Bridge is proposed adjacent to existing bridge. 3 minor bridges are proposed for
reconstruction with 4 lanes.

8.11 Proposal for Grade Separator /Underpass


The project road is to be developed as a limited access highway to enable the through
traffic flows freely with least interference from the vehicles coming from the crossroads.
The Consultants examined the various junctions and studied their traffic patterns. On
the basis of this study consultants proposed two grade-separated structures at Kalyani
Junction (km 53+150) and at Chakhdah (km 66+360)

8.12 Toll Plazas


The proposed 4 laning & strengthening of the Barasat to Krishnagar section of NH-34
involve large investment. As the road user is being given a superior free flow facility -
with savings in fuel and man-hours. The road users will be levied a fee for use of this
facility. A toll plaza is proposed between km 54 to km 55.

E.l3 Environmental and Social Aspects


Based on the environmental assessment and surveys conducted for the project,
associated potential adverse environmental impacts can be mitigated to an acceptable
level by adequate implementation of the measures as stated in the EIA Report.
Adequate provisions shall be made in the Project to cover the environmental mitigation
and monitoring requirements, and their associated costs as suggested in environmental
budget. Environmental clearance has been awarded by MOEF vide letter no. 5-85/2007-
lA-lll dated 02 Oct. 2007.
A Resettlement Action Plan has been prepared for the project stretch for the Project
affected Persons based on baseline socio-economic survey and census survey data.
his resettlement plan (RP) has been prepared in accordance with, National Policy on
Resettlement and Rehabilitation (NPRR), and State Governments framework of
resettlement policies and other social safeguard policies designed to protect the rights
of the affected persons and communities.

8.14 Project Gosts


The preliminary cost estimate presented in this report has been worked out using
quantities of different items of works derived from the preliminary design and unit rates.
The summary of Project Costs is presented in below. The major components that figure
in the cost stream for the improvement of the project are:
. Strengthening of existing road
a Construction of Additional Carriageway
a Provision of underpass, grade separator
a Junctions lmprovement
a Utility diversions
o Road marking, signage, metal beam crash barrier and Highway traffic management
system
O Provision of Toll Plaza / rest area
a Reconstruction of weak / inadequate culverts
a Reconstruction of weak bridges, protection works for other bridges and construction
new 2-lane of structure for additional carriageway

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Detailed Project Report Feasibility & DPR for 4/6 laning from Barasat to Baharampore
Volume-l: Main Report (P l) (km 31 to km 193) section of NH34 in the state of West BqlSsl

Summary of the Project Cost


BillNo. Description Gost in Rupees
A GivilWorks
I Site Clearance 25.126.413

2 Earthworks 548.622.686

3 Sub-Base and Base Courses 1,579,656,614

4 Bituminous Courses 2,207,898,736

Cross Drainage Works (Culverts) 392,205,787

o Bridges 1 ,013,642,663
7 Drainage and Protective Works 473,284,355

I Traffic Signs, Markings & Road Appurtenances 401,159,541


o Miscellaneous 2,657,500

10 TollPlaza 241,808,798
11 Highway Traffic Management System (HTMS) 136,895,000

Total(A) 7.022.958,095
(Sav702.30 Grores
Rate Per km (CivilWorks only) 8.36 Crores
Non CivilWorks
B (lncluding land and structure acquisition, utility 130 Crores
relocation and environmental cost)
Total cost of project (2009-f0) 833 Crores

E.15 Economic Analysis

The consultants carried out the economic appraisal using the appraisal methodology
and economic costs and benefits by HDM -4. The EIRR and NPV (at 12%), with
passenger cost, for project road along with sensitivity analysis has been presented as
follows:

Summary of Economic Analysis (Base Gase)


NPV Economic lnternal Rate of Return (%)
Length
Link lD @12%, Base Sensitivity Sensitivity Sensitivity
(km)
Base Case Case S1 S2 S3
WITH PASSENGER COST
WB-o1 84.0 3783.0 19.5% 17.3o/o 16.7% 14.9%

The project road is found to be economically viable with EIRR more than the resource
cost of capital @ 11%. The important factor which has made the project economcally
viable is high traffic; the present volume has already exceeded the Design Service
Volume of the project road.

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Detailed Project Report Feasibility & DPR for 4/6 laning from Barasat to Baharampore
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E.l5.l Financial Viability of the Project


Financial lnternal Rate of Return (FIRR) has been worked out based on Discounted
Net Cash Flow technique by comparing both cost stream and revenue stream. ln
order to make the project commercially viable, various levels of project subsidy up to
a maximum of 40o/o of the project cost is considered. The results are summarised in
Table.
Financial Analysis for Project Road: Barasat to Krishnagar

Financial lnternal Rate of Return, FIRR (%)


Grant
Pre Tax Post Tax Equity
With 0% qrant 11.5 10.7 9.9
With 20% grant 12.7 11.8 12.8
With 30% qrant 13.4 12.5 14.4
With 40% qrant 14.1 13.1 16.3

It may be observed that the project model for 4-lane facility becomes financially
viable at a subsidy level of around 30%, with an FIRR of 14.4 % on equity.

E.l6 Gonclusion and Recommendations

The present study confirms that widening of Package-1 i.e. Barasat - Krishnagar Section
(km 31.00 to km 115.00) Section of NH-34 to four lanes with median and other
improvements are found to be economically viable with EIRR more than the resource
cost of capital @ 11o/o. Besides, the project is viable to be taken up on DBFOT basis, for
24 years concessional period at a subsidy of 3Oo/o, which is less than the maximum
grant permitted by NHAI. lt is, therefore, recommended that the implementation of the
Project should be taken up as proposed here under:
i) Construction of partially access controlled four-lane road by way of providing
additional two lane carriageway with culverts/Bridges and strengthening of the
existing two lane carriageway in the entire length.
ii) Construction of Grad Separator/ Underpasses at important two road junctions.
iii) Construction of realignment at the poor geometric locations.

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Detailed Project Report Feasibility & DPR for 4/6 laning from Barasat to Baharampore
Volume-l: Main Repo

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTERl: PROJECT DESCRIPTION........ .......1


1.1 GENERAL ................1
1.2 THE MAIN OBJECTIVES OF THE CONSULTANCY SERVICES: .................................. 1

1.3 SCOPE OF SERV|CES............ .................2


1.4 THEPROJECT..........
1.5 THE REPORT & THE METHODOLOGY........ .............4

The Louis Berger Group lnc., USA


Detailed Project Report Feasibility & DPR for 4/6 laning from Barasat to Baharampore
Volume-l: Main Report (P l) (km 31 to km 193) section of NH34 in the state of West Bengal

CHAPTER 1: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

1.1 GENERAL
National Highway, NH-34 is the principal north-south road transport route from Kolkata
to the northern extremities of West Bengal via NH-31, which it joins at Dalkhola 453
kilometres from Kolkata. The NH-34 road is predominantly a two lane road throughout
which crosses the nodh-south railway system and other rail routes at numerous
locations either at level crossings at bridges under or over the rail track. Considering the
traffic demand and to have safe and efficient movement of traffic, study was carried out
during 2OO4-05 for rehabilitation, improvement and strengthening of the existing two
lane road as part of West Bengal Corridor Development Project under an Asian
Development Bank Loan. Project, as outcome of the study, could not be implemented
as there was no capacity augmentation of highway and this called for a study for
widening of existing 2)ane road to 416 lane divided carriageway.
The Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MORT&H), Government of lndia, has
decided to take up the development of 4/6 lane divided Carriageway of Barasat -
Raiganj (km31 to km398) in 3Sections like Barasat-Baharampore (km31 to km 193),
Baharampore - Farakka (km193 to km295) and Farakka-Raiganj (km295 to km398)
sections of NH-34 for an augmentation of highway capacity and safe and efficient
movement of traffic. The National Highways Authority of lndia (NHAI) has been
entrusted with implementation of the development of this corridor, which has been
divided into three sections, as given below, for the feasibility and detailed design
purposes.
Subsection Chainage
No Name of Locations

2 From Baharamoore to Farakka km 193 to km 295


From Farakka to Raiganj km 295 to km 398

NHAI has appointed the Louis Berger Group, lnc., USA as Consultants to carry out the
Feasibility Study and preparation of Detailed Project Report for Rehabilitation and
upgrading to 4/6lane divided carriageway of Barasat - Baharampore (km 31 to km 193)
section of NH-34 in West Bengal
The location of the Project Road is shown in
Map 1.1. nd f'JRti'i'1t.4{
r18t Egrt&l
The Contract Agreement was signed on
07.09.2006 and the consultancy services T

have been commenced w.e.f. 27.09.2006. +


"T-

The consultant is currently instructed to [ fir


. t{ '} r.. U .s..H
complete the project for implementation in
BOT format and accordingly the consultant
prepared the repod.
1.2 THE MAIN OBJECTIVES OF THE
CONSULTANCY SERVICES: ++
ri;Si#+
t]!d<i$\zds
.;;,sfd l*!*'i
o To finalise detailed project reports for 4)+r+d&\d' :r.'r ::

rehabilitation and upgrading of the


existing two lane National Highway (NH Mao 1.1 : Proiect Location Mao
-34) to a minimum of 4-lane divided

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Detailed Project Report Feasibility & DPR for 4/6 laning from Barasat to Baharampore
Vol"mg, Vain nep

carriageway configuration in the most economical manner ut consistent with the


requirements of safe and high speed travel and to establish the technical,
environmental, social, economical and financial viability of the project.
. To determine the viability of various sub-sectons of the project designed as partially
/ fully access controlled facilities taking into account the investment requirements
with regard to rehabilitation, upgrading and improvement based on highway design,
pavement design, provision of service roads wherever necessary, types of
intersections, rehabilitation and widening of existing road, reconstruction of existing
bridges and construction of new bridges and structures, vis--vis the financial
returns through toll and other revenues.
To finalize the Detailed Project Report comprising detailed highway design, design
of pavement and overlay with options for flexible or rigid pavements, design of
bridges and cross drainage structures and ROBs / RUBs, design of service roads,
quantities of various items, detailed working drawings, detailed cost estimates,
economic and financial viability analysis, environmental and social feasibility, its
actions plans as appropriate and documents required for tendering the project on
commercial basis for international / local competitive bidding.
1.3 SCOPE OF SERVICES
The scope of consultancy services for the proposed widening of existing undivided two
lane road to divided 416-lane facility includes:
. The Detailed Project Report would inter-alia cover detailed design for
rehabilitation/strengthening of the existing carriageway including structures thereon
and design of new carriageway and required structures. lt would include design of
service roads, parking areas/rest areas, toll collection plazas, weighing stations,
signal system at busy intersections, telephone system, quantities of various items,
detailed working drawings, detailed cost estimates and pre-qualifications and tender
documents in suitable contract packages for execution of civil works. The work shall
include study of environmental and resettlement and rehabilitation needs as per
guidelines of the Government of lndia. The Consultant shall obtain all types of
project clearances, from concerned department of CentraliState Government (e.9.
Railways, Environment, Forest, lrrigation etc.) which matter for implementing civil
works.
Various engineering surveys and investigations such as topographic surveys, soil
and sub-soil investigations, hydraulic and hydrological studies, detailed investigation
of existing bridges, culverts and other structures to determine their condition,
adequacy of watenruay and load carrying capacity, pavement investigations, material
investigations, etc. to prepare project road designs; alignment drawings, design of
bridges, culverts and other structures; land/structures acquisition and utility shifting
requirements etc. as necessary for Highway design and improvement.
The Separate document shall be prepared for BOT as well as EPC contracts, for the
development of the project Report.
Preparation of highway design for improvements, viz., widening andior
strengthening of highway including structures, provision of service-roads, truck
parking, road side amenities, toll collection booths, etc. and related facilities that are
needed for implementation on commercial format including on BOT basis.
a All Ready to implement "good for construction drawings" shall be prepared.
a Studying Environmental lmpact Assessment (ElA) and prepare Environment
Management Plan (EMP) based on significant impact assessed during EIA for
obtaining environmental clearance from MOEF.

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Detailed Project Report Feasibility & DPR for 4/6 laning from Barasat to Baharampore
Volume-l: Main Rep

. Willingness to Pay Surveys for fixation of toll{ariff for different categories of vehicles
based on level and acceptability of user fee linked to varying benefits to the users.
. Estimation of the project costs and benefits for different users, with and without
timesaving, both in economic and financialterms,
. Economic analysis involving EIRR with Net Present Value (NPV) and without time
and accident savings, and sensitivity financial analysis.
. Viability analysis and working out Financial lnternal Rate of Return (FIRR).
. Submission of Reports: The time and submission of various reports are stated in
clause 10 of TOR. The main reports are given below:
Stage 1: Quality Assuranie PIan (QAP) Reporl
lnception Repo
Stage 2: Feasibility Report
Strip PIan and Clearances
Sfage 3: Land Acquisition Report
Prelimin ary Project Report
Stage 4: Draft Detailed Project Report
Final Detailed Project Report
1.4 THE PROJECT
The NH-34 Barasat to Baharampore Section in the state of West Bengal is located in
the nodhern part of Metropolitan city Kolkata. lt is part of the proposed Barasat to
Raiganj section which required strengthening and widening to 416 lane facility to
facilitate the road users safely. The NH-34 is an integral component of the National and
Regional road network. This 2 lane carriageway is currently one of the most heavily
trafficked stretches of NH in West Bengal. The alignment traverses through 3 Districts
North 24 Paraganas, Nadia and Murshidabad.
The completed NH-34 will connect the traffic from Kolkata to Siliguri as well as
facilitating the movements between the State highways (SH), Major district roads (MDR)
and other district roads (ODR). The increase in car ownership, changes in land use and
travel patterns have resulted in congestion on many parts of the State road network
including NH-34. The NH-34 currently not only functions as a main corridor to Nepal and
Bangladesh but as an urban collector/distributor between communities, employment
and shopping centres. The need to upgrade the NH-34 has been identified in
Government policy documents. This proposal to upgrade the NH-34 has been put
foruvard by National Highways Authority on behalf of the Government of lndia.
The NH-34 upgrade scheme comprises an upgrade of the existing NH-34 infrastructure
to improve an access on and off the NH-34 and to increase the capacity of NH-34
Mainline, within the context of an integrated transportation strategy for West Bengal.
Development of the existing NH-34 upgrade scheme involved an initial assessment of
the alternatives to upgrading the NH-34 as described in previously prepared report. After
consideration of each alternative and their social issues it was determined that
upgrading the existing infrastructure with concentric widening in the built-up section and
eccentric widening in the rural areas was the preferred option. The assessment of the
consequences of the option of not providing the bypass is outlined in relevant chapter
and it was consulted with the client at several meetings. Dedicated pedestrian,
Rickshaw and cyclist Facifities (i.e. for slow moving vehicles) were incorporated in the
design scheme proposing the service roads in the Built-Up sections during preparation
of Preliminary Project Report but considering the financial viability of the project many
facilities including the provision of service road at this stage is eliminated from the
project in consultation with the client leading to deviation of the Manual forming part of
the concession agreement.

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Detailed Project Report Feasibility & DPR for 4/6 laning from Barasat to Baharampore
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The NH-34 upgrading scheme comprises the upgrade of 162km of NH-34 Mainline to
Dual two lane carriageway (proposing future widening to dual three lane carriageway)
standards between Barasat and Baharampore together with the upgrade (grade
separator) of Major Junction at 2 locations (Kalyani and Chakdah) and upgrade of Minor
Junctions at a few locations. Construction of the scheme is significant undertaking and
is estimated to take approximately 3 years and employ several hundred people. The
proposed scheme has been demonstrated to meet its objective of improving the
capacity of the NH-34 within the context of an integrated Transportation strategy for
West Bengal and also supplies further benefits to road users such as regional and local
car traffic, commercial traffic and buses. These benefits include:
. The scheme will result in an increase in the capacity of the NH-34 which will allow all
road users including key public transport services, such as buses and taxis as well
as commercial vehicles to benefit from significantly reduced traffic congestion.
. The scheme provides more efficient access to the NH-34 itself by reducing
congestion on the approach routes and reducing the potential for traffic queues
forming on the off slip and impacting on the operation of the NH-34.
. The scheme will not generate any significant levels of induced traffic and diverted
traffic.
. The monetary value of the significant benefits derived from the scheme is discussed
in details in the Economic Analysis Chapter.
The exact procurement method for construction of the scheme has now been
determined that the project will be implemented through Private Entrepreneur in BOT
Format. The consultant considered the client's decision and prepared the project in
accordance with the BOT Format.
1.5 THE REPORT & THE METHODOLOGY
The methodology as submitted in the lnception Report has been followed for carrying
out the required work. This report describes about package 1 of the proposed road.
The present submission of Detailed Project Report includes the following in consonance
with the TOR:
Part I : Land Acquisition Report (being submitted separately)
Part ll: Detailed Project Report
Volume-l: Main Report
Executive Summary
Chapter 1 Project Description
Chapter 2 Road and Bridge lnventory
Chapter 3 Summary of Survey and lnvestigations
Chapter 4 Traffic Survey and Analysis
Chapter 5 Summary of EIA/IEE and Action Plan
Chapter 6 Summary of Resettlement Plan
Chapter 7 Design Basis, Standards and Specifications
Chapter I Pavement and Preliminary Bridge Design
Chapter 9 lmprovement Proposals
Chapter 10 Road Safety Audit
Chapter 11 Cost Estimates
Chapler 12 Economic Analysis
Chapter 13 Conclusions and Recommendations
Volume - ll: Drawings

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Detailed Project Report Feasibility & DPR for 4/6 laning from Barasat to Baharampore
Voture-t, ltain nep

TABLE OF CONTENTS

GHAPTER 2: ROAD AND BRIDGE INVENTORY


- .......... I

2.1 GENERAL ............... 1

2.2 RECONNATSSANCE ............... 1

2.3 LOCATTON OF THE PROJECT ROAD....... ................1

2.4 INVENTORY AND CONDITION SURVEY OF ROAD AND PAVEMENT .......2

2.5

2.6

LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1: Prqect Road Length distribution among Districts ......,......2

Table 2.2= Locations of Accident Black Spots....... ..............3

Table 2.3 Road Length and Height of Embankment ..........4

Tabfe 2,4= Condition of Existing Pavement ........4

Table 2.5: Rail-Road Crossings.......... .................5

Table 2.6: Summary of Right of Way..... ..............5

Table 2.7: Summary of Land Use .......6

Table 2.8: Urban & Built-up sections along the Project Road...... .......6

Table 2.9: Summary of Gross-Drainage Structures ,...........7

Table 2.10: Gomparison of Existing and Design Ghainage.,............. ...................8

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CHAPTER - 2: ROAD AND BRIDGE INVENTORY

2.1 GENERAL
The main objectives of the Consultancy services comprise of carrying out the feasibility
study & preparation of detailed project report for widening the existing two lane
carriageway to 416 lane divided carriageway and other details as per the 'Terms of
Reference'and guidelines given in IRC publications.

Following are the various engineering surveys and investigations other than traffic
surveys.
o lnventory of Road and Bridges;
r Condition of Road and Bridges;
o lnventory, Condition Survey for longitudinal drains
o lnventory of Land use; and
o lnventory of Utilities.

The basic data collected from field survey is presented separately as Annexure to
Report.

2.2 RECONNAISSANCE
The main objective of reconnaissance survey is to examine the general characteristics
of the area, along the project road, for the purpose of identification of the cost effective
method of widening of existing two lane road to 416 lane highway, and feasible
realignment route for fuher investigations and detailing. Prior to taking up the ground
reconnaissance survey, the following maps and secondary data, pertaining to project
influence area, were collected and studied:
. Maps and topo sheets published by Survey of lndia.
Preliminary Engineering Report for West Bengal Corridor Development Project-
2001
. Design Repo for West Bengal Corridor Development Project - NH Component-
Package A, (ADB Loan No 1870-lND)

All fieldwork involving topographic surveys and engineering investigations were primarily
based on the information obtained from the reconnaissance survey.

The km stone 31 on the north of Barasat town has been used as reference point for
description of location of features of the project road.

2.3 LOCATION OF THE PROJECT ROAD


The project Road starts from km 31 (Barasat), northern part of Barasat town and ends at
km 193 (Baharampore) southern part of Baharampore town. The beginning and end
point of the project road are on the outskirt of Barasat and Baharampore towns
respectively. The project road is divided in to 2 packages as follows:
Package 1: Barasat (km 31/0) to Krishnagar (km 11510).
Package 2: Krishnagar (km 11510 to Baharampore (km 193/0)
This report describes about Package 1.

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Ro.d,Networkol
l]tlesf Bengal

.N

f 8l l,A,R
BANGLADESH

Project Road

The project road traverses through the three districts of West Bengal, south to norlh
direction, namely North 24 Paraganas, Nadia and Murshidabad. The length of road for
Package-l in each district is given in Table 2.1 below:
able 2 Proiect Road distribution amonq Districts
Ghainage (km) Length
District
From To km %
Km 31 Km 48 North 24-Parganas 17 20
Km 48 Km 115 Nadia 67 80
Total 2 Districts 84 100%

2.4 INVENTORY AND CONDITION SURVEY OF ROAD AND PAVEMENT

2.4.1 Terrain
The entire alignment traverses through plain terrain with an average embankment height
of 2 to 3 m. The average uphill grade is close to 0.01%, which passed through
agricultural (cropping) land except at some locations where passes through it
commercial establishments.

2.4.2 Road Inventory


An inventory of the Project Road was carried out through dimensional measurement and
visual inspection. Features like Chainage, terrain and land-use, height of fill or depth of
cut, width of pavement and shoulders, railway crossing, important road junctions and
geometric deficiencies, utilities etc., were recorded. The road inventory (permanent
features) data are included in Annexure 1.1.

2.4.3 Alignment Characteristics


2.4.3.1 Horizontal Alignment
The horizontal alignment along the project road has evolved in general as series of fairly
straight connections between adjacent towns and villages since plain terrain offers little
constraints to the road alignment. Horizontal curves along the alignment are generally of

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large radius except where the route is influenced by river or railway crossings or road
layouts within towns and villages and in these cases realignment has been proposed to
improve the geometrics.
There is extensive ribbon development along the majority of the road with small
settlements typically at intervals of around 5km. The isolated locations, where the minor
substandard alignments exist may become insignificant with the possible improved and
realignments.

2.4.3.2 Vertical Alignment


The vertical alignment is mostly flat with the gradients in the range of 0.5 percent to 1.0
percent excepting the bridge approaches where the gradients are in excess of 3.0
percent. here are vqrtical curves with inadequate sight distance for over taking of the
vehicles but these are safe enough for stopping sight distance in case of dual 2-Lane
carriageway.
The overall route is predominantly flat throughout with a gradual rise in ground
elevations from south (about RL 6.960m) to north (about RL 17.650m).

2.4.3.3 Accident Black Spots


There are few black spots demarked with well-established warning sings, these locations
are mainly in the urban or built-up sections along the project road. There are locations
with high embankment are, in general not provided with guard rail or crash barriers. At
quite a few locations the black spots are observed along the alignment particularly at
bridge crossings, railway crossings, as given below, which could be attributed to the
substandard horizontal alignment or sharp curves. The locations of accident black spots
are given in Table 2.2 below:
able 2.2= Locations of Accident Black S
Chainage (km) Reason
Sl. No.
From To
1
31.400 31.700 S-Curve
2 33.600 34.400 S-Curve
3 48.200 50.400 Zigzag Curves
4 55.600 56.200 S-Curve at Minor Bridge
5 64.400 65.000 Acute Curve
o 69.700 69.900 Acute curve
7 78.000 78.600 Acute Curve

The geometric deficiency at above locations would be removed by improving geometric,


proposing realignment and by providing grade separated structures at Rail-Road
crossings.

2.4.3.4 Existing Gross Section


The project road section comprises 7.0m wide carriageway and 2.0m to 2.5m wide
earthen shoulders on either side. There are isolated locations, especially village and
built-up sections and the some of the bridges approaches, where 1.5m wide paved
shoulders are provided.
Road elevations vary from ground level to typically 3m above ground for locations such
as waterlogged areas or major bridge crossings where embankment heights can be 4-6
meters above ground level. Table 2.3 gives the distribution of length of road in terms of
height of embankment based on survey.

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able 2.3: Road and Heiqht of Embankment


Length of Project road with Height of Embankment
Total
<0.5m 0.5-1.0m 1.0m to 2.0m 2.0m -4.0. > 4.0m
32.0 km 50.0 km 67.0 km 9km 4.0 km 162 km
1e.75 (%) 30.86 (%) 41.37 (%) 5.55 (%) 2.47 (%) 100 %

Though the entire road is in embankment, there are some isolated low-lying sections of
the road that need to be raised.
2.4.4 Road Gondition
The project road section has riding quality
varying from fair to poor along its length.
Consultants have carred out a visual pavement
surveys. At quite a few locations the pavement
has failed. The pavement of recently constructed
Shantipur bypass has almost been failed due to
inadequate structural strength. The observed
pavement condition of the project road, based on
crack area, pot-hole area, ravelling area etc., has
been divided into six categories, Very Good,
Good, Fair, Poor and Very Poor. The details of
road conditions based on visual observations are given in Annexure 1.2.
ln general it has been observed that the existing pavement is in damaged condition.
The following Table 2.4 gives the distribution of length of road in terms of road condition
based on survey.
able 2.4: Gondition of E Pavement
Pavement Gondition Lenqth (km) Percent Lenqth
Good 79 48.77
Fair 45 27.78
Poor 27 16.67
Very poor 10 6.17
Bad 1 0.62
Total 162 100.00

2.4.5 RoadsideDrainage
The roadside drainage i longitudinal drainage to the project road is provided by unlined
eadh ditches adjacent to the road embankment. ln many areas the roadside ditches are
up to ten meters wide where roadside earthworks borrow excavations have been
undertaken for previous road construction and widening works. These particular wide
ditch-areas are consistently used for water conservation and farm irrigation, and for jute
immersing, which indicates they are being maintained by farmers to meet their
agricultural requirements. At few locations, where road is on very shallow embankment,
the side drainage, touches the top of road-level, and adversely affects the performance
of pavement. Such locations have been identified for raising the embankment and for
augmentation of cross-drainage works.
ln urban areas, longitudinal lined/unlined drains are provided for roadside drainage. At
most of the locations these drains are non functional due to choking or siltation. The
reconnaissance survey was undertaken in September 2006, during rainy season, and it
was observed that practically the water was flowing along the earth shoulder, which

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besides adversely affecting the pavement strength also reduces the traffic capacity of
the Highway.

2.4,6 Rail-Road Grossings


The main broad gauge line, Sealdah - Lalbagh, crosses the project road at several
locations. Narrow Gauge railway line also crosses the project road at two locations.
The details of railway crossings are gven in Table 2.5 below:
Table 2.5: Rail-Road Grossi
Location of
Sl. No. RailSection Type Track Existing Status
Crossino
t. Sealdah - Ranaghat Km 751930 BG Level-Crossing, Skew
2. Sealdah-Shantipur Km 90/600 BG ROB (2 Lane)
. Nabadwip-Shantipur Km 96/450 NG LevelCrossing
4. Nabadwip - Shantipur Km 1101970 NG LevelCrossing Square
5. Sealdah - Lalgola Km 1111780 BG RUB (Narrow Width)

All the BG and NG crossings are to be provided with grade separated crossing (ROB
/RUB).
2.4.7 Right of Way (ROW)
Width of ROW is not uniform along the project road. The ROW is predominantly varying
. as per the shape of the boundary of adjoin private properties/ agricultural land.
The following Table 2.6 gives the distribution of length of Project road and percentage
length with respect to ROW width, considering minimum width of ROW in a particular
km.
able 2.6: Summarv of of
ROW Wdth Length km % Length
<2Om 8.3 5.12
20m-25m 12.7 7.85
25m - 30m o. 16.18
30m - 40m 37.2 22.96
40m -45m 21.6 r 3.33
45m - 60m 30.3 18.7
>60m 25.7 15.86
Total 162 100

The information on ROW, at every point of change or minimum at 100m interval is


compiled in Annexure 1.3. The Consultants collected LA Plans, LR maps and RS map
from revenue departments for the purpose of preparation of land accusation plan for the
proposed improvements. Preparation of LA plan is in progress, around 70% work is
completed.

2.4.8 Land Use and Roadside Environments


The project road stads from northern outskirt of Barasat town and traverses northward
to end at southern outskirt of Baharampore town. The roadside environment is variable
from urbanized town developments to rural agricultural areas, with intermediate semi-
urban settlements and semi-rural open areas with occasional roadside dwellings and
small businesses scattered throughout the route.
For the purpose of this roadside assessment, the land use types are identified as follow:

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Major town with buildings extending from the roadside to the larger adjacent area for a
URBAN
siqnificant distance.
Lower density of urban development; road side businesses along side the roadway,
Built-up primarily a ribbon development formed by continuous string of successive building
units.
A rural environment with isolated individual houses, schools, businesses alongside to
Rural
the roadwav
Aqricultural Mainlv cultivated land, with or without isolated thatched farmsteads.

The following Table 2.7 indicates the distribution of length of Project road and Voage
Length in terms of land use and roadsde environments:
Table
a 2.7: Summary of Land Use
Type of Land use Length % Length
URBAN 21 Rm 13%
Built up 6km 3%
o/o
Rural 85 km 52
Agricultural 50 km 31%
Total 162 100%

2.4.9 Urban-Built Up Sections and Towns


Along the project road section there are nine major built up sections or towns, which
need a special attention while finalizing the proposal of widening lo 416lane. The details
of the built-up sections / towns are given Table 2.8 below:

Urban Built-up Section at Plassev Township

able 2.8: Urban & Built-up sections alonq the Proiect Road
Location (km)
Length (km) Name of the town/ village
From To
32.000 32.700 0.7 Kamdebour
33.400 36.600 3.2 Amdanga
45.400 47.400 2.0 Gadamara
48.200 51.200 3.0 Bara Jaguli
65.200 67.000 1.8 Chakdah
74.600 77.800 3.2 Ranaghat
86.000 88.500 2.5 Phulia
106.00 109.250 3.25 Paschim Bhatjangla

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Location (km)
Length (km) Name of the town/ village
From To
110.500 112.000 1.5 Krishnagar
Total 21.15

Since the available ROW at most of the above built-up sections would not be sufficient
to provide dual 2-Lane carriageway plus service roads on ether side to meet the
demands of both internal urban traffic and external through moving traffic, a critical
analysis has been carried out and Typical cross section have been developed and
presented in the drawing volume.

2.4.10 Gross Drainage Works


The project Road runs northwards from
Barasat, initially on the east of the
Hoogli / Bhagirathi River. The project
road lies in flat terrain generally on
embankment of variable height but
typically 1.0.m to 3.0m. At many
locations the toes of existng
embankments are at or adjacent to
waterlogged soft ground or open
bodies of water.
The inventory data for the existing
cross drainage structures, culverts are
given in Appendix-1.1 and summary of
cross-drainage structures are given in Table 2.9

Table 2.9: Summary of Gross-Drainage Structures


Pioe Culverts Slab Culverts
Total
1 Pipe 2 Pioes 4 Pioes 1-2m 2-4 m 4-6 m
Culverts
14 2 1 49 7 o
17 az 79

Based on detailed condition survey of few culverts, it was observed that all culveds
require repair works, reconstruction of parapet walls and widening to match with the new
widened roadway. The substructure comprising abutments, wing walls of slab culverts
and Head walls of Hume pipe / Arch Culverts are in Brick Masonry. Quite a few culverts
need to be replaced owing to their deteriorated condition which is beyond repair.
There are 69 culverts in 84km length, which comes to about 0.8 culverts per km length
of the road, which is quite inadequate seeing the flood prone area along the project
road. New additional culverts will be necessary to improve the existing cross-drainage
system.

lnundation / Submergence Stretches


Some sections of the road have experience recent overtopping of floodwater.
Consultants have studied the observation presented in the earlier studies, and their
details are given in Appendix -1.2. There are few locations where average height of
embankment is around three meter and still road got overtopped during floods,
particularly in the year 2000. The main reason for this was the inadequate cross

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drainage structures. At such locations additional culverts have been proposed without
any rising of the embankment height.

2.5 WIDENING OPTIONS


ln rural areas preferably the eccentric widening would be carried out, based on the need
of geometric improvements and availability of road land. ln isolated built-up areas, for
small stretches, where in general the ROW is not adequate concentric widening would
be proposed. Major built-up sections, generally having one or more intersections/
junctions need to be evaluated for practicable and cost-effective proposals of bypasses,
service roads, alignment corrections, improvement of intersections including provision of
grade separators etc.
ln order that the section may be widened (if at all) to 6-lane at a future date on the inside
of carriageway without disturbing the utilities or service roads, the new carrageway (with
or without service road) shall be located at the extreme edge of the ROW with a median.
This may involve eccentric widening.

2.6 COMPARISON OF EXISTING AND DESIGN CHAINAGE


Comparison of existing chainage and design chainage of NH-34 of Package-1 along the
project road are given below

Table 2.10: Gomparison of Existing and Design Ghainage


Existing Chainase (Km) Design Chainage (Km) Name of Place
31.000 31.000 Mirhati Village
32.000 31.988 Kamdebpur Village
33.000 32.982 Khalia Villase
34.000 33.970 Arkhali Village
35.000 34.9s0 Amdanga Village
36.000 3s.960 Raypur V lage
37.000 36.936 Rahana Villase
38.000 37.930 Rahana Villase
39.000 38.925 Uludanga Village
40.000 39920 Jirat Village
41.000 40.915 Adhata Villase
42.000 41.905 Kaipukharia Village
44.000 43.895 Kanchiara Villase
45.000 44.890 Mahadebpur Village
46.000 4s.88s Harbati Villase
47.000 46.880 Dhania Villase
48.000 48.020 Baikunthapur Villaee
49.000 49.020 Jaeuli Villaee
s0.000 50.0 5 Kapileswar Villaee
51.000 51.0 5 Harinshata Farm
52.000 52.0 5 Simhat Villase
53.000 53.0 5 Harinshata Farm
54.000 54.0 5 Balindi Villase

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Existing Chainage (Km) Design Chainage (Km) Name of Place


s6.000 s6.000 Birahi Villase
57.000 57.000 Chandirampur Village
58.000 s8.000 Narapatipara Village
s9.000 s9.000 Jatrapur Village
60.000 60.00s Rautari Villase
61.000 60.990 Tantsachhi Villaee
62.000 61.995 Khoreachhi Villaee
63.000 63.005 Uttamachpota Village
64.000 64.010 Joy Krishnapur Village
65.000 65.000 Chhatimtala Villase
66.000 65.995 Lalpur Villaee
67.000 67.000 Punglia Villase
68.000 68.005 Palasachha Villaee
69.000 69.000 Tatla Villaee
70.000 70.000 MahanalaVillaee
71.000 71.000 Ghatieachhi Villaee
72.000 12.000 Ghatieachhi Villaee
73.000 73.000 Patuli Villaee
74.000 74.000 Patuli Villase
75.000 75.000 Dayabari Villaee
76.000 75.980 Nasra Villaee
77.000 77.000 Ranashat
78.000 78.000 Aistala Villase
79.000 78.995 Habibpur Village
80.000 80.005 Habibpur Village
81.000 80.990 Habibpur Village
82.000 81992 Doharpar Villaee
83.000 82.995 Goalpara Villaee
84.000 84.000 Udaypur Villaee
85.000 85.000 Nabala Villaee
86.000 86.000 Sukpukuria Village
87.000 86.990 Sukpukuria Village
88.000 87.980 Sukpukuria Village
89.000 88.980 Beharia Villase
90.000 90.000 Ghoralia Villase
91.000 91.005 Kadampur Villaee
92.000 92.005 Chhota Ranashat
93.000 93.030 Gobindapur V lage
94.000 94.030 Gobindapur V llage
9s.000 95.010 Gobindapur V llage
96.000 Realignmnet at Gobindapur Gobindapur V lage
97.000 Villase Gobindapur V lage
98.000 98.450 Panch Potta V lage
99.000 98.440 Bagdia Village

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Existing Chainage (Km) Dsign Chainage (Km) Name of Place


100.000 00.440 Chakchapara Village
i01.000 01.450 Dignagar Villaee
102.000 02.440 Hatisala Villase
104.000 04.440 Itla Village
105.000 05.430 Itla Villase
106.000 06.440 Dursapur Villaee
r07.000 07.430 Dakshin Jhitkipota
Paschim Bhatjangla
108.000 108.430
Villase
Paschim Bhatjangla
109.000 109.430
Villase
r 10.000 1t0.420 Krishnaear
111.000 I I 1.410 Ru pukur V llase
112.000 112.360 Ru pukur V llage
113.000 I13.350 Ruipukur V llage
11s.000 115.340 Mayakol Villaee

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER - 3: SURVEY AND |NVEST|GAT|ON......... ........... I


9.1 GENERAL
3.2 PRELTMTNARY SURVEY.............. ............. 1

3.3 LOCATTON OF THE PROJECT ROAD....... ................1


3.4 TOPOGRAPHTC SURVEYS........ ...............2

3.4.1 Scope ..........2

3.4.2 Alignment Study for Additional Carriageway.,......... ........... 3

3.4.3 Bypass/ Realignment Options ........3


3.5 CADASTRAL SURVEYS............... .............4

3.5.1 Field Survey............... ....................4

3.5.2 Data Collection........... ....................4


3.6 coNSTRUCTtON MATERTALS SURVEYS.............. ....................4

3.6.1 General .......4

3.6.2 Objective ......5

3.6.3 Embankment/ Sub-Grade............. ...................5

3.6.4 Fly Ash ..........5

3.6.5 Granular Sub-base ........8

3.6.6 Stone 499re9ates............... .............8

3.6.7 Sand.........

3.6.8 Water ..........11

3.6.9 Cement, Steel, Bitumen and Bricks ...............11


3.7 PAVEMENT INVESTIGATION AND TESTING........... ................12

3.7 .1 General .......12

3.7.2 Visual Pavement Condition Survey...... ...........12

3.7 .3 Roughness Survey .......12

3.7.4 Benkelman Beam Deflection Test ......... ......... 13

3.7.5 Axle Load Survey .........14

3.7.6 Sub grade lnvestigations............. ...................14

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3.8 BRTDGES. .............17

3.8.1 General .....17

3.8.2 Bridges
Details of Existing ............17

3.8.3 Hydraulic Studies...... ....................19

3.8.4 Sections.............
Cross -Sections and Longitudinal ........19
3.9 SUB-SO|L |NVEST|GATION......... ...........19
3.10 PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED/BYPASS SURVEY ....20

LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1: Project Road Length distribution among Districts ....................2

Table 3.2 : Test Results of Borrow Areas ..............6

Table 3.3: Moorum Soil - Test Results...... .............7

Table 3.4: Test Results of Quarry Samples ...........9

Table 3.5: Test Results of Quarry Samples ......... 10

Table 3.6: Laboratory Test Results for Brick.... .....11

Table 3.7: Frequency Distribution for Roughness Va|ue........ .................12

Table 3.8: Homogeneous Section Barasat to Baharampore section of NH-34 .........13

Table 3.9: Summarised Test Results for Trial Pit Samp|es............... ...... 15

Table 3.10: DCP-CBR Value at Subgrade Level using Dynamic Cone Penetrometer...............17

LIST OF FIGURES
CBR.........
Fig 3.1: Percentile ...............7

Fig.3.2: Sand Quarry Locations............... ...........11

Fig.3.3: lnternational Roughness lndexV/s Chainage............. ..............12

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CHAPTER - 3: SURVEY AND INVESTIGATION

3.I GENERAL
The main objectives of the Consultancy services comprise of carrying out the feasibility
study & preparation of detailed project report for widening the existing two lane
carriageway to dual 2-Lane carriageway and other details as per the 'Terms of
Reference'and guidelines given in IRC publications.
Followings are the various engineering surveys and investigations other than traffic
surveys.
. Alignment Study;
. Topographic Survey;
o Cadastral Survey;
Pavementlnvestigations;
. Soil and Materials lnvestigations;
. lnvestigations for Bridge and Cross-Drainage Structures
. Hydraulic and Hydrological lnvestigations;, and
o Geotechnicalinvestigations.
This chapter brings out the salient features in respect of the major field studies and
investigations taken up to determine the rehabilitation / construction requirements for the
Project Road.
The basic data collected from different engineering surveys is presented separately as
Annexure to Design Report.
3.2 PRELIMINARY SURVEY
The main objective of preliminary survey is to examine the general characteristics of the
area, along the project road, for the purpose of identification of the cost effective method
of widening of existing two lane highway to 4 lane highway, and feasible realignment
route for further investigations and detailing. Prior to taking up the ground
reconnaissance survey, the maps and secondary data, pertaining to project influence
area, were collected and studied as mentioned in previous chapter.
All fieldwork involving topographic surveys and engineering investigations were carried
out after careful study of the information obtained from the reconnaissance survey.
The km stone 31 on the north of Barasat town has been used as reference point for
description of location of features of the project road.
3.3 LOCATION OF THE PROJECT ROAD
The project Road starts from km 31 (Barasat), northern part of Barasat town and ends at
km 193 (Baharampore) southern part of Baharampore town. The beginning and end
point of the project road are on the outskirt of Barasat and Baharampore towns
respectively. This report describes regarding Package 1 which starts at km 31 and ends
at km 115.
The entire project road traverses through the three districts of West Bengal, south to
north direction, namely North 24 Parganas, Nadia and Murshidabad. The package 1 is
under 2 districts viz. North 24 Paraganas and Nadia. The length of road in package 1 in
each district is given in Table 3.1 below:

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Table 3.1: Project Road Length distribution among Districts


Chainage (km) Length
District
From To km %
Km 31 Km 48 North 24-Parganas 17 20
Km 48 Km 115 Nadia 67 80
Total 2 Districts 84 100

3.4 TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYS


3.4.1 Scope
As per the TOR the Consultants carried out detailed topographic survey along the
project road corridor. ln order to have the accuracy of topographical survey work, a
network of horizontal control has been established using differential GPS techniques
and levelling network using Digital Auto Levels. Besides establishing new concrete
beacons, all the existing Beacons (which were found at safe location and in good
condition) have also been used for the referencing. The topographic surveys have been
divided into three phases:
(1) Fixing of Major Gontrol Stations
Fixing of Major Control Stations: The Major Control Stations are concrete pillars
embedded in the ground, in pair with inter visibility with a distance of around 200m.
The horizontal control coordinates were observed and worked out by use of GPS
instrument, for each pair and the elevation were provided by double levelling survey
by Digital Auto Level and any error encountered have been distributed at all change
points by suitable methods. These Major Control Stations are kept at a distance of
5km to 6km as per the availability of safe location.
(2) Control Traverse Survey:
The control traverse (closed type) is the base framework for all the further survey
work. This provides a coordinated horizontal grid and a level reference system to
ensure accuracy. Thus the measured coordinates of these survey grids (Northing
and Easting) and the levels are tied to GTS benchmark wherever available, to verify
the accuracy of survey. The GPS/ Benchmark Pillars and Reference Benchmark
Pillars established as specified in TOR to act as both horizontal and vertical control
points.
Control points/ Reference beacons, consisting cement concrete pillars with central
nail point, have been fixed at every 200 to 250m intervals depending upon site
conditions. Three coordinates (X, Y and Z i easting, northing and elevation) of
control beacons, with respect to the cumulative chainage of alignment have been
prepared to carry out the further ground survey.
(3) Ground Surface Survey
Levels along centre line of the
existing road are taken at every
25 m interval and at all
intermediate breaks in ground
using Total Station. The said
spacing is suitably reduced at
horizontal curves and at
structure locations.
Cross sections are taken at
every 50 m intervals, and at

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each cross-section the survey normally extends beyond 30m on each side of the
existing road centre line with survey points at 5-10 m apart and at all variations in the
natural ground or breaks in level.
The topographic survey thus carried out contains the details of all physical and
topographical features within the survey corridor such as roads, rivers, streams, rail
crossings, electric / telephone lines, high / low tension lines and their offsets from the
road edge, buildings, trees (girth more than 300mm), etc. At locations of
encroachments where ROW has een reduced or where existing alignment can be
improved upon through minor adjustments, the width of the survey corridor is
extended appropriately to accommodate the proposed 4-lane alignment. At locations
of possible realignments and bypass, survey was carried out along the new
alignment for a 100m wide strip. At locations of grade-separated structures
(overpass / underpass/ ROB etc.), survey covered the extent of the structure as per
GAD.
The survey data thus collected by the topographic survey was processed and
converted to graphic files using Highway Design software called 'MX ROAD"
(MOSS). For ascertaining quantities, grid levelling was utilised.
3.4.2 Alignment Study for Additional Garriageway
After studying the field oriented information obtained from reconnaissance, survey of the
project road corridor, local enquiries, available maps and other data, the alignment
proposals were framed for the location of additional carriageway or for the proposed
centre line of 4lane highway.
The side of widening i.e. left or right (or both sides) of the existing carriageway has been
decided based on analysis influencing features such as:
- Available Right of Way on both sides of existing 2-Lane road
Need and type of geometric improvement to the existing alignment
The number of houses / structures by type and value to be acquired.
The type of land to be acquired.
The number of households and the business premises requiring relocation and the
related R&R costs.
The type of utility service like water mains, electric / telephone lines requiring
relocation.
- The presence of forest and restricted areas.
- The presence of physical barriers or obstructions like railway line, deep valley, steep
hill, etc.
ln general, the choice of widening side was simple in open rural areas, but in built-up
stretches, the selection required intensive study and closer attention.
3.4.3 Bypass/ Realignment Options
he /
existing highway passes through a number of villages towns where ribbon
development has taken place. ln such cases, a considerable length of road is highly
congested with local slow and pedestrian traffic indulging intensive criss-cross
movement, which impede and make through traffic movement highly hazardous.
Further, at such locations, the geometries and drainage are generally poor to maintain
the character of a highway.
For deciding on the bypass option, a two-stage approach was resorted to. ln the first
stage, where there is prima facie case for a bypass, possible alternate alignments for

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the bypass were identified based on reconnaissance survey. These were evaluated from
engineerng, environmental, social and cost angles and the best emerging out of these
was determined. This alternative was then compared with the option of upgrading the
existing link on lines similar to those for deciding on the widening side.
Some stretches of the project
road passes through urban
locations where the road is
encroached up to the shoulders
and widening and strengthening
seems possible only through ari
alternative alignment bypassing
the town and built-up areas.
But the consultants were unable
to carry out the detailed
topographic survey along the
bypass alignment due to protest
from land owners. Even NHAI The merger point of Bypass at Bara Jaguli
witnessed the miserable -
situation at the on set of topographic survey along the proposed bypass corridor.
Therefore the idea of proposed bypass is dropped in consultation with the client.
3.5 CADASTRAL SURVEYS
The cadastral survey was done along the Project Corridor along the proposed road land
width on both sides of ROW. The cadastral survey consist of two pads-field survey and
data collection.
3.5.1 Field Survey
The base control points established by carrying out GPS at every 3/5 km interval were
made use of. Then traverse was carried out using Total Station in between GPS points
to establish the control points. The main features required for land detailing like existing
road and its boundary pillars, surrounding properties and its fencing, and other features
like trees, utilities, nullahs, were picked up by means of Total Station.
3.5.2 Data Gollection
This consisted of collection of village maps and land ownership details from the village
Panchayat office, revenue department, and by local enquiry.
The data collection has been completed well before the design work started. The final
alignment has been marked on land acquisition plans of Revenue departments. The
areas of land acquisition have been produced on the basis of this information.
The consultant also collected the Standard Schedule of Rates (2007-08) from the state
respective department to carry out the unit price analysis. The items for which the rates
were not available the consultant made those available from the market or from the
other consultant working in the vicinity of the project site.
3.6 GONSTRUCTIONMATERIALSSURVEYS
3.6.1 General
Detailed material investigation was carried out to familiarise with the sources, properties
and characteristics of these basic ingredients, an lnventory programme was undertaken
to identify suitable sources of all construction materials such as soil, fly ash, sand, stone
aggregates and other materials like cement, steel and bitumen.
The information in this regard were gathered from concerned government offices/local
authorities/contractor and quarry owners. Reference is also made to the reports of the

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earlier consultants. Samples were taken from all source identified and subjected to a
testing programme based on requirements of IRC and lS Specifications. The results
have been presented in the later part of this chapter.
3.6.2 Objective
The objectives of detailed material investigation are as follows:
. Finalising borrow area locations for suitable soils for use n embankment and sub-
grade.
ldentify suitable sources for granular sub-base material like moorum/stone.
. ldentify suitable quarries for stone aggregates for concrete and bituminous works.
. ldentify suitable sources for sand.
. Source of water for construction.
. ldentify sources of other construction materials like cement, steel and bitumen.
3.6.3 EmbankmenUSub-Grade
The surveys of soil from borrow area for use in embankment and sub-grade was
conducted all along the project road and 18 samples were collected and sent laboratory
for testing to judge suitability of the materials. The location, approximate distance from
the project road, approximate available quantity of material is presented in Appendix2.l
and tests results are given in Table 3.2.
3.6.4 Fly Ash
Fly ash is available from Titograd Thermal Power Plant at distance 25 km from 31 km
stone but quantity is not sufficient as information obtained from concern authority. The
source of fly ash is located at more than 100 km from package-l (Km 31 - Km 115) of
our project road. The consultants, therefore has not considered fly ash to be used in the
embankment construction. Moreover currently published journal specifies that use of fly
ash in the construction of embankment is not justified/advisable.

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Table 3.2 : Test Results of Borrow Areas

Proctor
st. Approxi Atterberg limits (Modified) Lab GBR(%)
cH. )istancr Grain Size Analysis
No Side mate (%l Test Soaked
(KM) (km) Descriptions. Gradation
qty Results
(Cum) Gravel Sand SIt Clay MDD oMc
(%l (%l (%l (%l LL PL PI SL (Um3) (o/ol A B Avg.
Uniformly
1 31.000 0.200 LHS Grey silty clay. 60000 0 I 30 62
Graded
65 29 36 10 1.811 15.73 6.51 5.75 6.13
Deep grey clayey
Medium
2 51.000 0.200 LHS silt. Obs. fine 40000 0 I 67 25
Graded
52 29 23 20 1.807 13.73 13 .67 14.54 14.10
sand.
Grey clayey silt
J 68.000 0.200 LHS Obs. fine sand o Medium
80000 0 67 24 34 21 13 15 1.881 1 1.93 16.01 16.12 16.06
mixture. Graded
Light grey clayey Well
4 81.800 0.200 LHS 30000 0 24 59 17 36 22 14 16 1.880 13.58 21 .02 21.02
clavev sandv silt. Graded
Light brown
81.800 0.200 RHS clayey silt. Obs Well
30000 0 23 57 20 31 20 11 15 1.956 11.62 28 .17 30.17 29.17
sand mixture. Graded
Brownish grey
o 90.000 0.200 LHS clayey silt. Obs. Medium
50000 0 5 61 34 39 22 17 16 1.907 13.03 22 .23 24.25 23.24
sand. Graded
Brownish grey o Uniformly
7 90.000 0.200 RHS 50000 0 44 47 51 26 25 13 1.899 13.63 10 .76 10.76
siltv clav Graded
Brownish grey Medium
I 102.200 0.200 LHS
clavev silt
30000 0 o 61 33
Graded
44 22 22 19 1.924 12.95 15.91 16.88 16.39
Brownish grey
o clayey silt with Medium
102.200 0.200 RHS 30000 0 18 58 24 34 17 17 16 1.992 10.84 25 .29 27.26 26.27
fine sand Graded
mixtures.
Deep grey silty Uniformly
10 114.000 0.200 RHS 1 25000 0 43 52 50 24 26 17 1.857 1 5.10 8.25 9.93 9.09
clav. Graded
CBR of 23.24,26.27, to be modified.

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From the above table, it is found that minimum CBR at borrow location Km 31 is 6.31%
and maximum CBR 29.16. For design purpose 90 percentile CBR has been considered.
Figure 3.1 shows the Percentile CBR graph. 90% percentile CBR comes out7.4o/o.

Fig 3.1: Percentile CBR


Percentile CBR
30.00

25.00

20.00

CBR
15.00

10.00

5.00

0.00
100

Percentile

Fig 3.1: Percentile CBR


The consultants have studied the relevant reports of earlier consultants and found more
additional locations where CBR values are in the range of 7-8. The locations are: km
32.8,63.9,82.6,1 03.1 .
As per mandatory instruction of G.O.l, use of fly ash in construction of embankment is
essential when the haulage distance is less than 100 km. There are many thermal power
plants situated within the project road vicinity. Fly ash may be brought from Titagarh,
Kolaghat, Farraka and Bandel thermal power plants. Since the lead distance is less than
100 km for this package, the use of fly ash in the construction of embankment was not
envisaged because of available quantity is lesser amount.
Suitability of road side soil is also studied. Road side soils are mainly clayey silt and silt
with sand. These soils are suitable for embankment and sub grade construction.
Moorum samples were collected and tested, test results are summarised below in the
Table 3.3. These samples are suitable for embankment and sub grade construction,
since Pl values are high.
Table 3.3: Moorum Soil - Test Results
Grain Size Analvsis
Sample
Location Gravel Sand SIt Glay Gradation LL PL PI
Sl. No.
(%l (%l (o/"1 (%l
Palate Zacchary Well
5 53 22 14 11 47 26 21
Road Graded

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Grain Size Analysis


Sample
Location Gravel Sand SIt Glay Gradation LL PL PI
Sl. No.
(o/ol (%l (%l (%l
Well
13 Rampurhat 34 43 10 13 50 21 29
Graded
3.6.5 GranularSub-base
Granular sub-base will be constructed with crushed graded stones as per technical
specification prepared by the consultant.
3.6.6 Stone Aggregates
Extensive survey has been carried
out to identify the suitable stone
quarry nearer to the project road.
There is no stone quarry near to
the project site. There are three
stone quarries where good quality
stones are available located
further away from the end of the
project road as given under. The
results show the sample from
Rampurhat Quarry is in good
quality and it has been considered
for construction of
pavement
layers and accordngly rate
analysis has been carried out.
Since Pakur quarry is far from the
project road corridor it has not Quarry at Pakur, Jharkhand
been considered in the proposed
road works. Though Nalhati is closer to the project road corridor it has not been
considered due to its quality. Water absorption and Flakiness lndex is comparatively
higher than the material collected from other quarries. Test results of atone aggregates is
shown in Table 3.4.

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Table 3.4: Test Results of Quarry Samples

Sample Water Aggregate


Location Lead Distance Gradation Specific Flakiness
Sl. No. Absorption lmpact
(%l Gravity Index
Value (%)
6 Rampurhat 85 km from 193 kmp via Moregram 12.50 mm .45 2.859 34 .40
1 11 .50
6/A Rampurhat 85 km from 193 kmp via Moregram 12.50 mm 1.44 2.850 33.30 9.60
7 Rampurhat 85 km from 193 kmp via Moregram 20 mm over graded 1 .28 2.884 23.00 7.50
7tA Rampurhat 85 km from 193 kmp via Moregram 20 mm over graded 1.28 2.916 12.20 8.70
I Rampurhat 85 km from 193 kmp via Moregram 20 mm over graded 0.96 2.910 1 1.00 9.10
10 Nalhati 74 km from 193 kmp via Moregram 20 mm over graded 1.28 2.817 13.50 9.00
I Rampurhat 85 km from 193 kmp via Moregram 12.50 mm 0.94 17.90 7.90
11 Nalhati 75 km from 193 kmp via Moregram 12.50 mm 2.31 2.687 30.30 10.10
12 Nalhati 76 km from 193 kmp via Moregram 20 mm over graded 1 84 17.50 11.20
15 Pakur 77 km from 193 kmp via Moregram 0 85 20.20 8.10
Note: The sample under Sl. No. 9 is GSBAIVMM
' The sample under Sl. No. 15 is STONE

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3.6.7 Sand
The location of sand quarries are shown in Fig. 3.2 and test results are also shown in the Table 3.5:
Table 3.5: Test Results of Quarry Samples

Proctor
Grain Size Analysis (Modified) cBR(%)
Sample Soaked
Location Lead Distance Gradation Test Results
Sl. No.
Gravel Sand SIt Glay MDD oMc Avg
A B
%t {%t %l %t (umt) (%t

4
I Katwa River 62 KM from 112 KMP Via Navadwip 0 99 1 0 Zone - lV 1.72 15.20 25 25

Ajay River from


2 80 KM from 112 KMP Via Panagar 0 90 10 0 Zone - lV 1.87 13.15 25 25
lllambazar

Narayanpur Local NachandraPahar 90 KM from 193


3
Sand 0 90 10 0 Zone - lV
KMP Via Moregram

70 KM from 193 KMP Via Moregram


4 Barambhani River 0 90 10 0 Zone - lV
ChamtiBazar Nalhati

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/VI.J4

Fig. 3.2: Sand Quarry Locations


3.6.8 Water
There are two big rivers (Churni and Jalangi) crossing the project road of Package 1 at
km 7712 and another 11412 which are source for water for construction purposes of this
Package.
3.6.9 Gement, Steel, Bitumen and Bricks
Cement and Steel are available from local authorised agents in bulk with average lead of
20 - 30km. Bitumen is available from IOCL, Haldia with a lead distance of 250 km.
There are good quality bricks available within 10 to 30 km lead, which can be used for
construction of sub-structure of cross drainage work and lined drain etc. The test result
are presented below in Table 3.6.
Table 3.6: Laboratory Test Results for Brick
. Dimensions
Sample Brick No. Length Breadth Height
Sl. No. lcm) (cm) lcm)
14 Brick No. 1 25.5 13.0 8.0
Brick No. 2 25.0 12.5 8.0
Brick No. 3 25.5 12.5 8.0
Brick No. 4 25.0 12,0 8.0

Water Absorption & Grushing Strength


Sample Brick No. Water Absorption Grushing
Sl. No. (%t Strength
lKq/socm)
14 Brick No. 1 19.01 87.01
Brick No. 2 17.91 93.90
Brick No. 3 18.70 84.03
Brick No. 4 20.01 92.60

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3.7 PAVEMENT INVESTIGATION AND TESTING


3.7.1 General
The consultants have under taken pavement investigations by means of visual condition
survey to assess the condition of the existing Pavement along with assessment of the
quality of the materials that have been incorporated in the construction. The
investigations that have been under taken as part of the pavement investigations
include:
. Visual Pavement Condition Survey
. Roughness Survey (to assess the riding quality)
o Benkelman Beam Deflection Test
. Sub grade investigations (DCP Test and lnsitu Density Test)
3.7.2 Visual Pavement Condition Survey
Visual condition survey has been carried out over the entire length of the project and it
has been given in Annexure 1.2.
3.7.3 Roughness Survey
Roughness survey was carried out by using TRL's Car Mounted Bump lntegrator; the
calibrations for the vehicle was carried out in accordance with the reouirements of the
Terms of Reference. The variation of measured lRl is shown in the Figure 3.3.

lnternational Roughness lndex v/s Ghainage

C\ O) (O ( O '- S @ rO C{ O, (O cq O '- S @ rO C\ O) (O
(r, co $ rr) (o (o F- 0o co ol) o.o c! co ) s rf) r!) (o t-- t- @

Ghainage (Km)

Fig.3.3: International Roughness /ndex V/s Chainage

The Kilometre wise roughness value is given in Appendix-2.2. Frequency distribution for
Roughness is given in Table 2.7 below.
Table 3.7: Frequency Distribution for Roughness Value

S. No. Range Length (km) Length (%)


1 0-tRt <1 0 0
2 1-tRt <2 11 6.79
3 2-tRt <3 39 24.07

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S. No. Range Length (km) Length (%)


4 3-tRt <3.5 24 14.81
5 3.5-lRl <4 22 13.58
6 tRt >4 oo 40.74
Total 162 100

3.7.4 Benkelman Beam Deflection Test

Benkelman Beam Deflection


testing was carried out in
accordance with IRC 81-1997
guide lines, the test was carried
out at 50m staggered on either
side of the existing centre line for
the entire project road taking care
of the pavement condition as
main line survey as mentioned in
the TOR. The measurements
were carried out for both wheel
paths using Benkelman Beams.
As part of the testing ambient
and pavement temperature were
recorded to carryout necessary corrections for temperature. The moisture content was
collected out as part of the test pit investigations. The test location was situated at 0.9 m
from the edge of the carriageway. The measured deflections values are presented
separately in the Annexure 2.1. From the rigorous analysis of the deflections the results
have the correlation with the recently completed repair of existing two lanes.
The tests were conducted from 25.11.2006 to 11.12.2006. Thirty six (36) sections of the
road were tested. The total length of the road sections tested was 106 kilometres.
Remaining length was in damaged condition and therefore testing was not carried out as
per standard to the guidelines.
The charcteristic deflection varied between 0.48 mm lo 2.44 mm.
The structurally homogeneous sections have been analysed by IRC:81-1997 (Section
4.3.2). The two homogeneous sections have been chosen in such away maximum and
minimum deflection values vary from 213 mean to 1.33 mean and ratio of standard
deviationi mean <0.3 as ratio recommended AUSTROADS 1992.Homoqeneous
sections are shown in Table 3.8.
Table 3.8: Homogeneous Section Barasat to. Baharampore section of NH-34
Ghainage Characteristics
S. Length
Homogeneous Section lkml Deflection
No. (km)
From To (mm)
1 HS-1 31 49 18 1.90
2 HS-2 49 54 05 0.83
3 HS-3 54 61 07 1.35
4 HS-4 61 64 03 0.80
5 HS-5 64 99 35 1.57
o HS-6 99 103 04 2.44

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Ghainage Characteristics
S. (km) Length
Homogeneous Secton Deflection
No. (km)
From To (mm)
-I HS-7 103 108 05 1.96
I HS-8 108 113 05 0.98
I HS-9 113 115 02 1.23

3.7.5 Axle Load Survey


The project road is divided into two broad sections from loading and O-D characteristics
of the commercial vehicles view point. One section starts from Barasat and ends at
Krishnagar and other starts from Krishnagar and ends at Baharampore. One location for
each section has been identified for O-D survey and Axle Load survey. The survey
location at km 56.750. The Axle Load Data is presented in Annexure 2.2.
3.7.6 Sub grade lnvestigations
Based on the detailed study of pavement condition, Benkelman Beam deflection testing
results, the pavement investigations were carried out in order to study the in-situ
strength of the materials. The test pits of 1 x 1 m were dug at 0.9 m from the edge of the
existing pavement. The test activities that were carried out in test pits include:
. Pavement Composition
r ln-situ Density at sub grade
. Dynamic Cone Penetrometer Test at Sub grade Level.
. Collection Sub grade Samples for Laboratory Test
The test results of subgrade samples are presented in Table 3.9. From the test results it
may be interpretated that the subgrade soil is in good condition and CBR is more than
8%.

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Table 3.9: Summarsed Test Resutts for Trial pit Samples

Atterberg
Proctor Lab GBR
sl. CHAINAG Grain Size Analysis (Modified) Test (%t
Sample limits (%)
No E Descriptions. Results
Sl. No. Soaked
(KM} Gravel Sand clay
SIt
LL PL
MDD oMc
(%l (%l (o/ol (o/"1 PI Avg.
fum3) (o/"1
I
31.000
Light grey clayey silt with traces
I 1
of fine sand & kankars. 0 23 58 19 35 18 17 1.990 10.22 33.56
2 36.000 2
Light grey clayey silt with fine
sand mixture. Obs. kankars. 0 17 57 26 32 22 10 1.992 10.24 28 .41

.t 41.000
Light grey clayey silt / silty clay
4 0 17 46 37 48 24 24 1.907 13.08 11.49
with traces of fine sand.
Brownish grey clayey silt. Obs.
4 46.000 5 n 27 5 21 32 21 11 1.935 11.22 39.85
kankars and sand mixtures.
Light grey clayey silt with traces
5 50.000 7 of fine sand mixture. Obs. 0 15 54 31 38 22 16 1.970 11.48 31.05
kankars.
Brownish grey clayey silt with
o 55.000 I fine sand mixture. 0 30 47 23 31 19 12 2.033 10.66 29.05
Light grey silty clay with traces of
7 60.000 10 0 12 37 51 54 24 30 1.871 13.25 8.10
fine sand. Obs. kankar.
I 65.000
Light grey clayey silt with fine
12 0 24 57 19 31 21 10 1.982 11.11 24.58
sand mixture. Obs. kankars.
Brownish grey clayey silt with
10 70.000 13 0 25 48 27 36 21 15 1.970 11.36 20.26
fine sand mixture. Obs. kankar.
11 75.000 15
Light grey clayey silt with fine
0 36 37 27 41 20 21 1.971 12 .21 30.55
sand mixture.
12 80.000
Brownish grey clayey silt with
17 0 18 60 22 33 22 11 1.953 11.17 25.22
fine sand mixture.
13 85.000
Brownish grey clayey silt with
19 0 29 42 29 40 20 20 1.979 12.06 29.28
fine sand mixture.
Light grey clayey silt / silty clay.
14 90.000 20 0 10 54 36 43 23 20 1.930 13 .11 16.86
Obs. fine sand.

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Proctor Lab GBR


st. CHAINAG Grain Size Analysis Atterberg
Sample (Modified) Test (%t
No E Descriptions. limits (%)
Sl. No. Results Soaked
(KM) Gravel Sand Glay
SIt
LL PL
MDD oMc
(olol (o/"1 (%l (%l PI
(um3) (o/ol
Avg.
15 95.300
Brownish grey clayey silt with
21 0 36 41 23 40 22 18 1.959 11.74 23.07
sand mixture & kankars.
Light grey clayey silt with traces
16 100.000 22 0 17 50 33 44 24 20 1.897 12.52 13.47
of fine sand. Obs. kankars.
Brownish grey clayey silty sand /
17 105.000 24 0 65 20 15 27 16 11 2.062 10.09 42.76
clayev sandy silt.
Brownish grey clayey silt with
18 1 10.000 26 0 22 59 19 33 22 11 1.938 11.98 37 .05
fine sand mixture. Obs. kankars.

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3.7 .6.1 Pavement Com position


Existing pavement composition forms important information, in formulating the
rehabilitation designs. The consultants have collected exsting layer compositon details
including the type of material and thickness and the same is presented in Appendix 2.3.
From the composition details as given in Appendix2.3, it can be seen that the asphalt
surface thickness varies from 50 mm to 250 mm. The existing Base layer thickness
varies from 110 mm to 280 mm. As sub base layer various combination of different
materials have been observed comprising of bricks, soil, sand or morrum along the
project road length.
3.7.6.21n-situ Density of the Existing Subgrade:
ln situ density test has been carried out for the existing sub grade and the results are
given in Appendix 2.4.
3.7.6.3 DGP Tests
Test pits were dug in for in-situ density and DCP-CBR value of existing Subgrade. The
samples were collected to carry out the necessary laboratory tests. These tests results
are analysed to carry out the detailed designs of the project road.
However, for preliminary analysis of existing Subgrade, some of the data have been
analysed and is given in Table 3.10 below.
Table 3.10: DGP-CBR Value at Subgrade Level using Dynamic Cone Penetrometer
Laver I Laver 2 Laver 3
S. lhainaqe
)veral
DGP. DCP. DCP.
\la
(km)
fhickness I I ntGKness CBR \Et I tat t\-
CBR CBR CBR
(mm) (%l (mm) (mm) (%l
(%l (o/"1
1.0 31.0 357.0 14.4 323.0 7.7 188.0 5.2 9.3
2.0 50.0 175.0 13.0 140.0 7.0 10.1 Hiqhest
3.0 65.0 305.0 8.2 538.0 6.4 7.0
85 Percentile Value 6.8 Sav 7.00

3.8 BRIDGES
3.8.1 General
3.8.1.1 Glassification of Structures
Existing cross drainge structures on the project road has een classified in three types
of categories-
3.8.1.2 Culverts
Structures having an overall length up to 6.0m shall be called culverts.
3.8.1.3 Minor Bridges
Structures having a length of more than 6.0m and up to 60.0m shall be called minor
bridges.
3.8.1.4 Major Bridges
Structures having a length of more than 60.0m shall be called major bridges.
3.8.2 Details of Existing Bridges
There are 7 numbers of existing structures in this package consisting of 5 numbers of
minor bridges, 2 number of major bridge, Brief details of existing structures on the
project road are as follows-

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View of a Minor old existing bridge


() Details of Major Bridges
Ghainage and name of Crossing Overall Span
Sl. No.
lenoth in'm' Arranqement
Bridge atkm.77.770 across river 97.9 1x23.2+1x
1
Churni 51.S+1x23.2
222.29 1x12+1x
Bridge at km.113.217 across river 39.94+1x39.53+1x
2
Jalangi 39.67+1x39.93+1x
39.27+1x11.95

(ii) Details of Minor Bridges


Sl.No. Chainage and name of Crossing Overall Span
lenqth in'm' Arranqement
Bridge at km.55.923 across Jamuna
1 23.00 4 x 5.75
River
2 Bridoe at km. 58.717 across Nallah 6.90 1x6.9
3 Bridqe at km. 59.74 across Nallah 6.60 1x6.6
Bridge at km. 94.407 across Babla
4 7.00 1 x7.0
Lake
5 Bridqe at km. 110.854 across Nallah 6.80 1x6.8
(iii) Details of ROBs and RUBs
There are 1 ROB and 1 RUB found in this Package.
Sl.No. Chainage Length of Span
structure in 'm' Arranqement
1 ROB at km 90.560 (2-lane) 53.08
1 x 16.75+1 x
17.75+1x16.45
2 RUB at km 11 1.700 (2-lane) 6.5 1x6.5
Details of existing bridge condition is presented in Appendix-3.1

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3.8.3 Hydraulic Studies


Hydraulic studies are beng carried out to ascertain the discharge etc. for calculating linear
waterway of bridges, scour calculations and design of protection works.
There is existing 2)ane road with high level bridges at most of the crossings. Length of the
existing bridges and their hydraulic capacity shall be taken into account while fixing the
length of the proposed bridges.
Following internationally acceptable methods are used for calculation of intensity of
rainfall for a return period of 100 years-
Gumbels Method
Log Pearson Type-lll Distribution
Following methods are used for calculating discharge of bridges-
o Rational Formulae for peak run-off from catchment
. Discharge by the Manning's Formulae
. Unit Hydrograph Method
The flood discharge calculated from the above methods will be compared with each
other and the highest of these values will be adopted as the design discharge Q,
provided it does not exceed the next highest discharge by more than 50 per cent. ln
case the difference is more than 50 per cent then the design discharge will be restricted
to the limit of 50 per cent. Culverts will be designed for a flood frequency of 20 years
whereas bridges shall be designed for a flood frequency of 100 years.
3.8.4 Cross -Sections and Longitudinal Sections
Survey works are complete but team was unable to complete the survey for initially
proposed bypasses. Regarding hydrological survey, minimum three cross sections of the
stream/river were taken for minor bridges i.e. one at up-stream, one at down-stream and
one near proposed bridge location for calculating discharge by Manning formula. ln case
of major bridges minimum five numbers of cross sections of the river were taken i.e. two
numbers at up-stream, two numbers at down-stream and one near proposed bridge
location. Cross sections of the channel were taken up-to following distances from the
proposed bridge location based on the catchment area-
Sl. No. Gatchment Area Distance at u/s and d/s for
cross sections
1 Up-to 3 sq.km. 100.0m
2 From 3.0 to 15.0 sq.km. 300.0m
3 Over 15 sq.km. 500.0m

Longitudinal section of river for minor bridges are being taken for a length of 300.0m up-
stream and 300.0m on down-stream side from centre line of proposed bridge location. ln
case of major bridges, the longitudinal section of river were taken for a length of 500.0m
on up-stream and 500.0m on down-stream side from centre line of proposed bridge
location. The longitudinal section will be used to calculate the slope of the stream.

3.9 SUB.SOI L INVESTIGATION


Detailed sub-soil investigations are carried out for proposed ROBs, Flyovers,
Underpasses and bridge locations as per approved locations by NHAI.
Sub-soil investigation report has been prepared as per IRC 78-200Q and being
submitted separately.

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3.10 PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED/BYPASS SURVEY


During carrying out survey and investigation work the consultant survey and
investigation teams experienced some problems at the field. The local people did not
allow carrying out the survey work at some built up areas. The consultant started
carrying out the survey work for bypass corrdor with the help of administration but could
not succeed because of vehemently opposed by the landowners. Not only they
protested but they physically assaulted the survey team members also. As a result,
NHAI compelled to instruct the survey team members not to go ahead further.
Therefore, the bypass opton to avoid the built up areas and traffic hazards is discarded.
ln this circumstance the consultant had no other option but to follow the existing
alignment with geometric improvement at the locations of the existing poor geometrics
like "S" curves, Broken Back curves and roller coaster.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
GHAPTER 4: TRAFFIC SURVEYS AND ANALYS|S........
- ..............1
4.1 GENERAL ..............1
4.2 ONE WEEK CLASSIFIED TRAFFIC COUNTS ...........2
4.2.1 Methodology............... ...................2
4.2.2 Traffic Count at km 44.250 ............3
4.2.3 Traffic Count at km 54.900 ............7
4.2.4 Traffic Count at km 71 ............. .....11
4.2.5 Traffic Count at km 110........... ..... 15
4.2.6 Summary of Traffic Count Data ......... ............ 18
4.2.7 Comparison of Primary and Secondary Data.. ................ 19
4.3 oRtGtN DESTTNATION SURVEYS.......... ................20
4.3.1 Delineation of Traffic Zones....... ....................20
4.3.2 Axle Load Survey .......22
4.4 TURNTNG MOVEMENT SURVEYS.............. ............22
4,5 SPEED AND DELAY SURVEY ................28
4.6 OPINION SURVEYS
4.7 CHARACTERTSTTCS
TRAFFTC ..............36
4.8 TRAFFTC VOLUME PROJECT|ONS.......... ...............38
4.8.1 Background............... ................... 38
4.8.2 Forecasting Methodology ............... ............38
4.8.3 Transport Demand E1asticity..................... .....40
4.8.4 Traffic Growth Rates: Socio Economic Data......... ..........41
4.8.5 Traffic Growth Estimates and Projections.......... ..............41
4.9 CAPACITYANALYSIS .........43
4.10 ACCTDENANALYS|S ............43
4.11 ROAD SAFETY... ...................46
LIST OF TABLE

Table 4.1: PCU adopted ...................... 1


Table 4.2: Seven-Day Count Survey Locations.. ......................2
Table 4.3. Daily and directionwise variation of Traffic at Km 44.250 .........5
Table 4.4: Daily and directionwise Variation of Traffic at Km 54.900...... ....................8
Table 4.5 : Daily and Directionwise variation of Traffic at Km 71 ............. .................12
Table 4.6 Daily and Directionwise variation of Traffic at km 110.0 ...........;............... 16
Table 4.7 Locationwise Traffic in terms of ADT and PCU ......19
Table 4.8 Primary and Secondary data with Growth Rate....... ................ 19
Table 4.9: Origin & Destination Surveys ...............20

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Table A.1Q.Traffic Zones.... ..............20


Table 4.1 1: Vehicle Damage Factor for all Commercial Vehicles ...........22
Table 4.12:Turning Movement Survey Locations ................22
Table 4.13: Summary of Peak hour Turning movements on Study Corridor.... .........22
Table 4.14 Speed & Delay Survey (To Barasat).............. ......29
Table 4.15: Speed & Delay Survey (To Baharampore) .........32
Table 4.16: Opinion Survey .. ........36
Table 4.17: Sales Figures of Petrol and Diesel (Monthly ) ........................37
Table 4.18: Growth Rate of Vehicles Based on Vehicle Registration............... ........38
able 4.19: Growth Rate from Registered Vehic|es............ .i...................................39
Table 4.20. Population Growth ............... ..............39
Table 4.21: Per Capita lncome (at constant 993-94 prices)
1 .................. 39
Table 4.22: Net State Domestic Product (NSDP) in Rs. Million ..............40
Table 4.23: Growth Rate in Economic Parameters.............. ...................41
Table 4.24:Traffic Growth Rates based on Socio Economic Data.......... .................41
Table 4.25: Comparison of Traffic Growth Rates and proposed Growth Rates ........41
Table 4.26: Projected AADT for Study Corridor Package I (From km 31 to km 81) . ....... .......42
Tale 4.27 Delatls of Yearly accident details along NH-34....... ............44
LIST OF FIGURES

Fig. 4.1: One-week Traffic Count Stations .............. 3


Fig.4.2: Average Daily Variation of Traffic (Veh) at km 44.250...... ...........4
Fig.4.3: Composition of Vehicles at km 44.250 ......7
Fig. 4.4: Average Daily Variation of Traffic (Veh) at km 54.900............:.......... ......... 10
Fig.4.5: Composition of Vehicles at km 54.900 ....10
Fig. 4.6: Average Daily Variation of Traffic (Veh) at km 71 ............. .........14
Fig. 4.7: Composition of Vehicles at km 71 ............. ...............14
Fig. 4.8: Average Daily Variation of Traffic (Veh) at km 110........... ......... 18
Fig.4.9: Composition of Vehicles at km 110........... ............... 18
Fig.4.10: Turning Movements at Km 40.800
Fi1.4.11: Turning Movements at Km 50.600 ........24
Fig.4.12: Turning Movements at Km 53.000 ... ..25
Fi1.4.13: Turning Movements at Km 66.350 ........26
Fig. 4.14: Turning Movements at Km 1 11.60 ........27
Fig.4.15:SpeedCharacteristicsonStudyCorrido
Fig:4.16: Locationwise % age Accidents............ ..................45
Fig.4.17a:SeverityofAccidents..'...'......
Fig:4.17b: Bar Chart Showing Distributions of Fatal Cases....... .............45

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CHAPTER - 4: TRAFFIC SURVEYS AND ANALYSIS

4.1 GENERAL
Traffic surveys are essential to appreciate the prevailing traffic and travel characteristics
of the project influencing area. The primary objectives of these traffic studies are to:
. Determine the characteristics of traffic movement:
o ldentification of zone of influence for the project stretch and the extent of influence
based on O-D Survey;
o Determine the travel pattern as well as type and weight of commodities carried by
goods vehicles;
. Capacity assessment and recommendation for 4/6 laning based on demand forecast
and evolving suitable design there for;
o Determine the turning movement of traffic at road intersections as a guide for
geometric design of intersections;
o Determination of vehicle damage factor as an aid to pavement design;
Determine the speed - delay characteristics along the Project Road;
. Determine accident lack spot locations and device methods for improving safety
along the Project Road;
Field Traffic surveys
Traffic surveys were conducted during the month of November 2006.The following
surveys were conducted for the assessment of traffic characteristics and travel pattern.
. Classified Traffic Volume Count Surveys
. Origin-Destination and Commodity Movement Characteristics Surveys
o Axle loading characteristics survey
. lntersection Volume Count Survey
. Pedestrian Survey
o Speed-Delay Survey
Allthese traffic surveys have been carried in accordance with the guidelines specified by
IRC: 9-1972 and IRC: 102-1988. Adopted equivalent passenger car units for the study
have been presented in Table 4.1. The methodology adopted for conducting these
surveys is briefly described below:
Table 4.1: PGU adopted
Vehicle Tvpe PCU Values
Carl.JeepA/a n/3Wheeler 1

2Wheeler 0.5
Minibus 1.5
Bus 3
LCViTractor 1.5
2 Axle Truck 3
3 Axle ruck 3
Articulated Truck/Tractor Trailor 4.5
Cycles 0.5
Cvcle Rickshaw 2
Tonqa 4
Hand Cart 3
Animal Cart b

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4.2 ONE WEEK CLASSIFIED TRAFFIC COUNTS


Under the present study, the manual traffic counts were carried out for successive 15
minutes intervals at selected locations on project road for duration of one week. Counts
on any other road link from which the traffic may divert to the proposed road or vice-versa
have also been considered. The survey stations have been located away from urban
agglomerations and villages to minimize interference of localtraffic.
The survey has been carried out round-the-clock for seven consecutive days starting
from 2 nd November 2006 until 9 tn Novemver 2006. At each identified station, the counts
have been taken as per the following vehicle classifications.
, Motorized Vehicle
. 2-Wheeler & 3-Wheeler
. Passenger Car
. Utilty Vehicle (Jeep, Van, etc.)
. Bus (mini bus, standard bus)
. LightCommercialVehicle(freight)
. Truck
- MCV (2-axle rigid chassis)
- HCV (Mutliaxle Rigid)
- HCV (Multiaxle articulated)
. Agricultural Tractors(with trailer/without trailer)
Non Motorised Vehicle
. Bicycle
. Rickshaw
. Animal Drawn Vehicle
o Other Non-Motorized Vehicle
4.2.1 Methodology
The work has been executed in three shifts of 8-hour each in normal traffic conditions.
Survey locations for this survey are shown in Table 4.2 below and Figure 4.1. Data on
the number of vehicles of different categories moving along the road in both directions
are recorded by specially trained enumerators for this purpose. The vehicles are broadly
classified into motorised passenger vehicles, motorised goods vehicles and non-
motorised vehicles. These groupings are further sub-divided to reflect more realistically
the present day traffic pattern on the road. Accordingly classified traffic counts have been
conducted atkm 44,km 55, km 71,for the Package 1 of the Proposed Road Corridor.

Table 4.2: Seven-Day Count Survey Locations

Date
Link No. Ghainage & Location Survey Duration
From To
1001 Km 44.25 02t11t06 09t11106 7 davs
1002 Km 54.90 02t11t06 09t11106 7 davs
1003 Km 71.00 02t11t06 09t11t06 7 davs
1004 Km 1 10.00 02t11t06 09t11t06 7 davs

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To Debqm
Km 149.500

Km13.9.000
+Km137,650

To Nabadwip

-*
LEGEN;. To
l +i:,-.-Km 56.700
.+Km54.900
i..-Km 53.150
^"r"t"tt"-t"t lii:..-Km sD.72s
Km 48
Cbssifeid Traffc
Volume Suryey & t"^"r,* ]
OD Sutuey

Tuming Movement
Survey

Axle Load

Fig.4.1: One-week Traffic Count Stations

4.2.2 Traffic Count at km 44.250


The daily traffic volume at this location ranges between 7056 and 9297 vehicles, the
average number of vehicles per day being 7841. Motorised vehicles range between 4791
and 6812 vehicles, while non-motorised vehicles range between 1536 and 2485 vehicles,
MOS of the non-motorised vehicles being cycles. The daily traffic intensity ranges
between 10122 passenger car units and 14450 passenger car units, the average daily
traffic intensity being 12343 passenger car units (PCU's).
The intensity of motorised vehicular traffic ranges between 8114 and 12199 passenger
car units per day while the intensity of non-motorised traffic ranges between 1402 and

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2251 passenger car units.The daily and directionwise variation of traffic at km 44.250 is
given in Table 4.3. Further details of survey like hourly varatons are presented in
Annexure 3.1.

The day-wise variation of different categories of vehicles in numbers are provided in Fig -
4.2.

r Animal Carts

10000
r Cycle Rickshaw

9000
o Cycle
.D
I 8000 o Agri Tractor without Trailer
.9
7000 w Agri Tractor with Trailer
o
6000 r Truck Articulated
o
5000 s Truck Multi Axle
4000 w Truck 2 Axle
o 3000
E LCV
2000
g
F 1000
I Bus
r o Mini Bus
Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Day 6 Day 7 u Car
m 3 Wheeler
Day
2 Wheeler

Fig. 4.2: Average Daily Variation of Traffic (Veh) at km 44.250

Goods vehicles account for 29 % of the total ADT followed by cars 17 o/o, two wheelers
12 o/o, Buses 9%, three wheelers 5 o/o nd mini buses 2%. Slow moving vehicles
accounts for a considerable percentage like 25o/o of ADT. The composition of different
categories of vehicles comprisng the ADT is given in Fig. - 4.3.

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Table 4.3: Daily and directionwise variation of rraffic at Km 44.250

FAST MOVING VEHICLES SLOW MOVING


VEHICLES g I
'i Agri .9 E
o .9 ,^
G
Truck
Tractor at 6) o
'IO o
>1 E f
()
Day Direction
g
o -g
o
l- an
5 E g r (E
L
(E
E sp ftt bg o-
o o o m o o g
ah
= o o o E ET
o Ix x (! () v(n .2 .29 cE (
o
-) d (g
o
o ag
o ;>
o o o
=
=
( E (\ o 'E E .E
o z o 29
G
C)
= L Er- E
= > =
Barasat-
1 Baharamoore 515 tJo 517 15 318 347 404 54 0 0 736 555 0
(Thurs Baharampore-
dav) Barasat 452 124 OJ+ 10 304 t co 109 1 1 0 321 0
Sub- Total 967 260 1151 ^?
25 622 659 940 163 3 1 0 1389 876 0 4791 2265 7056 8114 2009 10122
Barasat-
z Baharampore 518 239 803 54 388 483 670 216 4 4 18 829 519 4
(Fri Baharampore-
dav' Barasat 500 ot 778 17 382 473 674 291 12 17 4 bbb 467 0
Sub- Total 1018 506 1581 71 770 956 1344 507 16 21 22 1495 986 4 6812 2485 9297 12199 2251 14450
Barasat-
Baharamoore 477 186 754 347 427 540 131 0 0 1 754 425 z
(Satur Baharampore-
dav) Barasat 457 183 582 35 JO ?^ 597 114 7 0 443
Sub- Total 934 369 1 336 67 683 792 1137 245 7 3 1 1510 868 I 5574 2386 7960 9702 2105 11807
Barasat-
4 Baharampore nl 223 704 100 388 369 514 219 23 10 416 339
(Sun Baharampore-
dav) Barasat 487 230 824 54 372 co c 214 28 13 495 284 0
Sub- Total 988 453 '1528 154 760 725 1036 433 51 10 22 911 623 2 6160 1536 7696 10788 1402 12190
Barasat-
6 Baharampore 395 206 559 87 344 o 518 23 11 29 15 488 348 5
(Mon Baharampore-
dav) Barasat 431 152 572 63 317 301 178 11 11 532 o U
Sub- Total 826 358 1'.131 150 661 664 1093 414 19 40 26 1020 674 5 5382 1699 7081 9932 1551 11483

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FAST MOVING VEHICLES SLOW MOVING


VEHICLES o g
'i Agri .9 t
o .9 E^
of
Truck o '=o
v,
o .9 c) f
Day Direction Io eo
(!
ah
Tractor

U'

9E E >1
oi bg
o

o !to g gaD
oE ()G E'
o o,.c o og
o o o m
o g x (, !? (rt .9 5o >o (!
o
E
dt x s (E
o
o
(
o ;>
o o cE o
=
$t =
c) L
o (\ o 'E & .E
o z o 99
o =
E r-.
= = =
Barasat-
h Baharampore 418 289 OJ// 152 405 432 562 329 15 16 20 448 387
(Tues Baharampore-
dav) Barasat 445 +o ou 9'1 392 414 543 302 l 7 t 455 JCJ

Sub- Total 863 535 1257 243 797 846 1105 631 27 23 32 903 740 5 6359 1648 8007 11729 1592 13321
Barasat-
?? F72
7 Baharampore vo 96 318 393 556 244 14 21 11 431 406 I
(Wedn Baharampore-
esdav) Barasat 382 241 576 64 346 471 737 265 17 603 464 0

Sub- Total 735 447 '1149 160 664 864 1293 509 31 23 11 1034 870 I 5886 1912 7798 11157 1870 13027
TOTAL
(7 davs) 6331 2928 91 33 870 4957 5506 7948 2902 154 121 114 8262 5637 32 40964 13931 54895 73620 12779 86399

Averaqe 904 418 1305 124 708 787 1 135 415 22 17 16 1180 805 5 7842 10517 1826 12343
Total Fast Totalslow
Movino = 5852 Movino = 1990 7842

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Anirml Carts
oy;o
Cycle
Rickshaw 2 \Arheeler
12yo
lOyo
Clcle 3 M/heeler
5o/o
150
Car
18o/o

\- Mini Bus
2Vo
LCV
1Oo/o [ "u'
9o/o

Fig. 4.3: Gomposition of Vehicles at km 44.250

4.2.3 Traffic Gount at km 54.900


The daily traffic volume at this location vares between 10386 and 15152 vehicles, the
average number of vehicles per day
being 11853. Motorised vehicles range
between 8098 and 11815 vehicles while
non-motorised vehicles range between
2251 and 3337 vehicles, MOST of the
non-motorised vehicles being bicycles.
The daily traffic intensity ranges
between 17072 passenger car units and
26994 passenger car units, the daily
average traffic intensity being 20033
passenger car units.
The intensity of motorised vehicular
traffic ranges between 15363 passenger
car units and 24167 passenger car units
while the intensitv of non-motorised
traffic ranges between 1626 passenger car units and 2949 passenger car units. The daily
and directionwise variation of traffic at km 55 is given in Table 4.4.
The day-wise variation of different categories of vehicles in numbers is given in Fig. 4.4.
Goods vehicles account for nearly 42% of the total ADT, followed by cars 17o/o; two
wheelers 10 o/o, Buses 5%, three wheelers 4o/o, and mini buses 1%. Slow moving
vehicles consttute 23 % of ADT. The composition of different categories of vehicles
comprising the ADT is given in Fig. 4.5.
The hourly variation of vehicles is given in Annexure 3.1

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Table 4.4: Daily and directionwise variation of rraffic at Km s4.go0

FAST MOVING VEHICLES SLOW MOVING .::


VEHICLES I o .9
.9 t, .9 o
x( ruck \qri racto
o
o
o
'tro
I t
o g
.9
o =
()
Day Direction o -9
(t
U'
o E
o g g Q oE
L

() E 9.E
o_c o o .9(J
o.
o o CL
o dt U' x Io o q
= s
o, o
C)
t
( t


(E
U'
:>
=o (E '
o
IU
o
(, o o o
=
(\ =
(v) L
(g
= = L o E c o zo o
o =
o = .= E
= zo
3arasat-
514 251 745 240 576 '1
195 206 30 6B 16 1 003 465 ?
1 3aharampore
(Thurs 3aharampore- oo.1
683 225 64 318 716 1498 469 OJ 102 h 1466 650 4
dav) 3arasat
Sub- Total 1197 476 1736 102 558 1292 2693 675 93 170 22 2469 1115 7 9014 3591 12605 17896 2949 20845
Jarasat- e r
516 221 1 051 71 329 662 1542 507 129 951 407 0
Jaharampore
(Fri 3aharampore-
758 404 1281 o 447 1044 1758 750 51 161 12 1227 752 U
dav) Jarasat
Sub- Total 1274 625 2332 134 776 1706 3300 1257 109 290 12 2'178 I 159 0 11815 3337 '15152 24167 2828 26994
3arasat-
573 172 973 78 297 598 1289 375 38 o 6 842 321 0
laharampore
(Satur 3aharampore-
491 o 943 18 292 653 1454 455 1 106 17 873 ,) 0
dav) Sarasat
Sub- Total 1064 435 1916 96 589 1251 2743 830 39 132 23 1715 653 0 91 t8 2368 11486 18',194 1837 20031
Sarasat-
o,5 198 985 30 236 491 1023 221 25 29 12 850 336 4
4 3aharampore
(Sun 3aharampore-
572 280 1179 50 245 564 1 338 396 64 14 907 370 4
dav) 3arasat
Sub- Total 1195 478 2',164 80 481 1055 2361 617 89 68 26 '1757 706 I 8614 2471 11085 16065 1986 18050
Sarasat-
525 234 916 18 212 524 1137 .1 z 845 264 0
3aharamoore
(Mon 3aharampore- 4
545 272 921 27 + 572 1 336 273 40 12 I 878 301 0
dav) 3arasat
Sub- Total 1070 506 1837 45 460 1096 2473 511 82 15 3 1723 565 0 8098 2288 10386 15363 1709 17072

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FAST MOVING VEHICLES SLOW MOVING :


VEHICLES I g .9
.9 E
'i Truck Aqri lracto o gat, .9 o
:f
g G'
o
g, o '=o
U'
.9 o
>5 E^ (J
Day Direction Io an
g !
o =Gl oE (E
ll 9E o o ,9o3 o-
o
o)
o CL m @ x -9
gU' o o g^ c)
:o-
o (J a-- (!
o
E
d -g
() o
c,

(!
.E
L
o ;>
o

o
'
o o o
(l
= =
(9 E o E o z o
o
ft L
E E =
= o
2
Sarasat-
565 oo 907 12 204 514 1278 227 54 870 204
3aharampore 1 1

(Tues 3aharampore-
dav) Jarasat
592 278 109'1 z 245 583 1460 311 89 17 885 291 U

Sub- Total 1157 544 1998 44 449 1097 2738 538 143 18 I 1755 495 1 8735 2251 10986 16745 1626 18371
Sarasat-
499 324 858 27 189 595 1 195 208 71 z 1094 320
Jaharampore
(Wed
nes 3aharampore- 545 302 889 ,) 623 1571 361 85 1 t 886 o B
day) laa^^+
JAt AAL

Sub- Total 1044 626 1747 63 422 1218 2766 569 156 4 14 1980 646 13 8629 2639 11268 16829 2037 18866
TOTAL
8001 3690 1 3730 564 J/JC 8715 19074 4997 711 697 '109 13577 ??o 29
{7 davs) 64023 I 8945 82968 125257 14971 14022t
Averaqe 1143 527 I 961 81 534 1245 2725 714 102 100 l6 1940 763 4 11853 17894 2139 20033

Totalslow 27 r1853
Total Fast Movino 9146 Movinq = 06

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Detailed Project Report Feasibility & DPR for 4/6 laning from Barasat to Baharampore
Volume - t: lVlan nepo

16000
tAnimal Carts
14000 r Cycle Rickshaw

o nooo
e Cycle
c Agri Tractor without Trailer
5 roooo w Agri Tractor with Trailer

l luck Articulated
8000
eTruck MultiAxle
Io oooo w Truck 2 Axle
@ LCV
E
F
4000
Bus
2000 n Mini Bus
tr Car
0
'l s 3 Wheeler
Day Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Day 6 Day 7
2 Wheeler
Day

Fig. 4.4: Average Daily Variation of Traffic (Veh) at km 54.900

AninplCarts
0%
CrTcle
Rickshaw
AgriTractor 6%
w ithout Trailer Cycle
)Vo
16%
Truck

AgriTractor MiniBus
w ith Trailer 1%

1% Truck Multi
Axle t'/
Truck 2 Axle
22%

Fig. 4.5: Composition of Vehicles at km 54.900

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Detailed Project Report Feasibility & DPR for 4/6 laning from Barasat to Baharampore
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4.2.4 Traffic Count atkm7l

The daily traffic volume at this location varies between 8638 and 9363 vehicles, the
average number of vehicles per day being 8800. Motorised vehicles range between 7210
and 7933 vehicles while non-motorised vehicles range between 1301 and 1606 vehicles,
MORTH of the non-motorised vehicles being bicycles. The daily traffic intensity ranges
between 14963 passenger car units and 16917 passenger car units, the daily average
traffic intensity being 15792 passenger car units.
The intensity of motorised vehicular traffic ranges between 13614 passenger car units
and 14728 passenger car units while the intensity of non-motorised traffic ranges
between 1197 passenger car units and 1502 passenger car units. The daily and
directionwise variation of traffic at km 71 is given in Table 4.5.
The day-wise variation of different categories of vehicles in numbers is given in Fig. 4.6.
Goods vehicles account for nearly 44o/o of the total ADT, followed by cars 197o, two
wheelers 12 o/o, Buses 5%, three wheelers 4o/o, and mini buses less than 1%. Slow
moving vehicles constitute 17 o/o of ADT. The composition of different categories of
vehicles comprising the ADT is given in Fig. 4.7.
The hourly variation of vehicles is given in Annexure 3.1

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Table 4.5 : Daily and Directionwise variation of rraffic at Km 71

FAST MOVING VEHICLES SLOW MOVING g


VEHICLES
f
o I
o ,9 o- .9
Truck Agri ,9 (9 o
x(5 Tractor o I
g t- E .9 tla (J
Day Direction o tt g (! o E o=l
o (l.' g ! (, 'E
ah ar (ll
() E
o
U'
o o U, rl
o o o
o
m
=
U'

dt
o x o
(t -9
o !i u,
_- ta ( .9 o E
:o- cf
-g rJ(J o o o o
=t
c=) o o .E o
E
L
= o E o =
.9,

o
G = E L o
= zo o zo
Barasat- =
1
Baharampore
513 170 674 17 221 457 1179 159 48 14 4 449 343 1

(Thurs Baharampore- 4aa


dav)
510 tIz 716 o lo 459 1424 235 8B 17 11 463 350 0
Barasat
Sub- Total 1023 342 1390 23 437 916 2603 394 136 31 15 912 693 1 7310 r606 8916 14728 1502 16230
Barasat-
473 153 850 18 426 1119 194 ^ o 15 461 326
Baharamoore
(Fri tsaharampore-
503 146 692 to 255 494 1215 233 59 ?? J 454 306
dav) Barasat
Sub- Total 976 299 1542 34 487 920 2334 427 115 59 18 915 632 0 7211 1547 8758 14314 1406 15720
Barasat-
J 502 145 824 28 229 546 1 088 255 16 J 348 237
Baharamoore 1

(Satur Baharampore-
430 145 7no 24 201 446 1 305 273 69 18 13 411 304 0
dav) Barasat
Sub- Total 932 290 1533 52 430 992 2393 528 137 34 16 759 541 1 7337 1301 8638 14702 1197 15899
Barasat-
4 570 151 794 226 370 899 176 50 Y 468 287 1
Baharamoore
(Sun Baharampore- oo?
ouz 144 29 208 506 1149 255 70 28 12 445 294 2
dav) Barasat
Sub- Total 1172 295 1787 51 434 876 2048 431 120 57 15 913 581 3 7286 1497 8783 13617 1346 14963
6 Barasat- ?n 158 818 15 194 462 1 061 219 12 2 438 298 0
Baharampore
(Mon Baharampore- t
davl 536 172 858 219 434 1224 171 60 12 502 341 U
Barasat
Sub- Total 1066 330 1676 30 413 896 2285 390 95 24 5 940 639 0 7210 1579 8789 13735 1429 15164

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Detailed Project *"oon*
..,,,,,,,, Feasibility & DpR for 4/6 laning from Baras:

FAST MOVING VEHICLES SLOW MOVING g f() I


VEHICLES g .9 ,9
Agra o-
'il! Truck
Tractor
.9
o
o g o
f
Day Direction g g U'
o 3 E
o
.9 E^ (J

o o m o E I( gan r(! G
() E
o ,.!2 o o
() o o
U'
() o G'

o o x
s ct 9tD
.-J ( .9, o E o= (

t C) rJC' o o o o o
.E
=
(\ =
(9 L
= .9 o E o =
U'
L E
G'
o o

=
I = zo 5o zo
Barasat-
o 557 208 877 15 183 458 150 216 42 10 z 441
Baharampore 1 306 2
(Tues Baharampore-
495 158 980 20 212 464 1221 228 67 5 340 246 7
dav) Barasat
Sub- Total 1052 366 1857 35 395 922 2371 444 109 l5 7 781 552 I 7573 1342 8915 14383 1273 15656
Barasat-
471 171 893 21 192 6'13 1347 213 74 477 387 4
Baharamoore 1

(Wednes Baharampore-
499 149 1 001 21 199 464 1274 Y 74 o 314 241 7
dav) Barasat

Sub- Total 970 320 1894 42 391 1077 2621 442 ',48 22 6 791 628 11 7933 1430 9363 15514 1404 16917
TOTAL
(7 davs) 7191 2242 11679 267 2987 6599 16655 ?n^ 860 242 82 601 1 4266 25 51860 10302 62162 100992 9555 11 0546

Average 1027 320 1668 38 427 943 2379 437 123 35 12 859 609 4 8880 14427 1365 15792

Total Fast Moving = 7409 Totalslow 1472 8880


Movinq =

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Detailed Project Report Feasibility & DPR for 4/6 laning from Barasat to Baharampore
Volume - l: Main Rep

1 0000
I Animal Carts
9000
I Cycle Rickshaw
tt, 8000 El cycle
g
.9 7000 tr Agri Tractor without Trailer
o)
6000 N Agri Tractor with Trailer
o
5000
I Truck Articulated
s Truck MultiFude
4000
$B Truck 2 Axle
C'
3000 @ LCV
(E

F
L
2000 I Bus

1 000 E Mini BUS

tr Car
0
g 3 \Meeler
Dayl Day2 Day 3 Day4 Day 5 Day6 DayT
@ 2 Wheeler
Day

Fig. 4.6: Average Daily Variation of Traffic (Veh) at km 7l

Fig. 6.7 Composition of Vehicles at km 7l

Cycle Animal Carts


Rickshaw Oo/o

7Vo
Wheeler
Agri Tractor CYcle 3 \/heeler
12%
w ith Trailer 10% 4%
AgriTractor 0%
Car
w thout Trailer
19%
0%
Truck Bus
ck Multi
Articulated
Axle
1%
5%

Truck 2 Axle
260/0

Fig.4.7: Composition of Vehicles atkm71


The daily traffic volume at this location varies between 8861 and 10594 vehicles, the
average number of vehicles per day being 9593. Motorised vehicles range between
6331 and 8040 vehicles while non-motorised vehicles range between 2527 and 2846
vehicles, MORTH of the non-motorised vehicles being bicycles. The daily traffic
intensity ranges between 14204 passenger car units and 17520 passenger car units,
the daily average traffic intensity being 15982 passenger car units.
The intensity of motorised vehicular traffic ranges between 12230 passenger car units
and 15346 passenger car units while the intensity of non-motorised traffic ranges
between 1975 passenger car units and 2330,passenger car unts. The daily and
directionwise variaton of traffic at km 1 10 is given in Table 4.3.
The day-wise variation of different categories of vehicles in numbers is given in Fig.
4.8. Goods vehicles account for nearly 39o/o of the total ADT, followed by cars 14o/o, lwo
wheelers 13 o/o, Buses 5%, three wheelers 2o/o, t1d mini buses less than 1%. Slow
moving vehcles constitute 27 o/o of ADT. The composition of different categories of
vehicles comprising the ADT is given in Fig, 4.9.

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Detailed Project Report Feasibility & DPR for 4/6 lanng from Barasat to Baharampore
Volume - l: Main R

The hourly variation of vehicles is given in Annexure 3


4.2.5 Traffic Gount at km 110
The daily traffic volume at this location varies between 8861 and 10594 vehicles, the
average number of vehicles per day being 9593. Motorised vehicles range between
6331 and 8040 vehicles while non-motorised vehicles range between 2527 and 2846
vehicles, MORTH of the hor.filotorised vehicles being bicycles. The daily traffic
intensity ranges between 14204 passenger car units and 17520 passenger car units,
the daily average traffic intensity beng 15982 passenger car units.
The intensity of motorised vehicular traffic ranges between 12230 passenger car units
and 15346 passenger car units while the intensity of non-motorised traffic ranges
between 1975 passenger car units and 2330 passenger car units. The daily and
directionwise variation of traffic at km 1 10 is given in Table 4.6,
The day-wise variation of different categories of vehicles in numbers is given in Fig.
4.8. Goods vehicles account for nearly 39o/o of the totalADT, followed by cars 14%, two
wheelers 13 o/o, Buses 5%o, three wheelers 2o/o, and mini buses less than 1%. Slow
moving vehicles constitute 27 o/o of ADT. The composition of different categories of
vehicles comprising the ADT is given in Fig. 4.9.
The hourly variation of vehicles is given in Annexure 3

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Detailed Project Report Feasibility & DPR for 4/6 laning from Barasat to Ba
Volume-l: Main Re 31 to km 193) section of NH34 in the state of West B

able 4.6 Daily and Directionwise variation of Traff c at km 110.0


SLOW MOVING
FAST MOVING VEHICLES
VEHIGLES I o I
Agri
g .9
o- .9
Truck .9 (l)
o
'i Tractor o I f
Io g
(u
t- q,
g
@
to r
.9
o=l o
o-
Day Direction o o gth ar (
= ()G o .9()
o o m o (E o U'
o
o (J x o I tJ'
L
o (g
.)o dt ( (E
( G .9, to ^LcL
o
t F () .E o o o
=
=
(v) L o E o E .9, E
(5 = = o
E o
o E
= zo o
E zo
I Barasat-Baharampore o.7 131 618 11 293 1143 170 43 1 4 986 412 14
(Thurs day) Baharampore-Barasat 599 '101 5 182 ?o 1295 243 77 10 o 1 043 385 o
Sub- Total 1231 232 1215 16 475 732 2438 413 120 45 l0 2029 797 20 6927 2846 9773 13920 2330 16250
Barasat-Baharampore 540 o 668 14 207 345 1254 244 49 10 o 947 453 12
(Fri day) Baharampore-Barasat 502 507 10 245 317 1161 240 46 I 12 924 350 12
Sub- Total 1042 182 1175 24 452 662 2415 484 95 18 21 1871 803 24 6570 2698 9268 13500 2284 15784
Barasat-Baharampore 586 YO 717 16 252 346 1210 309 54 15 BBB 385 7
(Satur day) Baharampore-Barasat 592 106 530 15 216 316 1 359 201 7 96'1 391 10
Sub- Total 1178 202 1247 31 468 662 2569 510 117 20 13 1849 776 17 7017 2642 9659 14355 2191 16545
4 Barasat-Baharamore 646 107 624 10 228 274 971 194 31 10 5 870 355 J
(Sun day) Baharampore-Barasat 564 72 740 11 188 205 1 131 231 49 l0 30 973 327 z
Sub- Total 1210 179 1364 21 416 479 2102 425 80 20 35 1843 682 5 6331 2530 8861 12230 1975 14204
Barasat-Baharampore 651 107 AO 10 215 339 1 058 219 30 11 7 870 ,tt I 4
(Mon day) Baharampore-Barasat 720 100 687 U 246 260 1 100 169 40 I 12 919 353 4
Sub- Total 1371 207 1346 40 46',1 599 2158 388 70 19 19 1789 730 I 6678 2527 9205 12647 2038 14685
Barasat-Baharamore 788 to 690 15 196 384 1392 240 13 7 878 410 10
(Tues day) Baharampore-Barasat 806 to 793 15 230 458 1262 JO 57 I BB7 355 14
Sub- Total 1 594 325 1483 30 426 842 2654 576 79 21 10 1765 765 24 8040 2554 10594 15346 2174 17520
7 Barasat-Baharampore 623 84 607 11 181 341 1293 211 c 11 I 909 341 10
(Wednes day) Baharampore-Barasat 628 637 15 188 324 1 509 332 48 13 o 960 368

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Detailed Project Report
Feasibility & DPR for 4/6 laning from Barasat to Baharampore
Volume-l: Main Reoort (m 31 to km 193) section of NH34 in the state of West Benqal

FAST MOVING VEHICLES SLOW MOVING


VEHICLES -9
= g
I .9 o
o- .9
Truck Agri .9 o
o o
x Tractor o f
Day g (l)
G
at
@
!t
o
.9
o=) o

Direction o o P o G ) rl
o o L
o E tn Ix E
o o g o -eF= o E
o to
o
()

.)o d
(J
J g o (! .9, o t o= t
o * .E o o o o o
t (9
=
(J
o E o E .9,
(E
o =
5 o =

> = o
z E
o zo
Sub- Total 125',1 157 1244 26 369 665 2802 543 101 24 =
14 1869 709 7196 2595 9791 14789 2100 16889
17
TOTAL (7 days) 8877 1484 9074 188 3067 4641 17138 oo 167 122 13015 5262 115 48759 18392 67151 96786 I 5091 111876
Average 1268 212 1296 27 438 663 2448 477 95 24 17 1859 752 16 9593 13827 2156 15982
Total Fast Moving = 6966
Totalslow
2627 9593
Movinq =

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l

Detailed Project Report Feasibility & DPR for 4/6 laning from Barasat to Baharampore
Volume - l: Main R-eport (f !) (km 31 to km 193) section of NH34 in the state of West Bengal

12000
rAnimal Carts
r Cycle Rickshaw
10000
o o Cycle
o
o n Agri Tractor without T
8000
=o Agri Tractor with Trailer
I Truck Articulated
fl oooo
Truck Multi Axle
Truck 2 Axle

4000
@LCV

F 2ooo
I Bus
s Mini Bus
tr Car
0
Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Day 6 Day 7 3 Wheeler
e 2 Wheeler

Fig. 4.8: Average Daily Variation of Traffic (Veh) at km 110

Animal Carts
0%

Agri Tractor 2 Wheeler


w ith Trailer -a 13% 3 Wheeler
OYo \ 2%

Tractor
ithout Trailer 14% Mini Bus
o% 0o/o

Bus
LCV
5%
7%

Fig. 4.9: Composition of Vehicles at km 110

4.2.6 Summary of Traffic Count Data


The daily traffic volume count has been carried out at 3 locations considering the traffic
intensity and merging and diverging traffic on the project corridor. A summary of traffic
data in terms of Average Daily Traffic (ADT) and Passenger Car Unit (PCU) has been
presented in Table 4.7 to have better appreciation.

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V"l"r" - l, M"i" R"p ,on.

IqLe 4.7 Locationwise Traffic in terms of ADT and pGU


FAST VEHICLES, nos. SLOW VEHICLES, nos. Total Volume, nos. Non- Non-
Total Mot
mot mot
BUS TRUCK Agri.Tractor Animal
o Drawn
Ail Ail tn f
+ f
$ o._
ox (
= at o
o g
()
-) -9 JJ (L
o (
o Ix g L (J fn9 I I .9
(\
= co
= F
(\ x
(J
9 oS
L

o l
(
E' + l
o l!
(\
L ' zE .9 ()fE (!
L l--
#g () o .9 .9 o
= (
t- . F o fL o o)

km 44 904 418 1 305 124 708 787 1 135 415 22 17 to I 180 uc 5 0 4496 5852 7842 12343 10517 1826 1 990
km 55 1143 ct 1 961 81 534 1245 2725 714 102 100 16 1940 763 4 0 7361 9146 11853 20033 17894 2139 2706
km71 1027 320 1 668 J 427 943 2379 436 123 ? 12 859 609 4 0 601 5 7408 8880 15792 14427 365
1 1472
km 110 1268 212 1296 27 438 663 2448 477 95 24 17 859 tc 17 0 5444 oYoo 9593 5982
1 1 13827 2156 2628
4.2.7 Gomparison of Primary and Secondary Data
The daily traffic volume count had been carried out at 4 locations by previous Consultant in the Month of June 2004 for the
improvement of the project corridor. The Consultant collected these data as secondary data to have a better view of traffic

the purpose of the preparation of the deliverables. The consultant carried out Traffic Volume Count at 6 Locations for entire
the month of November 2006 in consultantation with the client to have homogenious sections and to have the projected trz
period of pavement design. A Table 4.8 showing the traffic in terms of AD for the locations identified by the current r
previous consultant is presented. This may give an idea of growth of traffc during the design period.
Table 4.9 Primary and Secondary data w
marv an with Growth Rate
Primary Traffic (Car+Bus+Truck) Secondary Traffic (Gar+Bus+Truck) Growth Remarks
Location Year
ln Terms of ADT ln Terms of PCU ln Terms of ADT ln Terms of PCU Rate (%)
km 32 Jun-04 '1 1489
kn 44 Nov-06 4+VO 9544
km 55 Nov-06 7361 16324
km 67 Jun-04 5480 9037
1 3rowth Could be calculated from these two
4.8
km 71 Nov-06 601 5 13420 ;tations
km 110 Nov-06 5444 12847
km 112 Jun-04 4833 14431
km 139 Nov-06 4664 1 1919
km 161 Jun-04 14835 3rowth Could be calculated from these two
8.7
km 162 Nov-06 4717 12401 ;tations

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Deatiled Project Report Feasibility & DPR for 4/6 laning from Barasat to Baharampore
Volume - l: lan nep

4.3 ORIGIN DESTINATION SURVEYS


The Origin Destination (O-D)
surveys were conducted at all
selected locations for a period of 24
hours through a pre-designed format
on a normal working day. The O-D
Survey has focus on the trip
purpose; load ability and commodity
carried for freight vehicle; and
number of passengers in case of
passenger vehicles, and also share
of empty vehicles. The survey has
been carried out on a random
sample basis. The survey has been
conducted with the assistance of the
local police and their locations have
been presented in the Table 4.9
below. Further details are presented in Annexure 3.2.

Table 4,9: Origin & Destination Surveys

Date
Location Gode Ghainage & Locations Survey Duration
From To
oD-1 Km 56.7 18t12t06 19t12t06 24 Hrs

4.3.1 Delineation of Traffic Zones


The travel characteristics would be incomplete without an understanding of the
intersection patterns between spatial units.
Travel desire patterns analysed from the origin-destination surveys indicate the
interaction levels between various spatial entries of people and freight. To understand the
intersection patterns, the surrounding areas of the corridor and the remaining part of the
country have been divided into 48 traffic zones. Thirteen zones are in the immediate
vicinity of the project corridor and can be termed to be "local zones". They have been
delineated on the basis of administrative boundaries for ease of analysing socio-
economic parameters. The areas beyond the local influence zones have been
aggregated to form larger zones. Similarly, across the border in Bangladesh, the zones
close to the project corridor have been delineated at the taluka level, while the zones
fadher away have been aggregated to from larger zones. The zoning system adopted is
given in Table 4.10.
Table 4.'10: Traffic Zones
Zone
Zone Description Remarks
No.
Rajarhat, Chitpur,Sodepur, Bangur, Barabajar,
Belghoriya,
I Kolkata/Du md um/Barasat
Madhyamgram,Amdanga, Kamdebpur,
Haldia, Baibai
Barakpur\Naihati\ Kan ki n a ra, Saym na gar, Tita garh, Awa lsidd h i,
2
Kancharapara Jaqatdal,Kapa
3 Habra\Duttaoukur
4 Banoaon Gaiqhata
Birohi,Anandanagar,Ashoknagar, Madanpur,
5 Kalyani
Simurali
o Harinqahata\Jaqullia
Chakadah

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Deatiled Project Report Feasibility & DPR for 4/6 laning from Barasat to Baharampore
Volume - l: ttan nep

Zone
Zone Description Remarks
No.
I Ranaghat Aranqhata
9 Santipur\Phulia Dattaphullia
Asannagar, Bhimpur, Kal iganj, Kestoganj,
10 Krishnagar Majdhaya, Badkulla, Birnagar, Dignagar,
Thaerour. Paloara
Bankura, Puruliya, Durgapur, Kalna,
Laxmipur, Memari, Samudragarh, Agradip,
11 Navadwip/Barddamam KatoyaGhat, Ketugram, Panagarh,
Kusumgram, Nadanghat, Orgram,
Bishnuour
Chughacha, Muragachha,Srikrisnapur,Shoan
12 Mayapur
lanoa
Dharmada,Sonadangha,Sonatala, Bamunpuk
13 Dhubulia
ur, Novapara
14 Nakash ioara\ Bethauadhari Birpurqhat, Chandraqarh,Gachha, Bhaqa
15 Debaqram\Kaliqani
Tehata\Plassu ipara, Barn ia, Bethay, Karimpur\
16 Plassui
Mahishabathan
17 Beldanoa
Dhalian, Domkal, Jiaganj, Lalgola, Morgram,
Raghunathganj, Rajgram, Matiari, Rejinagar,
18 Baharampore\ Murshidabad
Meherpur, Amtala, Morgram, Golabagh,
Jungipur, Falakata, Kashimbajar, Madhupur,
Sagardhigir, Bharatpur, Kandi, Khargram,
Nawda. Hariharaoara
19 Lalbaoh\Raninaqar Bhaowanoola
Sanserganj, Saligram, Sainthiya, Nalhati,
F arakkal Sh ilig u ril Birbh u m/
Rampurhat,Tarapith, Siuri, Rajgram, Dalkola
Maldah/ Dakshin Dinajpur/
20 Balurghat, Dinajpur, Gangarampur, lslampur
Uttar Dinajpur/ Jalpaiguri/
Raiganj, Goalpokhar, Kaliyaganj,
KochBihar
Alipurduar,Amarpur, Dhuoqari, Mainaquri
Dankuni, Kakdwip, Hasnabad,Sonarpur, Diam
21 South 24 Parganas
ond Harbour
Saligram, Bally, Bangaon, Chandannagar,
Digha, Pandua, Srirampur, Kolaghat,
Bhadreswar, Dhulagarh, Seoraphuli, Singur,
22 Howrah\MedinipuA Hugli
Amtala, Bandel, Chandannagar, Chunchura,
Kanthi, Kharagpur, Panskura, Rishra,
Tarkeshwar, Tribeni
23 North-Eastern States Assam, Manipur, Meqhalaya,Sillong, Sikkim
24 Bihar\Jharkhand Pakur,Purnia
25 A.P\Orissa Baleshwar, Cuttak, Hyd rabed
o Tamilnadu\Kerala\ Karnataka
Maharastra\M. P.\ Chandiqarh
27 Mumbai, Bilashpur
\Guiarat\ Raiasthan
Uttaranchal\U. P.\ Delhi
28
\Haryana\ Puniab\H. P.\ J&K
29 Bhutan lnternational
30 Nepal lnternational
31 Banqladesh Baqula lnternational

The details of O-D matrices, occupancy levels, commodity compostion, age of vehicles,
trip purpose and frequency are presented in Annexure 3.2.

The Louis Berger Group, lnc., USA 4-21


Deatiled Project Report Feasibility & DPR for 4/6 laning from Barasat to Baharampore
Volume - l: Main Rep

4.3.2 Axle Load Survey


The project road is divided into two broad sections from loading and O-D characteristics
of the commercial vehicles view point. First section starts from Barasat and ends at
Krishnagar and other starts from Krishnagar and ends at Baharampore. One location
from each section has been identified for O-D survey and Axle Load survey. The survey
location was at km 56.7 for Package-I.
Due to the requirement of stopping a vehicle for weighing, it is not possible to weigh all
the commercial vehicles passing through site. About 12o/o of commercial vehicles were
stopped for weighing in the 24 hours duration on a random sampling basis to have an
idea of Vehicle Damage Factor (VDF).
The VDF calculated for commercial vehicles on the basis of the axle load survey carried
out on this location of the project road corridor is presented in the Table 4.11.
Table 4.11: Vehicle Damage Factor for all Gommercial Vehicles
Sl. No. Location Ghainage (km) Type of Vehicle To Baharampore To Barasat
Mini Bus 0.6 0.6
Bus 2.06 1.83
LCV 0.38 0.42
I 56.700
2 Axle Truck 7.0 8.96
3 Axle Truck 7.0 8.96
Articulated Truck 8.42 7.49

4.4 TURNING MOVEMENT SURVEYS


At the existing major intersections, peak hour traffic volume will be essential for
intersection design. The survey has been conducted on a 15-minute interval for 24
hours/8 hours at I locations. The survey locations are presented in the Table 4.12 below.
Table 4.12: Turning Movement Survey Locations
Location Gode Location & Locations Date Survev Duration
TMC-1 Km 41.000 10t11t06 24 Hrs
TMC-2 Km 50.600 10t11t06 24 Hrs
TMC-3 Km 53.000 10t11t06 24 Hrs
TMC-4 Km 66.350 10t11t06 24 Hrs
TMC-6 Km 111.600 10t11t06 24 Hrs

The data has been analyzed to indicate the turning characteristics and the peak hour
traffic at the intersections. The peak hour intersection volumes vary between 1400 PCU
to 4700 PCU during evening time, observed at the above-mentioned four locations. The
observed intersection volumes for all the surveyed locations are given in Table 4.13 &
Fig.4.10 to Figure 4.14. Further details are presented in Annexure 3.3.

Table 4.13: Summary of Peak hour Turning movements on Study Corridor

st. No. Location Morning Peak Hour PCU Evening Peak Hour PCU
1 Km 40.800 1603
2 Km 50.600 3023
? Km 53.000 1483
4 Km 66.350 4711
Km 11 1.600 1 580

The Louis Berger Group, lnc., USA 4-22


Detailed P roject Report Feasibility & DPR for 4/6 laning from Barasat to Baharampore
Volume - l: Main Report (km 31 to km 193) section of NH34 in the state of West Beno

Fig. 4.10: Turning Movements at Km 40.800

C: EAHAFRAIVIPOR.E

I
I
E: NAIHATI I
I
I

A: EIARASAT
TFIAFFIG FLOVII trDIAGFIAM IN PGL.I

The Louis Berger Group, lnc., USA 4-23


Detailed Project *"oonn
Volume ,or,,
- l: Main Report (P1)
Feasibility & DpR for 4/6 laning from Barasat

Fig. 4.11: Turning Movements at Km 50.600

C: BAHARAMPORE

I
I
B: KANCHPARA I
I H ARINGATA
I

A: BARASAT
TRAFF tc F LOW DIAGRAM IN PCU

The Louis Berger Group, lnc., USA 4 -24


Detailed Project Repoft Feasibility & DPR for 4/6 laning from Barasat to Baharampore
Volume - l: Main Re (km 31 to km 193) section of NH34 in the state of West Bensal

Fig.4.12: Turning Movements at Km 53.000

C: BAHARAMPORE
47 5 I
I
/u
N I

Y
14 -1 5
4 1o 4

N 14-15 14 -1 5
I

N N
+ cc
I 4 -1 5

B: KALYAN

1 4 -1 5

-l
%ti%it%i%i,

t+
4 -1 5 I 4 -1 5
t% 256
1

t) 14-1 5 I
I 653

A: BARASAT
TRAFFIC FLOW DIAGRAM IN PCU

The Louis Berger Group, lnc., USA 4-25


Detailed Project *"oon*
Feasibility & DpR for 4/6 laning from Barasat
V"l"r" - l, M"i" R"p ,on,

Fig. 4.13: Turning Movements at Km 66.350

C: BAHARAMPORE
I
I
137E
N OU
I
I
9-10 {t W
i" o -l

N N NNI_, -,
I ,M W
I

+ \t/ I
45
+
V
-1 0
l0ttz
9-10
..'-f'\ 4 t4uo
I I -1 0
I I -1 0
B: CH AKDH A TOW N I
I JASSC R
36
I-10 \ I
911 t1 4
9-10 I -1 0
321 -4-
9-10 \rJ

W,M ,%m %i%it% N N N


47 51 252
6
N
llr
.% I -1 0 I -1 0 9-10

1246
+ N
A: BARASAT
TRAFFIC FLOW DIAGRAM IN PCU

The Louis Berger Group, lnc., USA 4 -26


Detailed Project Reporl
Feasibility & DPR for 4/6 laning from Barasat to Baharampore
Volume - l: Main Repor (k!n 31 to km 193) section of NH34 in the state of West Benqa

Fig. 4.14: Turning Movements at Km 111.60

G: BAHARAMPOR.E

El: NAEIADVIT|P

lEl--_-

A: E}AR\SAT
T FUA\FFIC FLOW DI^A.G FIAM IN PC U

The Louis Berger Group, lnc., USA 4-27


Detailed Project Report Feasibility & DPR for 4/6 laning from Barasat to Baharampore
Volume - l: Main Report (P1) (km 31 to km 193) section of NH34 in the state of West Bengal

The turning movement survey has revealed that grade-seperaton of intersections is not
warranted at any location. As per IRC 62-1976 Grade separation should be provided at
intersection of divided rural highways if the ADT (Fast Vehicles only) on the cross roads
within the next 5 years exceeds 5000. An interchange may be justified when an at-grade
inter-section fails to handle the volume of traffic resultng in serious congestion and
frequent choking of the inter-section. This situation arises when the total traffic of all the
arms of the inter-section in in excess of 10000 PCUs per hour. From the data it may be
concluded that the grade separator may be required in the year of 2014 at the earliest.
However at this stage only under passes are proposed at Kalyani and Chakdah as per
site requirement.
4.5 SPEED AND DELAY SURVEY

The Speed/Delay survey has been conducted on the study road during morning peak,
evening peak and off-peak hours on a normal day using moving observer method. The
speed and delay survey has been conducted from km 31 to km 193.
Journey speed is one of the parameters that reveal the level of services (LoS) provided
by the facility to the road users. The speeds observed on present study corridor vary
between 30 kmph and 60 kmph. The speeds on various sections of the study corridor
have been presented in Table 4.14,Table 4.15 and Fig. 4. 15.

The Louis Berger Group, lnc., USA 4-28


Detailed Project Report Feasibility & DPR for 4/6 laning from Barasat to Baharampore
Volume - l: Main Report (P1) (km 3'l to km 193) section of NH34 in the state of West Benoal

LBG Table 4.14 Speed & Detay Survey (To Barasat)

Road name : Barasat o Beharampore Towards: Barasat Road No - NH -34


Chainage Veh. Grossing i n Opposite
th t
Timing o Veh. Overtakinq to Survev Veh. Veh. Overtaken bv Survev Veh. Directi 0n
.=o
o'E
o
cLo t Passenger Veh Goods Vehicle Passenger Vehicle Goods Vehicle Passenger Vehicle Goods Vehicle
an
Y
-o
ov, o^ 3'= CL aD C. at g CL (t) o (E

E F
g o U gv o
I '6o! U' ol
-t(
o

x o
oc =
x o
o
g
t- E.g Lt F L
T LF o t (v)
-o
'= () .ct
o G
(\3 (r -o
o
(
,
LL
o
=
=)
(E
dl
=*
=(E
t
)
o
(Yt
flt a
) := m
=
o () E E G
() E
=
190 4.38 4.43 0.05 Jb 1 1 7 1 4 ? 15

Sargachi
190 185 Railway 4 .44 4.50 0.06 n 1 z
1 1 1 1 10 1 o 11
Xing

185 180 4 .51 4.57 U.UO 50 1


4
I 1 11 I 5 4 12

180 175 Beldanga 4 .58 5.06 0.08 38 3 I 13 7 5 10 3

175 170 .07 5.13 U.UO 50 z 4 I 6 1


.l
I 13

170 165 RajiNagar .14 5.20 U.UO 50 1 1 2 o I 2


A
I 13 4
165 tou Plassui .21 5.27 n
U.UO 1 1 1 4 I 1 z 2 15

160 155 Plassui 5.43 0.08 e 2 2 I 1


4
I 14

155 148 Debagram 5.44 0.1 1 1e 1 1 1 1 2 2 8 4 4 15

148 145 5.59 0.03 60 1 2 1



I J

145 140 .00 o.u/ 0.07 43 4 2 o ? 5 1 11


Beathua
140 135 o .08 6.18 0.10 30 I 10 14 11 1
Dahari

The Louis Berger Group, lnc., USA 4-29


Detailed Project Report Feasibility & DPR for 4/6 laning from Barasat to Baharampore
Volume - l: Main Report (P1) (km 31 to km 193) section of NH34 in the state of West Bengal

LBG Table 4.14 Speed & Delay Survey (To Barasat)

Road name : Barasat o Beharampore Towards: Barasat Road No - NH -34


Ghainage Veh. Crossing in Opposite
at at E
Timing o Veh. Overtaking to Survey Veh. Veh. Overtaken bv Survev Veh. Direction
,=o
o'E
o
o-(J ,o-CL Passenger Vehicle Soods Vehicle Passenger Vehicle Goods Vehicle Passenger Veh )le Goods V hicle
an
J
ou, ".
= CL t g g (E

E - o^ gY o
oc
at

o
CL
o
OE x( o.
CL
o U'
x(E tr
o o
t- E.g s o
t- T
U
I (E'F o (9 (t
o * ?(l .c v,
: ; c -o o
o
o

t-L 1
o=-=
N = *-)
(g
=
m C\I t (9
--) tr o C) t t ( :)(E co N
E
=l! G =
o = o = ()
= E
Railway =
135 130 6.19 o.I 0 .08 3B 1 1 1 1 1 4 11 2
Xino 1

130 125 6.28 .35 0 .07 43 I 1 1 1 1 z I 4


125 120 Dhubulia o.o 6.41 0 .05 60 1 I 2 I J 4 1 I
120 115 6.41 .47 0 .06 50 1 1 4 1 12 z 10

115 112 6.48 6.52 0 .04 45 1 1 1 1 5 4

112 110 Krishnagar . 3.38 0 4 I I 4 7


'l 10 105 .Y .45 0 .uo 50 1 1 1 I z o 4 z z
,1q
'105 '100 11.07 '11 0 .08 38 1 1 1 t 19 5 1 I
100 95 11.1 11 .o 0.09 1 1 '15 10 o 2 10

95 90 11.27 11.33 0.06 50 1 2 J

90 88 11.34 11 L7 0.03 40 1 I 3

88 Phulia 1'1.38 11.43 nn o 1 13 I I


I I
B5 80 11.44 11 0.06 50 1 1 11 1 2 7

Railway q4 e ?
80 74 11 12 .01 0.10 1 1 1 1 21 19 5 10
Xing

The Louis Berger Group, lnc., USA 4-30


Detailed Project Report
Feasibility & DPR for 4/6 laning from Barasat to Baharampore
Volume - l: Main Report (P1) (km 31 to km 193) section of NH34 in the state of West Benqal

LBG Table 4.14 Speed & Delay Survey (To Barasat)

Road name : Barasat o Beh aram re Towards Barasat Road No - NH -34


Ghainage
Ut tt E Veh. Crossing in Op
I Imil g o V h. Overtaking to Survey Veh. Veh. Overtaken
.=o
o 'j:
o Veh Direction
cL(J ,o- Passenger Vehicle Vehicle Passenger Vehicle Goods Vehicle Passenqer Vehicle Goods Vehicle
U'
ll
.. o-
o) -o^ = v, U' u,
(g
E o E.0
E gY o = U'
o
o -o U) o
3
o o
(J ()
u-
L
LL
t- L o c) := o (l ( t (\3 (v)3 cr t
o (
o =*
=(E
L
(E
o
:E
E (E

= o = =
74 73 12. 2.04 0.02 ?n 1 1 1 1 1

73 12.0e 12.12 0 .06 40 4


7
I 2 Y 4
h9 Chakdah 12.12 12.18 0 .06 40 4r J 7 7
oc OU 12.1 12.24 0 n OU 1 1 1 4 1 I 2 7 1

60 55 Birohi 12 .a 12.34 0 .09 I 14 1 13 4 7


6 50 Jaguli 12.3e 12.46 0 .10 30 2 I ?
I 13 12 4 o 4
45 Galamara 12 .41 12.56 0.09 J 3 5 4 13 ? I

45 40 12 1.04 0 .07 43 1 1
I
I I 5 12 1 4

40 34 Amdanga 1.05 4
I .14 0 .09 40 1 I 1
,1 4 4 1 1

(amdevpur 1.15 1.21


34 31 0 .uo JU I 12 7 1 I

The Louis Berger Group, lnc., USA 4-31


Detailed Project Report
Volume - l: Main Report (p1)
.Feasibility & DpR for 4/6 laning from Barasat to Baharampore
(km 31 to km 193) section ot trlHg+ in tne
ittf west aJng"t

LBG Tabte 4.15: Speed & Deay Survey (To Bahar

m
namr l : Barasal to Beharan rpore Toward :E iaharampore
load

Chainage
f-
I s,,
T--
l
I
Road No .NH -34
l eh. Overtaking tc Survey V h. eh. Overtaken by Survey Vel t. Veh. Grossing in Opposite
I .=F g lo
lo Directio
II 8
E
Lo-
I g
Passenger Vehicle Goods Vehicle Passenger Vehicle Goods Vehicle Passenger Vehicle Goods
Vehicle
v,
J
o- o G'
E EO .o ?r I flY c)
U)
x(! o- a o o-
o
L III O=
o 9 ,o9
F- :t d'= lo
t> oc
-) (! c
U)
o
-$oc a at
x(It o
oc c
U) ()
X o
LL
o t< N= c)
>
o
m J c{ N
= cf)
>
$
co
O
J c\ c!
3
(r) lo
> dl

() c!
J
o .

= = O = (It
=
31 .54 (amdevpur 1.57 = O
=
.02 0.04 45 - 2 o
34 40 2.03 2.12 0.09 4 2
40 I

work
1 44
tt 5 11 4 I 1

40 45 stoped for 3.34 3.42 .08 2a 1


pillar fixino 1
1 4 J I
^
45 50 Gadamara 3.43 44 0.08 3B
50 Bara Jaguli 3.52 4 .00
1 1 1 1 1 l5 10 5 2 ; I
0.08 38 q
1
Birohi
1 1 4 11 o 7
55 60 4 .01 4.06 0.05 60
Villaoe 1 8 1 14 12 7 1
60 oc 4 4.12 0.05 60 1 2 1 1 2 o 10 1 2 5 4
65 69 Chakdah 4.13 4.19 0.06 40 1 1 z I a
69 73 4 7 6 5
4.21 4.28 0.07 34 1 1 J o ?
73 80 Ranaghat
I I 1 o
4.29 4.42 0.13 1 ) ;to

U Q
4.43 4.50 0.07
1
19 I l0 13 7
43 4
2
R Phulia
I
1 7 2 I 4 z I 6
90 4 .52 .01 0 .09 ?2
town 1 1 1 I 1 1 14 1 15 ? .t
90 5.02 .08 0.06 n
100 5.09 6 .18 0.09
1
1 4 1 I ? 1

14
100 103 5.19 5.23 0.04 45 1 4
1 I 5 1 o
103 105 3.48 3.5r 0 .03 40 1 z 1
105 110 Bhatjanjla o .52 0.05 1 1 1 11 12 4 1 o

The Louis Berger Group, lnc., USA


4-32
Detailed Project Report Feasibility & DPR for 4/6 laning from Barasat to Baharampore
Volume - l: Main Report (P1) (km 31 to km 193) section of NH34 in the state of West Bengal

LBG Table 4.15: Speed & Delay Survey (To Baharampore)


oad name : Baras p9 re Road No - NH -34
Veh. Overtaking to Survey Veh. Veh. Overtaken by Survey Veh. Veh. Crossing in Opposite
Chainage 9e Timing E
o
o
Direction
Passenger Vehicle 3oods Vehicle Passenger Vehicle Goods tt,
Goods Vehicle Passenger Vehicle J
t' Vehicle Gl

E o=
= U' o) U) 0) o- o)
o
E tro E\< o)
oc :J X q)
oc X o) xo
F o c aU)
gE o 3 -o U)
O
o
->(!
-) -o <n
O
$ oc
-o
-o <n .
L
LL (J= lr!
F N
= c.)
> fT J c{ N
= c
= co J N c{
= =
(f)
) co
O c{
J
o $
= o 5 = $
O =
= =
110 112 .58 4.00 0 .u OU 1 5 1
112 117 t1 .04 11.11 0 .07 43 4
I I 1 1 13 1 4 4

The Louis Berger Group, lnc., USA 4-33


Detailed Project Report
Feasibility & DPR for 4i6 laning from Barasat to Baharampore
Volume - l: Main Report (P1)
(km 31 to km 193) section of NH34 in the state of West Benqal

Veh. Overtaking to Survey Veh. Overtaken by Survey Veh. Crossing in Opposite


hainage o Timing Veh. Veh. Direction
l Goods Goods
o Passenger Vehicle Passenger Vehicle Goods
es
.=x
o
v, *:
Vehicle Vehicle
Passenger Vehicle
Vehicle 3T'
.Y
(It
s(J 3'= o (U (g

E :o
g (r, o^ gv u,
f,
q)
X
o
x(! -q)
X o
o
L g
LT
^U'
r-I LF
o B
N cf)
q) -o
CJ N
(g
c!
I o_
o -o
O o -o U' o ,
LL = o)
-) fI J = o) co J N =
C\I cr)
= o :s /Yt 9 N
o = I
o
(!
= =
O
= o = (!
O O
117 122 11 .12 11 .17 0 ,05 ou z 7 4
1 1 4

122 125 Dhubulia 11 .18 11.22 0.04 45 1 7 o 4

125 l?n 11 ..7 11 .27 0.04 I 1 1 I

Railway
tu 11 .28 11 .34 0.06 I 5 5 5
Xinq 1 1 1 1

139 Bethua 11 .35 11 .44 0.09 27 I u h z 4


I

139 145 .45 11 .52 0.07 q1


11 1 z z 4 1 1

145 1tr^ 11 .53 12 .00 0.07 43 4


1 1 1 1 11 ? 2

150 155 Davogram 12 .01 12 .07 0.06 n I z 4


4
1 1 7 I 2 3

155 160 12 .08 12 0.05 OU 1 1 o o 5 1

160 4^ Plassui t .14 12 .21 0.07 43 2 1 11 1 7 I 4

l^ 170 Rajinagar 12 .22 12 .28 0.06 50 4 4


1 1 12 3 4 I

170 175 12.29 12 .35 U.UO 50 I I 4 7 z 4 7 4


I 5 2

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Detailed Project Report Feasibility & DPR for 4/6 laning from Barasat to Baharampore
Volume - l: Main Repoft (P1) (km 31 to km 193) section of NH34 in the state of West Bengal

Veh. Overtaking to Survey Veh. Overtaken by Survey Veh. Grossing in Opposite


)hainage o Timing Veh. Veh. Direction
T Goods Goods
o Passenger Vehicle Passenger Vehicle Goods
Passenger Vehicle
es o
cL_ Vehicle Vehicle Vehicle
ttt!r:
'=.9 (It (!
. E o (E

:o c o o q)
g(n nui o^ gY u,
X o-
U)
x$ U)
x E'
o'
9 F:E o'F o c) '=
> o .F

O c) .F
U) ,
t- LT
=
C\ =
C c)
I co
C) c{ C\ =
CA o
-) m J N =
C.t c.)
= o
-) dl J
o
C)
o=9
-J
= = =
o =
O
= (! =
175 180 Beldanga 12 .36 12.42 0.06 qn 2 4
I 11 4 z

180 185 12 .42 12.49 0.07 43 1 1 I ? 4 5

Railway
185 lon Xing 12 12.56 0.06 n I 1 2 1 1 1 13 7 2 I 5 z
(Sarqhachi)
190 193 12 .57 1.00 0 .03 60 4
1 1 1 1 1 z

80

70

60

50

30

20

'10

0
oooN

Chanage

Fig: 4.15: Speed Gharacteristics on Study Gorrido

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Detailed Project Report Feasibility & DPR for 4/6 laning from Barasat to Baharampore
Volume - l: Main Report (P1) (km 31 to km 193) secton of NH34 in the state of West Bengal

The average journey speed on the project corridor is 40 kmph. The low journey speeds
observed along the the corridor are mainly due to mixed traffic and poor road condition.

4.6 OPINION SURVEYS

Opinion surveys were conducted along with the O-D surveys on the study road as well as
at selected locations along the study corridor. ln view of significant movement of inter-
state traffic, additional interviews were conducted at major roadside facilities such as
hotel and garages along the project corridor. The outcome of the survey is indicated
below in Table 4.16.
Table 4.16: Opinion Survey

S Figure
Vehicle Type Description
No ln No.s ln %age
Not in favour of Toll Road Jb o.oJ
4
I Car Moderately in Favour of Toll Road 155 28.55

Highly in favour of Toll Road 352 64.83

Total no of Vehicle Surveyed 543 100

Not in favour of Toll Road 34 13.13

2 LCV Moderately in Favour of Toll Road 119 45.95

Highly in favour of Toll Road 106 40.93

Total no of Vehicle Surveyed 259 100

Not in favour of Toll Road 174 13.58

3 Truck /Bus Moderately in Favour of Toll Road 539 42.08

Highly in favour of Toll Road 568 44.34

Total no of Vehicle Surveyed 1281 100

4.7 TRAFFIC CHARACTERISTICS


lntroduction
The appreciation of traffic characteristics is essentially to evaluate the potential of the
existing network and identify the major issues so as to develop a rational policy for
designing various components of the proposed project corridor. The intensity of traffc
flow at any given section of the road forms the basis for determining its spatial and
structural requirements. The collection of traffic data thus assumes utmost significance in
the development of any road project. ln order to assess the average daily traffic at any
section of road, classified traffic counts are conducted for a continuous period of 7 days
to even out any variation in the short run. The data thus obtained will provide the Average
Daily Traffic at those locations. ln order to determine the Average Annual Daily Traffic
(AADT), it is necessary to estimate seasonal variation factors.
Traffic Volume Characterisfics - Project Corridor
The AADT has been obtaining by applying the SCF on the classified traffic volume
counts. The AADT obtained has been converted into Passenger Car Units (PCU) using
equivalent passenger car units.
Petrol and diesel sale data for the last 2 years i.e. from April 2005 have been collected
from various sources and they are presented in the Table 4.17. The data ontained is
analysed to obtain seasonal correction factor. The diesel data (for commercial traffic)

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Detailed Project Report Feasibility & DPR for 4/6 laning from Barasat to Baharampore
Volume - l: Main Report (P1) (km 31 to km 193) section of NH34 in the state of West Bengal

shows that varies from 522 to 733 kiloleter with lowest in the month September and
highest in the month of May. The average comes out to be 618 kiloleter.
The traffc surveys were carried out in the month of November. The November data
shows 614 kiloleter which is nearly average value. Therefore the consultant proposed no
seasonal correction factor.
Table 4.17: Sales Figures of Petrol and Diesel (Monthly )

Diesel
S. 't ' ito L
m..s ',9 ' i3'= o ' 3: 5 ol
No. RgE Km 55 Km78 Km86 Km 95 Km 178 Km144
1 April'05 100 293 50 28 64 160 695 12.40
2 Mav 172 249 40 40 52 180 733 18.54
June 136 225 52 JO 40 176 665 7.55
4 Julv 148 207 52 28 40 176 651 5.28
5 Auqust 140 142 40 16 28 184 550 -11.05
September 136 118 40 B 32 188 522 -15.58
7 October 136 141 40 24 28 184 553 -10.57
I November 152 162 40 28 44 188 614 -0.70
December 140 173 40 28 44 184 609 -1.51
10 January'06 44 306 52 52 44 188 686 10.94
11 Februarv 44 253 c 36 40 172 597 -3.45
12 March 48 165 60 40 44 188 545 -11.86
618

Petrol
o,--g
(, o o
E
c)
.9= L(! Oq)
(0 s'E.9 (E-E 9o c,9 (q)l=E)
gr.9 0 d {= E)

Rp: o cro_ m= B >'{: (lt


tr -9
v
cl -i !E

zc;
id
<E
o !m
f(E lr *Er -H
E,n
fo I (!E
\;Q9: ;e
2
tc=
t g <. o
o Eo- v, s cl
o
F.
s
Km 55 Km78 Km86 Km 95 Km 178 Km144
I April'05 B I 28 4 8 89 -0.74
2 May 30 8 40 R 12 106 18.22
June 31 12 36 4 4 95 5.95
4 Julv B U 4 28 B 4 82 -8.55
August 25 I 16 4 69 -23.05
September x 27 4 I 4 4 55 -38.66
October B U 12 24 4 x 86 -4.09
November R 39 I 28 8 4 95 5.95
December 4 ?n 8 28 4 I 82 -8.55
10 January'06 4 JJ B 52 4 109 2'1.56
11 February 4 JJ tz 36 4 I 97 8.18
12 March B ?o B 40 12 4 111 23.79
90
NOTE: Diesel Consuming Vehicle Constitute of 80% Tratfic hence there should be
no seasonal variation in traffic volume as traffic survey was carried out in
the month of November 2006

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The above table reveals that the AADT at all locations is below 5000 PCU mark due to
existing poor road condition. The study of travel pattern on NH34 has revealed that
significant canddate traffic of the study corridor is presently moving on the project route.
Though NH2 is located in the vicinity of the project corridor but it is located at such a
place there would not be significant divertible traffic from this route. The consultant
therefore has not considered any diverted traffic to arrive at designed traffic for the
purpose of design.
4,8 TRAFFIC VOLUME PROJECTIONS
4.8.1 Background
It is always a tough task to predict traffic volume levels for future years consdering
uncertainties as persisted in the past and as perceived in the future. These uncertainty
priorities as we know are governed by various factors apart from the demand, access,
benefits and cost of the project. Demand is a factor governing which type of facility /
infrastructure is to be created. This in turn determines likely benefit and costs to develop
the same. A highway project of this nature calls for significant investment. Prediction of
traffic demand hence becomes an important task and has to be carried out accurately.
The estimation of traffic forms the basic for the design of the facility and governs the
viability of the project. Recognizing this, efforts have been made to carefully assess all
the parameters that govern the traffic demand in the future. lt is also important to note
that no prediction should ignore different techniques and scenarios at a border level. The
following sections discuss traffic projections based on different techniques and
considerations. The theme of different considerations in any technique remains to relate
economic growth with vehicular growth. With all techniques, traffic has been projected to
the year 2030, i.e, 20 years.
4.8.2 Forecasting Methodology
Traffic forecast using traffic growth pattern, which is the most important governing factor.
Traffic is generated as a result of the interplay of a number of contributory factors like
population, gross domestic product, agriculture output, fuel consumption. Any change in
the pattern of these factors can be estimated with a limited degree of accuracy. The
major factors affecting the transport demand are:
. Growth in population
. Economic performance
4.8.2.1 Traffic Growth from Vehicle Registration Trends
Vehicle registration data for the state of West Bengal has been obtained from the
respective department, West Bengal (Transportation Department). The estimated growth
rates has been tabulated and presented in the Table 4.18.
Table 4.18: Growth Rate of Vehicles Based on Vehicle Registration
Year Gar/Jeep/Taxi Buses Trucks 2W 3W
2000-01 45631 I 29422 19891 1 1109191 29324
2001-02 504299 32709 229819 1253485 36514
2002-03 54581 I 35226 239166 1429818 42362
2003-04 567423 36384 241035 1581326 38289
Source: Statistical Handbook, West Bengal

The trend analysis was carried out for vehicle category Car, Bus, Truck, 2 Wheelers,
3Wheelers and others by annual compound growth rate method. The block of last four
years i.e. 2000-01 to 2003-04 was taken into consideration for estimation of growth and
is presented in Table 4.19.

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Table 4.19: Growth Rate from Registered Vehicles


Gategory Compound Growth Rate (%)
Car 7.6
Buses 7.4
Trucks 6.8
2W 12.6
3W 10.3

4,8.2.2 Traffic Growth from Socio-Economic Data

The transport demand is estimated from growth of population, growth of real per capita
lncome, Net State Domestic Product (NSDP) etc. For passenger vehicles growth of
population and growth per capita income are considered. For freight vehicles Net State
Domestic Product is considered.
Population Growth
The average annual exponential population growth for lndia as a whole and the state of
West Bengalfrom 19711o 2001 is given in the Table 4.20 below
Table 4.20: Population Growth
Population Population Av Growth Av Growth
SN Year (lndia) in Million (lndia) in % (WB) in %
IWB) in Million
1 1971 548.2 44.3
z 1 981 683.3 54.6 2.23 2.11
? 1991 846.4 68.1 2.16 2.23
4 2001 1028.7 80.2 1.95 1.65
Source: Economic Review 2005-2006 (Statistical Appendix) Table 1.0

Per Capita lncome Growth


The trend analysis for the per capita income was done by annual compound growth rate
method. Analysis was carried out for block periods of 11 years as per the available data to
arrive at a suitable growth rate. The per capita income has been calculated at constant
(1993-1994) prices. Data is presented in the Table 4.21 as given below.
Table 4.21:. Per Capita Income (at constant 1993-94 prices)
Compound Growth
Sl No. Year Per Capita lncome (Rs.) (%l
0 1 993-94 6756
1 1994-95 7094 5.0
1 995-96 7492 5.6
1996-97 TBBO 5.2
4 1 997-98 B4OB 6.7
5 1 998-99 8814 4.8
1 999-00 9320 5.7
7 2000-01 9796 5.1
2001-02 1 0380 6.0
I 2002-03 10987 5.8
10 2003-04 1 1608
11 2004-05 12271 5.7

Source: Statistical Appendix Table 3.1, Economic Review 2005-06, Govt of West Bengal
The growth rate from the above Table worked out to be 5.6%.

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Net State Domestic Product (NSDP)


Net State Domestic Product is an indicator of economic strength of the state and the
same reflects the growth in freight traffic and overall economic performance of the state.
Table 4.22 represent the NSDP for the West Bengal state consisting of Primary
(Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Mining etc.), Secondary (Manufacturing, Electricity,
Construction, Gas, Water Supply etc.), and Tertiary (Transport, Trade, Hotels, Banking,
Public Administration etc.) sectors. Consultants have made use of both annual
compound growth rates to be used for traffic projections.
Table 4.22: Net State Domestic Product (NSDP) in Rs. Million
Sl No Year NSDP
1 2001-02 838492
2 2002-03 900775
3 2003-04 964783
4 2004-05 1 03361 B
Growth 7.2%
, Source: Statistical Appendix Table 3.1, Economic Review 2005-
06, Govt of West Bengal
4.8.3 Transport Demand Elasticity
Transpotl demand elasticity is one of the methods of establishing relationships between
transport demand (i.e. number of vehicles) and the parameters (prices, NSDP, per capita
income etc.) affecting the demand for vehicles (passenger and freight). This relationship
may remain static or may change in future due to disproportionate changes in the future
growth or parameters andior technological changes in vehicle characteristics. Transport
elasticity is a measure of percentage change in transporl demand with respect to
percentage change in the parameters (such as prices, per capita income, population etc.)
influencing demand.
On the basis of the above formulation the transport demand elasticity for passenger and
freight vehicles were estimated by using the following equations:
Elasticity for Passenger Traffic:E = G/((1+Gp)x(1+Gpci)-1)
Where.
E = Elasticity of Transport Demand
Gp = Population Growth Rate
Gpci = Per Capita lncome Growth Rate
G = Growth Factor
Elasticity for Freight Traffic: E = GiGnsdp
Where.
E = Elasticity of Transport Demand
Gnsdp = Net State Domestic Product Growth Rate
G = Growth Factor
Based on the above parameters the elasticity for Car, Bus and 2 Wheeler and Trucks are
worked out as given below.
Ecar = 0.0761(1.0165x1.056-1) =1.00
E2w = 0.1261(1.0165*1 .056-1) =1 .70
E3w = 0.103(1 .0165.1 .056-1) =1 .40
Ebus = 0.0741(1.0165.1 .056-1) =1 .00
Etruck = 0.0681(0.72) =0.90
The adopted value for this project is proposed as
Ecar = 1.00

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E2wl3w = 1.40
Ebus = 1.00
Etruck = 1.00
4.8.4 Traffic Growth Rates: Socio Economic Data
For the purpose of future traffic growth estimates, analysis period is divided into 2 blocks.
It is assumed that detailed design and construction of the project road would become
over by yeat 2010. lmproved road thus would be opened in the year 2011. Adding 10
years of service life, horizon year for the project analysis would be 2020. Future growth
estimates are subjected to various uncertainties and realistic projection of economic
parameters may not be possible at this stage. However, for the purpose of the future
traffic growth estimation, assumed economic parameters are given in the Table 4.23.
Table 4.23: Growth Rate in Economic Parameters
Per Capita Growth
Period Population Growth (%) NSDP Growth (%)
("/rl
Upto 2012 1.65 7.20 5.60
Beyond2012 1.50 6.50 5.00

Traffic demand estimates have been worked out based on projected economic growth
parameters alongwith elasticity worked out. Estimated growth rates for different vehicle
types are given in the Table 4.24.
Table 4.24:Traffic Growth Rates based on Socio Economic Data
Period 2/3 Wheeler Car Bus Truck
2007-2012 10.3 7.6 7.4 7.2
Beyond2012 9.2 o.o 6.6 6.5
4.8.5 Traffic Growth Estimates and Projections
The growth rates worked out from from 2 sources i.e. from Socio Economic Data and
Registered Motor Vehicles have been compared to arrive at rational traffic projections.
Table 4.25 presents a comparative statement on the growth rates and proposed growth
for Traffic loading on the project road.
Table 4.25: Comparison of Traffic Growth Rates and proposed Growth Rates
Sl. No. Description 2/3 Wheeler (%) Car (%l Bus (%) Truck (%)
4
I Socio economic 9.2-10.3 6.6-7.6 6.6-7.7 6.5-7.2
Registered Motor
2 12.6il10.3 7.6 7.4 6.8
Vehicle
3 Proposed upto 2015 7.0 7.0 I-tJ I.V
4 Proposed bevond 2015 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0

The growth factors for car, bus and Trucks are proposed as above considering the
project is proposed to be implemented through BOT Format and Traffic is the main issue
to the Entrepreneurs. The consultant has followed the above growth rate for the traffic
projection.
Following parameters has been assumed for forecasting traffic.
o Base Year2007
o Traffic Growth Rate (Table 3.26)
. Seasonal factor 1.0
The projected traffic levels for proposed project package-l have been presented in Table
4.26.

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Table 4.26: Projected AADT for Study Corridor Package I (From km 3l to km Bl)
Carl Multi Tractor Tractor
2 3 Mini 2 Axle Articulated MT NMT
Year Jeep/ Bus LCV Axle with without Gycle Rickshaw Vehicles
Wheeler Wheeler Bus Truck Truck PCU
Van Truck PCU PCU
Trailer Trailer
PCU 0.5 1 1 1.5 1 J 4 .5 4.5 1.5 0.5 2
2007 1143 527 1961 81 534 1245 2725 714 102 100 l6 1940 763 11851 17901 2496 20397
2008 1223 564 2098 87 F7.l 1332 2916 764 109 107 17 1 998 786 12572 19154 2571 21724
2009 603 2245 611 1425 3120 817 117 114 18 2058 809 13341 20494 2648 23142
2010 1400 646 2402 654 1525 3338 875 125 123 20 2120 834 14160 21929 2727 24656
2011 1498 691 2570 106 700 1632 3572 o?^ 134 13'l 21 2183 859 15033 23464 2809 26273
2012 1603 739 2750 114 749 1746 3822 1 001 143 140 2249 885 15964 25r06 2894 28000
2013 1715 791 2943 122 801 I 868 4089 1072 153 150 24 2316 911 16956 26864 2980 29844
2014 I 835 846 3149 130 857 I OOO 4376 1147 164 '161 o 2386 938 18014 28744 3070 31814
2015 1 964 905 3369 139 918 2139 4682 1227 175 172 27 2458 967 19142 30756 3162 33918
2016 2062 95'1 3538 146 vo +o 4916 1288 184 180 29 2531 996 20031 32294 3257 35551
2017 2165 998 3715 153 1012 2358 5162 1 353 193 189 30 2607 1025 20962 33909 3354 37263
2018 2273 1 048 3900 161 1062 z+to 5420 1420 203 loo 2685 1 056 21937 35604 3455 39059
2019 2387 1101 4095 169 1115 2600 5691 1491 213 209 ?? 2766 1 088 22959 37385 3559 40943
2020 2506 1 156 4300 178 117 1 2730 5976 1 566 224 219 35 2849 1120 24030 39254 3665 42919
2021 2632 1213 4515 187 1230 2867 6274 1644 235 230 37 2934 1154 25152 41217 3775 44992
2022 to 1274 4741 10 1291 301 0 6588 1726 247 242 v 3022 1l89 26328 43277 3889 47166
2023 2902 1 338 4978 uo 1 356 3'160 691 I 1813 259 254 41 31 13 1224 27560 45441 4005 49447
2024 3047 1405 5227 to 1423 331 I 7263 1 903 272 ot 43 3207 1261 28851 47713 4126 51839
vc IYY 1475 5488 227 1495 3484 7627 1 998 285 280 45 3303 1299 30205 50099 4249 54348
2026 3359 1549 5763 238 I COV ocY 8008 2098 300 294 47 3402 I 338 31623 52604 4377 56981
2027 3527 1626 6051 250 1648 3842 8408 2203 315 309 49 3504 1378 33109 55234 4508 59742
2028 /U 1707 oz 1730 4034 8829 2313 330 324 52 3609 1419 34667 57996 4643 62639
2029 3BBB 1793 6671 276 1817 4235 9270 2429 347 340 54 3717 1462 36300 60896 4783 65678
2030 4083 1882 7005 289 1907 4447 9734 2550 364 1.q7 57 3829 1 506 3801 1 63940 4926 68866

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Traffic data for this section from km 31 to km 81 has been taken from the traffic surey
data carried out at km 55 as this data is on conservative side.
4.9 CAPACITY ANALYSIS
Capacity analysis has been performed for the corridor for the assessment of up gradation
requirements. The analysis has revealed, the study corridor reaches its design service
volume level of existing road in year 2016. Hence the up gradation of road to 4-lane is
warranted.
4.10 ACCIDENT ANALYSIS
Accident data was collected from Police authorities for the period of 2003 to 2006 under
the jurisdiction of West Bengal Government. Table 4.16 presents the number of
accidents occurred on the section of Barasat - Baharampore of NH 34 for the period of
2003- 2006. The Fig. 4.17a shows that the maximum 15o/o of total accidents occurred at
the location of Nakashipara in the year of 2006.
Fig. 4.17b presents severity classification of total accidents. lt indicates that more than
30o/o t resulting in fatal or grievous injury accidents, 7oo/o of accidents having minor
injuries.

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Table 4-27 Detairs of yearly accident details arong NH-94

Year 2003 Year 2004 Year 2005 Year 2006


Sr. o tto o E
o to
Police Station ;;o E tL E !t E
r! -g E o o E o
No. wlI
_re (rt (E o i (! o
E G 3 G o

o
lJ. t- .9
E
lJ. 8.9 (g
lJ.
o
83 G
! = o
E E
Amdanga o t
I
57 32 11 42 ? 1B B 30 38 .tu I 50 58
Haringhata 37 5 92 21 5 J 4 25 I 36 44 23 10 19 29
Chakdahh 45 v 103 123 45 12 72 84 47 15 75 90 48 z 86 108
4 Ranaghat 40 12 91 103 10 28 38 45 14 49 13
51 52
^? ^
Santipura 40 13 76 B9 41 ?7 43 80 42 16 46 oz 46 18 88 106
n Kotwali 51 18 135 153 46 12 R? 95 43 15 113 128 51 19 52 71
'7
Dhubulia 60 17 146 163 51 16 98 114 41 12 61 I.) 39 12 53 65
I Nakkashipara 59 21 103 46 13 72 85 58 19 81 100 49 25 65 90
Kaligang 45 '19 44 49 15 79 94 42 12 52 64 4t 14 114 128
TOTAL 413 144 817 961 364 131 555 686 361 119 543 662 384 141 579 720

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Anrdanga Haringhat
Kaligang 8o/o t a
/ 4o/o
-)
WM^ chakdah
Wffi/ \ 15%
{ w{/
'r//
\ I

':\,;w l-l
L.\
D\
p-
I
/Ranashat
9o/o

Kotwali Santipura
10% 15%

Fig: 4.16: Locationwise % age Accdents

Fig: 4.17a: Severity of Accidents

Location Wise Severity Classification of Accidents Fatal e lnjured

15.0

10.0

5.0

0.0

Fig: 4.17b: Bar Chart Showing Distributions of Fatal Cases

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4.11 ROAD SAFETY


At the feasibility stage the improvement to the alignment was carried out to the extent
possble and at the same time keeping minimum impact to the road side structures and
non motorized traffic users of the road.The provision of service road use in urban and
semi-urban areas will provide a safe envoronment for the road users. The separation of
motorized and NMT drastically reduces congeston and the hazards. The traffic safety
measures provided as per IRC guidelines include:
o Traffic signs
. Road sign and markings
. Safety barriers
. Pedestrian footpath
Road safety audit is an integral part of highway planning, design, construction and
maintenance. ln this study safety audit will be carried out as mentioned in the ToR.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
PLAN
CHAPTER 5: SUMMARRY OF EIA/IEE AND ACTION .................1
5.1 TOPOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY ....................1
5.2 Drainage.. ......................1
5.3 Climate .........1
5.4 ECOLOGY .....................1
5.4.1 Flora 1

5.4.2 Fauna 1
5.5 ARCHAEOLOGIGAL AND HISTORICAL SITES .............,1
5.6 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS .......,1
5.6.1 lmpact on Topography .........1
5.6.2 lmpact on C1imate................i. .........2
5.6.3 lmpact on Air Quality .....................2
5.6.4 lmpact on Noise Levels ...........:...... ..................2
5.6.5 lmpact on Water Resources and Quality .........2
5.6.6 lmpact on Ecological Resources............. .........2
5.6.7 lmpact on Drainage Pattern ............2
5.6.8 lmpact on Human Use Values .........3
5.7 MITIGATION, AVOIDANCE AND ENHANCEMENT MEASURES ..............,....... 4
5.8 INSTITUTIONAL REQUIREMENTS AND EMP. ................5
5.9 FIND|NGS AND RECOMMENDATTONS........ ...................5
5.10 ROAD SAFETY AUDIT......
5.11 coNcLUSroNS .............5

LIST OF TABLES

Table-5'1:SummaryoflmpactS.....'.........

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CHAPTER 5: SUMMARRY OF EIA/IEE AND ACTION PLAN


5.1 TOPOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY
he stretch of the project road falls under Gangetic plain. Generally the soil
characteristized by sandy- clay all along the proposed section.
The maximum temperature varies from 29oCelsius to 42'Celsius during summer and
from lGoCelsius to 25'Celsius during winter. The average Rainfall for the whole state is
around 1600 mm.ln West Bengal March, April, and May are the hottest months with
maximum temperature varying between 35o to 36' Celsius. The cooler months are
November, December, January and February with maximum temperature varying
from29o Celsius to 32 Celsius. The Mean relative humidity ranges from 63 to 87
percent.
5.2 Drainage
The region is drained by the Churni Jalangi and Pagla Chandi rivers. These rivers are
tributary of Ganga and are main sources of water. The flow in these watercourses varies
considerably according to season, the monsoon brings heavy flooding and the highest
flows in all the rivers and tributaries. The surface water flow in the project area is in the
direction of the rivers. ln general the ground water table of the study area varies between
10-15 m.
5.3 Glimate
The region has a tropical climate. The hot summer season starts from March and
continues up to May. The maximum temperature varies from 29"Celsius to 42'Celsius
during summer and from l6"Celsius to 25'Celsius during winter. The average Rainfall for
the whole state is around 1600 mm.
5.4 ECOLOGY
5.4.1 Flora
The ecological studies have been carried out to understand the present status of
terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem within 7.5 kilometer distance, on either side, from the
RoW of proposed project. The information provided is based on physical surveys and
secondary sources such as information collected from forest department. The prominent
species include teak mixed with Bamboo, Palm and Kadamb Banyan frees. Other trees
include Neem, Peepal, Mango, efc. There are no endangered species of flora in the
area.
5.4.2 Fauna
There are wild animals in the forest, Nilgai (Boselphus tragecamelus), common hare etc.
Besides, jackal, lndian fox, jungle cat, Poisonous snakes like cobra, russel, viper and
non-poisonous python are have also been reporled.
Livestock found in these districts are cows, buffaloes, sheep, goats, ponies, mules,
donkeys and pigs. Common birds like koyal, crow, parrot, vulture, bayal, bulbul, sparrow
etc. are seen here. The water bodies attract different types of water birds too.
5.5 ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND HISTORICAL SITES
There is no archeologically protected monument or historical sites along the project
route.
5.6 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
5.6.1 lmpact on Topography
During the construction of the proposed project, the topography will change due to

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excavaton of borrow areas, stone quarrying, cuts and fills for project road and
constructon of project related structures etc. Provision of construction yard for material
handling will also alter the existing topography. There will be change in topography at
realignments as these realignments have been proposed through agriculture fields. The
change in topography will also be due to the probable induced developments of the
project. With adequate planning, all topographical impacts could be made to enhance the
local aesthetics. Similarly, it will invite benefits in the form of land leveling and tree
plantations in the vicinity of the project road.
5.6.2 lmpact on Climate
The widening and strengthening of project is not going to have impact on climate of the
region.
5.6.3 lmpact on Air Quality
There will be rise in SPM levels due to the construction activities. Since the emission will
be fugitive in nature it is difficult to quantify the SPM standards even expected to be
violated, as the background values are not alarming at many places. Even if it is
exceeded it will be for very short period. There will be some increase in levels of
gaseous pollutant also. The impact on ambient air quality has been assessed using
CALINE-3 model.
5.6.4 lmpact on Noise Levels
The impact of noise levels from the proposed project on the neighboring communities is
addressed by carrying out Noise modeling using FHWA model developed by Federal
Highway Administration (FHWA). lt has been concluded after mathematical modeling
that both day time and night time equivalent noise levels are within the permissible limits
right from start of project life.
Noise sensitive receptors have been identified along the project road. The noise
sensitive receptors include school, hospitals, colleges, etc. The predicted levels indicate
that the noise levels in future years will not exceed permissible limits right from start of
project life. Hence there is no need to protect these noise sensitive receptors.
5.6.5 lmpact on Water Resources and Quality
The construction and operation of the proposed project roads will not have any major
impacts on the sudace water and the ground water quality in the area. Contamination to
water bodies may results due to spilling of construction materials, oil, grease, fuel and
paint in the equipment yards and asphalt plants. This will be more prominent in case of
locations where the project road crosses water streams, major canals distributaries, etc.
Mitigatory measures have been planned to avoid contamination of these water bodies.
5.6.6 lmpact bn Ecological Resources
There is Baghadurgargh reserve forest on right side of the project corridor, hence the
proposed widening / upgradation is provided on the left side that is away from reserve
forest. The study area passes primarily through agricultural land in plain areas. There will
be temporary impact on terrestrial ecology, as trees will be cut. But after construction no
impact is anticipated as compensatory aforestation is planned. There are no endangered
species or rare species of flora and fauna in the project area.
5.6.7 lmpact on Drainage Pattern
The proposed widening and strengthening will not alter drainage pattern of the area as
adequate cross drainage structures have been planned along the new alignments and
existing culverts along the project road are planned for rehabilitation.
Construction of bridges across water streams may result in siltation of water body, which
can affect aquatic fauna. Proper mitigatory measures have been recommended in EMP.

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5.6.8 lmpact on Human Use Values


lmpact on human use values include common propedy resources such as temples,
mosques, wells, hand pumps, tube well, etc. lmpact on these has been minimized
through proper planning of the alignments.
The environmental impacts have been summarized and are given in Table-5.1 below:
Table - 5.1: Summary of lmpacts
st.
No.
f ) Attribute lmpacts Level of lmpact

Pre Construction Phase

1. Flora and Fauna


lmpacts due to cutting of trees in
Reserve Forest Area
(D
lmpacts due to movement of
2. Air Quality
vehicles
lmpacts due to movement of
3. Noise
vehicles @
lmpacts due to temporary

4. Land Resources
acquisition of land for
construction workers camp, @
construction yard, hot mix plant
crushers. etc. :

lmpacts due to contamination on


5. Water Quality water bodies due to vehicle
movement
Gonstruction Phase
Eadhwork; impact due to borrow-
pits development (existing) @
1. Land Resources lmpacts on quarry sites (existing)
Sand will be taken from identified
O
River Bed.
Negative impact due to
movement of construction
vehicles.
@
Dust pollution due to movement
of construction vehicles. @
2. Air Quality Air quality impacts due to the
construction machinery engaged. @
Negative impact due to ground
level emissions at construction
yard is expected within 400 m
@
radius.

3. Noise Levels
lmpact due to movement of
construction vehicles. @

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st.
No.
l) Attribute lmpacts Level of lmpact

lmpact within 500 m from


ffi,
stationary construction
equipment.
w
Negative impact possibility on ffi
construction workers. w
4. Water Quality
lmpact on water bodies due to
sediment loaded run off during @
rainy seasons
Terrestrial Cutting of trees within the
5.
Ecology
*
proposed RoW @
raffic
Movement of trucks carrying
construction m aterials
@
6. Congestion
Diversion lmpact from diversion of existing
traffic
Workers Camp lmpact due to sanitation and
7.
Construction waste disposal and local facilities
@
lmpacts due to construction of
8. Cross Drainage bypasses and realignments in (D
agriculture areas.
Operational Phase
Change in air quality due to
1. Air Quality changing traffic volume and
speed.
@
lmpact on residences about 25 m
from edge of roadway @
2. Noise Level
lmpact on residential areas @
lmpacts on water sources close
3. Water Quality
to RoW

lmpacts on flora fauna in PIA


4. Flora and Fauna
(Project lnfluence Area)

5. Drainage lmpacts on cross drainage O


(D Significant lmpact @ Moderate lmpact
O lnsignificant lmpact

5.7 MITIGATION, AVOIDANCE AND ENHANCEMENT MEASURES


The mitigatory measures have been planned for identified adverse environmental
impacts. The construction workers camp will be located at least 500m away from
habitations. The construction yard, hot mix plants, crushers etc. will be located at 500m

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away from habitations and n down wind directions. The minimum distance of these will
be kept 3.0 km from reserve forest areas. Adequate cross drainage structures have been
planned to maintain proper cross drainage. ln order to compensate negative impacts on
flora due to cutting of trees the project plans compensatory plantation in the ratio of 1:3
i.e. for every to be tree cut three trees will be planted. The acquisition of forest area will
be minimal and will be compensated through compensatory afforestation.
The noise barriers have been planned closed to educational institute and Hospitals. The
planned environmental enhancement measures include ponds enhancement, plantation
in median and in available clear space in RoW, seating arrangements around trees. The
pond enhancement measures will include such as stepped access, washing plat form,
seating arrangement etc. Some of ditches will be filled up due to embankment
construction in the RoW. ln order to avoid contamination of water bodies during
construction sedimentation chambers, oils and grease separators, oil interceptors at
storage areas and at construction yard have been planned.
5.8 INSTITUTIONAL REQUIREMENTS AND EMP
Physical, biological and environmental management components identified as of
particular significance in affecting the environment at critical locations have been
suggested as Performance lndicators (PlS). The monitoring and evaluation of the
performance indicators are critical activities in the implementation of the project.
Monitoring involves periodic checking to ascertain whether activities are accomplished
as per plans
The contractor will report to the environmental expert of construction supervision
consultants, on the progress of the implementation of environmental conditions and
management measures as per the monitoring plans. The environmental expert of
supervision consultants will in turn report to the PlU. The quarterly reports of the EMP
will form an integral part of the 'Quarterly Progress Repos' that are to be regularly
submitted to NHAI. The NHAI is responsible for the implementation of the provisions
made within the EMP through the PlU.
5.9 FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Based on the field survey and data available from secondary sources, it can be
concluded that the project will not have significant negative environmental impacts. The
issues of concern in the projec-t are construction of bypasses, realignments, and bridges.
Proper environmental management plan compliance needs to be ensured. The issues
related to land acquisition and resettlement have been evaluated and adequate
compensation has been suggested in RAP document.
5.10 ROAD SAFETY AUDIT
Road safety Audit was carried out to check following aspects as per the standard
practice. Traffic control devices and road safety features, comprising of traffic signs,
road markings, delinators, road lighting and crash barrier plays a key role in influencing
driver behaviour, orientation and information, have been proposed along the project
road, in consonance with guidelines of lRC.
5.11 CONCLUSIONS
. Based on the environmental assessment and surveys conducted for the project,
associated potential adverse environmental impacts can be mitigated to an acceptable
level by adequate implementation of the measures as stated in the EIA Report.
Adequate provisions shall be made in the Project to cover the environmental mitigation
and monitoring requirements, and their associated costs as suggested in environmental
budget.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 6: SUMMARY OF RESETTLEMENT PLAN ..........1


6.1 RESETTLEMENT FRAMEWORK............ ...................1
6.2 MINIMIZING NEGATIVE SOCIAL IMPACT. ................ 1

6.3 PROJECT AFFECTED FAMILIES ............,2


6.4 LAND REQUIREMENTS........ .......2
6.5 PARTTCTPAT|ON OF STAKEHOLDERS............ .........3
6.6 INSTITUTIONAL PLAN: IMPLEMENTATION, MONITORING & EVALUATION..............3
6.7 BUDGET... ..............3

LIST OF TABLES

Table 6.1:Minimizing Resettlement..... .................1

Table 6.2: Ownership Status.. ..............2

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GHAPTER 6: SUMMARY OF RESETTLEMENT PLAN

6.I RESETTLEMENT FRAMEWORK


A Resettlement Action Plan has been prepared for the project stretch for the Project
affected Persons based on baseline socio-economic survey and census survey data.
This resettlement plan (RP) has been prepared in accordance with, National Policy on
Resettlement and Rehabilitation (NPRR), and State Governments framework of
resettlement policies and other social safeguard policies designed to protect the rights of
the affected persons and communities.
The primary objectives of the resettlement plan are
. To minimize/avoid the negative impacts of the project wherever possible
. To estimate losses of land and properties
. To illustrate provisions of compensation as per NH LA act, 1956.
. To incorporate outcome of consultation in detail engineering
The resettlement plan is based on the general findings of the census/socio-economic
surveys, field visits, and meetings with various project-affected persons in the project
area.
The survey and consultation has identified following kind of losses:
. type and extent of loss of assets, including land and houses;
. Type and extent of loss of livelihood or income opportunities;
o collective losses, such as common property resources and social infrastructure;
Based on losses mentioned above a resettlement plan has been prepared to mitigate
negative impact. The Resettlement Plan has been prepared based on NPRR 2004 and
NH-LA Act. The resettlement plan describes procedure of land acquisition. The LA
process would follow NH Act 1956. The Act provides NHAI power to acquire land
through "competent authority" (i.e.), the district collector and/or NHAI staff) through
notification of official gazette by the Central Government.

6.2 MINIMIZING NEGATIVE SOCIAL IMPACT


The objective of any development project, including highways, is to enhance the quality of
living of the people around the project area in particular and the wider population in
general. Nevertheless, most development projects do produce some social and
environmental externalities that cause displacement, loss of livelihood, health hazards
and social disruption. However while designing and preparing the project, main
consideration has remained to minimize the impacts within the limitations of technical
requirements and cost effectiveness. To minimize displacement and to reduce the
disruption of livelihoods, realignments have been proposed. Field visits and public
consultations, helped in developing the measures towards minimizing negative social
impacts are presented in Table 6.1.

Table 6.1 : Minimizing Resettlement


Approx. Approx.
Section Location Mitigation Measures Family Family Remarks
lBefore) fAfterl
Reducing Col upto Project affected families will
1 Ambadanga minimum technical 1235 345 be compensated as per NH
reouirement LA act. 1956

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Approx. Approx.
Section Location Mitigation Measures Family Family Remarks
(Before) (Afterl
Reducing Col upto Project affected families will
2 Bara-Jaguli minimum technical 1476 734 be compensated as per NH
reouirement LA act.1 956
Project affected families will
3 Govindpur Realignment 50 125 be compensated as per NH
LA act,1 956

6.3 PROJECT AFFECTED FAMILIES


Project Affected Persons (For this project)
A project affected person is a person who in consequence of the project sustains the
following damages:
. by reason of serving such lane;
. by affecting his/her immovable properties in any manner;
. by adversely affecting his or her livelihood earnings calculated by an objective
assessment. Project Affected Persons also include Displaced Persons.
There are 9624 project affected families in the package-l of project area as Table E.3
ascertained that non-agricultural people being affected are substantial (more than 7000
families). Out of the total affected families 9624 as shown in Table 6.2 below, 4903
families are losing their source of livelihood because of loss of commercial structure.
Many of these commercial people are running their business on small structures like
squatter or kiosks. There are 2273 agricultural families being affected because of the
proposed project intervention. They are mostly titleholders as land acquisition is being
envisaged. Physical displacement caused by the project are even less because of strip
acquisition. ln case of commercial and residential titleholders structures majority of the
families are losing part of their structures, thus not being physically displaced. There are
1407 Kiosks being affected because of highway improvements.

Table 6.2: Ownership Status


Sl. No. Category Residential Gommercial Agriculture Total
1 Titleholders 742 1 139 1947 3828
2 Tenant/Sharecroppers 166 320 326 812
3 Squatters/Encroacher 1540 2Q37 3577
4 Kiosks 1407 1407
Total 2448 4903 2273 9624

Since one of the basic objectives of the RAP is to ascertain that not much stress is laid on
affected community, it is necessary to see how many of them are being affeqted by the
project. Those PAPs, who are at margin of the society, and loosing their source of
livelihood because of the project, would have to be suitably compensated as they
become more susceptible to loss of their livelihood.

6.4 LAND REQUIREMENTS


About 50 ha land will be acquired for junction improvement, small geometric improvement
and provision of wayside amenities. About 210 ha of land are acquired for widening
purposes. These lands are residential as well as commercial in settlement portion and
fedile agricultural land in open areas.

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6.5 PARTICIPATION OF STAKEHOLDERS


ln order to minimize the resistance, it becomes imperative to involve the people in the
planning process, as all developmental projects are ultimately for the people only. The
consultants had detailed discussion with the affected persons, local senior citizens, and
Tribal leaders at village as well as Tehsil level.
Public consultations in the project area were held at village and Panchayat level. The
following methodology has been adopted for carrying out public consultations in this
project:
. Disseminating information and requesting villagers to attend the public consulting
meetings;
. Sharing the opinions and preferences of the affected persons; and
. lnvolving the affected persons in RP implementation.
The different techniques of consultation with stakeholders were used during project
preparation, viz., in-depth interviews, public meetings, group discussions etc. To
understand the socio-economic profile of the socety, questionnaires were designed and
information was collected from the ndividuals on one-to-one basis. The consultations
have also been carried out with special emphasis on the vulnerable and women groups.
The key informants during the project preparation phase included both individuals and
groups namely:
. Head and members of the Households likely to be affected;
Groups of affected persons;
o Village Panchayats: Sarpanch and members;
. Localvoluntary organizations and NGOs;
. Government agencies and depaftments; and
r Other project stakeholders with special focus on women and affected persons
belonging to the vulnerable group.
6.6 INSTITUTIONAL PLAN: IMPLEMENTATION, MONITORINc & EVALUATION
Effective implementation of Resettlement plan requires an efficient institutional
framework and time bound implementation schedule. Since this project does not have
provisions of engagement of NGOs, entire implementation activities would be carried out
by PlU. Land acquisition is major component of RP implementation. The RP
implementation process would involve people at every stage so that R&R activities
completes within a time frame.
NHAI has with Land Acquisition Department headed by the General Manager (LA) at
the corporate level, which will closely work with the Project Director-PlU at Krishnagar.
GM (LA) will provide technical support and knowledge to General Manager (BOT) & PD-
PIU Krishnagar. General Manager (BOT) would coordinate with General Manage (LA)
and PIU for timely availability for land at realistic rates. The PD -PlU will be overall
responsible official for all civil construction work and smooth implementation of Land
acquisition plan and Resettlement Plan. ln the assigned districts, The Manager
(Technical) will be responsible for implementation & supervision of R&R activities at the
field level.

6.7 BUDGET
RAP estimates the project resettlement, rehabilitation and mitigation costs. lt provides a
budget for resettlement implementation including administrative expenses, monitoring
and contingencies. The total cost of Land acquisition and R&R as per NPRR 2004 is
3239 lakhs.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
GHAPTER - 7: PROPOSED DESIGN BASIS, STANDARDS, AND SPEG|F|GATIONS..........l
7.1 General ................... 1

7.2 ltems Detailed For Design Standards. .......1


7.3 Capacity Standards. ................. 1

7.4 Geometric Design Standards ....................2


7.4.1 Design Standards .........2
7.4.2 Horizontal Alignment .....................3
7.4.3 Vertical Alignment. .......3
7.4.4 Cross-Sectional Elements/ Typical Cross-Sections .......... ..................3
7.4.5 Super Elevation ............4
7.4.6 Transition Curves .........4
7.5 .............
Road lntersections and Junctions ..................4
7.6 Standards for Pavement Desi9n...............:.... ..............4
7.6.1 Flexible Pavement ........5
7.6.2 Rigid Pavement......... .....................5
7.7 Grade Separators and Cross Drainage Structures .......6
7.7.1 Grade separators ..........6
7.7.2 Drainage structures ........6
7.8 Slope Protection. ......6
7.8.1 Side S|opes............... ......................6
7.8.2 Slope Protection ............6
7.9 Intersections and lnterchanges ............... .... ...............6
7.9.1 At Grade lntersections............... ......................7
.9.2 Grade Separated lntersections...............
7 .........7
7.10 Drainage System ......................7
7.11 Safety Measures ....... j......... .......7
7.11.1 Pedestrian Guard Rails and Safety Barriers .......................7
.11.2 Highway Si9ns........
7 ........7
7.11.3 Pavement Markings... ......................7
7.11.4 Traffic Signals..... ...........I
7.12 Highway Landscaping............... .................8
7.13 Toll Plaza Complex ................... 8
7.14 Road Furniture.......... ...............8
7.15 Truck Lay Bys ..........8
7.16 Bus Stops and Bus 8ays......... ....................8
7.17 Design Methodology and Design Standard for Structures............. .................8

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7.17.1 Materials... .................... I


7.17.2 Exposure Condition ...... I
7.17.3 Pre-stressing System .................... 9
7.17.4 StructuralSteel......... ....................10
7.17.5 Bearings ....10
7.17.6 Expansion Joints ........10
7.17.7 MoSRTH Specifications............. ....................11
7.17.8 Loads and Load Combinations ............. ........11
7.17.9 Discharge for Calculation of Scour and Design of Protection Works ..................14
7.17.1OCodes to be adopted for design....... .............14

LIST OF TABLES
Table 7.1: Categorization of elements for design standards ..................... 1

Table 7.2: Design service volumes & capacity for various road categories........................... ......2
Road........
Table 7.3: Geometri Design Standards for the Project ..........2
Table 7.4: Recommended slopes for proper surface drainage .................7

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GHAPTER - 7: PROPOSED DESIGN BASIS, STANDARDS, AND


SPEGIFIGATIONS

7.1 General
The formulation of the design standards is required in order to avoid any inconsistency in
design from one section to the other and provide desired level of service and safety. For
this project it is proposed to follow the Manual for Specifications and Standards for
four laning of National Highways trough Public Private Partnership, published by
Department of Road Transport & Highways, Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport
& Highways, foruvarded to us through letter no. NHAI/Tech/NH-34/Pack-
A/DPR/2006/809, dated 20th August 2007.
Where the said standards are silent design standards given in IRC codes, special
publications, MoSRH circulars, American Association of State Highway and Transport
Officials (AASHTO) standards, British Standards, Any other National or lnternational
Standard as considered suitable to National Highways shall be referenced.
7.2 Items Detailed For Design Standards
The design standards of all the elements of a highway corridor can be grouped into the
following categories as given in Table 7.1.
Table 7.1: Gategorization of elements for design standards

Cateqory Desiqn element


Design Capacity Design service volume standards
Desiqn caoacitv standards
Geometric Design Cross-sectional elements
Sight distance
Horizontal curves
Vertical curves
Pavement Desiqn CBR. Traffic. Structural Strenqth
Grade Separators and Cross Underpasses
Drainage Structures Flyovers
Bridges
Culverts
ROBs
lntersections and At grade intersections
lnterchanges. Grade seoarated intersections
Acceleration and deceleration lanes

Slope protection Side slopes


Slope protection
Drainaqe svstem Lonqitudinal. cross drainaqe
Safety Measures and Road Guard rails & safety barriers
Furniture Road signage & pavement markings
Footoaths and sidewalks
Highway Landscaping

Wayside Amenities Bus Lay-bys, rest areas, Bus stops, Bus Lay-bys
and Truck Parkino Terminal (as the case mav be)

7.3 Capacity Standards


The main reference for the determination of standard capacities for roads in lndia is the
lndian Road Congress code (lRC: 64-1990). Table 7.2 summarizes the capacity
standards and design service volumes for various categories of roads in flat terrain for

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the peak hour traffic in the range of 8-10o/o of design service level corresponding to a
Level of Service (LoS) B with the curvature of the road being low (0-50 degrees per Km).
Table 7.2: Design servce volumes & capacity
Desiqn Service Volume
Type
PCUs/dav
2-Lane with Earth Shoulder 15,000
2-Lane with Paved Shoulder 17,250
(Source :lRC 64- 1990)
7.4 Geometric Design Standards
7.4.1 Design Standards
Design Standards for major features have been extracted from IRC standards conforming
to design speeds of 100 Kmph (for flat terrain) given in Table 7.3. Since IRC standards do
not specify standards for median widths, raised or sunk median, edge strips etc., these
have been recommended as per MoSRTH circulars.
As per the ToR, the normal width of medians will be 4.5m (3.5m raised median + 0.25m
shyness on both sides) in rural areas while in urban sections it may be reduced depending
upon land constraints, determined during the design phase.
Table 7.3: Geometric Design Standards for the Project Road

st. Standards for 4'Lane Divided


Description
No. Hiqhwav
Design speed
4
I Rural 100 Kmph
Urban/Builtup 60 Kmph
ROW
2. Rural 60m
Urban / Built-uo 45m
Roadway
i Lane width (Carriageway) 3.5m
ii Paved shoulder
Width in ruralsection 1.5m
Width in urban and semi-urban sections

For 4 lane
For 6 lane 1.5m
iii Earthen shoulder width on outer side 1.5m
3. Rural sections
Urban and semi-urban sections 1.5m
- For 4lane 1.5m
- For 6 lane 1.5m
iv Cross slope in lanes and paved shoulders
Bituminous concrete surfacing
Cement Concrete Surfacin g
v. Cross slope in earthen shoulders 2.5%
2.0%
3.0%
Edge strip kerb shyness
Median side-Rural 0.50m
4. Median side-Urban 0.50m
Outer side-Urban 0.50m

Sight distance
Stopping (minimum) I BOm
lntermediate Not Applicable

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sl. Description
Standards for 4-Lane Divided
No. Hiqhwav
Overtakinq Not Applicable
6. Suoerelevation Maximum 7o/o
Horizontal curvature
Requiring no super elevation 1800m
7. Requiring no Transition 2000m
Absolute minimum requiring superelevation for 100 360m
Kmph 7%
Vertical Alignment
8
Minimum distance between PVI 150m
Gradient
Maximum 2%
Minimum
Y.
ln cut and kerbed sections 0.0o/o
On unkerbed sections on embankment 0.5%
On unkerbed sections not on embankment 0.5%
10. Minimum lenqth of vertical curve 60m
11. Maximum qrade chanqe not requirinq verticalcurve 0.5%
12. Vertical clearance to road bridqe over road 5.0 m
13. Vertical Clearance to road bridoe over rail 6.75m
14. Rate of chanqe of superelevation I tn 150

15. Side walk Not Applicable


Median (raised)
16.
Width in rural section 4.50 m
Embankment slope
17.
ln normal section 2H:1V.
ln pitching proposed sections 1.5H: 1V

7.4.2 HorizontalAlignment
The Project corridor will be improved as per the standard said forth in the previous
sections. The proposed centreline will be fixed with reference to centreline of the existing
carriageway excepting locations where either realgnment or by pass is proposed. The
horizontal controls and curvatures will be fixed with reference to the centre line of the
existing road, geometric deficiencies, if any will be improved keeping in view the width
requirement for ultimate widening to six lane highway.
7.4.3 Vertical Alignment
The Vertical Alignment will be designed for minimum criterion of Stopping Sight distance,
which is applicable for 4-lane divided highway. The existing road profile will be reviewed on
the basis of profile cross sections taken at regular intervals as per consultant's terms of
reference with the aid of triangulated Digital Terrain Model (DTM). ln addition to the
standards and guidelines set in this chapter, there are other considerations to finalise the
vertical profiles, which are presented below:
. Minimum K (rate of change of vertical curvature) value as 75 for the summit curve
and 45 for valley curve
7,4,4 Cross-Sectional Elements/ Typical Gross-Sections
As per the ToR the widening and strengthening options have to be finalised with a
provision for future widening to 6-lanes.
Typical cross-sections formulated are based on the observations and approval
communicated by NHAI, vide letter No NHAI/Tech/NH-34/Pack-A/DPR120061529 Dated
20th Augusl 2OO7. But later various discussions were held with the NHAI officials and
revised cross sections were developed and used in carrying out the geometric design. The

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revised typical cross sections under different possible requirements are given in Drawing
Volume - ll.
7.4.5 Super Elevation
Super Elevation will be designed on the basis of provisions of IRC-73-1980. The same will
be reviewed against the provisions of AASHTO to have the better designs. Type of surface
(Flexible or Rigid Pavement) will be taken into consideration while computing the
component of side friction for the development of super elevation values.
7.4.6 Transition Curves
IRC geometric design standards for rural highways, IRC: 73-1980 suggests that the length
of the transition curve should be the larger of the two values arrived at on the basis of the
following criteria:
i) Rate of change of centrifugal acceleration and
ii) Rate of change of super elevation (not steeper than 1 in 150)
Care will be taken so that no hydro planning is created due to flatter rate of attainment.
7.5 Road lntersections and Junctions
As per IRC:62-1976, Grade separation shall be proposed at intersection of divided
project road if any of the following condition gets fulfilled:
. the ADT (fast vehicles only) on the cross road with in the next 5 years exceeds 5000,
for stretch passes through rural area
o when the total traffic of all the arms of the intersection is in access of 10,000 PCU per
hour, for the stretch passes through urban / builtup areas.
However, for former condition, when this traffic figure will be reached within next 20 years,
the need for such facilities should be kept in view for future construction.
7.6 Standards for Pavement Design
The purpose of the pavement design study is to make analysis of different pavement
alternatives (like Flexible pavement and Rigid Pavement) to provide a basis for selection of
the most advantageous solution, considering all costs occurring during the life of the
pavement, such as construction costs, future maintenance costs and future costs for the
road users.
Design Methodology
The designs have been based on the following standard documents:
1. IRC: 37-2001: Guidelines for the Design of Flexible Pavements.
2. IRC:58-2002. Guidelines for the Design of Plain Jointed Rigid Pavements for
Highways.
3. IRC:81-1997, Guideline for Strengthening of Flexible Pavement using Benkelman
Beam Deflection Technique.
4. AASHTO Guide for Design of Pavement Structures, 1993.
5. Austroads Pavement Design, 1992.
The design methodology for the new pavement has generally entailed:
. an assessment of the strength of the sub-grade foundation.
. the determination of homogeneous sections of the proposed 4-lane highway with
respect to the volume of commercial traffic.
. the determination of the vehicle damaging factors for the commercial vehicles,

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. the computation of the number of cumulative commercial vehicles as per the traffic
growth rate along the project road,
. the assessment of the distribution of commercial traffic over the carriageway (lane
factor),
the selection of the appropriate design life; fifteen (15) years for flexible pavement
and thirty (30) years for rigid pavement.
o the conversion of the cumulative number of commercial vehicles to the cumulative
number of standard axles (design traffic) for the design year, and
Having determined the design traffic loading and the strength of the sub-grade, the
required thickness for the new pavement was determined from the design chads.
7.6.1 FlexiblePavement
For the purpose of design of new pavement and structural overlays lndian Roads
Congress (lRC) guidelines will be used, also these designs will be validated against
various international design practices such as AASHTO, Austroads etc. guidelines. ln the
locations where the ground condition is not conducive for the construction of pavements
directly over the existing subgrade or foundation various ground improvement techniques
will be resoed based on the type of soil and best industry practices. For the purpose of
arriving the project cost to carry out the feasibility study these improvement schemes were
taken into consideration, the effect of various schemes were assumed on theoretical basis
to arrive its impact on the performance of subgrade. For the purpose of carrying out
feasibility study a soaked 90 'n percentile CBR value of 9% has been considered to arrive
at pavement composition. The structural coefficients of various layers shall be suitably
modified to suit the lndian conditions. The resulting pavement compositions from both the
methods along with suggested future overlays have been compared based on their
performance as reflected in life cycle cost analysis.
he new flexible pavement structure shall comprise of Bituminous Concrete wearing
course on bituminous base course of Dense Bituminous Macadam (DBM). Below the
bituminous layers, a Granular base with well-graded aggregates in the form of Wet Mix
Macadam WMM) base shall be laid on top of GSB layer. All these layers shall be
constructed to the requirements of MoSRT&H specifications. The drainage layer, which is
a pad of the Granular Sub Base (GSB) layer, shall be provided extending over the full
width of formation to the embankment slope, which will also act as drainage layer both for
surface and capillary water that would affect the structural performance of the pavement.
he initial design of overlays on the existing carriageway shall be in accordance with IRC:
81-1997 using BBD deflections.
Paved shoulder is required to be integrated with that of the carriageway pavement. Thus
requires the thickness of pavement structure to be the same thickness as that for the traffic
lanes since the lower layer of the sub-base for the carriageway is extended to the full width
of formation for the lateral drainage of any water percolating into the pavement.
7.6.2 Rigid Pavement
It is proposed to design un-reinforced rigid concrete pavement. lt will have dowelled
contraction joints at 4.5 m spacing. The longitudinal joints will have a spacing of 3.75 m
and 3.50 m in order to accommodate 0.25 m wide edge strips. Expansion joints will be
provided only at the junctions of structures like culvefts, bridges etc. All contraction joints
will be formed by saw-cutting.

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7.7 Grade Separators and Gross Drainage Structures


7.7.1 Grade separators
ln order to avoid incidence of major reconstruction work in the future which may result in
traffic disturbances, the underpasses that carry pedestrian walkways, cart tracks, village,
district and other roads, State and National highways, cross dranage, combined cross
drainage cum road shall be designed taking into account of the future long term
developments in the region in view. Design shall be carried out as per NHAIiMoSRT&H
circulars and Relevant IRC codes.
7.7.2 Drainage structures
Drainage structures basically comprise of Major Bridges, Minor Bridges and Culverts. The
standards / specifications for classifying these are given as:
Major Bridge
Bridges having an overall length more than 60 m
Minor Bridge
Bridges having length varying between 6 to 60 meters are termed as minor bridges.
7.8 Slope Protection
7,8.1 Side Slopes
IRC: 36-1970 recommends the following side slopes for highway embankments, purely
from the safety point of view.
. 1V: 4H up to 1.5m heights
o 1V. 3H from 1.5m to 3m heights
he foregoing slopes require an appreciable width of land. lt is therefore felt that the side
slopes of 1Y:2H and 1V:1.5H is enough forembankmentswith Turfed and Stone pitched
respectively.
7.8.2 Slope Protection
While embankments less than 3m shall be turfed, stone pitching is proposed for
embankment having height more than 3 meters.
7.9 lntersectionsandlnterchanges
At grade intersections adversely influence the quality of highways in terms of speed,
capacity and safety because of interruptions to the flow of traffic. Thus the basic
requirement for the design of intersections is not only to cater for safe movements for the
drivers, but also to provide them full traffic information by way of signs, pavement markings
and traffic signals. Further, simplicity and uniformity should be the guiding principles for
intersection design to ensure the safe passage of manoeuvres and reduce conflict points,
either by elimination of certain manoeuvres or separated in space, horizontally or vertically
or time. Based upon these principles, at-grade intersections have been categorized as
Minor/Channelised (with or without acceleration and deceleration lanes) / Staggered /
Rotaries / Signalized intersections depending upon the following parameters.
o Traffic volume and number of lanes on the project road;
. Traffic volume and number of lanes on the cross road:
. Turning traffic volumes;
. Type and category of cross road;
. Site conditions / constraints; and
. Any local importance

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7.9.1 At Grade lntersections


At-grade intersections shall be designed according to IRC Special Publication 41
'Guidelines for the Design of At-grade lntersections in Rural and Urban Areas' and the
MoSRTH Type Designs for lntersections on National Highways. For the design of
elements not covered in the said publications the AASHTO's Green Book on Geometric
Design shall be followed.
7.9.2 Grade Separated Intersections

-
IRC: 92 1985 gives guidelines for the design of interchanges and shall be followed.
However an interchange is a highly developed feature and may require the use of other
international standards such as these given in the AASHTO's publication 'A Policy on
Geometric Design of Highways and Streets'.
7.10 Drainage System
An effective surface and sub-sufface drainage system of pavement structure shall be
designed as stipulated in IRC SP: 42-1994. The drainage system shall be planned and
designed for the drainage of medians, toll plazas, wayside amenities, truck parking areas,
bus-bays and other highway features ensuring that there shall be no pooling of water at
any time on the highway. The Recommended slope for surface drainage is presented in
Table7.4.
Table 7.4: Recommended slopes for proper surface drainage
Recommended
Element
Slooe
Median 3o/o

Lanes and paved shoulders with Bituminous Concrete Surfacing 2.5%


Lanes and paved shoulders with Cement Concrete Surfacing 2%
Cross slope in earthen shoulders 3.0%

7.11 Safety Measures


Safety measures are the most important aspects to be considered in Highway Projects in
the present scenario. The elements these safety measures would take into consideration
and their specifications are given as follows:
7.11.1 Pedestrian Guard Rails and Safety Barriers
The Safety Barrier shall conform to NHAI/ MoSRTH Circulars. Safety barriers shall be
located at sharp horizontal curves, high embankments, bridge approaches,
7.11.2 Highway Signs
The design and location of route marker signs for National Highways shall be as per IRC:
2-1 968.

The design and placement of Highway kilometre stones, their dimensions, size, colour and
arrangement of letters shall be as per IRC: 26-1967 and IRC: 8-1980.
The design, location and materials to be used for road delineators shall be as per IRC: 79-
1 981.

Standards prescribed by MoSRTH shall be followed for overhead signs.


7.11.3 Pavement Markings
Pavement markings shall be as per IRC: 35-1997. These markings will be used to
distinguish road centre line, edge line, continuity line, stop lines, give-way lines,
diagonal/chevron markings, zebra crossing and at parking areas by means of an approved

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self-propelled machine which has a satisfactory cut-off value capable of applying broken
lines automatically.
7.11.4 Traffic Signals
The traffic signals, their configuration, size, location and other requirements shall be
constructed as per Clause 13 of IRC: 93 - 1985. Construction requrements shall conform
to lS: 7537- 1974, unless othenruise stated in IRC: 93-1985. Posts shall be panted and
protected as per Clause 3.7 of 1S:7537-1974.

7.12 HighwayLandscaping
IRC: SP: 21-1979 "Manual on Landscaping" shall guide the plantation of rows of trees with
staggered pitch on either side of the road. The choice of the trees shall also be made as
per the same code. Local, indigenous species that grow in the project area micro-climate
shall be planted. lndicative arrangements for plantation of trees shall be in accordance with
the MoSRTH Technical Circular No. NHI-41 (34y69. A spacing of 10-15m c/c is
recommended for spacing of trees parallel to the roads. Setback distance of trees needed
in different situations shall be as per the IRC: SP: 21-1979 and the IRC: 66-1976.
Shrubs in medians shall not normally exceed 1-1.5m in height and shall be as per IRC: SP:
21-1979. To ensure survival from herbivorous animals, shrubs/plants containing latex are
recommended.
Construction of Cement Concrete (CC) (M-20) footpaths for pedestrians shall be as per
MoSRTH Specifications. No advertisemenV hoarding shall be allowed to be erected on the
Project Highway.
7.13 Toll Plaza Complex
Toll Plaza shall be designed as per Drawings and circulars of NHAI. Typical approved
design of Toll Plaza by NHAI as per circular no. NHAI/11015131981(CMXT-1y480 dated
June 24,2003 shall be followed for Toll Plaza.
Location of Toll Plaza will be decided in conjunction with adjacent sections and will be
finalized in consultation with NHAI and the consultants involved with other sections.
7.14 Road Furniture
Road furniture such as raffic signs, Kilometre posts, Hectometre stones, guard posts and
ROW pillar etc on the Project Highway provided as per IRC Codes shall meet
requirements of MoSRTH Specifications. Any item which is not covered by IRC shall
conform to BIS /AASHTO / ASTM /British Standards in that order of precedence.

7.15 Truck Lay Bys


During Detailed Engineering Design NHAI approved drawing as per MoSRTH and IRC
specification shall be used. At Present Study the Consultant has proposed the location of
the Truck Lay Bys as per site conditions.
7.16 Bus Stops and Bus Bays
The layout, design and location of the bus stops shall be as per IRC: 80-1981. The bus
stop layout shall ensure safe entry and exit of buses from the project corridor and safe
movement of passengers. The shelter structure shall be structurally safe and functional so
as to protect the waiting passengers adequately from sun, rain and wind. The covered
structure shall be of steel pipes and with fibreglass roof. The seating and plinth of the
structure shall be of brick masonry. The exact locations will be shown on the strip plans.
7.17 Design Methodology and Design Standard for Structures
The design of new structures shall be based on the following materials and loading-

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7.17.1 Materials
Goncrete Grade
Grade of concrete in various elements will be as under for moderate conditions of
exposure:
. All PSC members - M40/M35
. All RCC members - M30 for bridges with PSC spans and other
major bridges
M25 for minor bridges
M20 for culverts
. All PCC members M25 for bridges with PSC spans and major
bridges
- M15 for minor bridges and culverts
Reinforcement Steel
- High yield strength deformed bar shall be of grade Fe415.
- Mild steel bars shall be of grade Fe240.
7.',7.2 Exposure Gondition
Moderate exposure conditions will be considered while designing various
components of all the structures.
Goncrete Clear Govers:
-
For all reinforcement As per Cl. 304.3 of IRC:21
For prestress cable - As per clause 16 of IRC:18 duct to outer most fibre of girder

7.17.3 Pre-stressing System


a) System (Post tensioning) : 12T13119K13 multipull strand system of
"Freyssinet" or "ISMALCCL" or equivalent
b) Cables (Post tensioning) : 12T13t1gK13 cables with strand s of 12.7mm
nominaldia
c) High Tensile Steel :

(for both post/pre tensioning)


Strands : Nominal 12.7mm dia 7 ply low relaxation
strands conforming to class 2 of 15.14268-95
Area : 98.7 sq.mm per strand (nominal cross
sectional area)
Ultimate load . 183.71 KN per strand
Modulus of
Elasticity : 1.95x105MPa
d) Sheathing (Post tensioning) . 75mm OD/9Omm OD Bright metal corrugated
flexible sheathing for 12T13119K13 cables
respectively.
e) Friction Coefficient (Post tensioning) O.25lradian

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Wobble Coefficient (Post tensioning) 0.0046im


g) Anchorage Slip (Post tensioning) 6mm average
h) Loss offorce due to
relaxation : at 0.7 UTS after 1000 hrs. The final
2.5o/o
relaxation value for design shall be 3.0 times
the 1000 hr. value as per cl. 11.4 of IRC:18-
1985.
Stressing shall be carried out simultaneously from both ends. All the strands of a cable
shall be stressed in one go. Provisions for 4o/o emergency cables will be provided. lf
they are not utilised during construction, they will be pulled out and cable ducts will be
grouted and plugged suitably. Access to the super-structure shall be provided to enable
maintenance, inspection and future pre-stressing operations.
7.17.4 Structural Steel
Structural steelwill conform to 15:226 with yield stress of 23.6 kg/mm2
7.17.5 Bearings
Reinforced elastomeric bearings will be proposed for short span simply supported
superstructures. Elastomeric bearings will be designed as per IRC:83 (Part ll) and shall
conform to C|.2005 of MoSRTH's Specifications for Road & Bridge Works (4th Revision).
RCC solid slab superstructures of culverts and minor bridges shall directly rest on
pier/abutment caps with a tar paper in between.
Pot fixed/Pot PTFE sliding bearings will be proposed for long span simply supported
superstructures and continuous superstructures. These bearings will be designed and
supplied by the approved manufacturers. The loads and forces on the bearings will be
calculated to enable the manufacturer to design these bearings and these shall conform
to Cl. 2006 of MoSRTH's Specifications for Road & Bridge Works (4th Revision).
7.17.6 Expansion Joints
The following types of Expansion Joints will be adopted:
Filler type expansion joints shall be proposed for minor bridges with solid slab
superstructures having span lengths not exceeding 10 metres. These types of joints shall
conform to Cl. 2605 of MoSRTH Specifications for Road & Bridge Works (4th Revision).
Single Strip seal expansion joints will be proposed for superstructures having
movements up to 80mm.( t 40mm).
Miscellaneous
An asphaltic concrete wearing course will be provided over the deck slab. lt shall consist
of a coat of mastic asphalt 6mm thick with a prime coat over the deck before the wearing
course is laid. The insulating layer of 6mm thick mastic asphalt with 75o/o limestone dust
fillerand 25%of 30140 penetration grade bitumen shall be laid at 375F. Two layers of
25mm each of asphaltic concrete shall be laid over the mastic asphalt.
Drainage spouts with gratings at the top shall be provided on the bridges to ensure
proper drainage of sufface water.
An approach slab 3.50m long and 300mm thick resting on the bracket taken out from the
dirt wall shall be provided on both sides of the bridge resting on the 150mm thick
levelling course. The gap between the approach slab and dirt wall shall be filled with
bituminous joint filer sealing compound.
Weep holes will be provided behind abutment and wing wall to avoid building up of
hydrostatic pressure behind them. Weep holes shall be provided 150mm, above the low

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water level or bed level whichever is higher. ln case of stone masonry weep holes of
lSOmm.diameter or 80X150mm. size in 1:20 slope shall be provided.
7.17.7 MoSRTH Specifications
The specifications for Road and Bridge Works of Ministry of Road Transport & Highways
published by lndian Road Congress shall be used for materials to be used for
construction of bridges.
7.17.8 Loads and Load Gombinations
Dead Loads
Following unit weights will be assumed in the design as per IRC Codes.
Pre-stressed Concrete - 2.5 t/cu.m
Reinforced Concrete 2.4 tlcu.m
Plain Cement Concrete - 2.4 Vcu.m
Structural steel 7.85 Ucu.m
Dry Density of Soil - 2.07 Vcu.m
Saturated Density of Soil - 2.2 Ucu.m
Superimposed Dead Loads
Wearing Coat : 65mm thick asphaltic concrete with total weight of 0.2 Vsq.m
(including allowance for overlay)
Crash barriers : From design (i.e. 1.0 Um per side)
Garriageway Live Load
All the new cross drainage structures will be designed for the following loading-
Live Loads : One/Two lanes/Three lanes of IRC Class A.
(Whichever produces worst effect) or One lane of IRC Class 70R (wheeled/
tracked)+One lane of Class A.
The impact factor will be as per CL211 of IRC:6 for the relevant load combinations. For
simplicity in design, the impact factor for continuous structures shall be calculated for the
smallest span of each module and used for all the spans in that module.
Longitudinal Forces
The following effects will be considered for calculating the longitudinal forces in the
design-
Braking forces as per the provision of Cl. 214 of IRC:6.
Frictional resistance offered to the movement of free bearings due to change of
temperature.
Distribution of longitudinal forces due to horizontal deformation of bearings/frictional
resistance shall be carried out as per Cl. 214.5 of IRC:6 by assuming stiff supports.
Centrifugal Forces
Bridges on a horizontal curve will be designed for centrifugal forces based on the
following equation-

c= w'
127R
Where C = Centrifugalforce acting normalto the traffic

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W = Carriageway live load


V = Design speed of the vehicles using the bridge in km per hour
R = Radius of curvature in metres
The centrifugal force will be considered to act at 1.20m above the formation level of the
bridge in the transverse direction. No impact value on carriageway live load shall be
considered for calculating the centrifugal force.
Water Current Forces
The effect of water current forces will be calculated in accordance with clause number
213 of IRC:6-2000 on sub-structure and foundations. High Flood level and Velocity shall
be calculated based on the details received from relevant Government departments or
local inquiries.
Earth Pressure
Horizontal forces due to earth pressure will be calculated as per the provision of d. 217
of IRC:6 assuming the following soil properties :
Type of soil assumed for backfilling : Dry Density of 2.07 Vcu.m and Submerged
Density of 1.2 Ucu.m
Friction
Angle of lnternal : 0= 30'
Angle of Wall Friction : = 20o
Coefficient of Friction'r'at base. tan (213 $), where Q is the angle of internal friction of
substrata immediately under the foundation
Live load surcharge will be considered as equivalent to 1.2m height of earth fill in case of
abutments and equivalent to 0.6m height of earth fill in case of return/wing walls.
Wind Forces
Structures will be designed for wind effects as stipulated as Cl. 212 of the IRC:6. The
wind forces shall be considered in the following two ways. The design shall be governed
by the one producing the worst effect.
(i) Fullwind forces at right angles to the superstructure
(i) 65% of wind force as calculated in (i) above acting perpendicular to the superstructure
and 35% acting in traffic direction.
Seismic Effect
The project road falls under seismic zone lll. Horizontal seismic force will be calculated
using the following formula-
Feq - Ah X (Dead Load + Appropriate Live Load)
Where, Ah = horizontal seismic coefficient = (22)X(Sa/gXR/l)
Z = Zonefactor and is equal to 0.12 for seismic zone lll
| = lmportant factor and is taken as 1.5 for important bridges
R = Response reduction factor and is equal to 2.5
Saig - Average response acceleration coefficient depending upon fundamental period of
vibration T
T = Fundamental period of the bridge in seconds in horizontal vibrations

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Temperature Range
The bridge structure/components i.e. bearings and expansion joints, will be designed for a
temperature variaton of + 25"C considering extreme climate.
The super-structures shall be designed for effects of distribution of temperature across the
deck depth as per stipulations of BD 37188 suitably modified for the surfacing thickness.
Effect of non-linear distribution of temperature across the deck depth causes additional
tension and compresson in the structure. lt happens due to the difference in temperature
at top and bottom of super-structure. This causes eigen-stress in the structure. ln this case
the supports do not offer any restrain to the hogging or sagging of beam. The effect of
eigen stresses shall be considered for all the proposed bridges.
ln case of continuous structures there will be effect of intermediate supports which gives
restrain to the free hogging and sagging of structure. The intermediate support prevents
the beams to freely hog or sag, which causes continuity stresses. The effect of continuity
stresses shall be considered for continuous bridges.
Differential Shrinkage Effects
A minimum reinforcement of 0.2o/o of cross sectional area in the longitudinal direction of
the cast-in-situ slab shall be provided to cater for differential shrinkage stresses in
superstructures with in-situ slab over pre-cast girders as per Cl 605.2 of IRC:22-1986.
However, effects due to differential shrinkage and/or differential creep shall be duly
accounted for in the design.
Construction Stage Loadings
A uniformly distributed load of 3.6 KN/m2 of the form area will be taken into account of
construction stage loadings in the design of superstructure elements, wherever
applicable, as per C|.4.2.2.2.2 of IRC:87-1984.
The design will take into account the temporary and locked-in-forces, adjusted by creep
effects, resulting from various methods of construction adopted. These forces will include
those arriving from each stage of construction.
Differentia I Settlement Effects
Differential settlement effects for continuous superstructure units will be appropriately
assessed for each structure. However, in any case a minimum differential settlement of +
12mm shall be accounted for in the design.
The differential settlement effects in continuous suoerstructures shall be accounted for
under following conditions :
A minimum of 12mm differential settlement of supports with half value of 'E'
To simulate the bearing replacement conditions, a 12mm differential uplift with full value
of 'E' shall be considered but without any live load on the superstructure.
Buoyancy
.100% buoyancy will e considered while checking stability of foundations irrespective of
their resting on soil/weathered rock/or hard rock. However, the maximum base
pressures shall also be checked under an additional condition with 50% buoyancy in
cases where foundations are embedded into hard rock. Pore pressure uplift limited to
15% shall be considered while checking stresses of the substructure elements.
ln the design of abutments, the effects of buoyancy will be considered assuming the fill
behind abutments has been removed by scour.

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Load Combination
All members will be designed to safely sustain the most critical combination of various
loads and forces that can coexist. Various load combinations as relevant with increase
in permissible stresses considered in the design shall be as per C\.202 of IRC:6 and Cl.
706 of IRC:78.
ln addition, the stability of a bridge resting on neoprene/pot bearings shall be checked
under one span dislodged condition. The load case will be checked with seismic/wind
load combinations.
7.17.9 Discharge for Galculation of Scour and Design of Protection Works
Scour depth for foundations and protection works will be designed for a larger discharge
in order to give adequate factor of safety. The percentage increase in discharge based
on catchment area is as follows-
a. 30% increase in discharge for catchments area up to 500 square kilometres
b. 25% to 20o/o for medium catchments of 500 to 5000 square kilometres
c. 20o/o to 10o/o for larger catchments of 5000 to 25000 square kilometres
d. 10o/o for larger catchments above 25000 kilometres
7.17.10 Codes to be adopted for design
Codes
Various Codes of Practices which have been used for the design of bridges are mentioned
below:
i) IRC: 5- 1998 Standard Specifications & Code of Practice for Road
bridges, Section I - General Features of Design (Seventh
Revision)
IRC:6- 2000 Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Road
bridges, Section I - General Features of Design (Fourth
Revision)
ii) IRC:7- 1971 Recommended Practice for Numbering Bridges and
Culverts (First Revision)
iv) IRC: 18-2000 Design Criteria for Prestressed Concrete Road bridges
(Post-Tensioned Concrete) (Third Revision)
v) IRC: 21-2000 Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Road
Bridges, Section ll - Cement Concrete (Plain and
Reinforced) (Third Revision)
vi) IRC: 22-1986 Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Road
Bridges, Section Vl Composite Construction (First
Revision)
vii) IRC:24-2001 Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Road
Bridges, Section V - Steel Road Bridges (Second Revision)
viii) lRC.45-1972 Recommendations for Estimating the Resistance of Soil
Below the Maximum Scour Level in the Design of Well
ix) IRC:54-1974 Lateral and Verlical Clearances at Underpasses for
Vehicular Traffic
x) IRC: 78-2000 Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Road
Bridges, Section Vll - Foundations & Substructure (Second
Revision)

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xi) IRC: 83-1999 (Part I) Standard Specificatons and Code of Practice for Road
Bridges, Section lX - Bearing, Part l: Metallic Bearing (First
Revision)
xii) IRC:83-2002 (Part lll) Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Road
bridges, Section lX - Bearings, Part lll: POT, POT-CUM-
PTFE, PIN and Metallic Guide Bearings
xiii) IRC:89-1997 Guidelines for Design and Construction of River Training &
ControlWorks for Road Bridges (First Revision)
xiv) BD 37i88 (British loading)
xv) lX
BS 5400 - Part (For design of POT/POT-PTFE Bearings)
xvi) IRC: SP: 13-2004 Guidelines for the Design of Small Bridges & Culverts (First
Revision)
xvii) lRC. SP: 18-1978 Manualfor Highway bridge Maintenance lnspection
xviii) IRC: SP: 35-1990 Guidelines for lnspection and Maintenance of Bridges
xix) IRC: SP. 40-1993 Guidelines on Techniques for strengthening and
Rehabilitation of Bridges
xx) IRC:SP: 47-1998 Guidelines on Quality Systems for Road Bridges (Plain
Reinforced, Pre-stressed and Com posite Concrete).

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

GHAPTER - 8: PRELIMINARY DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY BRIDGE DESIGN ..............1


8.1 GENERAL ...............1
8.2 DESTGN APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY....... .......................1
8.3 COMMON PARAMETERS FOR DESIGN ...................1
8.4 DESIGN OF STRENGTHENING OVERLAY FOR EXISTING PAVEMENT.....................2
8.4.1 IRC Method (Deflection Method) .....................2
8.4.2 AASHTO Method..... ......3
8.4.3 Reverse CBR Method............... ......6
8.4.4 Recommendation on Overlay ..........6
8.5 DESTGN OF NEW FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT............... ....................7
8.5.1 IRC Method............... .....................7
8.5.2 AASHTO Method..... .......8
8.5.3 Matching of Bituminous Layers.. ....................12
8,5.4 SummaryofProposedPavementComposition............ ....................13
8.6 SERV|CE ROAD....... ..............13
8.7 RIGID PAVEMENT DESIGN ....13
8.7.1 IRC 58: 2002 Method .............. ..... 13
8.7.2 Design as peTAASHTO: 1993......... ..............22
8.7.3 AUSTROADS 1992 ......23
8.8 RECOMMENDATION ON CONCRETE PAVEMENT DESIGN ....................27
8.9 OVERLAY DESIGN FOR SUBSEQUENT STAGES ...................27
8.10 PAVEMENT OPTION STUDY..... .............28
8.10.1 Life Cycle Cost 4na|ysis............ ....28
8.10.2 Construction and Maintenance - lnvestment Options .......31
8.10.3 Economic Analysis .......31
8.10.4 Conclusion and Recommendations ................ 31

LST OF TABLES

Table 8.1:Summary of Vehicle Damage Factors..... ................2

Table 8.2 : Design Traffic in terms of ESAL ............2

Table 8.3: Strengthening Overlay for Homogenous Section...... ................2

Table 8.4: Comparison of Pavement Thickness by IRC and AASHTO Method ..........5

Table 8.5: Overlay Design Method by Reverse CBR Method............... ......................6

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Table 8.6: Layer Coefficients............... ..................8

Table 8.7: Drainage Coefficient (mi) for Unbound Bases and Sub-bases............ .....10

Table 8.8: Pavement Design by AASHTO method.. ............... 11

Table 8.9: Comparison of pavement Composition ............... ..................12

Table 8.10:Adopted Pavement Compositions ..... 13

Table 8.1 : Pavement Compositon for Service Road.........


1 .................... 1 3

Table 8.12:Traffic Growth Rates ........ 15

Table 8.13: Analysis of Axle Load Survey Data......... ..........15

Table 8.14: Determination of 98 th Percentile Design Load ......... ........... 16

Table 8.15: Expected Number of Repetition ......... .................17

Table 8.16 Fatigue Life Consumed ......17

Table 8.17: Recommended Load Transfer Coefficient............ ................23

Table 8.18: Recommended Values of Drainage Coefficient, Cd, ......... ....................23

Table 8.19: Pavement Thickness for Subsequent Stages ......28

Table 8.20: Final Design for New Flexible Pavement. .......,...28

able 8.21: Final Design for Rigid Pavement. .......28

Table 8.22: Structural/Functional Overlays Adopted............... .....,..........29

Table 8.23: Cost Estimate for lnitial Construction Case 1 ............... ........30

Table 8.24: Cost Estimate for Strengthening Overlays (10 th & 20th) Case 1 .........30

Table 8.25: Cost Estimate for Functional Overlays (5th, 15th and 25th Year) Case 1 ...............30

2
Table 8.26: Cost Estimate for lnitial Construction (Rigid Pavement) Case ............30

Table 8.27: Cost Estimate for Routine maintenance............... ... . .......31

Table 8.28: Life Cycle Costing-Flexible Pavement............ .....32

Table 8.29: Life Cycle Costing-Rigid Pavement.............. .......33

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CHAPTER - 8: PRELIMINARY DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY BRIDGE


DESIGN

8.1 GENERAL
For the 4-laning project, pavement design is required for the following cases:
. Strengthening overlays for existing pavement
. New pavement for widening existing carriageway on existing formation for
accommodating width for kerb shyness and paved shoulders for symmetrical widening
and eccentric widening
. New pavement for new carriageway (eccentric widening)
. New pavement for service roads
. Rigid pavement as an alternative to flexible pavement and for purposes of life-cycle
cost analysis.
The consultants have worked out the designs for all the above cases based on results of
survey/investigations with regard to traffic, axle load spectra, pavement condition and
strength, sub grade/material propefties etc.

8.2 DESIGN APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY


The main approach of the consultants is to ensure that both the existing and new
pavements are brought to more or less similar strength levels compatible with the traffic
and environmental conditions so that all parts of the pavement for the upgraded highway
perform in a similar manner. Besides, the bitumen layers over the existing and widening
pavement portion have to be matched in such a way that these can be laid in a single
stroke over the entire width to avoid possible longitudinal separation at the interface.
The design methodology adopted for the various cases are as follows:
. Strengthening Existing Pavement
Benkelman Beam Deflection has been carried out as per guidelines of IRC: 81-1997 and
AASHTO Method, The results have been cross-checked by reverse CBR method and the
need for minimum depth of bituminous layers to disperse the heavy axle loads without
significant damage. The results obtained from IRC method appears to be on lower side.
The consultants therefore propose thickness obtained from the procedure followed in
AASHTO 1993, applying professional experience so that pavement can carry the extra
induced stress due to slow moving heavy vehicle.
. New Flexible Pavement
Design has been carried out using IRC:37-2001, adopting relevant traffic loading and sub
grade strength parameters. Designs have also been prepared adopting AASHTO
procedure for comparison of results and for finalisation of pavement composition using
engineering judgment.
. New Rigid Pavement
Design has been carried out by the method given in IRC:58-2002 and checked by
AASHTO 1993 andAUSTROADS 1992.

8.3 COMMON PARAMETERS FOR DESIGN


. Design Life
15 years for flexible pavement and 30 years for rigid pavement.

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. Traffic Distribution Factors


Directional distribution factor of 0.5 and lane distribution factor of 0.75 are adopted for
pavement design
. Vehicle Damage Factor (VDF)
The VDF of vehicles, for each direction, as observed from the axle load survey
conducted at km 56+750 by the Consultants are summarized in Table 8.1.
able 8.1: Summary of Vehicle Factors
Vehicle Damage Factor
Vehicle Type VDF Adopted
UP DOWN
LCV 0.38 0.42 0.40
HCV 7.00 8.96 7.98
Trailer 8.42 7.49 7.96
Bus 2.06 1.60 1.83
Note : DOWN Direction-Baharampore Barasat
Average VDF has been adopted for pavement design.
. Design Traffic
Design traffic in terms of equivalent standard axles for different design periods have been
computed and shown in Table 8.2. For these computations, the opening year has been
taken to be 2011.
Table 8.2 : Design Traffic in terms of ESAL

Desiqn Period ESAL (million)


10 Years 76
15 Years 137
20 Years 224
30 Years 517

8.4 DESIGN OF STRENGTHENING OVERLAY FOR EXISTING PAVEMENT


8.4.1 IRC Method (Deflection Method)
Overlay design has been carried out based on statically analysis of all measurement.
Firstly average deflection of every km of BBD Values is computed. Homogenous sections
are chosen based on statically approached as recommended in IRC: 81-1997(Section
4.3.2) i.e. section is chosen in such a
way that the highest and lowest deflection is
between 1.33 times mean and 0.67 times mean deflection of the section. This is clearly
shown in Annexure 2. L
he strengthening overlay for the different homogeneous sections has been worked in
Table 8.3, based on the procedure given in IRC: 81-1997. The design life is 10 years for
which the cumulative ESAL worked out to 76 million.
able 8.3: Ove for Section
Overlay in
Characteristic Overlay in terms of
SI Homogenous terms of
Deflection BM
No. Section (km - km) BC+DBM
(mm) (mm)
(mm)
1 31.00- 49.00 1.90 200 50+90
2 49.00-54.00 0.83 110 50+50
3 54.00-61.00 1.35 180 50+80
4 61.00-64.00 0.80 110 50+50
5 64.00-99.00 1.57 185 50+80

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Overlay in
Characteristic Overlay in terms of
SI Homogenous terms of
Deflection BM
No. Section (km - km) (mm)
BG+DBM
(mm)
(mm)
o 99.00-103.00 2.44 220 50+1 05
7 103.00-108.00 1.96 210 50+1 00
x 108.00-113.00 0.98 130 50+50
I 1 13.00-1 15.00 1.23 160 50+65
Note: BM thickness has been converted into DBM and BC.
8.4.2 AASHTO Method
Component analysis method of overlay design requires samples of materials from
existing pavement. For this purpose pits of 1000 mm x 1000 mm and 700 mm x 700 mm
were excavated. Pavement details were noted and samples from sub grade level were
collected for laboratory testing.
For evaluating strength of existing pavement layers, standard relation given in HDM-Ill
manual is taken.
To evaluate the structural strength in terms of SNo values for the in place pavement,
average value of the following two methods have been considered.
a) Using Deflection Values
For each section, the deflection values have been averaged to assess the SN value
using the following equation.
SNCI = 3.2 (DEF)-0'63 where base is not cemented
DEF = the mean Benkelman Beam rebound deflection value in mm
SNCI = Modified structural number
SNC values, so computed reflects the in-situ condition during testing which is a dry
period and are likely to produce the upper bound values.
b) Assessment of Pavement Layers
The in place pavement layers were converted to an equivalent structural number by
means of the following relationship.

SNc2 = 0.0394o,u,+ SNSG


i=l

Where,
i = the strength coefficient of the ith layer.
H = the thickness of the ith layer provided that the sum of thickness.
n = the number of pavement layers;
SNSG = the modified structural number contribution of the sub grade, given by:
SNSG = 3.51 logle CBR - 0.85 (logro CBR)2 - 1.43; and
CBR = the California Bearing Ratio of the sub grade at in-situ conditions of
moisture and density; in percent i.e. DCP CBR values and the 4-day soaked CBR values.
The SN values computed from DCP-CBR and the laboratory CBR at in-situ density have
been defined as SNSGdT and SNSGwet. These two values have been combined using
the following equation.

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'- -V"trr"-t,lV""-

^ SNSG,1- x SNSG'",
SNSG
SNSG'wet + b x SNSG"o,y
-
[a x J-

Where,
a, b = the duration of dry and wet seasons (fraction of one year) where
a+b = 1 a=0.67 and b=0.33 are adopted
The SNC values so computed reflects the in-situ conditon combining the wet and dry
seasons and the strength coefficients assumed on conservative side.
The SNo value for each section of the in-situ pavement has been taken as average of the
two (SNCI & SNC2) values.
The overlay requirement has been computed using the relation.
SN overlaY = SNr - SNo
Where,
=
SN1 Structural Number required for new construction and
SNo = Structural Number of in place pavement
SN1 have been computed using AASHTO method of design of new pavement for the
design MSA value and the four day soaked CBR value.
This SN value is used to obtain the thickness of Bituminous Concrete (BC) and Dense
Bituminous Macadam (DBM) applying their structural coefficient of 0.42 and 0.35
respectively.
The out put of entire design process has been presented in Table 8.4 (for 10 years).
Thickness obtained from AASHTO Method has been adopted for design and shown in
Table 8.4.

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Table 8.4: comparson of Pavement rhickness by lRc and AASHTO Method

c^
otrO
,*b
oa^ rnE
!,
o o E o
o tror H3t gtt
Chainage (km) lE
(!
=st
E
d
o
sNc2
zo
N
E
'e .)lo
ri (From equation, o a at)
o -'3 .e
Z+ b(n FO
2e Z=
<
E
(J 0.0394
)o zq) -'o U'6o Ftt
o
E lp iIH + SNSG.) zg , ea
u?
From To (MSA) (mm) AC DBM o AC DBM AC DBM

1 2 3 4 7 I 10 1rl 12 l3 14 17 t8 19 20 21

49.0 75 .o 1.90 50 90 2 .73 .33 U .98 3.03 5 .50 2.47 50 179.3 50 1,20

49 54.0 .o 0.83 50 4.25 2.59 0 .98 3 .42 5 .50 2.08 50 150.9 50 95

61.0 .o 1.35 50 BO .25 3.62 0 .98 3.43 5 .50 2.07 50 150.2 50 95

6'1 64.0 .o 0.80 50 50 4 .35 3.27 0 .98 e .81 5 .50 1.69 50 122.6 50 65

64 YY / c.o 1.57 50 80 ? .12 3.02 0 .98 3 .07 5 n 2.43 50 176.3 50 120

103.0 75 .o 2.44 n 105 1.94 .07 0 .98 2 .50 5 .50 .00 50 217.7 50 160

103 108.0 75.6 1.96 50 100 2.92 3.51 0.98 .21 5.50 2.29 50 166.2 50 110

108 1 13.0 75.6 0.98 50 50 4.16 2.9 0.98 ? .53 5.50 1.97 50 143.0 50 85
.1 4R
113 75.6 1.23 50 65 3.32 3.06 0.98 .19 5.50 2 ? 50 170.5 50 rl10

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8.4.3 Reverse CBR Method


Overlay design has been checked by the reverse CBR method.
The calculations for the reverse CBR method are given in Table 8.5. ln this method,
equivalent thickness in terms of BC for the existing and required new pavement have
been calculated adopting layer coefficients given in AASTHO method.
The calculations show that the overlay requirements are substantially higher than that
given by the deflection method.
Design MSA for 10 years design period=76
CBR = 9%
Structural number required as per AASHTO 1993=5.5
Full depth Asphalt thickness/Equivalent BC thickness=(5.5i0.42)*25.4=332.62=333 mm
(sav)
able 8.5: Des Method Reverse GBR Method
.ct < =
mtr n 0
>ro
Section ' E rn
ar 0) ; E fr
EgF * E
(Km-km) =o
='t E=
>g=>
5 ojg ooE
E ' o ' f 8 E=
g** 'iF =
31-49 125 175 215 142 50 170
49-54 70 210 75 98 333 50 225
54-61 170 230 125 160 333 50 150
61-64 140 165 170 138 333 50 175
64-99 110 195 130 126 333 50 190
1 00-1 03 70 230 200 126 333 50 190
1 03-1 08 130 190 240 153 333 50 160
108-113 90 240 85 116 333 50 200
113-115 120 160 160 126 333 50 190
Note: The conversion factors adopted for determining equivalent thickness in terms of
BC are as follows:
For existing pavement: BC for = 0.20 I 0.42;
for base =0.110.42
for sub-base = 0.08 I 0.42
For new pavement: for BC = 1.0,
for DBM =0.3510.42
for base = 0.141 0.42;
for sub-base = 0.11 I 0.42:
8.4.4 Recommendation on Overlay
Flexible pavements for overlay and new construction have been designed using both IRC
and AASHTO recommended procedures.
ln IRC:81-1997 the deflection testing method has been used. The design has also been
checked using Reverse CBR Method. AASHTO method takes care of the reliability and
standard error factors of the traffic predication and the process used in construction.

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During time of pavement investigation, it was found that major portion of the road
consisted of several distresses namely pothole, patch, -cracks, edge break etc.
Benkelman Beam Deflection testing may assess the existing pavement strength on the
higher side, leading to lower values of overlay thickness.
The high roughness values indicate the presence of undulation (i.e. deformation) on the
riding surface. Rut depth measurements also corroborate the same.
Therefore, under the given situation the overlay values as derived using AASHTO
practice for component analysis method is recommended for adoption (Ref.: Table 5.5).
8.5 DESIGN OF NEW FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT
Following design parameters are considered for new pavement design:
Design Period:- 15 years
Design Traflic-137 MSA
CBR:- 9
8.5.1 IRC Method
Design of new flexible pavement applies to the new carriageway and widening of existing
carriageway including paved shoulders. The methodology recommended in IRC: 37-2001
has been adopted, and the designs recommended based on best engineering judgment.
Construction of new pavement will apply for the following two cases:
i. Widening on existing formation for accommodating the paved shoulders and width for
kerb shyness
For this case, the existing sub grade will be prepared to required compaction, and the
CBR of existing sub grade at 97o/o of MDD will apply. From the laboratory test results of
trial pit samples, it found that CBR of sub grade samples vary from 8 to 42.
i. Pavement for new carriageway (eccentric widening)
From the laboratory test results of borrow pit samples, it found that CBR of sub grade
samples vary from 6 to 29. 90 th Percentile CBR has been adopted for pavement design
and 90 th percentile CBR graph is shown in Figure 8.1 and found value of 9%.CBR value
9 is recommended for new pavement.

Percerrtle cElR
30.oo

25-OO //tt'

20-oo ---''
15.OO
,/
1 0.oo
-t"---
5.OO

o.oo
EE
Percentle

Figure 8.1: 90th Percentile CBR

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Based on the design CBR arrived from the Figure 5.1, the pavement
design as per IRC:
37 -2001worked out and final pavement compsitions are mentoned below.
Design CBR = 9%
Design Traffic = 137 million ESAL
BC = 50mm, DBM = 150mm
Sub base thickness=250 mm
Base course thickness=2O0 mm
8.5.2 AASHTO Method
General
Pavement design has also been carried out by AASHTO method for
comparison and for
assistance in engineering judgment, the Oelign has been worked out for
carriageway.
the new
Sol/ Support Value
The soil support value has been taken for 4 days- soaked sub grade CBR
of g and this is
equalto in term of resilient modulus Mr=2640(9iouo=10770 psl
Pavement Performance
ln AASHTO method of design, the serviceability of pavement is expressed
in terms of
Present Serviceability lndex (pSl). For this project, the following serviceability
factors are
adopted:
PSI = 4.2
Terminal Serviceability pSl = 2.2
Serviceability loss during design period 4.2-2.2=2.0
Structu ral Layer Coefficient
Structural Layer Coefficient (a) is the parameter adopted in the present
study for
representing the relative strength of individual pavement iayer materials.
The strength of
an individual pavement layer (i) of thickness (D) is assessd as the product
of a a-nd D
and m. The total pavement strength (i.e. Structral Number SN) cn then
= be obtained
by summing the strengths of the individual pavement layers according to the
following
empirical equation:

SN
Er*r,xa,D,m,)
Where,
SN= Structural Number of pavement
i= Structural Layer Co-efficient of ith layer
D = Thickness of ith pavement layer in inches
n = Drainage Coefficient for the i th layer
structural layer coefficients adopted are presented in the following Table-g.6.
Table 8.6: Layer Coefficients

Layer Structural
Coefficient (a) Remarks
AC 0.42 Enc = 4 00 000 PSi
DBM 0.35 Eoeu = 3 00 000 PSi

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Structural
Layer Remarks
Coefficient (a)
WMM 0.14 Assuming CBR = 100Vo , Er,mvr = 30 000 PSi
GSB 0.11 Assuming CBR = 30%, Eose = 15 000 PSi
Refer Figure 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 and 2.9 of AASHTO Guide for Design of Pavement Structure
93 Clause 2.3.5 pp ll-17
Drainage Coefficients
The effects of drainage-related reductions in pavement strength and degradation (i.e. due
to saturation and flooding) are considered in the AASHTO Guide by the application of
adjustment factors to individual pavement layers. These adjustment factors are assessed
based on comparison with the design drainage conditions for the AASHTO Test Road for
which drainage layer coefficients are set equalto unity (i.e. one) for all pavement layers.
Drainage layer coefficients (m) are applied directly to individual pavement layer thickness
(D) to obtain integrated total pavement structural number (SN) corrected for drainage
conditions as indicated below:
SN = 1D1 fi1+ 2D21f12 + aDsfi1a + '.'.. + DfTl
Where,
^i
at Structural layer coefficient for the "i"th layer
Di = Thickness of the "i"th layer
mi = drainage layer coefficient for the "i"th layer
Estimation of drainage layer coefficients according to the AASHTO Guide is based on:
the quality (i.e. permeability) of the drainage (i.e. the time required for the pavement
layer(s) to drain), and
the percent of time the moisture content of the pavement layer(s) approach saturation
(e.9. due to flooding, capillarity etc.).
The AASHTO Guide provides the following guidelines for assessing the Quality of
Drainage:
Quality of Drainage Water Removed Within
Excellent 2 hours
Good 1 dav
Fair 1 week
Poor 1 month
Verv ooor (water will not drain)

Quality of Drainage for the granular construction materials to be used for this section was
assessed to be:
Wet-mixed macadam (WMM) - good
Granular sub-base (GSB) - good
The percent of time pavement-structure is exposed to moisture levels approaching
saturation was assessed for estimated design floating conditions based on project
hydrology studies. Additional allowance was added for granular materials recognising the
potential egress of rain run-off through crack/openings in the carriageway and shoulder
surfaces, especially at the paved/unpaved shoulder interfaces.
The design drainage layer coefficients (mi) were based on design guidelines provided by
the AASHTO Guide are given in Table- 8.7.

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Table 8. : Drainaqe Goefficient mt for Unbound Bases and Sub-bases


Quality of Drainage Less than 1% 1-5% 5-25% Greater than 25o/o

Excellent 1.40 - 1.35 1.35 - 1.30 1.30 - 1.20 1.20


Good 1.35 - 1.25 1.25 - 1.15 1.15 - 1.00 1.00
Fair 1.25 - 1.15 - 0.80 1.15 -
0.80 1.05 1.00
Poor 1.15 - 1 .05
1.05 - 0.80 0.80 - 0.60 0.60
Very Poor 1.05 - 0.95 0.95 - 0.75 0.75 - 0.40 0.40
(Percent of Time Pavement Structure is exposed to moisture levels approachng
saturation)
For the present project, considering saturation for a period of 2 months (about 160/o of
time), and the quality of the material to be used in base and sub-base, the drainage
coefficient for these layers has been taken to be 1.
Other Design Parameters
The other parameters for design have been taken to be as follows:
. Reliability : 90o/o

. Standard Normal Deviate ZR : (-) 1.282 corresponding to 90% reliability


. Overall Standard Deviation : 0.42
Basic Design Equation of AASHTO
The basic design equation used for flexible pavements in AASHTO guide is as under:
logle(W1s) = ZXSs + 9.36x logle(SN + 1)-0.20
.tooroio2-151
IAPS|l
+ + 2.32 x logle (Mn)- 8.07------------(5 1)
0.40 +( SN'--+1)''"
'=
'=

Where,
Wrs = predicted number of 18-kip(8.2 ton) equivalent single axle load
applications,
Zs standard normal deviate,
so combined standard deviaton of the traffic prediction and
performance prediction,
lPSl = difference between the initial design serviceability index, po, and
the design terminal serviceability index, p,
Mn resilient modulus
SN Structural Number
From the adopted values of different parameters, and using computer package, the
required SN value has been computed and found 5.95.
Design of Pavement
As peTAASHTO Guidelines, the design of flexible pavement comprises two parts:
+ Calculation of Structural Number requirement for different layers depending upon the
type of material used for construction.
+ Cailculation of individual pvtntfit layer thickness /s based on interlayer
compatibility.

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The basic AASHTO equation as given in equation 5.1 is an iterative equation and the
Consultant has develped a worksheet programme for structural number calculation.
Detailed process of thickness calculations is outlined in the following steps:
1. Calculate SN3 (SN sub grade) based upon Mp value for sub grade soil
2. Calculate SNz (sub-base) ased upon Mp value for sub-base
3. Calculate SNr (base) based upon Mp value for base course
4. Calculate thickness of bituminous material:
SN.
U,=-
a.

1 = Structural layer coefficient of bituminous concrete = 0.42


Provide bituminous thickness D1. as per constructability criteria.
SNr. = D1 x1
5. Calculate thickness of base materal:
sN, -sN., *
V^ _
|-.,
'a^
--

z=structural layer coefficient for base material = 0.14 for WMM


Provide D2. as per constructability requirement.
SNz- = Dz-' z
6. Calculate thickness of sub-base material:
*
SN3 -SN2
Ds =
a3

s = structural layer coefficient for sub-base material = 0. 1 1 for GSB material


Provide De s per constructability requirement.
7. Calculate overall structural number provided:
SNprovoeo = f a D m

8. Compare SNprovioeo t SNs


To check the pavement design with ASASHTO method, only SN value at subgrade level
has been checked.
Mr values of subgrade lS:10773 PSl.
Using AASHTO equation, SN values are calculated and shown below:
SN above sub grade=5.95,
Following pavement compositions (Refer Table-8.8) are adapted to check SN value at
sub grade level.
Table 8.8: Pavement Desgn by AASHTO method

SN Coeff. Thickness (m)


Layer Drainage Coeff. (D) (mml SN Provided
la,)
BC 0.42 1 50 0.84
DBM 0.35 1 205 2.87
WMM 0.14 1 250 1.4

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SN Goeff. Thickness (m)


Layer Drainage Goeff. (D)
(mm) SN Provided
la')
GSB 0.11 1 200 0.88
Total SN at the top of Subgrade = I a Dm= 5.99>5.95

Comparison of Pavement Design hy IRC and AASHTO Methods


The pavement desgn compositions worked out by the IRC and AASHTO methods are
compared in Table 8.9.
able 8.9: Comparison of pavement C
Pavement Thickness(mm)
Course IRC Method AASHTO Method
BC 50 50
DBM 150 205
WMM 250 250
GSB 200 200

Comparison of the results in Table 8.9 shows a marked difference in respect of thickness
of bitumen-bound and granular layers. The AASHTO method of design has resulted in a
substantially higher thickness of bound layers (DBM) but relatively lower thickness for
granular layers.
The road falls in the tropical zone with hot and relatively dry climatic conditions. ln the
performance of pavements, environmental parameters have a significant role to play, and
in the present case, oxidation of the bituminous binder, shrinkage cracking and attendant
distress of the wearing course are anticipated, and these will need to be corrected
periodically. For economical management of the pavement, one possible approach would
be that the pavement is constructed with a strong base and the wearing course is
renewed periodically, say once every 5 years, to correct the distress manifestations
(cracking, ravelling etc.), to improve the pavement's functional and riding quality and
somewhat add to its strength. Such an approach is proposed for the present project.
For any traffic level, the AASHTO procedure developed from the Road Test at lllinois
(where the pavement is subject to freezing and spring thaw conditions) gives a much
higher thickness for bitumen-bound courses compared to the IRC method (developed
from experience in tropical countries). ln areas subject to spring thaw, virtually the ice-
melted water flows through the granular base/sub-base courses resulting in substantial
reduction to their bearing capacity. On the other hand, because of the near freezing
temperature, the bitumen-bound layers become hard and stiff and serve to distribute the
imposed traffic loads like a plate or rigid pavement where deflection and flexural stresses
become critical. For meeting with such situations without cracking, the bitumen-bound
courses have to be relatively thick, of the order of 250-300 mm even for medium level
traffic (25-50 million ESAL). This is the major reason that explains the relatively higher
thickness of bitumen-bound courses given by the AASHTO method.
ln the light of the above discussion, the Consultants recommend the adoption of
pavement design composition worked out from the IRC:37-2001 method.
8.5.3 Matching of Bituminous Layers
Matching of bituminous layers between strengthening and widening porlions will arise
with case of widening on existing formation and symmetrical widening. For such cases,
for facilitating application of bituminous courses in a single stroke, matching of the layers
is required. The difference thickness of new pavement and overlay pavement will be laid
first and separately. lt will helpful to lay common thickness of DBM with first operation
and BC in second operation.

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8.5.4 Summary of Proposed Pavement Composition


. Summary of pavement compositions for strengthening, widening and new carriageway
are tabulated in the Table 8.10.
Table 8.10: Adopted Pavement Compostons

Overlay Thickness
Pavement Thickness for New Pavement(mm)
Section lmml
AC DBM AC DBM WMM GSB
31-49 50 120 50 150 250 200
49-54 50 95 50 150 250 200
54-61 50 95 50 150 250 200
61-64 50 oc 50 150 250 200
64-86 50 120 50 150 250 200
86-99 50 160 50 150 250 200
99-103 50 110 50 150 250 200
1 03-1 0B 50 B5 50 150 250 200
108-112 50 110 50 150 250 200
Note: The overlay will be applied after correcting the profile by profile correcting colrrse,
repairing pot hole, edge break, crack sealing and other drsfresses.

8.6 SERVICE ROAD


Design of pavement for service road has been carried out in accordance with IRC:37-
2001 for a design period of 10 years for reference only since there is no provision of
service road at this stage. Traffic assumed for the design is 10% of the design traffic for
main carriageway. Therefore, 1Q% of 76 million ESAL, i.e.7.6 million ESAL is considered
as design traffic for service road.
Based on IRC:37-2001, for sub grade CBR of 9% (as sub grade will be constructed with
borrow material), pavement composition for service roads is proposed
as
in the Table 8.11 .
able 8.ll: Pavement for Service Road
SL No. Desiqn Traffic Subqrade GBR Pavement Gomponent Thickness (mm)
1 BC 40
2 DBM 50
7.6 million ESAL V-/o
3 WMM 250
4 GSB 200

8.7 RIGID PAVEMENT DESIGN


Consultants have carried out Rigid Pavement Design using IRC 58 2002 method and
checked byAASHTO1993 and, AUSTROADS 1992.
8.7.1 IRG 58:2002 Method
Design of rigid pavement has been carried out for 30 years of design period and 90th
percentile sub grade CBR of 9 % has been adopted for design. 90'n percentile CBR is
already shown in FigureS.1 . The design has been discussed in the following sections.
Basic Design Criteria:
Salient features of the design are:
Computation of flexural stress due to the placement of single and tandem axle loads
along the edge.
. lntroduction of cumulative fatigue damage approach.

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Design parameters:
The design parameters for rigid pavement design are brought out in following sub-Para:
Tyre Pressure:
Stresses in concrete pavements having thickness of 200mm or more are not affected
significantly by the variation of tyre pressure in the range between 0.7 Mpa to 1.0 Mpa. A
tyre pressure of 0.8 Mpa (8kg/cm' is considered for design.
Safety Factor
Unpredicted heavy truck loads are taken care of by a Load Safety Factor (LSF) of 1.2.
Design Load
Basic design of the slab is done with a 98th percentile axle load. Design thereafter is
checked for fatigue consumption for higher axle loads.
Repetitions
25 % of the total traffic in the both directions of the traffic is considered for design.
Perm issible Deflection
Limiting design deflection for cement concrete pavement is taken as 1.25 mm.
Design CBR:
An effective CBR value of 9 o/o has been taken based on laboratory tests of borrow area
materials.
Modulus of subgrade reaction (k):
Modulus of sub grade reaction values are as obtained from co-relations with CBR values,
I
considering homogeneous soil sub grade. A CBR of o/o gives k=5.3 kg/cm2lcm (ref.
Table 2, lRC58: 2002). When modified for 150mm DLC sub-base, the modified value is
of the order of 37.7 kglcm2lcm. Considering sub grade of 500 mm, granular sub base of
150 mm and DLC of 150 mm will be provided during construction and these layers will
act as a composite layer, Equivalent K value is found 21,2 kglcmt.nUStROADS 1992
recommended maximum permissible value of effective CBR for 150 mm LMC is 75 o/o(k
=17.5 kglcm2lcm).The Consultants have considered and adopted an effective value of 20
kglcm'lcm. Paved shoulders to a width of 1.5m will be provided to prevent erosion and
entry of debris between the pavement slab and foundation when the slab curls upwards.
Thickness of DLC
150mm thick DLC sub-base has been considered, as generally recommended for
modern concrete pavements, particularly in highway and those with heavy intensity of
traffic. 150mm thick GSB above the sub grade has been considered for drainage of water
to prevent excessive softening of sub grade and prevent erosion of the sub grade under
adverse moisture condition. A separation membrane of 125 micron polyethylene is
considered to be placed between PQC and DLC to reduce inter-layer friction.
Particulars of PQC
The concrete grade for PQC has been proposed to be M40 with a flexural strength of
45kglcm2. Modulus of elasticity of concrete has been taken as 3.0 X 105 k{cm2. The
Poisson's ratio of concrete and co-efficient of thermal expansion of concrete is taken as
0.15 and 10 * 10-6 /0C respectively.
Sfresses in Concrete:
Ratio between flexural stress due to load and flexural strength of concrete is termed as
stress ratio. lf this value is less than 0.45, the allowable number of repetitions of the axle
load has been considered to be infinity. Further, concrete slab is designed to withstand

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the stresses due to warping and wheel load at the edge region considering criticality of
total combined stresses in three regions of the slab i.e. corner, edge and interior.
Design Life, Average Annual Growth Rate and Design Traffic
The design life for rigid pavement has been taken as 30 years. The year of opening is
2011.
The growth rates taken for the design are furnshed in Table Ll2
Table 8.'12:Tralfic Growth Rates
Average AnnualGrowth Rate (%)
Period
Car Bus Truck
Upto 2012 7.5 7.5 7.5
Beyond 2012 7 7 I

However, for arriving for design traffic, average annual growth rate of truck has been
considered.
Based on this the total cumulative commercial traffic in 2040 has been calculated to be
245120747. Therefore, Design Traffic = 25o/o of 245120747 =61280187 repetitions of
commercial vehicles
Axle load suruey data analysis
Axle load survey data has been analysed and test results are shown in Table 8.13.
Tab e 8.13: Anal of Axle Load Su Data
Single Axle Load Distribution Tandem Axle Loat I Distribution
Direction: Both Direction: Both
Axle Group Percentage Percentage of
(Tone) No of Axle No of Axle
of Cateqory Gateqorv
UP DN Total UP DN Total
3-5 342 163 505 35.84 B 0 8 0.57
5-7 137 156 293 20.79 4 4 B 0.57
7-9 50 94 144 10.22 4 13 17 1.21
9-11 39 40 79 c.o I 1 3 4 0.28
4
11-13 35 85 120 8.52 3 I 4 0.28
13-15 27 42 69 4.90 n 1 1 0.07
15-17 11 21 32 2.27 0 0 0 0.00
17-19 10 7 17 1.21 U 0 U 0.00
19-21 to 68 84 5.96 0 J 0.21
21-23 0 0 0.00 0 4 4 0.28
23-25 0 0 0 0.00 0 0 0 0.00
25-27 0 0 n 0.00 0 0 n 0.00
27-29 0 0 0 0.00 0 0.21
29-31 0 n 0 0.00 0 0 0 0.00
31-33 0 0 ^ 0.00 0 0 0 0.00
33-35 0 0 0.00 0 0 0 0.00
A
35-37 ^ 0 0 0.00 0 1 I 0.07
37-39 0 U 0 0.00 0 0 0 0.00
39-41 0 0 0 0.00 0 13 13 0.92
41-43 0 0 0 0.00 U 0 0 0.00
Total 667 o/o 1409 95.3 20 46 oo 4.7

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Calculation of Design Wheel Load


Since tandem axles carrying twice the load of a single axle cause flexural stresses which
are about 20 percent lower than that of the single axle load because of superposition of
negative bending moment due to one dual wheel load over the other, basic consideration
is given to the 98th percentile single axle dualwheel load only. The Table 8.14 has been
used to determine the value of 98th percentile design load:
Table 8.14: Determination of 98 th Percentile Design Load

Total no of Gum Mean Axle


Axle load Group (T) Percentage percentaqe
Sinqle axle Load(t)
3-5 505 37.60 37.60 4
5-7 293 21.82 59.42 o
7-9 144 10.72 70.14 I
9-11 79 5.88 76.02 10
11-13 120 8.94 84.96 12
13-15 69 5.14 90.1 0 14
15-17 32 2.38 92.48 16
17-19 17 1.27 93.75 1B
19-21 84 6.25 100.00 20

Using Table 8.14 percentage verses mean load graph and equation of best fit curve are
plotted and shown in Figure 8.2. Using best ft equation, 98'n percentile axle
load=0.0046*98*98-.379*98+1 1 .933=18.97 ton i.e. Wheel load=9.49 ton =9500 Kg(say)

98th Percentile Load y = 0'0046x2 - 0.379x + 11


R = 0.9844

20

1
/
fit a
o
J o
o
10

-r'
<L

0
0.00 20.oo 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00 120.oo
Percentage

Figure 8.2
Expected Repetition Analysis :
Expected repetition analysis has been furnished through the Table 8.15.

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Table 8.15: Expected Number of Repetition

Axle Group Single Axle Load Distribution Tandem Axle Load Distribution
fionnel Direction: Both Direction: Both
Percentage of Percentage of Expected
Expected repetition repetition
Gateoorv Cateqorv
I 2 3=(2/1 00)*61 300000
3-5 35.84 21963445 0.57 347936
5-7 20.79 12743147 0.57 347936
7-9 10.22 6262844 1.21 739364
9-1 I c.o I 3435866 0.28 1 73968

11-13 8.52 5219037 0.28 1 73968

13-15 4.90 3000946 0.07 43492


15-17 2.27 1391743 0.00 0
17-19 1.21 739364 0.00 0
19-21 5.96 3653326 0.21 130476
21-23 0.00 0 0.28 173968
23-25 0.00 0 0.00 0
25-27 0.00 0 0.00 0
27-29 0.00 0 0.21 130476
29-31 0.00 0 0.00 0
31-33 0.00 0 0.00 0
33-35 0.00 0 0.00 0
35-37 0.00 n 0.07 43492
37-39 0.00 0 0.00 0
39-41 0.00 U 0.92 565396
41-43 0.00 0 0.00 n
Total o? 58409717 4.7 2870470

8,7.1.'l Design of Slab:


For design, repetitive calculations have been done and an account of these has been
provided below in Table 8.16.
Trialthickness = 320mm
Sub grade modulus = 20 kg/cm3
Design period = 3Oyears
Flexural strength = 45kglcm2
Load safety factor = 1.2
able 8.16 F Life Consumed
ns
Single Axle Load Application
Expected
Stress, kg/cm' repetition,
Mean Axle from Stress ll= Fatigue
ALxl Fatigue
life
load (AL), charts(Appen Ratio(SR) 4.2577
.2 Iife, N
tonnes dix I of IRG:58- (col 3/45) consumed
^sR -
20021 0.4325

Ratio
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (o, (5)/(6)
Single Axle
4 4.8 <7.1 <.16 21963445 lnfinity 0.0000

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_S g4xlged App I ication


Expected
Stress, kg/cmz repetition,
Mean Axle from Stress ll= Fatigue
load (AL),
ALxl Fatigue
charts(Appen Ratio(SR) 4.2s77 life
tonnes
.2
dix I of IRG:58- (col3/45) life, N
consumed
20021 sR - 0.432s

(1) (2) Ratio


(3) (4) (5) (6) (5y(6)
6 7.2 7.1 0.16 12743147 lnfinity 0.0000
B 9. 10.10 0.22 6262844 lnfinitv 0.0000
l0 12 1 1.50 0.26 3435866 lnfinity 0.0000
12 14.4 13.00 0.29 5219037 lnfinitv 0.0000
14 16.8 15.50 0.34 3000946 lnfinity 0.0000
16 19.2 17.00 0.38 1391743 lnfinity 0.0000
18 21.6 20.00 0.44 739364 lnfinity 0.0000
20 24 21.00 0.47 3653326 7052300 0.52
Note: Fatigue Life is infinity for SR <0.45

Tandem Axle Load Application


Axle Stress, Fatigue
load(AL),
ALxl. Stress Expected Fatigue
kg/cm2 from life
tonnes
2 Ratio repetition, n life, N
charts consumed
(1) (2) (3)
Ratio
(4) (5) (6) (5y(6)
10.00 12.00 5.70 0.13 1609203 lnfinity 0.00
12.00 14.40 6.60 0.15 1 73968 lnfinity 0.00
14.00 16.80 7.20 0.16 44003 lnfinity 0.00
16.00 19.20 8.50 0.19 n lnfinitv 0.00
20.00 24.00 10.00 0.22 130476 lnfinity 0.00
24.00 28.80 12.00 0.27 173968 lnfinitv 0.00
28.00 33.60 14.00 0.31 130476 lnfinitv 0.00
32.00 38.40 15.25 0.34 0 lnfinitv 0.00
36.00 43.20 17.00 0.38 43492 lnfinity 0.00
38.00 45.60 18.10 0.40 0 lnfinity 0.00
40.00 48.00 19.92 0.44 565396 lnfinity 0.00

As cumulative fatigue life consumed is 0.52+0=0.52 ie less than'1', the design is safe.
Check for temperafure sfress
Poisson's ratio (u) = 0.15
Modulus of elasticity of concrete (E) = 300000kg/cm2
Modulus of sub grade reaction (k) = 2}kglcm3
Slab length, or spacing between consecutive contraction joints (L) = 4b0 cm
Slab width, or spacing between longitudinaljoints (W) = 350cm
Temperature differential for West Bengal region (t) = t6.880C (Extrapolate for thickness
32 cm from Table 1 of IRC:58-2002)
Co-efficient of thermal expansion of concrete (alpha) = 1.00E-05i qC
Checking for slab thickness (h) =32 cm

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=80.5 cm

Lll =450180.5=5.52
wil=350/80.5=4.35
Bradbury's co-efficient (C) =0.859 (from Fig.2 of IRC-58:2002)
*
3 105
*1* 10-s * 16.88 *0.859
Edge warping stress =E(C
a = = 21.22 kg/cm2

Total of temperature warping stress and the highest axle load stress obtained from table
5.16
=21+21.22=42.22 kgicm2 < 45 kg/cm2 (Flexural strength) ,Hence Safe.
Hence, the pavement thickness of 32cm is safe under the combined action of wheel load
and temperature. Hence 32 cm thickness Slab thickness is recommended.
8.7.1.2 Check for Gorner Stress
Corner stress is checked based on 98th percentile load, 9500 kg
l=80.5 cm
a=radius of area of contact of wheel.
Considering a single axle dualwheel, a is calculated using the following equation:

a=t0.8521* P * s ( P )oulo.s
' 3.1414* q 3.1414 'Q.5227 * q'

a t0.8521*
9500 + 31 ( 9500 )o'ulO.s
= ' 3.1414*8 3.1414',0.5227*8'

=28.15 cm

corner ,,r"rr=3 -'?.j..Yl'=1s.g kg/cm2 <4s kg/cm2, hence pavement


32'
=9=5100 80.5
thickness 32 cm is safe.

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8.7.1,3 Design of Dowel Bars:


Desiqn of Dowel Bars
Code used : IRC : 58-2002
Desiqn Parameters
Desiqn wheelload= 9500 kq
Percentaqe of load transfer= 40
Slab Thickness. h= 32 cm
Joint width. z= cm
Radius of relative stiffness. l= 80.5 cm
Grade of concrete = M40
Characteristic compressive strength of concrete cube(15cm)
after 28 davs curinq concrete. fck= 400 kq/cmz
Diameter of the dowel bar assumed. b= 3.2 cm
Permissible bearing stress in concrete,
1o'16 -b *Fck
ro= =]!19:!.2 *4oo =
9.525 9.525 292.3 kqlcmz
Assumed spacino between the dowel bars= 20 cm
First dowel bar is placed from the pavement edge at a
distance= 4F cm
Assumed lenqth of the dowel bar= 50 cm
Distance up to which dowel bars are effective in load transfer
from the point of load application=(l*radius of relative
stiffness)= 80.5 cm
Number of dowel bars participating in load transfer when wheel
load is just over the dowel bar close to the edge of the
slab=(1 +l/soacino )=11 +80.5120\= Nos
Assuming the load transferred by the first dowel is Pt and
assuming that the load on dowel bar at a distance of I from the
first dowel to be zero, the total load transferred by dowel bar
system
l-2Spacing , l-3Spacing , l-4Spacing,,
*'-,l-Spacing -,
=t.t
| |
T I
r
80.5-20 80.5-2.20 80.5-3*20 80.5-4"20..
' 80.5 80.5 80.5 80.5 2.514 Pt
Load carried by the outer dowel bar, Pt=0.4*950012.514= 1511.43 kq
Gheck for Bearinq Stress
3'1414* d4 3.1414*3.24
Moment of inertia of dowel= -
64 64 5.15 cm

Modulus of dowel-concrete interaction ldowel supoort). k= 41500 ko/cm2lcm


Modulus of the elasticitv of the dowel ,E= 2000000 kqlcmz
Relative stiffness of dowel bar embedded in

concrete,!=o/ K =
+rt 0.238
Bearing stress in dowel bar, opax - (kPtX?+FZ) - Kglcmz' <292.3
(4p3Er 278 Kqlcm"
Hence . the dowel bar soacino and diameter assumed are safe
Adopted Desiqn
Deformed dowel bar of diameter = . cm
Deformed dowel bar soacino r = 20 cm
Lenqth of dowel bar = 50 cm

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8.7.1.4 Design of Tie bar


Desiqn of Tie Bars
Gode used : IRG : 58-2002
Desiqn Parameters
Slab thickness = 32 cm
Lane width. b = 3.5 m
Co-efficient of friction. f= 1.5
Densitv of concrete = 2400 ko/m3
Weiqht of the slab in kq\cm',W=2400*0.32(slab thickness) 768 kq/m2
Allowable tensile stress(workinq) in plain bars (as per IRC:21-2000)= 1250 kq/cm2
Allowable tensile (workinq)stress for deformed bars (as per IRC:21-2000)= 2000 kq/cm2
Allowable bond stress for plain tie bars = 17.5 kq/cm2
Allowable bond stress in deformed tie bars= 24.6 kq/cm2
Diameter of tie bar. d = 12 mm
1. Soacinq and lenqth of the plain bar
Area of steel bar per metre width of joint to resist the frictional force at slab
bottom . As=bfW/S = 3.23 cm'/m
Assumino diameter of tie bar = 1.2 cm
3.1414*1.22
sectional area of tie bar , A =
4 1.13 cm'
Perimeter of tie bar . P =3.1414*1.2 = 3.77 cm
Spacinq of tie bars , A/As - 35.0 cm
Length of tie bar (Two times of development length), =
2"S"A =
B*P 42.86 cm
We increase the length by 10 cm for loss of bond due to painting and another 5
cm for tolerance in olacement.
Therefore the lenqth is = 57.86 cm
Sav 58 cm
2. Soacinq and lenqth of the deformed tie bar
Area of steel bar per metre width of joint to resist the frictional force at slab
bottom , As= 2.016 cm'lm
Assuminq diameter of tie bar = 1.2 cm
Cross sectional area of tie bar . A = 1.13 cmz
Perimeter of tie bar , P = 3.77 cm
Spacing of tie bars , A,/As = 56.0 cm
Lenqth of tie bar , L = 48.78 cm
We increase the length by 10 cm for loss of bond due to painting and another 5
cm for tolerance in placement.
Therefore the lenqth is = 63.78 3m
Say 64.00 lm
Adopted Desiqn
Deformed tie bar of diameter = 1.2 lm
Spacino of tie bar = co lm
Lenqth of tie bar = 64 cm

Summary of Rigid Pavement design


M40 Concrete Pavement Thickness = 320mm
DLC Thickness = 150mm

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GSB Thickness = 150mm


Dowel Bar Dia = 32mm
Length of Dowel bar = 500mm
Spacing of Dowel bar = 200mm
First Dowel Bar from Pavement edge= 150mm
Number of Dowel bar = 5
Spacing of Dowel bar = 20 cm
Tie Bar Dia (Deformed) = 1Zmm
Length of Tie bar (Deformed) 640mm
Spacing of ie bar (Deformed) 560mm
Spacing of dummy contraction joint 4.5m
Dowelled expansion joint spacing 45m
8.7.2 Design as per AASHTO: 1993
The concept for rigid pavement design provided in the AASHTO-1993 guidelines is
mainly based on the findings of tests carried out in AASHO road published in '1962 and
further modified in 1990 from mechanistic analysis.
AASHTO method of design considers the equivalent axle load concept, same as flexible
pavement.
Design Axle Load for 30 years of life is equal to 517 MSA(1378.0.5.0.75)
The basic equation used in the guide for rigid pavement in as follows:
, _ APSI
too
log W.'r = ZnSo + 7.35log(D + 0.06 +
' 4.5 -1.5
1) -
1.624x107
n
'-, 1 * rt*
75
s'" cd(Do -1.132)
+ (4.22 - 0.32p, )log
18.42
zr s.oaLfoo i5
2s
(E" / k)o

Where,
Wre = the predicated number of 18-kip equivalent single-axle load applications
Za = the standard normal deviate
So = the combined standard error of the traffic prediction and performance prediction
E = the thickness (inches) of the pavement slab
APSI =the difference between the initial design serviceability index, po, and the design
terminal serviceability index, p1

S'" = the modulus of rupture (lbf/in2) for Poland cement concrete used on a specific
project

= the load transfer coefficient used to adjust for load transfer characteristics of a
specific design
C = the drainage coefficient
E" = the modulus of elasticity (lbf/in2) for Portland cement concrete

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--_---k -Eth moclulus of subgrade rction (lbf/lnS)


The terms J and C r deduced from Tables 8.17 and 8.18. The value of k is obtained
from Fig.8,7 o AASHTO-1993 and the elastic module of the sub base and sub grade.
The values of E" and S" has been taken from IRC:58-2002 and converted into FPS.
Table 8.17: Recommended Load Transfer Coefficient

Shoulder Asphalt Tied PCG


Load transfer Yes No Yes No
devices
Pavement type Plain-jointed 3.2 3.8-4.4 2.5-3.4 3.6-4.2
and iointed reinforced CRCP 2.9-3.2 n.a. 2.3-2.9 n.a.

able 8.18: Recommended Values of Drai cd


Percentage of time pavement structure is exposed to moisture
levels approachinq saturation
Quality of drainage <1o/o 1-5% 6-25% >25o/o
Excellent 1.25-1.20 1.20-1.15 1.15-1.10 1.10
Good 1.20-1.15 1.15-1.10 I .10-1.00 1.00
Fair 1.15-1.10 1.'10-1.00 1.00-0.90 0.90
Poor L10,1.00 1.00-0.90 0.90-0.80 0.80
Verv Poor 1.00-0.90 0.90-0.80 0.80-0.70 0.70

Adopted J and C6 r taken 3.2 and 1 for design purposes.


Serviceability
lnitial and terminal serviceability are taken 4.5 and 2.5
=Pi-Pt=4.5-2.5= 2.0, So = 0.35
^PSl
Reliability
Single stage construction has been considered and 90 % reliability is taken
Za = -1.2821or 90% reliability, single stage construction
Modulus of Rupture
M 40 grade of concrete will be used
* *
Modu lus of Ru pture= 0.7 4Oo
5
=4. 5 M pa=4. 5 1 42.2=64Q PSI
Elastic Modulus of Concrete
Elastic modulus of concrete is 3*105 kglcm2=3*1Os *14.22=4266000 PSI
Modulus of Subgrade Reaction
Effective K value is taken 20 Kg/cm3=20.(10001453.6).2.543 =722.5PC|.
Using all these above mentioned parameters in AASHO equation, thickness has been
found out 450 mm.
8.7.2.1 Dowel and Tie Bar
Dowel Bars of 32 mm dia, 560 mm long are provided at 300 mm spacng and Tie Bars of
12 mm dia, 550 mm long are provided at 320 mm spacing.
8.7.3 AUSTROADS 1992
The pavement thickness has been checked by AUSTROADS - 1992
From Fig. 9.1 of AUSTROADS-1992, it is found that minimum requirement of LMC = 100
mm or 150 mm bound. Providing 150 mm DLC is OK

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' Effective sub grade CBR found 75o/o (from Fig. 9.2 of AUSTROADS).
Equivalent stresses and erosion factor for slab thickness 320 mm (Refer Table 9.20 of
AUSTROADS - 1992) have been found as
Equivalent stress
0.43 - Single axle single tyre
0.71 - Single axle dualtyres
0.61 - Tandem axle dualtyres
Erosion factor
1.57 - for single axle single tyre
2.17 - for single axle dual tyres
2.31 - for Tandem axle dual tyres
Axle load application = 4639500 repetitions
Average load per tyre for various Axle loads are tabulated below:
Single Axle Load (ton) Load applying LSF (1.2) (ton) Load per Tvre (kN)
0-9* 9x1.2 54 **
9-11 10 x 1.2 60 *"
11 13 12 x 1.2 36
13-15 14 x 1.2 42
15-17 16 x 1.2 48
17-19 18 x 1.2 54
19-21 20 x1.2 60

Tandem Axle Group Load applying LSF (1.2) (ton) Load per Tvre (kN)
0-13 13 x 1.2 19.5
13-17 15 x 1.2 22.5
17-21 19 x 1.2 28.5
21-23 22x 1.2 33
23-29 26 x 1.2 39
29-33 31 x 1.2 46.5
33-37 x 1.235 52.7
37-39 x 1.238 57
39-41 40 x1.2 60
Note: * Maximum load has been considered.
**
Single Axle Single Tyre has been assumed
Number of repetition has been calculated below: (Refer Fig. 9.4 of AUSTROADS-1992)
Determination of Stress
Assuming M40 grade of concrete is to be used for design.
Equivalent stress already found out. Now stress ratio is found as:
For single axle single tyre 0.4314.5 = 0.0977 = 0.1 (sav)
Single axle dual tyres 0.7114.5 = 0.1567 = 0.16 (say)
Tandem axleQ.61l4.5 = 0.1355 = 0.15 (say)
Assuming - Single axle single tyre carries load 0 -I & I- 11 ton axle group load,
remaining load is carried by single axle dual tyres.

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Load per Tyre No of Expected Fatigue Life


Stress Ratio Fatigue Life
tkN) Repetition Gonsume
Single Axle
54 0.1 40969437 Unlimited 0
60 0.1 3435866 Unlimited 0
36 0.16 5219037 Unlimited 0
42 0.16 3000946 Unlimited 0
48 0.16 1391743 Unlimited 0
54 0.16 739364 Unlimited 0
60 0.16 3653326 Unlimited 0
Tandem
19.5 0.15 1783171 Unlimited tt

22.5 0.15 43492 Unlimited 0


28.5 0.15 130476 Unlimited 0
33 0.15 1 73968 Unlimited 0
39 0.15 130476 Unlimited 0
46.5 0.15 0 Unlimited 0
52.7 0.15 43492 Unlimited 0
57 0.15 0 Unlimited 0
60 0.15 565396 Unlimited 0
Totalfatigue life consumed = 0.35<1, hence design is safe.
Similarly life considering erosion has been calculated and shown below:
Load per Tyre Erosion No of Expected Fatigue Life
(kNt Fatigue Life
Factor Repetition Gonsume
Sinqle Axle
54 1.57 40969437 Unlimited 0
60 1.57 3435866 Unlimited 0
Jb 2.17 5219037 Unlimited 0
42 2.17 3000946 30000000 0.10
48 2.17 1391743 10000000 0.14
54 2.17 739364 5000000 0.15
60 2.17 3653326 3000000 1.22
Tandem
19.5 2.31 1783171 Unlimited 0
22.5 2.31 43492 Unlimited 0
28.5 2.31 130476 Unlimited tt

33 2.31 1 73968 75000000 0.002


Y 2.31 130476 20000000 0.007
46.5 2.31 0 4200000 0.000
52.7 2.31 43492 2600000 0.017
57 2.31 0 1400000 0.000
60 2.31 565396 1 000000 0.565
Total fatigue life consumed =2.19>1,Hence unsafe, need redesign
Take thickness of 350 mm
Equivalent stress
0.37 - Single axle single tyre
0..62 - Single axle dualtyres
0.54 - Tandem axle dualtyres

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Erosion factor
1.46 - for single axle single tyre
2.06 - for single axle dual tyres
2.21 - for Tandem axle dual tyres
Number of repetition has been calculated below: (Refer Fig. 9.4 of AUSTROADS-1992)
Determination of Stress
Equivalent stress already found out. Now stress ratio is found as:
For single axle single lyre Q.3714.5 = 0.08
Single axle dual tyres 0.6214.5 = 0.14 (say)
Tandem axle Q.5414.5 = 0.1355 = 0.12(say)
Assuming -
Single axle single tyre carries load 0 -I & I- 11 ton axle group load,
remaining load is carried by single axle dual tyres.
Load per Tyre No of Expected Fatigue Life
Stress Ratio Fatigue Life
tkN) Reoetition Consume
Sinqle Axle
54 0.08 40969437 Unlimited 0
60 0.08 3435866 Unlimited 0
JO 0.14 5219037 Unlimited U

42 0.14 3000946 Unlimited 0


48 0.14 1391743 Unlimited 0
54 0.14 739364 Unlimited 0
60 0.14 3653326 Unlimited 0
Tandem
19.5 0.12 1783171 Unlimited
22.5 0.12 43492 Unlimited 0
28.5 0.12 130476 Unlimited U

J 0.12 1 73968 Unlimited n


39 0.12 130476 Unlimited 0
46.5 0.12 U Unlimited 0
52.7 0.12 43492 Unlimited n
57 0.12 0 Unlimited 0
60 0.12 565396 Unlimited U

Total fatigue life consumed = 0<1,, hence design is safe.


Similarly life considering erosion has been considered and shown below:
Load per Tyre Erosion No of Expected Fatigue Life
(kN) Fatigue Life
Factor Repetition Gonsume
Sinqle Axle
54 1.46 40969437 Unlimited 0
60 1.46 3435866 Unlimited 0
36 2.06 5219037 Unlimited 0
42 2.06 3000946 Unlimited 0
48 2.06 1391743 40000000 0.035
54 2.06 739364 1 5000000 0.049
60 2.06 3653326 6600000 0.554
Tandem

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Load per Tyre Erosion No of Expected Fatigue Life


Fatigue Life
tkNt Factor Reoetition Gonsume
19.5 2.21 1783171 Unlimited 0
22.5 2.21 43492 Unlimited 0
28.5 2.21 130476 Unlimited 0
33 2.21 173968 Unlimited
39 2.21 130476 30000000 0.004
46.5 2.24 0 8000000 0.000
52.7 2.24 43492 4000000 0.011
57 2.24 n 2300000 0.000
60 2.24 565396 1 800000 0.314
Total fatigue life consumed = 0.967<1, hence design is safe.
350 mm thickness is required, when designed is checked by AUSTROADS, 1992

8.8 RECOMMENDATION ON GONCRETE PAVEMENT DESIGN


Before making the recommendation, a comparison on the current methods followed
internationally is presented, from current literature on the subject.
It is difficult to compare the results of AASHTO and IRC method because AASHTO is
based on reliability concept, using mean values of all variables, whereas /RC does not
consider reliability, but incorporates load safety factor considering over loading.
AASHTO method rs based on the equivalent 80 KN single-axle load applications and
does not distinguish the type of drsfresg while the IRC method considers both the
fatigue, cracking and foundation erosion using actual and tandem axle loads, ln view of
the fact that fatigue cracking is more critical under single axle loads and foundation
erosion is more critical under tandem axle loads, it is unreasonable fo use ESAI for rigid
pavement design because the conversion of a tandem axle load to an equivalent single
axle load actually changes the failure mode from the erosion of the joint to the fatigue at
mid slab.
IRC: 58-2002 recommends use of actualwheel loads operating.
Provision of 150 mm DLC will provide additional strength to support more axle load
application.
However, IRC: 58-2002 design has been compared to AASHTO-1993 practice and
AUSTROADS 1992. AASHTO and AUSTROADS values are on higher side.

8.9 OVERLAY DESIGN FOR SUBSEQUENT STAGES


For pavement options study, current practice is to consider design life of concrete
pavement as 30 years. For flexible pavement, the life of bituminous surface is restricted
to 10 years. Howeverto caterforthe weathering effect of bitumen, a functional overlay of
30-40 mm BC will be provided in the 5'n year. Further to cover a comparable life of 30
years for rigid pavement, a five stage construction with overlay would be required.
For this purpose AASHTO-1993 procedure using component analysis method may be
used, but, it is also difficult fo assess the deflection values at the end of design life of 10,
15, 20 and 25 years as well as reduction of the structural coefficients at 5 th, 10 th,15'
and 2dh years, Therefore the consultants proposed following thickness based on their
practical experience.

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Table 8.19: Pavement Thickness for Stages


Pavement
Year
Thickness(mm)
2015 30
2020 50
2025 30
2030 50
2035 30
2040 50
(Note: 10, 20 and 30m overlay will be calculated based on BBD results at these years)

8.10 PAVEMENT OPTION STUDY


8.10.1 Life Gycle Cost Analysis
8.10.1.1 General
ln the preceding sections, the various methods followed for designing of flexible and rigid
pavements have been illustrated.
The choice of the appropriate economically advantageous pavement type, flexible or rigid,
s made by carrying out Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis which takes in to account the initial
investment cost as also the maintenance/ rehabilitation cost over the design life of the
structure. Life cycle cost analysis can be defined as a procedure by which to select a
pavement design alternative that will provide a satisfactory level of service at the lowest
cost over time. The economic analysis methods used most commonly for this purpose
include present worth, annualised cost, and rate of return. The analysis is most sensitive to
the factors of inflation, discount rate, and analysis period.
ln the subsequent paragraphs the long{erm economic viability of pavement types using
Present-Woh method of analysis has been studied. ln this regard, the following two
alternatives have been considered:
Case 1 : Flexible pavement for new carriageway
Case 2 : Rigid pavement for new carriageway
8.10.1.2 Parameters Considered
Design Parameters
(i) Flexible Pavement
The pavement compositions relevant to two packages have been reproduced in
Table 8.20.
able 8.20: Final for New Flexible Pavement
DB GS Design
Package Design MSA BC WMM
M B CBR
Package-1(km 31-115) 137 50 150 250 200 9Yo
Package-2 (km 115-193) 109 50 135 250 200 10%

(ii) Rigid Pavement


The final design for rigid pavement is given in Table 8.21.
Table 8.21: Final Design for Rigid Pavement

st.
Item Details Remarks
No.
M-40 Pavement Quality
1 320 mm thick
Concrete (PQC)

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sl. Details Remarks


Item
No.
2 Dry Lean Concrete (DLC) 150 mm thick
3 Granular Sub-Base (GSB) 150 mm thick
32 mm dia x 500 mm Spacing @ 200 mm
4 Dowel Bars (MS)
lonq clc
12 mm dia x 640 mm Spacing @ 560 mm
5 Tie Bar
lono clc

(ii i) Overlays for Stage Construction


The structural and functional overlays adopted for two packages for the stage-
constructon are as contained in Table 8.22.
Table 8.22 : Structu ral/Fu nctional Overlays Adopted

Functional Overlay (mm) Structural Overlay (mm)


Package (sth', l5th and 25th year) ( 1Oth and 20tn vear)
Package 1 30 BC 50 BC
Package 2 30 BC 50 BC

Other Gomparison Parameters


The various parameters as lnput to LCC model are described as follows:
Capital Cost : Capital Cost consisting the initial cost of construction based on
above design given in Table 8.20 and Table 8.21 .
Maintenance Cost . Case 1

+ Routne maintenance in the form of patching, pothole repair, sealing of cracks etc. as per
tRC-82.
+ Periodic Rehabilitation/Maintenance by way of strengthening/ Functional overlays.
: Case 2
For Rigid Pavement
+ Joint sealing, sealing of cracks, mud jacking of settled slabs including routine
maintenance.
The cost of annual routine maintenance of pavement component is taken to be as
follows:
(a)Flexible Pavement
Rs 50,000/km
(b)Rigid Pavement
Rs 40,000/km
Based on the above norms, the annual routine maintenance cost for cases 1 and 2 works
out to be as follows:
Length Amount
Gase Description Rate/km (Rs) (Rs million)
lkml
1 Flexible 162 50,000 8.10

2 Riqid 162 40000 6.50


Period of Analysis : 30 years

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Discount Rate . 12o/o*


lnflation rate '. 5 o/o

Costs to be considered for the pavement types:


(i) Flexible pavement designed for 10 years and strengthened at every 10 year and
functional overlays at every 5 year and routine maintenance as and when required
over the analyss period.
(ii) Rigid pavement designed for 3O-year period with routine maintenance.
8.10.1.3 Cost Estimate
Based on the above design and maintenance concept, the cost for the two options have
been computed:
Case 1 : Table 8.23 shows the cost of initial construction involving construction of
flexible pavement for new carriageway.
Table 8.24 shows the cost of strengthening overlays at 1Oth and 20th year.

Table 8.25 show the cost of functional overlay at 5th, 1Sth and 25th year.
Case 2 : Table 8.26 shows the cost of initial constructions involving rigid
pavement for the new carriageway.
Annual/Routine maintenance cost is shown in Table 8.27 for flexible and rigid.
Table 8.23: Gost Estimate for lnitial Gonstruction Gase 1

st. Quantity Amount


Item (cum) Rate (Rs.) (Rs. Million)
No.
1 GSB 2170"162 1932 679.175
WMM 2250"162 2346 855.12
84*1312.5+78*1181.25
4. DBM 5925 1199.2
=202387.5
5. BC 437.5*162 6502 460.83
Total 3194.33

Table 8.24: Cost Estimate for l0 th & 20th

437.5"162 =70875

Table 8.25: Cost Estimate for Functional Overlays (5th, 1Sth and 25th Year) Gase I
st. Thickness Amount
No.
Item (mm Quantity (cum) Rate (Rs) (Rs Million)
1 BC 30 262.5*162 =42525 6502 276.5

Cost Estmate for lntal Gonstructor


Table 8.26:: Gost id Pavement) Case 2
sl. Quantity Amount
Item (cum) Rate (Rs.) (Rs. Millionl
No.
1 GSB 1352.5*162 1932 423.3
DLC 1335-162 3083 ooo. /o
PQC 2800"162 6?Q 2442.6
Dowel bars, Tie bars etc @
4 73.3
3% of cost of PQC
Total 3605.96

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Table 8.27: Gost Estimate for Routine mantenance

sl. Amount
Pavement Type Rate (Rs.) Length(km) (Rs. Million)
No.
1 Flexible 50000 162 8.1
Riqid 40000 162 6.5

8.10.2 Gonstruction and Maintenance - lnvestment Options


Case 1: Flexible Pavement
The total capital cost of construction (only pavement cost is considered) is proposed to
be invested over a period of three years as follows:
Total Cost (Million Rs.) . 3194
First Year lnvestment (Million Rs.) : 958.2 -30o/o

Second Year lnvestment (Million Rs.) : 1179.9 -35o/o

Third Year lnvestment (Million Rs.) : 1179.9 -35%


The routine maintenance cost for the flexible pavement works out to Rs. 8.1 million per
year. The cost of strengthening overlays and functional overlays is provided in Tables
8.24 and 8.25, respectively.
Case 2: Rigd Pavement
The total capital cost of construction is proposed to be invested over a period of three
years as follows:
Total Cost (Million Rs.) 3606
First Year lnvestment (Million Rs.) 1082 -30o/o

Second Year lnvestment (Million Rs.) 1262 -35o/o

Third Year lnvestment (Million Rs.) 1262 -35o/o

The routine maintenance cost for Case 2 worked out and amounts to Rs. 6.5 million per
year.
8.10.3 Economic Analysis
The details of economic analysis based on present-worth method, i.e. present value of
total of construction and maintenance costs over the analysis period of 30 years are
provided in Table 8.28 & Table 8.29. lnflation and discount rate are taken 5 and 12o/o
respectively for analysis.
8.10.4 Gonclusion and Flecommendations
ln the Life Cycle Cost Analysis, the present values of all the costs for each of the
alternative have been computed. The alternative giving the lowest present value of the
costs has to be taken to be the most advantageous option from economic angle. The
final recommendations about the pavement option to be adopted will however take into
account specific location and environmental features etc.
Taking into consideration the above parameters, the present value for Case 1 and Case
2 works out to Rs 3818.3 million (Flexible) and Rs. 3447.6 million (rigid), respectively.
Hence rigid pavement is more preferable and attractive option but NPV do not differ too
much.
Difference between two NPVs of two alternatives 10.7% (nearly 10 o/o ) may be
considered similar or equivalent(Source:Guidelines for Life Cycle Cost Analysis,Final
Report,July 23-submitted by Dr Kaaan Ozbay,Center for Advanced lnfrastructure
& Transportation(CAIT),FHWA -NJ -2003-012).Hence flexible pavement may be
considered for recommendation).

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Again, looking is terms of the investments required for initial construction of the pavement
for the new carriageway for the entire length of 162 km of the project road, Case 1
providing for flexible pavement alternative turns out to be more attractive as illustrated by
the following cost figures:
lnitial Gost of
Option Construction (Rs
millionl
i) Case 1(Flexible new carriageway) 3194
ii) Case 2(Rigid new carriageway) 3606

Thus, Case 1 involving construction of the new carriageway wth flexible pavement and
flexible overlay for existing carriageway proves to be advantageous from initial
construction cost. Accordingly, this alternative is recommended for adoption for the
Project Road.
able 8.28: Life le -Flexible Pavement
q o
E o o
o o o^v,
. (! ?
E
() 9a
y.
.9 E,
qltr
cl q
o o o E.9 tno
E=
11,

o
=
an
o
o
f
U'
o
8= o-=
o i5
o o
2008 1 st vear const 958.2 958.20 958.20 958.20
2009 2 st vear const 1179.9 1238.90 1106.16 2064.36
2010 3 st vear const 1179.9 1300.84 1037.02 3101.38
2011 Annual Maintenance 8.1 9.38 6.67 3108.05
2012 Annual Maintenance 8.1 9.85 6.26 3114.31
2013 Annual Maintenance 8.1 10.34 5.87 3120.17
2014 Annual Maintenance 8.1 10.85 5.50 3125.67
Annual Maintenance +
2015 276.5 389.06 175.99 3301.67
Functional
2016 Annual Maintenance 8.1 11.97 4.83 3306.50
2017 Annual Maintenance 8.1 12.57 4.53 3311.03
2018 Annual Maintenance 8.1 13.19 4.25 3315.28
2019 Annual Maintenance 8.1 13.85 3.98 3319.26
Annual Maintenance +
2020 460.8 827.53 212.41 3531.67
Structural
2021 Annua Maintenance 8.1 15.27 3.50 3535.1 7
2022 Annua Maintenance 8.1 16.04 3.28 3538.45
2023 Annua Maintenance 8.1 16.84 3.08 3541.53
2024 Annua Maintenance 8.1 17.68 2.88 3544.41
Annual Maintenance +
2025 276.5 633.74 92.30 3636.71
Functional
2026 Annual Maintenance 8.1 19.49 2.53 3639.25
2027 Annual Maintenance 8.1 20.47 2.38 3641.62
2028 Annual Maintenance 8.1 21.49 2.23 3643.85
2029 Annual Maintenance 8.1 22.57 2.09 3645.94
Annual Maintenance +
2030 460.8 1347.96 111.40 3757.34
Structural
2031 Annual Maintenance 8.1 24.88 1.84 3759.1 I
2032 Annual Maintenance 8.1 26.12 1.72 3760.90

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g o
E
o o o

.D
, r! ? o^
(Jq, Js^
U'
o E, E, p,
(! Qtr ic
o C'

.9 E.9 vro
o=
L=

=t <E 8E o-=
o o
o -t!,
o -
.2-
o

o o o
2033 Annual Maintenance 8.1 27.43 1.61 3762.51
2034 Annual Maintenance 8.1 28.BO 1.51 3764.02
Annual Maintenance +
2035 276.5 1032.30 48.41 3812.43
Functional
2036 Annual Maintenance 8.1 31.75 1.33 3813.76
2037 Annual Maintenance 8.1 33.34 1.25 3815.01
2038 Annual Maintenance 8.1 35.01 1.17 381 6.1 B
2039 Annual Maintenance 8.1 o./o 1.10 3817.27
2040 Annual Maintenance 8.1 38.60 1.03 3818.30

able 8.29: Life Pavement


tr
o tt o
o^
U' a
o, ,
= .
-e 6' c)o Ec
(lt
o
o
o
tr

EE
o
E,
qtr
8.9
ie
o
o
=ID
o
o f
lt
8E
.9, -

3
()>
o o
o o
2008 1 st year const 1082 1082.00 1082.00 1082.00
2009 2 st vear const 1262 1325.10 1183.13 2265.13
2010 3 st vear const 1262 1391.36 1 109.18 3374.30
2011 Annual Maintenance 6.5 7.52 5.36 3379.66
2012 Annual Maintenance 6.5 7.90 5.02 3384.68
2013 Annual Maintenance 6.5 8.30 4.71 3389.39
2014 Annual Maintenance 6.5 8.71 4.41 3393.80
2015 Annual Maintenance 6.5 9.15 4.14 3397.94
2016 Annual Maintenance 6.5 9.60 3.88 3401.82
2017 Annua Maintenance 6.5 10.08 3.64 3405.45
2018 Annua Maintenance 6.5 10.59 3.41 3408.86
2019 Annua Maintenance 6.5 11.12 3.20 3412.06
2020 Annua Maintenance 6.5 11.67 3.00 3415.06
2021 Annua Maintenance 6.5 12.26 2.81 3417.86
2022 Annual Maintenance 6.5 12.87 2.63 3420.50
2023 Annual Maintenance 6.5 13.51 2.47 3422.97
2024 Annual Maintenance 6.5 14.19 2.31 3425.28
2025 Annual Maintenance 6.5 14.90 2.17 3427.45
2026 Annual Maintenance 6.5 15.64 2.03 3429.48
2027 Annual Maintenance 6.5 16.43 1.91 3431.39
2028 Annual Maintenance 6.5 17.25 1.79 3433.1 8
2029 Annual Maintenance 6.5 18.11 1.68 3434.86
2030 Annual Maintenance 6.5 19.01 1.57 3436.43
2031 Annual Maintenance 6.5 19.96 1.47 3437.90
2032 Annual Maintenance 6.5 20.96 1.38 3439.28
2033 Annual Maintenance 6.5 22.01 1.29 3440.58

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tr
o at,
o
o^
U' o
os ,
,
-sa' O .t, 3'l-
(! o E, E,
qtr e
o C' .9 E.9 giE
o5
= <= 16
o
o
at
= 8= F3
5(6
o
o o o
o o>
2034 Annual Maintenance 6.5 23.11 1.21 3441.79
2035 Annual Maintenance 6.5 24.27 1.14 3442.93
2036 Annual Maintenance 6.5 25.48 1.07 3444.00
2037 Annual Maintenance 6.5 26.75 1.00 3445.00
2038 Annual Maintenance 6.5 28.09 0.94 3445.93
2039 Annual Maintenance 6.5 29.50 0.88 3446.81
2040 Annual Maintenance 6.5 30.97 0.82 3447.64'

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TABLE OF GONTENTS

CHAPTER - 9: IMPROVEMENT AND GONSTRCUTION PROPOSA1S...................................1


9.1 GENERAL .........,....1
9.2 GEOMETRTC DESTGN PROPOSALS............................... ............1
9.2.1 416Lane Configurations............ ......................1
9.2.2 Position of new carriageway in relation to existing Z-lane carriageway ................2
9.2.3 lmprovement to Cross Sectional Elements .......................2
9.2.4 Alignment Design ..........3
9.3 REAL|GNMENT.......... ............^.3
9.4 ELEVATED HIGHWAY (Vehicular Underpass) .............4
9.5 MAJOR ROAD JUNCT1ONS............... .......4
9.6 REGULATTON OF ACCESS .....................5
9.7 PROPOSED SERVICE ROADS..... .............5
9.8 PROPOSED AGRICULTURAL VEHICULAR UNDERPASS (AVUP) . ...............5
9.9 PROPOSED CATTLE CROSS|NGS............... .............5
9.10 PEDESTRIAN CROSSING .......5
9.11 MEDTAN OPENTNGS ................5
9.12 STRUCTURE FOR RArL-ROAD CROSS|NGS......... ....................6
9.13 CROSS DRATNAGE STRUCTURES.......... ..................6
9.14 ROAD SIDE DRA|NAGE...... ......................6
9.15 BRTDGES. ........... ..... ................7
9.16 TRAFFIC CONTROL AND SAFETY MEASURES.......... .............11
9.16.1 General ......11
9.16.2 Crash Barrier...... ..........11
9.16.3 Right of Way Fencing .................... 1 1

9.16.4 Road Signs and Markin9s............. .................. 11


9.16.5 Truck Parking Areas / Rest 4reas........ .. ........11
9.16.6 Toll Plazas ..................12
9.17 PROPOSALS FOR WAYSTDE AMENtTtES.............. ..................12
9.18 CROSS DRATNAGE STRUCTURES.......... ................12
9.19.1 General ......12
9.19.2ChoiceofCross-sectionofopenDrains..'''..
9.19.3 Size of Open drain - Hydrologic Design ......... 13
Design
9.19.4 Hydraulic ..........13
9.19.5 Design Calculation ........13

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- LIST OF TABLES

Table 9.1: Proposed Position of New Carriageway in relation to Existing Road........ .................2
Table 9.2: Embankment Raising Sections .............3
Table 9.3: lmportant Junction Locations Proposed for lmprovement.......... ................4
facility.......
Table 9.4: Proposed Facility for Median Openings fr U-Turn ..................5
Table 9.5: Details of New Structures at Railway Crossing ......6
Table 9.6: Summary of proposed treatment to the existing culverts .........6
Table 9.7: Summary of Proposed Longitudinal Drains ............6
Table 9.8 : Details of Proposed Bridges ................9
Table 9.9: Details of Proposed ROB .....................9
Table 9.10: Locations for Truck Parking cum Rest Areas .....12

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CHAPTER - 9: IMPROVEMENT AND CONSTRCUTION PROPOSALS

9.1 GENERAL
This chapter is intended to give brief descriptions concerning the various improvement
proposals for the up-gradation of existing two lane carriageway facility of NH 34 to 416
lane divided carriageway configuration. These improvement proposals are based on the
findings from various engineering features carried out on the project roads such as
Engineering Survey and lnvestigations and Traffic Survey and Analysis. hese features
are discussed in detail in the previous chapters.
lmprovement proposals for a highway essentially consist of two components, geometric
and structural. Geometric improvement deals with visible dimensions of roadway and is
dictated by the traffic and economic considerations. Geometric design involves several
design elements such as horizontal and vertical alignments, sight distance
considerations, cross sectional elements, lateral and vertical clearances, intersection
treatment, control of access etc. The structural component deals with the pavement and
embankment design aspects, i.e., the ability of the highway to adequately carry and
support the vehicle/ wheel loads over the design period.
The improvement proposals for the proposed widening to 4/6-lane configuration system
include the provisions for the following major items:
. Geometric lmprovements and realignments;
. Bypasses
o Widening Proposals and Reconstruction;
e Pavement;
. Road Junctions;
. Bridges and Cross-Drainages;
. Safety and Special Problems; and
. Road Appurtenances;
9.2 GEOMETRIC DESIGN PROPOSALS
The proposals for the improvement of the geometric elements of the existing national
highway generally include:
o 416 Lane configurations

: Position of new carriageway in relation to existing 2-lane carriageway


. lmprovements to cross sectional elements,
. Alignment Design

9.2.1 4/6 Lane Configurations


Based on the traffic survey, analysis and forecast, the -lane configuration is sufficient to
cater to the traffic till the year 2018. There will be a requirement to 6-lane widening in the
year of 2018.

The existing 2-lane National Highway will be strengthened and widened to 4-lane
dual/divided carriageway.

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9.2.2 Position of new carriageway in relation to existing 2-lane carrageway


As per the ToR the widening and strengthening options have to be finalized with a
provision for future widening to 6-lanes.
ln rural areas preferably the eccentric widening has been carried out, based on the need
of geometric improvements and availability of road land. ln isolated built-up areas, for
small stretches, where in general the ROW is not adequate concentric widening with the
provision of service roads in future has been proposed. Major built-up sections, generally
having one or more intersections/ junctions have been evaluated for practicable and
cost-effective proposals of bypasses, service roads, alignment corrections, improvement
of intersections including provision of grade separators etc.
Based on the detailed engineering survey and investigation data, detailed discussion
with NHAI officials, the widening proposals have been finalised. The following Table 9.1
gives the distribution of widening scheme in terms of eccentric (Left hand side or Right
hand Side facing Baharampore), concentric, realignment, bypass:

able 9.1: Proposed Position of New


Table in relation to Ex Road
Type of widening and Length
Eccentric ROB/RUB Total Length
Goncentric Realignment
LHS RHS ruUP
56.72Km 35.B8Km 56.15 Km 3.10 Km 10.14 Km 162 km
35.00% 22.15% 34.67% 1.91% 6.27o/o 100Yo

he details of above widening summary is given in Appendix - 9.1 and shown in


Volume ll: Drawings.
9.2.3 lmprovement to Cross Sectional Elements
The basic 2-lane carriageway width of 7 m is provided for both the carriageways. The
paved shoulder width of 1.5m and earthen shoulder width of 1.5 m on both sides is
suggested at the time of 4-laning. The cambers in straight stretches will be 25% for
carriageway and 3o/o for shoulders. The median width will be 4.5 m excluding edge
shyness of 500 mm on either side. Typical arrangement is shown in typical cross section
in drawing volume.

Where the ROW is extremely limited, additional land needs to be acquired .At present
there are several underground and over-ground utilities running along the roadside
within ROW. For 4,16-laning these will need relocation. lt will be possible to relocate the
existing utilities at the extreme edge of the new ROW.

Urban and Rural areas are provided with 4 lane divided carriageway with 1.20m and
4.5m median. The main carriageway will be raised at the locations of ROB/Underpass
etc. ypical arrangement is shown in typical cross section in drawing volume. Some
built-up sections where the available ROW is less than 30m like Palasi between km 159
to 160, additional land to be acquired to accommodate the roadway width.
Realignment locations on existing alignment due to horizontal geometric improvements
shall be provided with formation width required lor 4 lane only. Typical arrangement is
shown in typical cross section in drawing volume.

Proposed Median
Generally standard 4.5 m width median (4.5m raised and 0.5m shyness on both sides)

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will be proposed but it may be physically difficult and impracticable to have the standard
median for the entire length of the project road because of passage through built-up
areas with inadequate land and the constraints of foundations of exsting bridges to be
retained. As dictated by site conditions, the median width (including edge strips) will vary
from 1.7m to as high as 9.0 m or 10m where required but in general itwill be maintained
as 4.5 m excluding shyness.

9.2.4 Alignment Design


The entire geometric design has been based on the ground modelling by highway design
software MOSS/ MX. The design of proposed alignment for 4-lane highway has been
carried out by the consultants using various design modules contained in "MX ReneW'.

Horizontal Alignment

Efforts have been made, during design of horizontal alignment, to accommodate the 4-
lane highway, keeping in view the eventual widening to 6-lane configurations, with the
optimum use of the existing ROW, without making any compromise in standards. A
minimum radius of 360m has been kept, except at approaches to ROB and RUB to
achieve a good balance among for structure, additional land acquisition and highway
geometric. However the ROB/ RUB are designed for minimum 8Okmph speed. The
super elevation and the length of transition curves have been finalised with maximum
super-elevalion of 7 o/o.

Vertical Alignment / Gradient


The vertical alignment is mostly flat with the gradients in the range of 0.5 percent to 1.0
percent excepting the bridge approaches where the gradients are in excess of 3.0
percent. Minor improvements in vertical geometrics have been proposed. The overall
route is predominantly flat throughout with a gradual rise in ground elevations from south
(about RL 6.960m) to north (about RL 17.650m).

Some of the stretches experienced submergence during flood as described in earlier


chapter. The findings of topographic surveys and local enquiry conclude that following
sections shown in The Table 9.2, other than vicinity of river crossings, need to be raised.

Table 9.2: Embankment Raisinq Sections


Existing Average Height of
Location
Embankment (m)
Km 107 - km 108 0.3
Km 137-km 138 0-0.5
Km 143 lo 143.7 1 .0 -1.5

However the judicious location and sizing of all new (reconstruction and additional)
culverts and raising of embankment will be based on a full hydrological analysis of the
project area, would be carried out at forthcoming stage for Detailed Design.
9.3 REALIGNMENT
Realignments have been proposed where it is not feasible to improve the existing
alignment of 2-lane road to the desired design standards. The constraints at each
location have been described in the previous chapter. The summary of proposed
realignments is given below:

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Realignment
Maximum
Side of
Sr.No. Location Name From To deviation from
Existing road
Existinq Road
1 Amsanga Village 33.700 34.200 LHS 45m
2 BirohiVillage 55.700 56.1 00 LHS 45m
3 Gobindpur 95.500 97.800 LHS 140m
4 Krishnagar 112.000 112.500 LHS 100m

9.4 ELEVATED HIGHWAY (Vehicular U nderpass)


The project road traverses through urban areas where the segregation between through
traffic and local traffic is proposed by provision of elevated highway. The cross roads at
such areas shall be a grade separated intersection to ensure the safety and efficient
movement of traffic.
Vehicular Underpass at Kalyani more and Ghakdah:
A vehicular Underpass is proposed at this location for smooth traffic flow as per site
requirement. One Vehicular underpass is proposed at this crossing and tangent s
present in drawing volume ll.

9.5 MAJOR ROAD JUNCTIONS


There are existing 14 maor intersections along the project road. Based on the traffic data,
peak hour traffic and ADT along cross road, design has been proposed. As per IRC SP
41, when the motorised traffic along the cross road exceeds 5000 ADT, in the next five
years, grade separated intersection is proposed. Wth these criteria, not a single
intersection is warranted for grade separated proposal. However, the intersections
located in urban areas, where elevated highway has been proposed, are designed as
grade separated intersection, irrespective of the volume along cross road. The
improvement proposed is summarised in the Table 9.3 given below:
Table 9.3: I m n1 Juncton L( )catons Proposed for lm
Type of
Proposal Numbers Locations (km)
lntersection
"T" Junction 3 56.10.86.40 & 108.90
At-grade
"Y" Junction 4 78.15, 89.30, 95.20, 109.20
lntersection
Cross Roads 5 40.50, 50.60, 77.50, 111.60, 112.45
"T" Junction Grade z Kalyani More at km 55, Chakdah at km 66.6
"Y" Junction Separated
nil N/A
lntersection
Cross Roads (Vehicular
Underoass)

The traffic magnitude of each junction warrants for at-grade facility. Keeping in view the
short distance between these two intersections and the expected reduction in the turning
movement traffic immediate after upgradation of the Project Road, it is proposed to have
integrated at-grade intersection for both junctions. lt may be upgraded to grade separated
intersection as and when traffic demand, may be after year 2016. However the geometric
design of at-grade design will be in such a way that grade separated can be retrofitted at-
grade geometric with minimum futile investment.
However, for the turning traffic at major junctions, waiting for switching over either to the
cross road or to the other carriageway, suitable provision of storage lane will be made in
the design of at grade road junction.

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9.6 REGULATION OF ACCESS


The objective of 4/6-laning is to augment the traffic volume capacity of project highway
and to upgrade the level of service integrated with enhanced road safety along the
corridor. The project road is designed as partially access controlled. ln addition the
provisions given in IRC: 62-1976 "Control of Access of Highways" following guidelines for
regulation of access is to be followed while preparing the design:
. Regulation of Access to the Highway through Service Roads
. Regulation of Access at lntersections and Junctions
. Median Opening
o Vehicular Underpass
o Pedestrian underpass
9.7 PROPOSED SERVICE ROADS
The roadside environment is variable from urbanized town developments to rural
agricultural areas, with intermediate semi-urban settlements and semi-rural open areas
with occasional roadside dwellings and small businesses scattered throughout the route.
Service road was proposed along the project road to segregate the local traffic,
dominated by slow moving, and through traffic but to cut down the project cost it is
decided to eliminate the provision of service road at this stage in consultation with the
client.
9.8 PROPOSED AG RICU LTU RAL VEH CU LAR UN DERPASS (AVUP)
The project road falls largely in rural areas. lt has been observed and confirmed from the
local enquiry that there is a need of underpasses for crossing of agricultural vehicles.
Particularly the existing bypass alignment traverses through agricultural land and height
of embankment varies from 3m to 6m. lt is proposed to provide agricultural vehicle
underpass (AVUP) for bullock cart and tractor{rolley crossings as a mitigate measures
for the farmers. However these are eliminated considering the viability of the project in
BOT format and at grade junctions are proposed with sign board for users safety.
9.9 PROPOSED CATTLE CROSSINGS
At some selected locations, where the project road is located near to some isolated
village and water pond, underpass passage for cattle is proposed but considering the
viabilities of the project BOT Format they are eliminated from the project at this stage.
9.IO PEDESTRIANCROSSING
At some locations where pedestrians' movement across the project road creates serious
hindrance to movement of through traffic and becomes safety hazards pedestrian
underpasses are proposed and later eliminated to make the project viable to Private
Entrepreneur.
9.11 MEDIAN OPENINGS
Since the provision of underpasses option are not viable option the consultant had to
propose median openings at various locations to facilitate the users for cross movement.
The locations are presented below in Table 9.4.
Table 9.4: Proposed Facility for Median Openings for U-Turn facility
Location & Type Nos
Major / Minor lntersection Opening 21
Median Opening 5
Total 26

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9.12 STRUCTURE FOR RA|L-ROAD CROSSTNGS


The main broad gauge line, Sealdah - Lalbagh, crosses the project road at several
locations. Narrow Gauge railway line also crosses the project road at two locations.
There is 1 No. railway level crossings in package 1 of the existing road stretch on broad
gauge line at Km. 76.00. lt is proposed to provide new 4-lane ROBs at this location. ROB
at this location is justified and very much required as number of fast moving vehicles and
number of trains per day is more than 50,000. Besides, there is one 2-Lane ROB at km
90/600 (at Shantipur bypass) which needs to be widened for new carriageway. Similarly
the existing substandard, RUB at Km. 111.700 will be replaced with a new4-lane RUB
along the realignment.
There are 2 nos. of railway level crossings in package 1 of existing road stretch on
narrow gauge line at Km.96/450 and Km. 110/980. Road over bridge is proposed at
these level crossings for unhindered traffic movement and safety of the users. Details of
new ROBs / RUB are given in the Table 9.5.
able 9.5: Details of New Structures at Rai Gros
Tentative
st. Existing Proposed Structure
Location Proposed Track Total Length
No. Track (m) Designation
4 ROB at Km. 76.000 BG BG
I
(420 Skew) 77.255 New 4-lane
lDouble) lOuadruolicate)
New 2-Lane (2 lane
BG
2 ROB km 90/600 BG (Triple) 52.000 ROB exists on
(Single)
Strantipur bvpass)
NG
3 96.450 New 4-Lane
(Sinqle)
NG
4 1 r 0.980 (Sinqle) New 4-Lane
RUB at Km.1111700 BG
5
l3oo Skew) (Sinqle) BG (Double) 2x 14.00 New 4-lane

Reinforced soil wall has been proposed behind the abutment and for 300m length of
approaches beyond the abutments for all the Five-lane ROBs.
9.I3 CROSS DRAINAGE STRUCTURES
There are 79 number of culverts exist in project road. The details of existing culverts are
given in Appendix l.l. ln addition to the existing culverts, 80 nos. of new culverts is
proposed out of which some will also act as cattle/pedestrian crossing. The details of
proposed treatment to the existing culverts is summarised in Table 9.6 given below:

a bt e 9.6: Summary of proposed treatment to the e xisti nq cu lverts


Type of treatment proposed
Type of Total
culvert Nos. Reconstruction of
Widening Reconstruction
Headwalls
Slab 62 18 44 NA
Pipe 17 14 J NA

9.14 ROAD SIDE DRAINAGE


Since no service road is proposed no side drain of lined concrete is required for efficient
drain out of surface water. However, unlined trapezoidal shaped drain is proposed at the
locations of built up and a few rural areas as shown in Table 9.7.
Table 9.7: Summary of Proposed Longitudinal Drains

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SL Length
Type of Drain Remarks
No fkm
1 Rcc Box drain in urban/Semi Urban Area 3.900 On both side in semi built up area
2. Open unlined drain in rural area '164.100 ln rural area

9.I5 BRIDGES
Proposed Cross Section at Bridge Locations
The overall formation width of the road and the flyoversibridges s being kept the same.
Accordingly the formation width of the two lane structures is being kept as 1 1.0m
consisting of 7.0m for carriageway width, 0.5m towards shyaway distance, 1.50m towards
paved shoulder, earthen shoulder 1.5m and 0.50m shall be for the crash barrier on each
side. Details of proposed Bridge are presented in Table 9.8.
GeneralArrangement Drawings for ROBs and RUB
There are four railways crossing in package 1 of the existing project road, two numbers are
consisting of broad gauge line and two numbers are narrow gauge line. ROB shall be
provided for all railway crossing as discussed with the client. The locations of railway
crossngs are as follows-
Sl. No. Location Type of Railway line
1 Railway line at km.76.0 Broad Gauge
2 Railway line at km 90.600 Broad Gauge
3 Railway line at km.96.450 Narrow Gauge
4 Railway line at km.110.980 Narrow Gauqe
There is one existing RUB at km.1 1 1.700 near Krishnagar.
General arrangement drawings for the four lane ROBs shall be prepared and submitted
through NHAI to Railways for their approval.
General arrangement drawings have been prepared based on the sub-soil investigation
report and the preliminary design of the ROB and RUB. Type of super-structure shall be
proposed such that during the construction it does not interfere in the movement of the
train. Pre-cast post-tensioned/ Pre-cast pre{ensioned girders/structural steel girders shall
be used for the super-structure in order to avoid any kind of props from below. Details of
the ROB / RUB are presented in Table 9.9.
Span arrangement of proposed Bridges
The span arrangement of proposed bridges where existing bridges are retained shall be
kept same as that of existing bridge or a multiple of existing span arrangement to avoid
excessive scour of the bridges at down-stream.
However in case of new bridges, the span arrangement shall be decided based on the soil
investigation and economy of the structure.
Details of submersible bridges
The following bridges are not high level bridges in accordance with the IRC codal
provisions, therefore, they are proposed to be dismantled and four lane bridges are
proposed to be constructed at these locations.
Span Total Length Type of Whether
S.No Ghainage (m) Type of Pier
arranqement Superstructure Submersible
1 55.923 4 x 5.75 23.00 RCC Solid Slab RCC Walltvpe Submersible
Water touches
2 59.74 1 x7.00 7.00 RCC Solid Slab Nit soffit of slab
Water touches
3 110.854 1 x 7.00 7.00 RCC Solid Slab Nit soffit

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Details of dilapidated bridges


The bridges is located at km 59.74 of the following span arrangement is dilapidated bridge
and shall be replaced with four lane bridge.
S.No. Chainage Span arranqement Total Lenqth (m)
1 59.74 1x6.6 6.60

List of bridges for 2Jane construction


The following listed bridges are generally in good condition and only needs mnor
rehabilitation works. lt is proposed to construct only parallel two lane bridges at these
locations.
S. No. Ghainage Span arrangement TotalLength (m)
1 58.717 1 x 7.00 7.00
2 77.77 1x23.2+1x 51.5+1x23.2 97.9
3 94.407 1 x7.0 7.00
4 113.217 12.0+39.94+39. 53+ 39. 67+39. 93+39. 27 + 1 1 .95 222.29
List of bridges for 4Jane constructon
The following existing bridges are proposed to be re-constructed as they are either
submersible or dilapidated. New six lane bridges shall be constructed at following
locations-
Total
Span
S.No. Chainage Length Reason for reconstruction
arrangement
lml
1 55.923 4 x 5.75 23.00 Submersible
2 59.74 1 x 7.00 7.00 Water touches soffit and Dilapidated
3 110.854 1 x 7.00 7.00 Water touches soffit
Protection Works
Protection works will be required to avoid scour in case shallow foundations are proposed.
Protection work shall include the following-
. Rigid Apron
. Cudain wall
r Flexible Apron
he rigid flooring will be provided under the bridge and will extend for a minimum distance
of 3.0m on up-stream side and 5.0m on down-stream side. However if splayed wing wall is
longer then the length of the rigid flooring then the flooring will extend till the length of the
wing wall. The top of the flooring will be kept at 300mm. below the lowest bed level.
A curtain wall will be provided to enclose the rigid flooring. The depth of curtain wall will be
2.Om at up-stream and 2.50m at down-stream. The rigid flooring will be continued over the
curtain wall.
Flexible apron 1.0m thick consisting of loose stone will be provided for a length of 3.0m
and 6.0m on up-stream side and down-stream side respectively. The weight of the stones
used will not be less than 40.0 kg. ln case of non-availability of such stones, stones in wire
crates shall be used.

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