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In partial fulfilment of the requirements in Humanities I

Submitted by:
Alvin Louie D. Diata

Submitted to:
Mr. Manuel Fortes

Remember the name Leonardo da Vinci?

Upon hearing the name, the first thing that
comes to mind is probably Mona Lisa. But is
that all there was to one of the greatest artists
to have ever lived on this planet? The answer is
a definite no. Leonardo da Vinci is known for his
brilliance, the artifacts he created, the
paintings he made and the machineries he
engineered. An important question to ask
would be whether his works would have come
into existence without his engineering expertise
or vice versa?

Throughout history, it was only the elite that were able to participate in the creation,
development and appreciation of art. However, in the modern world, technology has
advanced so greatly that almost everyone has the means to bring their ideas to life. Although,
part of it has damaged the reputation of art as every creation is not marvelous, but to
undermine the importance of factors that contribute to art is obnoxious.

Art has been about delivering experiences to people. In

the modern world, most of the experiences delivered to
people are technological. Appliances and machines
exist that people could never have thought of. It would
not be wrong to consider the people who came up with
such brilliant ideas as artists.

In an average everyday conversation, engineering is

regarded as something dry and nerdy while art has
always been considered as superior. Engineering can be very mechanical and a routine
based profession if one works at a manufacturing facility or is expected to do the same work
each day. However, it extends beyond such practices to creativity and design, which are
some of the most crucial factors of engineering. Creativity in itself is regarded as art while art is
incomplete without creativity. An idea can be very creative and artsy but it needs certain
means and skills to bring it into existence. Although many design engineers could be
considered as artists for designing amazing entities such as Ferrari, F-22 Raptor, a space ship or
just the steam engine, even when they are not, engineering still serves as a tool for creation.

In simpler words, engineering is to art just like a pen is to a book. Had civil engineers and
architects not been there, some of the greatest buildings in the world would not have been
built. In a similar manner, if audio engineers had not mixed some of the greatest music albums
of all time, those albums would not have sound so great. You may come up with some brilliant
ideas, but yet they could never be materialized without the help of tools that technology

Electronics, mechanics, materials, aesthetics and sound have all their own domains. A
complex circuit board that takes up one tenth the space of a palm, but is able to store
gigabytes of data or process millions of calculations in a mere second is nothing less than an
artifact. Whenever we enter a building, we only see what is visible. All the hidden details of the
structure, the atmosphere that is created, the temperature that is maintained and the
numerous facilities available are all possible only because of engineers and technology. In
light these facts, art is an idea and engineering is the implementation of that idea, therefore
one is complete without the other.

There are other more important reasons to discuss art together with engineering. We observe
that sometimes the engineer is the artist. Here engineering works may be efficient and
economical, and at the same time be able to elicit an emotional response from the public
through elegance of design. Nowhere is this more evident than in the work of bridge
designers. The best of these designers are structural artists, working in a range of media
steel, stone and concrete to create great and sometimes iconic works of engineering and
public art. Such is true of the George Washington Bridge, the major work of Othmar Ammann.

We explain that sometimes artists are engineers. One great example is Samuel F.B. Morse, one
of the first professors of art in America, who invented a telegraph code based on dits and
dahs. He then managed the first full-scale test of a working telegraph system connecting
Baltimore to Washington, D.C., and launched a radically new type of information network.
Morse was first and foremost an artist, and then a communications engineer. His pioneering
work anticipated the modern digital age where now virtually all types of information are
coded as ones and zeros.


Art and Technology: Intersections and Interconnections

We have thus seen that the traditional approaches in philosophical aesthetics and culture
criticism - assuming the independence of claims and attitudes in technology and art, become
questionable and that the concept of art as an autonomous social discourse, cannot be
maintained. For that reason, we are convinced that in order to ensure an analysis of the
reciprocal pervasion of conceived goals, interpretation paradigms, and the associated
lifestyles, the examination of the relationship between art and technology must take place on
a concrete level. In such a limitation of our discussion, a glance at the creative process proves
to be fruitful, for here immediate references can be observed. Here, in particular, we may gain
an impression of the close connections between technology and art which are a further
indication of the brittleness of an overly rigid boundary between both areas, as we will
demonstrate in the following.

In contrast to the metaphysical tradition, in the early history of philosophy, especially when
looking at the Greeks, the intimate connection between art and technique in the creative
process was an important theme. Here, the separation between arts and techn represented
more a nuance than a fundamental difference. Weibel, for example, referring to Aristotle,
points out the coupling of techn with the concept of creation. According to this, technique
aims not only at imitating nature, but also at creation and at creative modification of aspects
of the world. Technique is a social act: It is to be "interpreted as a dynamic process, as working
and doing, as making and creating. In its creative dimension, technique refers not only to the
realm of necessity and control but also to the realm of freedom. It is not per se the form of
expression of an unconditional will to rationality and rationalisation which aims at making
everything available; it can also contribute to overcome given states and structures.
Technique can mask the truth just as well as it can make it evident -- the creative potential of
technique involves the possibility of liberation.

If the creative function of technique is taken into account, then "technique-art" is not a
contradiction, as is sometimes argued. The traditional confrontation between machine, the
mechanical, technique, technology on the one hand and creativity, imagination, and
creation on the other hand has led to a point of view from which classical aestheticians could
only equate the entry of machines in art with a threatened fall of art. This confrontation,
however, was only possible due to the fact that the process of artistic creation and the
questions of how and by which means art has been realised were rigorously excluded from the
aesthetic discussion. Had these questions been included, it would have been seen that the
divergence described above couldn't have been sustained in such a strict sense.

As Kant already has pointed out, every artist takes recourse to techniques or a set of rules and
makes use of acquired craftsmanship in order to express an artistic idea. And technical means
have always been used in order to express artistic intentions. But even if these conditions have
been recognised, they did not play an important role in traditional aesthetics. In this classical
view, "the material, the medium of the work of art, the systems supporting the transformation
of an object into a painting, or the material medium of a work's construction" were neglected
compared to the supposed essence of the work of art, its ontological level. But the ontological
raison d'tre of the work of art can and has to be traced back to its material structure, to the
conditions under which it came into existence. For that reason, we direct our attention to the
material fundament of art and to the way how it is constructed, because - as Adorno already
said - only in and by its materiality the essence of art can unfold.

The Relationship between Technology, Technique, and Art

In western music history we can identify a similar interrelation of technology and art: particular
states of technological development show a close interdependency to respective artistic
concepts. Furthermore we can see that standardised procedures always have been an
essential prerequisite for any kind of composition. We shall clarify these aspects in the following
two examples:

The compositional process is subject to various influences and it defies - as any artistic activity -
a precise description. Nevertheless, when looking at composition in retrospective, it can be
seen that each historical period was characterised by certain compositional techniques which
shaped the thinking and acting of composers. Over and over, commonly adopted techniques
suggesting new ways of treating the musical material took shape and became subject to
historical development. In this process the work of composers always implied a kind of
response to the currently established repertoire of techniques, which therefore always
occupied a central role in artistic work.


Studying the arts makes medical students into better doctors.

Medical students must master an array of clinical skills in addition to an increasingly complex
knowledge base. They are expected to hone their observational, listening, and critical thinking
skills while expanding their capacity to empathize with the patient. To accomplish the latter
goal, most medical schools have added some element of the humanities to their curricula. A
number of schools have students read literature written by physicians and patients that
portrays the experience of illness and treatment from dual vantage points. In our state,
storytelling and theater have been used to teach students how to effectively take a medical
history. Last year, for example, Mayo Medical School and the Mayo Clinic Center for
Humanities and Medicine partnered with the Guthrie Theater to offer the one-week selective
Telling the Patients Story, which drew upon improvisation and storytelling to teach students
to take and report patients medical history.

Other programs encourage medical students to relate their own experiences through story or
the visual arts. For example, first-year medical students at the University of Massachusetts
participate in One Breath Apart, an arts-based reflective module that has been incorporated
into their anatomy class. A collection of drawings and writings generated by the students has
been published by the curriculums director, Sandra Bertman Ph.D., in a book of the same

Harvard Medical School has found that training medical students in the visual arts can help
them develop their clinical observational skills. Students who participated in formal training
consisting of art observation exercises, didactics that integrate fine arts concepts with physical
diagnosis topics, and a life-drawing session demonstrated better visual diagnostic skills when
viewing photographs of dermatological lesions than students who only received conventional
The arts have therapeutic benefits.

When I attended medical school in the early 1980s, physical therapy and occupational
therapy were the only adjunct modalities recommended for helping patients recover from
disease or surgery. At the time, we knew little about art therapy, music therapy, dance and
movement therapy, expressive arts therapy, drama therapy, poetry therapy, and a host of
other approaches that use one or more arts modality to promote healing. Although many of
these therapies originally were intended to improve the emotional health of patients, we are
discovering they have other therapeutic benefits.

Museums such as the Museum of Modern Art in New York and the Minneapolis Institute of Arts
have programs for patients with Alzheimers disease and memory loss that use visual and
cognitive stimuli to evoke memories. Dance has been shown to improve the mobility of
patients with conditions such as fibromyalgia and Parkinson disease.5,6

The Dancing Heart program developed by Kairos Dance Theater in Minneapolis is offered at
Park Nicollets Struthers Parkinsons Center as well as other local long-term care facilities, adult
day-care centers, and senior community centers. This evidence-based program strives to
engage elderly patients and their family members and caregivers in movement through
dance improvisation and story developed out of participants own memories. Dance is
broadly defined, and it includes rhythmic movement to music for those confined to a
wheelchair. A study by researchers in the University of Minnesotas department of kinesiology
found that most of the participants at a local senior center said the activities helped them stay
healthy by improving flexibility, coordination, balance, and endurance. They also agreed that
the shared reminiscence and discussion improved their memory and social skills.7

The arts can help prevent disease.

Physicians often find it frustrating to talk to patients about getting regular exercise. They can
suggest that patients do more to increase their activity level, but patients frequently dont
adhere to that advice. However, a campaign to decrease heart disease in England found
that people were much more responsive to the message, Dance makes the heart grow
stronger than to Exercise makes the heart grow stronger.14 Dance is one of the best ways
to improve health on a number of levels. In addition to its physical benefits, dance enhances
social engagement, which is important to overall health and well-being, and its one of the
best activities for delaying the cognitive decline associated with Alzheimers disease.15

In addition, the arts can be used to promote public health. A great example of this was
Sidewalks Saving Lives, a collaborative project of the University of Minnesotas Center for
Urban and Regional Affairs, Kwanzaa Community Church, and Juxtaposition Arts in north
Minneapolis, in which community members worked with artists during 2008 and 2009 to paint
sidewalks with educational messages about HIV/AIDS and the importance of being tested.

The arts can improve the patient experience.

Until recently, the design of modern health care environments has been primarily based on
efficiency, prevention of infection, accommodation of new technology, and cost savings.
However, a body of research has shown that patients tend to be less stressed, less anxious,
require less pain medication, and ready for discharge earlier when their environment includes
views of the natural world.16,17

The effects of various forms of visual art are being studied so that hospitals select the most
healing images for patient rooms.18 Although preliminary studies suggested that
representational art depicting landscapes is the most welcomed and healing choice,19 others
have questioned whether this view is too limiting.20 Considering the subjective nature of art
appreciation, many hospitals including Bethesda Hospital in St. Paul allow patients to choose
art pieces that will grace the walls of their room during their stay. The new University of
Minnesota Amplatz Childrens Hospital even allows children to choose the color of the lighting
in their room.

The arts can promote physician well-being.

The arts have soothing, reflective, and restorative powers that can counteract the stresses
associated with medical school or practice. Although many physicians were involved in the
arts before entering medical school, they put those activities on hold during their training.
University of Minnesota medical students have an opportunity to keep those interests alive
through the Robert O. Fisch Art of Medicine program. The program, named for the well-known
local artist, writer, and retired pediatrician, provides students with a small financial award to
pursue and develop their interests and skills in such diverse areas as painting, drawing, singing,
clowning, photography, and playing an instrument as a way to find relief from the rigors of
medical study.

For many of us practicing physicians, pursuing the arts can help us rebalance our busy lives. Art
provides not only an opportunity to explore and express our feelings but a respite from the
heavy responsibilities inherent in our profession. It also provides us with a chance to develop
our creative potential.

Given the growing evidence of how the arts can improve clinical skills, promote healing and
prevent disease, increase patient satisfaction, and help us find balance in our own lives,
physicians should be advocates for the arts in general and, more specifically, in medical
education and practice.


Agriculture has inspired artists since the Mesolithic Era when nomadic tribes stopped moving
began planting and raising domesticated animals. Growing crops in rows influenced design
patterns found in weavings, on pottery and amongst jewelry. From crude scratchings on the
interior walls of caves to giant Italian frescoes, agriculture and art have played an important
and complementary role in the lives of humans.

This is one area Ive not explored in a huge amount of depth so far, although it feeds into my
work as I explore place and rural life. I have worked with a dairy farm once before, in Dorset,
facilitating creative sessions for primary children to explore the links between the cheese that
they ate at home, and the way that the countryside looks and operates around them.

So what is it that interests me in the relationship between the creation of art, of art as a process
of researching and modeling different realities, and the process of farming the land for food?

To be honest I think thats one of the main things that I want to explore and discover, so its not
something I can or want to define as yet. But its something about art as a process of
engagement of individuals and communities in dialogue with the places around them, and
how this can and does intersect with the way that farmers engage with and cultivate that
same earth/landscape to create our food.

So its about bodily, cultural and even spiritual engagement with the land through working it
and harvesting food from it. Its also very much about the rich cultural heritage of farming, and
farming communities, and of course the issues that relate to sustainability and biodiversity in
both modern and more traditional farming methods.

In addition its also about the very creation and re-creation of our countryside, and the myths
that surround the countryside, as a cultural construction, and how these affect the way that
we perceive and treat the world around u

Next, and this is the one example that sprang to mind of an artist farming an area as part of
their practice, is Wheatfield by Agnes Dene. A landmark piece of work for me in the area of
art and ecological restoration, its use of sown wheat in an urban setting really gets to the heart
of my own interests, in blurring the boundaries between urban and rural, humanity and

This quote is taken from the Green Museum site, a great source of information on Art, Ecology
and Learning

In, Wheatfield A Confrontation, Denes examined the natural cycles of growth and

Her stated purpose was to call peoples attention to having to rethink their priorities. She
constructed the wheatfield on a landfill near the World Trade Center, an unlikely spot for crop

Two assistants and some volunteers helped her remove trash from the 4 acres of land, spread
225 truckloads of topsoil, and plant 1.8 acres of wheat. She contends the work would not have
been possible without numerous volunteers who arrived at random to help, ranging from one
or two to six or seven on a good day. (Oakes, 1995, p. 169)

An irrigation system was installed to sustain and regulate the wheats growth cycle over four
months. In summer, the green wheat stalks stretched skyward and turned a brilliant amber by
early autumn. In the late fall, the artist harvested a thousand pounds of the grain. (Matilsky,

Now onto the organisations. Im sure there are lots more organisations out there supporting
work in this area of arts practice, but for now, heres two that I know of

INLAND- CAMPO ADENTRO is a project that examines the role of territories, geopolitics,
culture and identity in the relationship between the city and the countryside in Spain today.

This initiative offers residencies for artists who share the values of the organisation which seeks
to analyse current perceptions and representations of rural life and how these influence the
construction of identity. to provide an interpretation of rural life that highlights the threats
and opportunities that exist in the Spanish countryside from the standpoint of contemporary

The project provides artists, farmers, intellectuals, rural development agents, policymakers,
curators and art critics, amongst others from the rural and urban spheres, with an open
platform for presenting their research and practice.

Aune Head Arts is a similar initiative to the last, in that it is a rural arts initiative, but one which
focuses largely on the South West of the UK, and more specifically on the Dartmoor area. One
of AHAs projects which ran from 2003 to 2005 was Focus on Farmers, working with four farms
and farming families

Focus on Farmers (FoF) was developed as a contemporary artistic response to a

contemporary issue regarding hill-farming on Dartmoor and Exmoor. The central idea was to
use contemporary artforms to present Dartmoor and Exmoor as living landscapes maintained
through farming, and the agricultural practices of their hill farmers, commoners and others
who use the moors.

AHA have run many other projects with artists of various backgrounds, exploring farmed and
protected landscapes, so its well worth having a look at their website.

Finally a brief mention of another artist, David Blyth, a contemporary artist based in Scotland.
Blyth works with taxidermy, video and sound, and has created work informed by lambing and
other farming practices

His recent project Knockturne (2007) explored lambing as a dark narrative of contradictory
aesthetic values through collaboration with a local shepherd in rural Aberdeenshire. By
exploiting the aesthetic of installation and surrealism as a genre, the very cultural specific is
conceptualised and represented as a
provocation about value and inhabitation.
(Grays School of Art Website)

So thats just a few examples, and quite a wide

spread between the socially engaged, what
could be called Land Art and the agriculturally
inspired but gallery-based practice.

Its such a rich area to draw from (or feed on) and
Im excited to be allowing myself to start to plan
and research a new area for my practice. As soon as theres any developments Ill let you


The Art in Architecture/Fine Arts Division is responsible for the commissioning and care of all
artworks in the GSA's Fine Arts Collection.

The Art in Architecture Program commissions American artists to create publicly scaled and
permanently installed artworks for federal buildings nationwide. The incorporation of
contemporary art within the nation's important civic spaces celebrates the best of American
culture and exemplifies how democratic societies benefit immeasurably from the unique,
creative talents of individual citizens.

The Fine Arts Program provides national leadership and expertise in fine art care and policy for
GSA's Fine Arts Collection. The program seeks to manage the Fine Arts Collection at the
highest ethical and stewardship standards and to contribute to creating high-quality federal
buildings for federal employees and the public they serve. By preserving the legacy of federal
art and the built environment, the Fine Arts Program fosters an appreciation of the importance
of creative freedom and inspires future generations to add their expressions to American

The arts reflect the society that

creates them. Nowhere is this truer
than in the case of the ancient
Greeks. Through their temples,
sculpture, and pottery, the Greeks
incorporated a fundamental
principle of their culture: arete. To
the Greeks, arete meant excellence and reaching one's full potential.
Ancient Greek art emphasized the importance and accomplishments of human beings. Even
though much of Greek art was meant to honor the gods, those very gods were created in the
image of humans.

Much artwork was government sponsored and intended for public display. Therefore, art and
architecture were a tremendous source of pride for citizens and could be found in various
parts of the city. Typically, a city-state set aside a high-altitude portion of land for an acropolis,
an important part of the city-state that was reserved for temples or palaces. The Greeks held
religious ceremonies and festivals as well as significant political meetings on the acropolis.


Every day it seems like another corporation is planning layoffs. The employees who keep their
jobs are often stressed, overworked and their morale is low. Businesses are left wondering how
they can get out of this recession when they are struggling to do more with fewer resources.
This is where the arts can play an important role by improving employee morale, encouraging
creativity and, as a result, improving the bottom line.

U.S. employers rate creativity/innovation as one of the top five skills that will increase in
importance in the next five years and they rank creativity/innovation as one of the top ten
challenges they will face in the next ten years according to research from the Conference
Board. CEOs view participation in the arts as one of the top indicators of employee creativity
and innovation. Whether its a performance in the workplace, an opportunity to volunteer at
an arts festival, company tickets to a symphony or an employee art exhibition, the arts can
stimulate innovation and creativity.

The arts can also help improve employee morale and engagement, allowing employees the
focus and energy necessary to do their jobs well. Engaged employees are 18% more
productive, 12% more profitable, 51% less likely to leave the organization at low-turnover
companies, 31% less likely to leave the organization at high-turnover companies, not to
mention other critical measures such as creativity and innovation, customer engagement,
trust, and reciprocity according to a Gallup study of 682,000 employees.

The non-profit arts industry, with $36.8 billion in annual revenue, is a potent force in economic
development nationwide States and communities have integrated the arts into their
economic development arsenal to achieve a wide range of direct and indirect economic
goals. Arts programs have served as components of high-impact economic development
programs by assisting state and local government in:

Leveraging human capital and cultural resources to generate economic vitality in under-
performing regions through tourism, crafts, and cultural attractions;
Restoring and revitalizing communities by serving as a centerpiece for downtown
redevelopment and cultural renewal;

Creating vibrant public spaces integrated with natural amenities, resulting in improved urban
quality of life, expanded business and tax revenue base, and positive regional and community
image; and

Contributing to a region's "innovation habitat" by simultaneously improving regional quality of

life -- making communities more attractive to highly desirable, knowledge-based employees --
and permitting new forms of knowledge-intensive production to flourish.

Governors can position their states to use the arts effectively by promoting new partnerships
among state agencies, communities, and the business sector and by harnessing the power of
the arts and culture as tools that unite communities, create economic opportunity, and
improve the quality of life.


In order to create change, students must first learn to create. Just like adults and perhaps even
more so because they are still developing their own identities, young people turn to and
respond to the arts to help them communicate and understand ideas, viewpoints and
emotions. In this way, the arts cultivate creative thinking which leads to other supplemental
skills such as problem-solving which ultimately can benefit students across disciplines.

Arts education should play an essential role in affirming and developing creative abilities
among students of all skill levels, without limiting it to those who aspire to be professional artists
or writers. It's just as likely that a biologist who developed creative thinking in middle or high
school arts classes could think of a new way of looking at cancer research as it is that an artist
can develop new forms and media for artistic expression. In fact, I've seen this among the past
winners of the Scholastic Art & Writing Awards.

Our contemporary economy depends and thrives on innovation and new ways of thinking
about and seeing the world. This is exactly what arts education nurtures - young people who,
through creative practice, develop the skill to imagine the world differently. Studies such as
Reinvesting in Arts Education: Winning America's Future Through Creative Schools from the
President's Committee on the Arts and the Humanities, display the powerful role that arts
education can play in increasing student engagement, closing the achievement gap, and
nurturing the skills that will ultimately change our world.

If young people have an inherent pull to create, which we believe, then the arts must be
integral to students' education, rather than viewed as separate.
David Booth is Professor Emeritus at the University of Toronto. For more than 25 years he has
worked with teachers in creating, applying, and evaluating approaches to how children learn
to read and write. His latest book is I've Got Something to Say: How Student Voices Inform Our

As caring and concerned members of our home and school communities, we want our
children to grow into adulthood with arts-enhanced lives, engaging fully in the world's activities
with their aesthetic, cognitive, physical, and emotional strengths, and entwining all these
processes as often as possible. We need to "feel our thoughts," and we need to "think about
our feelings." Knowing that emotion is a powerful component of life's intellectual responses, we
require opportunities to grow as whole beings, to fill our personal worlds with events and
experiences that reveal as many shades of color as possible, that widen the possibilities
inherent in everything we see and do.

What if our schools opened up the repertoire of artful choices that children could encounter
each day, so that as their knowledge expands, their senses grow, and their feelings find form,
their responses to life's situations could become more mindful and thoughtful? That is the real
role of the arts in school--to help youngsters construct their worlds in wonderful and meaningful
ways and, at the same time, gain satisfaction from their expanded understanding of how to
accomplish this lifelong process.

The arts are an imperative. In the concentration camps in World War II, some children drew
and wrote poems; you can read their poems and find their drawings in the book I Never Saw
Another Butterfly. After the disaster of 9/11 in New York City, parents and schools were at a loss
about what to tell vulnerable and shocked youngsters. What followed in New York is a
metaphor for arts education, as thousands of schoolchildren turned to creating paintings and
drawings and poems and stories and letters to somehow give form to their feelings and to
share in the sadness that had enveloped their communities. As they engaged in arts
responses, they revealed so much more than they could articulate in talk. They were able to
imagine hope beyond the destruction. They were able to find catharsis, to seek out ways of
demonstrating their compassion and anger. They were able to use art to construct a present
reality and to recognize a better future. As parents and teachers and friends, we view their
pictures and read their words in the book Messages to Ground Zero, and recognize the depth
of their feelings and the connections they have made to the human family. We were better
able to cope because of their artistic efforts.

The arts are a way of learning, of exploring, of responding, of revealing and demonstrating, of
imagining, depicting, and making meaning. They belong in the school curriculum, as they
belong in the minds and hearts of all lifelong learners.