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I.

I.

., . . - . ..


2005

4
511(075.8)
22.1373
-45

:
;
-. , . .. , .

: .. , .. , .. , ..

-45 I. :
.. , .. , .. , .. . :
-, 2005. 81 .

ISBN 5-321-00633-4


, , -
..01.
, , ,
,
.

-

6533500

511(075.8)
22.1373

ISBN 5-321-00633-4
,2005

5

1. ....6
1.1. , ..6
1.2. .6
1.3. .7
1.4. .8
1.5. ...8
1.6. ...8
1.7. ( )10
1.8. ....11
1.9. .11
1.10. ...12
1.11. .............12
1.12. 13
1.13. 14
2. , ..15
2.1. ..15
2.2. ..16
2.3. ...........17
2.4. .....18
2.5. .......20
2.6. .........21
2.7. ......22
2.8. ....22
2.9. .22
3. ......24
3.1. ....24
3.2. .24
3.3. ..25
3.4. ..27
3.5. ...................27
4. ..28
4.1. ......28
4.2. - ..28
4.3. ..29
5. ..31
6
5.1. .31
6. ..32
7. , ...33
8. , ..34
9. ......35
9.1. ....35
9.2. - ...36
9.3. ...36
10. ......37
11. .....39
11.1. 39
12. .....41
12.1. ...41
12.2. ..42
12.3. .47
12.4. .49
12.5. ..52
12.6. ..53
13. ...55
13.1. ...55
13.2. ..55
13.3. ...55
13.4. .56
13.5. ....56
14. .....56
15. .59
16. ....63
..64

1. a A 9. .
A . 10. A B A B .
2. a A a A . 11. A B A B ,
3. A B A A B .
B , A n

B , B A . 12. a
j =1
j = a1 + a2 + + an .
4. . n
5. A B 13. a j = a1 a2 an .
. j =1

6. A B 1
n

. 14. e = lim 1 + =
n
n
7. ,
= 2 ,718281828 ...
a A "
a , .
A ". 15.
8. , .
a A "
a,
A ".

:
N N = { 1, 2 , , n, };
Z Z = { 0, 1, 2 , , n, } ;
p
Q ( , p, q Z , q 0 );
q
I 2 , 3 5 , e, , .
R () , R = Q I .
:

: a < x < b, x (a, b ) ;


(): a x b, x [a , b] ;
a < x b, x (a , b];
(): a x < b, x [a , b );

a x < , x [a , ) (x a );
: < x b, x ( , b ] (x b ).

8
1.

1.1. ,

. 1, 2, 3,...
N = { n } = {1, 2, 3, ...} .
. Z = {0, 1, 1, 2, 2, ... , n, ...}, n N
.
, , ,
, . , 2, 3, 5, 7, 11
. ,
, . , 4, 12,
28 . ,
() 2, , 2.
m
. , m Z, n N ,
n
m km
. , k Z
n kn
.

( n = 1) .
. m < n ,
, m n .

.
. (
),
m
Q: Q = 0, n, ,
n
.
. ,
, I.
(, 2 , 3 3 , , e . )
.
.

- .

1.2.
a b :
1) a b ( a = b ), a b = 0 ; 2) a b ( a > b ), a b > 0 ;
3) a b ( a < b ), a b < 0 . 1) 2),
4) a b ( a b ); 1) 3) 5) a

9
b ( a b ). 2) 3) , 4) 5)
.

.
:
1) , 2)
, 3) ,
, . (, a
( a ), a + ( a ) = 0 ).
1. a > b , b < a .
2. a > b b > c , a > c ( ).
3. a > b , a + c > b + c , .
.
.
4. a > b c > 0 , ac > bc .
5. a > b c < 0 , ac < bc .
6. a > b c > d , a + c > b + d .
. .
7. a > b c < d , a c > b d .
. ,
.
8. a > b > 0 c > d > 0 , ac > bd .
9. a > b > 0 , 1 < 1 .
a b
10. a > b 0 n N , a n > bn .
11. a > b 0 n N , n a > n b .
12. a > b , a 2n +1 > b2n +1, n N .
13. a > b n N , 2n +1 a > 2n +1 b .
n a1 , a 2 , , a n
, a1 + a2 + ... + an .
n

n a1 , a 2 , , a n
, n a1 a2 ... an .

1.3.
a
= a: b ( a, b Z , b 0 ).
b
a
= a 10 n ( n N ).
10 n
0,01 = 1 % .
a a
A = A+ ( A, a, b N ).
b b

10

1. a = ac , ( c 0 ). 2. a c
= , ad = bc .
b bc b d
a c ac a c ac
3. = . 4. = .
b b b b d bd
a c ad a a am
5. : = . 6. m = m = .
b d bc b b b
a a
7. :m= ( m 0 ). 8. m : a = mb .
b bm b a
n
a an a n a
9. = n . 10. n = ( ab > 0 ).
b b b n b

1.4.


. a = c (bd 0) ,
b d
a, d , b, c . ad = bc ,
( abcd 0 ) :

a c a b d c d b
= , = , = , = .
b d c d b a c a

1.5.

. .
. , 115% 2860.
2860 115
= 3289 .
100
. , 12,5% 3000.
3000 100
= 24000 .
12,5
. , ,
120, 230.
110
= 230 120 = 110, 100% = 100% = 91,66%
120 120

1.6.
. a n a ( a R, n N )
n n ,
a , a = a a a a ; a , n
n

.
:

11
1) am an = am+n ; 2) (a )m n
= a m n .

. a R, p Z . ap p
:
1) a m = a a a a , p = m , m N ;
m
1
2) a m = , a0 p = m , m N ;
am

3) a 0 = 1 , a 0 ;
4) a = 0 p = 0 p<0 ap p
.

.
a R , b R , a 0 , b 0 , n Z , m Z . :
am
1) am an = am+n . 2) n
= a mn .
a
3) (a )m n
=a m n
. 4) (ab)n = a n bn .
n n n
a an a b
5) = n . 6) = .
b b b a
n = 2k a n > 0,
7) a > 0 an > 0 . 8) a < 0:
n = 2k + 1 a n < 0.
9) a > 1 , n > m a n > a m .
10) 0 < a < 1 , n > m a n < a m .
11) a > 0 , a 1 , n = m a n = a m .
n > 0 a n > b n ,

12) 0< a < b: n
n = 0 a = b ,
n
n < 0 a < b .
n n

. b n - a
( b = n a ), b n = a . (
radix - ).
n .
1) n = 2k , k N . b = 2k a , b 2k = a = (b 2 ) 0 , 2k a
n

a 0 .
. n -
a b (
b = n a ), , b n = a .
!
.
a > 0 , b > 0 , n > 1 , m > 1 , k > 1 ( n, m, k N ). :
1) n a k a = nk a n + k . 2) nk a k = n a .
a n
3) n ab = n a n b . 4) n = a :nb .
b

12
5) n a :k a =
nk
ak n . 6) (n a )k = n a k .
7) nk
a = nk a .
2) n = 2k + 1, k N .

, 3 8 = 2 .
1) 7)

, , 2) a < 0
n k , a < 0 n k
nk a k = n a , a a . 6)
k n
ak = ( a ) , ,
n
k
a2 = a , a<0 a .

1.7. ( )

. , ,
a , a 0
a = , a R .
a, a < 0

:
1) a 0; 2) a a; 3) a = a ; 4) a2 = a ;
a a 2
5) a b = a b ; 6) = , b0; 7) a = a2 = a2 ;
b b

8) a+b a + b ; 9) ab a + b ; 10) a+b a b ;

11) a b a b ; 12) a A bB a + b A + B , a b A B . ,

a b ab a + b .
a b, a b 0, .. a b
a b =
b a, a b 0, .. a b
(a b)2 = a b = (b a )2 = ba

.
x , x 0,
x = 0 x0 x
x, x < 0.
x x , x
, x x0 x x0
.
, .
1) x a x [ a , a ] . 2) x a x ( , a ] [a, + ) .

3) x <a x ( a, a ) . 4) x >a x ( , a ) (a , ) .

13
1.8.

1. (a + b)2 = (a + b)(a + b) = a 2 + 2ab + b 2 .

2. . (a b)2 = (a b)(a b) = a 2 2ab + b 2


3. a 2 b2 = (a + b)(a b) .
4. a 2 + b2 = (a b)2 2ab .
5. (a + b)3 = (a + b)(a + b)2 = a 3 + 3a 2b + 3ab2 + b3 .
6. (a b)3 = (a b)(a b)2 = a 3 3a 2b + 3ab 2 b3 .
7. a 3 + b3 = (a + b)(a 2 ab + b 2 ) .
8. a 3 b3 = (a b)(a 2 + ab + b 2 ) .
9. (a + b)4 = a 4 + 4a 3b + 6a 2b 2 + 4ab3 + b 4 .

1.9.

1) ( a + b )2 = a + 2 ab + b . 2) ( a b )2 = a 2 ab + b .
3) ( a b )( a + b ) = a b . 4) (a b c )(a + b c ) = a 2 b2 c .

a + a 2 b2c a a 2 b2c a a b
5) ab c = . 6) = .
2 2 b b

7) a
=
a b n 1
n
. 8) a
=
(
a 1 b ). 9) a
=
(
a b c ).
n b b 1 b 1 b b c bc

10) a
=
(
a b2 c b c )( ) .11) (3 a 3 b ) 3 a 2 3 ab + 3 b2 = a b .
2
b c b c

a 1 3 b + b 2 a b 2 3 bc + c 2
3 3 3
a a
12) = . 13) = .
1 3 b 1 b 3b 3c bc

9 22 1
. : + = 6.
5 7 7+ 5 7+ 5
.
1) 9 9 5+ 7 ( ) . (
9 5+ 7 )
9 5+ 7 5+ 7 ( )
(5 7 ) (5 + 7 )
5 7
= =
25 7
=
18
=
2

2) 22 = 22 (7 5 ) = 22 (7 5 ) = 22 (7 5 ) = 7 5 .
7 + 5 (7 + 5 ) (7 5 ) 49 5 44 2
1 7 5 7 5 7 5
3) .
7+ 5
=
( 7 + 5 ) ( 7 5 ) =
75
=
2
5+ 7 7 5 7 5 12
: + = = 6.
2 2 2 2

14
1.10.
, ;
, .
1 5
. a= b= 3.
2
a b a b ,
a b : > , < =.
.
1 5
, 3. ( 1) ,
2
1+ 5
: 3 1+ 5 2 3 .
2
:
1 + 5 + 2 5 12 , 2 5 6, 5 3.
: 5 9 . 5 < 9 , , < ,
- > , .. a > b .

1.11.
. : 6 x 3 y + 3x 2 y 2 3xy 3 =
( ) ( ) (
= 3xy 2 x 2 + xy y 2 = 3xy 2 x 2 + xy y 2 = 3xy x 2 + x 2 + xy y 2 = = 3xy x 2 + xy + x 2 y 2 = ) (( ) ( ))
= 3 xy ( x + y )( 2 x y ) .
. : a 4 + a 3 + 4a 2 + 3a + 3 (a 2 + a + 1)(a 2 + 3) =
a3 1
=
(a 2 + a + 1)(a 1)
=
a2 + 3
a 1
, ( ) (
a 4 + a 3 + 4a 2 + 3a + 3 = a 2 a 2 + a + 1 + 3 a 2 + a + 1 = = a 2 + a + 1 a 2 + 3 ) ( )( ).
3 3 2

3 3 3
. a2 + b2
:
a ab a = 1,2 ; b = .
5
(a )
2
2
a a b b
ab 3



, ,
3
( a )3 , ( a b )( a + b ) = a b ,
a 2 = 2 a3 =
3 3
a + b = ( a ) + ( b ) = ( a + b )(a ab + b ) ,
3 3
2 2


( )(
a + b a ab + b ): 3 ab
= =
( a + b a ab + b )( ) 3 a2 ( )(
a b a + ab + b )=
3
a2 3 (a b) 2 3 2
a ( )(
a b a + ab + b ) 3
a2 3 (a b) 2 3 ab

( )(
= a ab + b a + ab + b = (a + b )2 ) ( ab ) 2
= a 2 + ab + b 2 .
a = 1,2 ; b = 0,6
a + ab + b = 1,2 2 + 1,2 0,6 + 0,62 = 1,44 + 072 + 0,36 = 2,52 .
2 2

15
1.12.
ax 2 + bx + c ( a 0)
x .
x , . ,
- ax 2 + bx + c = 0 .

( ),
.
:
1) x 2 + 2 x 8 = x 2 + 2 x + 1 1 8 = (x + 1)2 9 = (x 2 )(x + 4 );
2 2 13
2) x + 13x + 40 = x + 2 x 2 + (132 )2 (132 )2 + 40 = (x + 132 )2 + 1604169 =
(
= x + 13
2
)2 (23 )3 = (x + 132 + 23 )(x + 132 23 ) = (x + 8)(x + 5);
2 2
3) 3x + 11x + 20 = 3 x 11
3
(
x 20
3
) ((
= 3 x 2 2 11
6
x + 121
36
121
36
20
3
= ) )
(
= 3 x 11
6
)2 361 = 3(x 11 )2 (19 )2 = 3(x 11 19 )(x 11 + 19 ) =
36 6 6 6 6 6 6

(
= 3 x 30
6
)( )
x + 86 = 3(x 5) x + ( 4
3
). 4
x1 = 5 , x2 = 3 .

16
1.13.


{an } {bn }

a1 , a2 , , an , , n N , , b1 , b2 , , bn , , n N , , b1 0
n > 1, a n = a n 1 + d n >1 , bn = bn 1 q
( d ). ( q ).

1. an +1 = an + d . 1. bn +1 = bn q .
a + a n +1
2. a n = n 1 (n > 1) . 2. bn2 = bn 1 bn +1 (n > 1) .
2
3. an = a1 + (n 1) d . 3. bn = b1 q n 1 .

4. an = ak + d (n k ), 1 k n 1 . 4. bn = bk q n k , 1 k n 1 .

an k + an + k 5. bn = bn k q k , 1 k n 1 .
5. an = , 1 k n 1.
2 6. bn + k = bn q k .
6. an + am = ak + a p , 7. bn2 = bn m bn + m , 1 m n 1 .
n+m = k + p . 8. bn bm = bk b p ,
7. a1 = a n d (n 1) . n+m = k + p .
a a1
8. d= n (n > 1) . 9.S n = b1 + b2 + + bn .
n 1
a a 1 qn
9. n = n 1 + 1. 10. S n = b1 1 q , q 1,
d
b1 n, q = 1.
10. S n = a1 + a2 + + an .
bn q b1
11. a +a
Sn = 1 n n .
11. Sn = , q 1.
q 1
2
2a1 + d (n 1) 12. S = lim S n =
b1
,
12. Sn = n .
n 1 q
2
13. S n S k 1 = ak + ak +1 + + an = 0< q <1
ak + an ( n , k , m , p N ).
= (n k + 1) , 1 < k n
2
( n, k , m, p N ).

17
2.,

2.1.

. y
x , x X
y Y : y = f (x ) ,
x X , y Y . x
. X
() (). Y
().
. y = f (x )
xOy , y = f (x ) .
y = f (x ) x X , , ..
f (x ) = 0 .
. f (x ) X
, x X f (x ) = f ( x ) .
,
.
, y = x 2 , y = x , :
y y
2
y=x y= x

y0

x0 0 x0 x 0 x

. f (x ) X
, x X f ( x ) = f ( x ) .
.
, y = x 3 y = 2 x ,
:
y y

y = x3 y0 y = 2x

x0
0 x 0 x0 x

y0

, x y ,
.
.

15
:

, .. y = x .
y = f 1 (x )
y = f (x ) ,
y = f (x )
1
y = f (x ) .

2.2.
. y = kx + b , k b ,
.
1. x ( , + ) .
2. : k 0 y ( , + ) , k = 0 y = b .
3. , . k = 0 , b = 0
.
4. . k = 0
. k 0 .
5. : ,0 (0 ,b ) .
b
k
6. . k =0
b
b ; k > 0, x > , k <0,
k
b
x< .
k
7. .
x , k > 0 , , k < 0 .
8. y = kx + b . k
y = kx + b .
, , y = tg ,
y = k = tg , .. k = tg ,
Ox .
:
y y y
y = kx y = kx
y = kx + b
y = b (b > 0) y = kx + b (b > 0) (b > 0)
b/k
0 0 x 0 b/k x
y = b (b < 0)

k = 0 k > 0 k < 0

16

k1 = tg1 , k2 = tg 2 .
tg 2 -tg1 y
tg = tg ( 2 -1 ) = ;
1+tg1tg 2

k k
tg = 2 1 . 1 2
1 + k1 k2 x
: k1 k 2 = 1 .
2.3.

. , y = ax 2 + bx + c (a 0) ,
.
1. x ( , + ) .
2. .
b c b c b b 2 4ac
2

ax 2 + bx + c = a x 2 + x + = a x 2 + 2 x + = a x + =
a a 2a a 2a 4a 2
2
b b 2 4ac b 2 D
= a x + = a x + , D = b 2 4ac .
2a 4a 2a 4a

2
b D D
x + 0, a>0 y , + , a<0 y , .
2a 4a 4a
3. b = 0 .
4. .
5. :
b D b+ D
(x1 ,0 ),(x 2 ,0 ) , x1 =
2a
, x2 =
2a
, D > 0 ;
b
,0 , D = 0 ; D < 0 , .
2a
Oy : (0, c ) .
6.
:
y = (ax 2 + bx + c ) = 2ax + b ;
b
2ax + b = 0 x = .
2a
b b
y , , + .
2a 2a

b b b
; ; +
2a 2a 2a
x a

a>0 0 +
y min
y
a<0 + 0
y max
y

17
b D
y = .
2a 4a
7. y = ax 2 + bx + c
b D
. y = ax
2
,
2a 4a
b
Ox (, b > 0 , ,
2a 2a
b
< 0 )
2a
D
Oy (, D > 0 , ,
4a 4a
D
< 0 ). ,
4a
x = b .
2a
.
2 ,
y = ax 2 + bx + c
y = a (x x0 )2 + y0
. (x0 , y0 )
.
. y = x 2 3x 3 . y


1,5
y = x 2 3x 3 = x 2 3 x 3 = 0 x

2 2 3
3 9 3 4 3 21
=x =x = (x 1,5)2 5,25 . 5,25
2 4 4 2 4

, A(1,5; 5,25) .
. x = 0 , y = 3 : (0, 3)
Oy . , a = 1 > 0 ,
x = 1,5 .

2.4. y = x

y = xn (n N )

. y = x n , nN ,
.

18
1.
(n ) (n )
n
y y=x y y = xn
1

1 0 1 x

1 0 1 x 1

D ( y ) ( 0 , + ) . D ( y ) ( , + )
2. n n .
3. n , y = x n x ( , + ) ;
n , y = x n x [0, ) x ( , 0] .
4. ( , + ) .
1
y = x n = (n N )
xn
( n ) ( n )
y 1 y 1
y= y=
x n xn
1
0 1 x

1 0 1 x

. y = x n
.
1. x ( , 0 ) (0 , + ) .
2. n n .
3. x > 0 ; x < 0 , n ,
, n .
4. ( , 0) (0, + ) ; x = 0
.

,
k
y = , k 0 .
x
1). x ( ,0 ) (0 , ) .
2). x ( ,0 ) (0 , ) .
.
3). y = k ( f ( x ) = k = k = f (x ) .
x x x
.
4). k > 0 , y = k y
x
(0, + ) ( , 0) . k <0, 1

19 0 1 x
k
y= ( , 0) (0, + ) .
x
5). .

6). k > 0 y > 0 (0, + ) , y < 0 ( , 0) .


k < 0 y > 0 ( , 0) , y < 0 (0, + ) .
7). .
8). k < 0 , II IV
. y = k , k 0
x
.
y = x1/ n = n x (n N )

y y
y=n x
y=n x
( n )

1 0 1 x ( n )

0 1 x

y = n x y = x n .
y = x n y = x , y = n x .
y = x p / q ( p, q Z , q 0 )

y ( p / q > 1)
y ( p / q > 0)
y = xp/q
1 y = xp/q
(0 < p / q < 1) 1

0 1 x
0 1 x

2.5.
. y = ax + b , a, b, c, d , c0,
cx + d
ad bc ,
-.
1. x ( , d / c) ( d / c, + ) .
2. ,
.

20
, ,

a
ax + b = (cx + d ) ad + b ;
c c
(cx + d ) ,
ad bc ad
b 2
a a
y= c = + c ,
c cx + d c d
x+
c
a d bc ad ax + b k
, =n, =m, k = , , y= =n+ ,
c c c2 cx + d x+m
n .
- y

y = k m
x n
Ox n Oy . y = n x=m
0 m x
.
. y = 2 x 1 .
x +1
3 y
: y =2 .
x +1
, ( 1, 2) , 2
- x = 1 , y = 2 . 0
-1 x
-1

2.6. y = ax (a > 0, a 1)

y y
y = a x y = (1 / 2 )x y = 2x y = a x
(a < 1) (a > 1) y = e x y = ex

e 2,7182
1

0 x 0 x

. y = a x , a
, (a > 0, a 1) , .
1. x ( , + ) .
2. y (0, + ) .
3. x = 0 y = 1 .
4. a > 1 ; x > 0 , y = a x > 1 ;
x < 0 , 0 < a x < 1 .
5. 0 < a < 1 ; x > 0 , 0 < a x < 1 ;
x < 0 , a x > 1 .

21
2.7.
. b a , b > 0 , a > 0 , a 1 ,
, a ,
b .
x (x = loga b ) b > 0 a > 0 ( a 1 ), a x = b .
a log a b = b .

1. log a 1 = 0 . 2. log a a = 1 . 3. log a bc = log a b + log a c (bc > 0) .


b
4. log a = log a b log a c (bc > 0) . 5. log a b n = n log a b .
c
6. loga n b = 1 loga b . 7. loga m bn = n loga b . 8. log a n b =
1
log a b .
n m n
9. loga b = loga n bn . 10. loga b = c b .
log
11. log a b = log c b log a c .
log c a
1
12. loga b = . 13. log10 b = lg b . 14. log e b = ln b .
log b a

2.8. y = loga x ( a > 0 , a 1 )


. , ,
: y = loga x .
1. x (0, + ) .
2. y ( , + ) .
3. x = 1 y = loga x = 0 .
4. a > 1 ; 0 < x < 1 , loga x < 0 , x > 1 ,
log a x > 0 .
5. 0 < a < 1 ; 0 < x < 1 , loga x > 0 , x > 1 , loga x < 0 .
y
y y
y = log a x
y = loga2 x a2 > a1
(a > 1) x
y = loga1 x 0 y = log a1 x
0 1 x 1
(0 < a < 1) 0 x
y = log a x y = log a2 x
a2 < a1

2.9.
y = f (x ) ,
.
1. f (x a ) y
f (x ) a>0
f (x + a ) f (x ) f (x a )
Ox a .
f (x a ) x = x0 + a a
f (x ) x = x0 . x0 -a 0 x 0 x0+a x

22
2. f (x ) a
y a>0
f (x ) Oy a . f (x ) + a
3. k f (x ) f (x )
f (x ) a
f (x ) Oy k (k > 0) k > 1
1 / k 0 < k < 1 ; k < 0 , 0 x

Ox .
y y
y
y 2
f (x ) f (x ) / 2
1 2 f (x )
1/2 0 1 x

0 1 x 0 1 x f (x )
0 1 x 1
4. f (kx ) f (x ) Ox k
(k > 0) k > 1 k 0 < k < 1 ;
k < 0 ,
Oy .
y y y y
f (x ) f (2 x ) f (x / 2) f ( x )
1 1 1 1
1
0 1 x 0 x 0 2 x 1 0 x
1 1 1 1

5. f (x ) f (x )
: ,
Ox , ; , y
f (x )
Ox , Ox
6. f ( x ) 0 x
f (x ) : x 0
; x < 0 y f (x )
o Oy
, x 0 .
y y 0 x
f (x ) f( x )

0 x 0 x

23
3.

3.1.

. ax + b = 0 , a b , a 0, -
.
b
x = a , a 0;
1) ax + b = 0 x , a = 0, b 0;

x R, a = 0, b = 0.


, a b ; -
, a b ; , b = 0 . a = 0 , -
. a = 0 , b = 0 ,
. y y y
y1
a = 0, b = 0 y2
0 y1 , y2 x a = 0, b 0
y2
0 y1 x
0 x x

y
b2 b1 y1
x = a a , a1 a2 ;
1 2
2) a1x + b1 = a2 x + b2 x , a1 = a2 , b1 b2 ; 0 x x
x R, a1 = a2 , b1 = b2 . y2

3.2.
ax 2 + bx + c = 0 , x -
; a , b , c ,
, a 0 . c
.
b2 4ac -
D , D = b 2 4ac .
1. D > 0 : x1,2 = b D .
2a
b
2. D = 0 : x1 = x2 = .
2a
3. D < 0 : x 0/ .
k k 2 ac
b = 2k : x1, 2 = .
a
2
p p
x 2 + px + q = 0 : x1,2 = q .
2 2

24
( ). -
ax 2 + bx + c = 0 x1 x2 ,
ax 2 + bx + c = a ( x x1 )( x x2 ) .
(). ax 2 + bx + c = 0 (a 0) -
b , c .
a a
b
x1 + x 2 = a ,

x x = c .
1 2 a
ax 4 + bx 2 + c = 0 .

x = b + b 2 4ac
,
4 2 1,2 2a
ax + bx + c = 0
b b 2 4ac
x3,4 = .
2a
b c
x1 + x 2 + x3 + x 4 = , x1 x2 x3 x4 = .
a a

3.3.

. Pn (x ) -
Pn ( x ) = a0 x n + a1x n 1 + ... + an , n N , a0 , a1, , an ,
a0 0 .
n , a0 , a1, , an -
, a0 x n , an . a0 = 1 , -
.
, x .
, , ,
.
Pn (x )
Pn ( x ) = Qm ( x ) S ( x ) , m < n , , Pn (x )
Qm (x ) ; Pn (x ) , Qm (x ) , S (x ) .
.
_ 3x 4 + 2 x 3 + 70 x 2 + 3x 4 x 2 + 5 x + 1

3x 4 + 15 x 3 + 3x 2 3x 2 13x + 132
_ 13x 3 + 67 x 2 + 3x
13x 3 65 x 2 13x
_ 132 x 2 + 16 x 4
132 x 2 + 660 x + 132
644 x 136

25
( -
)
3x 4 + 2 x 3 + 70 x 2 + 3x 4 644 x + 136
2
= 3x 2 13x + 132
x + 5x + 1 x 2 + 5x + 1
(3x 2 13x + 132) ,
.
. x = x0 P(x ) -
, .. P( x0 ) = 0 , x0 .
( ). Pn (x ) n , b -
. Qn 1 (x ) n 1 ,
Pn ( x ) = ( x b)Qn 1 ( x ) + Pn (b) , Pn (b) Pn (x ) x = b .
1. x = b Pn (x ) , .. Pn (b) = 0 ,
Pn ( x ) = ( x b)Qn 1 ( x ) .
2. Pn (x ) n n x1, x2 , , xn ,
Pn ( x ) = a0 ( x x1 )( x x2 ) ... ( x xn ) , a0 Pn (x ) .
. -
-
.
2: -
.
. Pn ( x) = a0 x n + a1x n 1 + ... + an 1x + an -
, a0 0 . x = x0
Pn (x ) , an .

. P3 (x ) = x 3 3x 2 10x + 24 .
, -
: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24 .
P3 ( x ) .
P (1) = 12 , x = 1 ;
P ( 1) = 30 , x = 1 ; P ( 2) = 0 , x = 2 -
.
(x 2) :
x 3 3x 2 10 x + 24 x2
_
x 2x2
3
x 2 x 12
x 2 10 x

x2 + 2x
12 x + 24
12 x + 24
0
x 2 x 12 3 4. :
3 2
x 3x 10 + 24 = ( x 2)( x + 3)( x 4) .

26
3.4.

. : x 3 x 2 4 x + 4 = 0 .
: x 3 x 2 4 x + 4 = 0 x( x 2 4) ( x 2 4) = 0 (x 4)( x 1) = 0
2

x1 = 2,
x 2 = 2,
x 3 = 1.
. x3 3x 2 6x + 8 = 0 .
-
: 1, 1, 2, 2, 4, 4, 8, 8 .
P3 (1) = 1 3 6 + 8 = 0 , , P3 (x )
x1 = 1 .
P3 (x ) (x 1) :
_ x 3 3x 2 6 x + 8 x 1

x3 x2 x2 2 x 8

_ 2x2 6x
2x2 + 2x
_ 8x + 8
8 x + 8
0
x 3x 6 x + 8 = (x 1)(x 2 x 8) .
3 2 2

(x 1)(x 2 2 x 8) = 0 . :
2 4 + 32 2 6
x 2, 3 = = x2 = 4; x 3 = 2 .
2 2
, : x1 = 1 ; x2 = 4; x3 = 2 ,
, P3 (x ) -
.
P3 (x ) : x 3 3x 2 6 x + 8 = (x 1)(x + 2)(x 4) ,
1, 2, 4 P3 (x ) .

3.5. -

. -
Pn (x )
= 0 , Pn (x ) Qm (x ) , Qm (x ) 0 .
Qm (x )
Pn (x ) = 0 ,
P (x ) = 0,
Qm (x ) 0 , .. Pn (x ) = 0 n
Qm (x ) Qm (x ) 0.
. 1 + 2 = 1 .
x +1 x 2
1
+
2
1 = 0
( x 2 ) + 2(x + 1) (x + 1)(x 2 )
=0
x +1 x 2 (x + 1)(x 2)
x2 4x 2 x 2 4 x 2 = 0,
=0
(x + 1)(x 2 ) (x + 1)(x 2 ) 0.

27
x 2 4 x 2 = 0 2+ 6 2 6 , -
(x + 1)(x 2) = 0 .
, : x1 = 2 + 6 x2 = 2 6 .

4.

. P (x ) > 0 (P (x ) < 0) , P (x ) , -
.
. a 0 x + a1 > 0 , a 0 x + a1 < 0 , a 0 0 ,
.
a 0 x + a1 > 0 a 0 :
(
) a 0 > 0 , x aa10 , + ; )
< 0 , x ( , ).
a1
) a0 a0

a 0 x + a1 < 0 :
(
) a 0 > 0 x , aa10 ; )
x ( , + ).
a1
) a0 < 0 a0

, xa >0 x>a xa <0 x<a.

+
a x

4.1.
. x 2 x 6 < 0 .
P (x ) = x 2 x 6
y = x2 x 6
x1 = 3 x 2 = 2 , P (x ) = (x 3)(x + 2) . - y
-
-
(x 3)(x + 2) < 0 . + + 2 0 3 x
2 3 x
-
, -
x ( 2, 3) .

4.2. -

P(x ) P(x ) P(x ) P(x )


. >0, <0, 0, 0, P (x )
Q (x ) Q (x ) Q (x ) Q (x )
Q (x ) , Q (x ) 0 , -.
:
P (x )
> 0 P (x )Q (x ) > 0 .
Q (x )

28
P (x )
<0 P (x )Q (x ) < 0 .
Q (x )
P (x ) P (x )Q (x ) 0,
0
Q (x ) Q (x ) 0.
P (x ) P (x )Q (x ) 0,
0
Q (x ) Q (x ) 0.

- -
ax + b > 0 .
cx + d
x 1
. > .
x 5 2
x 1 x+5 x+5
>0 (x + 5)(x 5) > 0 , , -
x 5 2 2(x 5) x5
, x ( , 5) (5, + ) .

4.3.

f1 (x, y ) = 0,
(1)
f 2 ( x , y ) = 0.
(1) (x0 , y 0 ) ,
.
-
, .
g1 (x, y ) = 0,
(2)
g 2 ( x, y ) = 0
(1),
.
, -
, .
1. ,
, .
2. -
.
3. a1 a 2 a1 0 ; -
a1 f1 + a 2 f 2 = 0,
(1)
f 2 = 0.
f1 = 0, f1 + f 2 = 0, f1 = 0, f1 f 2 = 0,
,
f 2 = 0, f 2 = 0, f1 + f 2 = 0, f 2 = 0,
f1 = 0, f1 + f 2 = 0
.
f1 f 2 = 0, f2 f2 = 0
4. , ,
.
5. ,
.

29
6. f g = 0 , f g
, ,
f g = 0 f = 0 ,
g = 0 .
. :
2 x + 3 y = 2,
1) . x
5 x 6 y = 5.
5, 2 ,

(15 + 12) y = 10 10 ; 27 y = 0 ; y = 0 .
y 2
, 9 x = 9 ; x = 1 .
(1, 0) .
- , (1, 0) .
x 3 y = 3,
2) . x
2 x 6 y = 6.
y : x = 3 y + 3 , (*)
x .
6 y + 6 6 y = 6 ; 0 y = 0 .
y . y
x (*), (3t + 3, t ), t R . -
.
2 ,
, .
y = 1 x 1 .
3
.
x 3 y = 3,
3) x = 3y + 3 -
2 x 6 y = 6.
: 6 y + 6 6 y = 6 ; 0 y = 12 .
y , ,
.
y = 1 x 1 y = 1 x + 1 .
3 3
: (x, y ) .
x + y + z = 1,

. 2 x + 2 y + z = 1,
x + 3 y + 2 z = 3.

, .
( 2 ) , z = 1 z = 1 .
( 1) ,
2 y + z = 2 y = 0,5 . x = 0,5 .
. ( 0,5; 0,5; 1) .

30
5.

. ,
().

5.1.

1) a < 0 x ,
f (x ) = a 2 n ,
2n f (x ) = a
2)
a 0.
f (x ) = (g (x ))2 n ,
2n f (x ) = g (x )
g (x ) 0.
2 n +1 f (x ) = g (x ) f (x ) = (g (x ))2n +1 ; n N .

1. f ( x ) + g ( x ) = ( x )

. x 2 + 3x 4 = 2 x + 2 .
x 2 + 3x 4 0, (x 1)(x + 4 ) 0, x1 = 2,

2 x + 2 0, x + 1 0, x 2 = 3, x = 2.
2 (x + 3)(x 2 ) = 0 x 1
x + 3x 4 = 2 x + 2
2. 3 f (x ) + 3 g (x ) = (x ) -
. ,
(a + b)3 = a 3 + b 3 + 3ab(a + b) :
f (x ) + g (x ) + 33 f (x )g (x ) (3 f (x ) + 3 g (x ) ) = 3 (x ) ,
, 3 f (x ) + 3 g (x ) = (x ) ,
f (x ) + g ( x ) + 33 f (x )g (x ) (x ) = 3 (x ) .
-

.
. 3 3x + 24 + 3 6 x + 21 + 3 = 0 .
3
3x + 24 + 3 6 x + 21 + 3 = 0 3 3x + 24 + 3 6 x + 21 = 3 .
:
3x + 24 + 6 x + 21 + 33 (3x + 24 )(6 x + 21) (3 3x + 24 + 3 6 x + 21 ) = 27 ;
3 (3x + 24 )(6 x + 21) = x + 8 .


-,
. - :
3(x + 8)(6 x + 21) (x + 8) = 0 ; (x + 8)(x 2 x + 1) = 0 ;
3 2

(x + 8)(x 1)2 = 0 x1 = 8; x 2 = 1 .
, ,
x = 1 .
. x = 8 .

31
f (x )
3. = g (x )
a (x )
4
. x + 2 + x = 0.
2+ x
2+ x .
x 0, x 0, x 0,
x 0, 2
2 + x > 0, x (2 + x ) = (2 x )2 , x = 2 / 3, x= .
x 2 + x = 2 x 2 x 0 x 2 3
x 2 + x 4(2 + x ) = 0

6.

. , ,
.
:
f (x ) 0,

f (x ) < g (x ) g (x ) > 0,

f (x ) < (g (x )) .
2

f (x ) 0,

f (x ) g (x ) g (x ) 0,

f (x ) (g (x )) .
2

g (x ) 0,

f (x ) > (g (x )) ,
2
f (x ) > g (x )
f (x ) 0,
g (x ) < 0.

g (x ) 0,

f (x ) (g (x )) ,
2
f (x ) g (x )
g (x ) < 0,
f (x ) 0.

f ( x ) 0,
2n f (x ) < 2n g ( x ), n N
g ( x ) > f ( x ).

2 n +1 f (x ) < 2 n +1 g ( x ), n N f ( x ) < g ( x )
f (x ) 0,

2n f ( x ) < g ( x ), n N g (x ) > 0,

f ( x ) < ( g ( x )) .
2n

f ( x ) < g ( x ), n N f ( x ) < ( g ( x ))
2 n +1 2 n +1

32
g ( x ) 0,

f (x ) > g (x )
2n
2n f ( x ) > g ( x ), n N
g ( x ) < 0,

f ( x ) 0.

f (x) > g ( x), n N f (x) > ( g (x))


2n+1 2n+1
.

. x + 5 <1 x .
x + 5 0,

1 x > 0,

x + 5 < (1 x ) .
2

5 x < 1 .
x + 5 < (1 x )2 x 2 3x 4 > 0 , x < 1 , x > 4 . ,
x [ 5, 1) .

7. ,

,
, , ,

.
.

1. f ( x ) = g (x ) :
f (x ) = g (x ),

x 0,
f ( x ) = g (x ),

x < 0.
. x 2 + 2 x 8 = 0 .
,
x < 0 x 0 .
x < 0,
1). x<0 x = x 2
x 2 x 8 = 0.
x1 = 2 ; x 2 = 4 . x 2 = 4 x < 0
. , x
x = 2 .
x 0,
2). x0 x =x : 2 -
x + 2 x 8 = 0.
2 -4, -4 x 0
. , x -
x = 2 .
33
2. f (x ) = g (x ) -
f (x ) = g (x ), f (x ) = g (x ),

f (x ) 0, g (x ) 0,
:
f (x ) = g (x ), f (x ) = g (x ),

f (x ) < 0 g (x ) 0
f (x ) g (x ) .
3. h( f (x ) ) = g (x )
h ( f (x )) = g (x ), h ( f (x )) = g (x ),

f ( x ) 0 f (x ) < 0.
1 2x
. = 1.
3 x 1
x 1 0,

: 1 2x
3 (x 1) = 1

x 1 < 0,

1 2x
3 + ( x 1) = 1.

1 2x
=1, x = 3 .
4x
x 1 0 , .
1 2 x = 1 x = 1 .
2+ x 3
x 1 < 0 , -
.
. x = 1 / 3 .

8. ,

. 5 x < x 2 + 7 2 x .
x1 = 5 , x 2 = 2 x 3 = 7 / 2 .

7
5 x 0 x 5 ; x 2 0 x 2 ; 7 2 x 0 x .
2
I II III IV
5 x + + +

x2 + + +

+ +
7 2x

2 3,5 5
, -
.
I. x 2 , x < 2;
5 x < 2 x + 7 2x

34
2 < x 3,5 ,
II. x ;
5 x < x 2 + 7 2x
III. 3,5 < x 5 , x > 3,5 . 3,5 < x 5 ;
5 x < x 2 7 + 2 x
x > 5 ,
IV. x > 2 . x > 5.
x 5 < x 2 + 2x 7
. x ( ; 2 ) (3,5; + ) .
f (x ) < g (x ),
f (x ) < g (x )
f (x ) < g (x ).
f (x ) > g (x ) :
f (x ) > g (x ) , f (x ) < g (x ) .

9.

. a f (x ) = a g (x ) ,
a > 0 , a 1 .
a x = b , a > 0 , a 1 , b > 0 , :
a x = b a x = a loga b x = log a b .

9.1.

a > 0, a 1, b > 0,

f (x ) = log a b;
a = 1, b 1, x ;
a f (x ) = b
a = 1, b = 1,
x f (x );

b 0, x ;

a > 0, a 1,
f (x ) g (x )
a =b b > 0, b 1,
f (x ) = g (x ) log b;
a

a > 0 , a 1,
a f (x ) = a g (x )
f ( x ) = g ( x ).

. 4 x = 8 2 x 3 .
4 x = (2 2 ) = 2 2 x , 8 2 x 3 = (2 3 ) = 2 6 x 9 ,
x 2 x 3 9
2 2 x = 2 6 x 9 2 x = 6 x 9 x= .
4

. (0,2)
x 0,5
= 5 0,04 x 1 .
5
:
x 1
x 0,5 0,5 1 1 2 x 2 x 3
1 1 1 1 1
= = x = 2x 3 x = 3 .
5 5 5 5 5 5

. 4 x + 2 x +1 24 = 0 .

35
(2 x ) + 2 2 x 24 = 0 . t = 2 x , t > 0 . t 2 + 2t 24 = 0 .
2

t1 = 4 , t 2 = 6 . ,
2 x = 4 , 2 x = 6 .
, 6 < 0 , 2 x > 0 x . -
, x = 2 .

9.2. -
g (x ) = h (x ),

1) f (x ) > 0,
f (x )
g (x )
= f (x )
h (x )
f (x ) 1;

f (x ) = 1,
2 ) x g (x ) h (x ).

9.3.

f (x ) , h(x ) g (x ) :
f ( x ) > 1,

g (x ) h(x ) g ( x ) > h ( x ),
f (x ) > f (x )
0 < f ( x ) < 1,
g ( x ) < h ( x );

f ( x ) 1,

f ( x )g ( x ) f ( x )h ( x ) g ( x ) h ( x ),
0 < f ( x ) 1,
g ( x ) h ( x );

f ( x ) > 1,

f ( x )g ( x ) < f ( x )h ( x ) g ( x ) < h ( x ),
0 < f ( x ) < 1,
g ( x ) > h ( x );

f ( x ) 1,

f ( x )g ( x ) f ( x )h ( x ) g ( x ) h ( x ),
0 < f ( x ) 1,
g ( x ) h ( x ).

. (0,04)5x x 8 < 625 .


2

,
(0,04)5x x 8 < (0,04)2 . 0 < 0,04 < 1 5 x x 2 8 > 2 x 2 5x + 6 < 0 x (2, 3) .
2

. 4 x + 0,5 7 2 x 4 < 0 .
t = 2 x , t > 0 ,
2 1
2 t 7 t 4 < 0, 2 t + (t 4 ) < 0,
2 t (0, 4 ) .
t>0 t > 0

2 x < 4 x < 2 x ( 2, + ) .

36
10.

. , -
, .

1
. log 2 2 =x.
64
3
(2 2 )x = 641 2 2 x = 2 6 x = 4 .

a > 0, a 1, x > 0,
log a x = b
x = ab.

. log 23 5 x = 6 .

: x>0. ( )6 x = 1600 1 .
x = 23 5

a > 0, a 1,

loga f ( x ) = b f ( x ) > 0,
f (x ) = a b .

a 1, b 0 : x = b a;

log x a = b a = 1, b = 0 : x > 0, x 1;

a>0 a = 1, b 0 : x ;

a 1, b = 0 : x .

1 3
. log x = .
8 2
1
: x > 0, x 1 . x 3/ 2 = ,
8
(x )
3/ 2 2 / 3
( )
= 2 3
2/3
x = 2 2 =
1
4
.

. log 3x 10 log 2x 10 6 log x 10 = 0 .


: x > 0 , x 1 .
t = log x 10 . t 3 t 2 6t = 0 t (t 2 t 6) = 0
t (t 3)(t + 2 ) = 0 , t1 = 0 , t 2 = 3 , t 3 = 2 .
, : log x 10 = 0
; log x 10 = 2 ; log x 10 = 3 , x1 = 101 / 3 x 2 = 10 1 / 2 ,
, .

37
log a f (x ) = log a g (x ) f (x ) > 0, g (x ) > 0,

a > 0, a 1 f ( x ) = g ( x ) f (x ) = g (x ).

f (x ) > 0, g (x ) > 0,
log f ( x ) A = log g ( x ) A
f (x ) 1, g (x ) 1,
A>0 f (x ) = g (x ) f (x ) = g (x ).

g (x ) > 0,
g (x ) 1,

log g ( x ) f (x ) = b
f (x ) > 0,
f (x ) = g (x )b .

. (
log x +1 x 2 3x + 1 = 1 .)

x + 1 > 0, x > 1,

x + 1 1, x 0, x=4.
x 2 3x + 1 = x + 1 x 2 4 x = 0,

, x -
(log 5 5 = 1) -
.

g (x ) > 0, h (x ) > 0,
f (x ) > 0, f (x ) > 0,

log f ( x ) g (x ) = log f ( x ) h (x )
f ( x ) 1, f (x ) 1,
g (x ) = h (x ) g (x ) = h (x ).

f (x ) > 0, f (x ) > 0,
g (x ) > 0, p (x ) > 0,

log g ( x ) f (x ) = log p ( x ) f (x )
(
g x 1,) p (x ) 1,
g (x ) = p (x ) g (x ) = p (x ).

. ( ) (
log x 2 1 x 3 + 6 = log x 2 1 4 x 2 x ).
x 3 + 6 > 0,

x 2 1 > 0,

x 2 1 1,
x 3 + 6 = 4 x 2 x.

x 3 4 x 2 + x + 6 = 0 : x1 = 1 ; x 2 = 2 , x 3 = 3 .
x1 = 1 x 2 1 > 0 . x 2 = 2 x 3 = 3
, , -
.

38
11.

. , -
, .

11.1.

g (x ) > h (x ),

h (x ) > 0,
f (x ) > 1,
log f ( x ) g (x ) > log f ( x ) h (x )
h (x ) > g (x ),
g (x ) > 0,

0 < f (x ) < 1.
g (x ) h (x ),

h (x ) > 0,
f (x ) > 1,
log f ( x ) g (x ) log f ( x ) h (x )
h (x ) g (x ),
g (x ) > 0,

0 < f (x ) < 1.
g (x ) < h (x ),

g (x ) > 0,
f (x ) > 1,
log f ( x ) g (x ) < log f ( x ) h (x )
h (x ) < g (x ),
h (x ) > 0,

0 < f (x ) < 1.
g (x ) h (x ),

g (x ) > 0,
f (x ) > 1,
log f ( x ) g (x ) log f ( x ) h (x )
h (x ) g (x ),
h (x ) > 0,

0 < f (x ) < 1.

. log x 2 (2 + x ) < 1 .
log x 2 (2 + x ) < log x 2 x 2 ,
:

x 2 > 1,

2 + x < x 2 , x ( 2, 1) (2, + )

2 + x > 0 x ( 2, 1) ( 1, 0 ) ( 0, 1) ( 2, + ) .

0 < x 2 < 1,
2 x ( 1, 0) (0, 1)
x < 2 + x

39
0 < f (x ) < 1,

log f ( x ) g (x ) 0 0 < g (x ) 1,
f (x ) > 1,

g (x ) 1 .

0 < f (x ) < 1,

g (x ) 1,
log f ( x ) g (x ) 0
f (x ) > 1,

0 < g (x ) 1.

f (x ) g (x ),

g (x ) > 0,
(x ) > 1,
log ( x ) f (x ) log ( x ) g (x )
f (x ) g (x ),
f (x ) 0,

0 < (x ) < 1.

f (x ) g (x ),

f (x ) > 0,
(x ) > 1,
log ( x ) f (x ) log ( x ) g (x )
f (x ) g (x ),
g (x ) > 0,

0 < (x ) < 1.

. log x 2 (2 x 3) > log x 2 (24 6 x ) .



x 2 > 1, 27
24 6 x > 0, <x<4
8
2 x 3 > 24 6 x 27
0 < x 2 < 1,
x ( 2, 3 ) , 4 .
8

2 x 3 > 0, 2< x<3

2 x 3 < 24 6 x

40
12.

, ,
.
.
180
1 0,01745 . 1 = .

1 = 5717 45 .

12.1.

y
y
sin = ;
/2 x2 + y2
M
y x
cos = ;
x2 + y2
0
r =1 0 x 2 x
y
tg = ( x 0) ;
x
x
3/2 ctg = ( y 0) .
y

. M , (1, 0)
,
( sin ), ( cos ).


sin
: tg = , + n , n Z .
cos 2


cos
: ctg = , n , n Z .
sin

, :
1 1
sec = , cos 0 , cosec = , sin 0 .
cos sin

, (!),
.

41

sin cos tg ctg


+ + + +
0<<
2
+
<<
2
<<
3 + +
2
3 +
< < 2
2

3
0 6 4 3 2 2
0 30 45 60 90 180 270 360

sin 0 1 2 3 1 0 1 0
2 2 2
cos 1 3 2 1 0 1 0 1
2 2 2
tg 0 3 1 3 0 0
3
ctg 3 1 3 0 0
3

12.2.

sin
1. sin 2 + cos 2 = 1 . 2. tg = + n .
cos 2
cos
3. ctg = ( n ) . 4. tg ctg = 1 .
sin
1 1
5. sec = + n . 6. cosec = ( n ) .
cos 2 sin
1 1
7. 1 + tg 2 = + n . 8. 1 + ctg =
2
( n ) .
cos 2 2 sin 2
(n Z ) .

t2 1 1
t = tg : sin 2 = , cos 2 = , ctg = .
1+ t 2
1+ t 2
t

+ m, m Z.
2

42
:

x + 2
sin x sin sin sin
cos x cos cos cos
tgx tg tg -tg
ctgx ctg -ctg ctg

3 3
x + +
2 2 2 2
sin x cos cos cos cos
cos x sin sin sin sin
tgx ctg ctg ctg ctg
ctgx tg tg tg tg

sin ( ) = sin cos cos sin ,


cos ( ) = cos cos sin sin ,
tg tg
!
tg ( ) = ,
1 tg tg
! ctg ctg 1
ctg ( ) = .
ctg ctg

1
sin sin = cos ( - ) - cos ( + ) .
2
1
cos cos = cos ( ) + cos ( + ) .
2
1
sin cos = sin ( ) + sin ( + ) .
2
1
cos sin = sin ( + ) sin ( ) .
2
tg + tg
tg tg = .
ctg + ctg
ctg + ctg
ctg ctg = .
tg + tg
sin ( + ) sin ( ) = cos 2 cos 2 .

cos ( + ) cos ( ) = cos 2 sin 2 .

43

1. cos 2 = cos ( + ) = cos 2 sin 2 = 2 cos2 1 = 1 2sin 2 =


cos 2 sin 2 ! 1 tg 2
= = .
cos 2 + sin 2 1 + tg 2
2sin cos cos 2 ! 2 tg
!
2. sin 2 = sin ( + ) = 2sin cos = = .
cos 2 + sin 2 cos 2 1 + tg 2
! 2 tg ! 2
3. tg 2 = = .
1 t g
2
ctg tg
! ctg 2 1 ! ctg tg
4. ctg 2 = = .
2 ctg 2

! 2t
tg =t sin = ,
2 1+ t2
! 1 t2
+ n, cos = ,
2 2 1+ t2
2t
nZ tg = .
1 t2

sin 3 = 4sin 3 + 3sin .


cos 3 = 4 cos3 3cos .
3 tg tg 3
tg 3 = .
1 3 tg 2
ctg 3 3ctg
ctg 3 = .
3ctg 2 1
sin 4 = 4 cos3 sin 4 cos sin 3 .
cos 4 = cos 4 6 cos 2 sin 2 + sin 4 .

1 cos
sin = .
2 2
1 + cos
cos = .
2 2
! 1 cos ! sin ! 1 cos
tg = = = .
2 1 + cos 1 + cos sin
! 1 + cos ! sin ! 1 + cos
ctg = = = .
2 1 cos 1 cos sin

44

1 cos 2 1 + cos 2
sin 2 = . cos 2 = .
2 2
3 sin sin 3 3 cos + cos 3
sin 3 = . cos 3 = .
4 4

3 1 1
cos 2 + cos 4 .
sin 4 =
8 2 8
3 1 1
cos = + cos 2 + cos 4 .
4
8 2 8

+
sin + sin = 2 sin cos .
2 2
+
sin sin = 2 cos sin .
2 2
+
cos + cos = 2 cos cos .
2 2
+
cos cos = 2 sin sin .
2 2
sin ( )
tg tg = .
cos cos
sin ( )
ctg ctg = .
sin sin
cos ( )
tg + ctg = .
cos sin
cos ( + )
ctg tg = .
sin cos

45

2 2 2
1. cos sin = cos sin = 2 cos = 2 cos = 2sin .
2 2 2 4 4 4
1 3
2. sin 3 cos = 2 2 sin 2 cos = 2 sin 3 .

3. 3 sin cos = 2 sin 3 cos 1 = 2 sin .


2 2 6

4. A cos + B sin = A2 + B 2 cos arctg B ,


A
B A
A 2 + B 2 0 , sin = , cos= .
A + B2
2
A2 + B 2
5. ( sincos ) =1sin2 sincos= 1sin2 .
2

6. sin 3 = 4sin sin - sin + .



3 3


7. cos 3 = 4 cos cos 3 cos 3 + .

4 4 2 2
8. cos sin = cos sin = cos 2 ;
4 4
(
sin + cos = sin + cos 2 2
)2 2
2 cos sin = 1 2sin 2 2
2
;

sin 4 + cos 4 = (cos 2


sin 2 )2
+ 2 cos 2 sin 2 =

2 1 cos 2 2 1 + cos 2 2 3 + cos 4


= cos 2 + = = .
2 2 4
1 1
9. cos 6 + sin 6 = ( 5 + 3cos 4 ) = (1 + 3cos 2 2 ) ;
8 4
1
cos 6 sin 6 = (15 cos 2 + cos 6) .
16
1
8 8
10. cos sin = cos 2(3 + cos 4 ) .
4
! 2
11. tg + ctg = .
sin 2

46
12.3.

. y = f (x ) ,
T 0 , 1) x
(x + T ) (x T ) ;
2) f (x + T ) = f (x ) . T f (x ) .

y = sin x
1. - x R .
2. y [ 1; + 1] .
3. y = sin x - sin( x ) = sin x .
4. y = sin x 2k (k Z ) .
5. : Oy : x = 0 , y = sin 0 = 0 ;
Ox ( ): sin x = 0 , x = k , k Z .

y y

0 3/2 2
0 /2 x

y
y = sin x
1

2 3/2 /2 0 /2 3/2 2 x

6. y = sin x , .

x ( , + ) ; y [ 1, 1] ; sin( x ) = sin x ; sin(x + 2k ) = sin x , k Z .

y = cos x
1. x R .
2. y [ 1; + 1] .
3. y = cos x cos( x ) = cos x .
4. y = cos x 2k (k Z ) .
5. : Oy : x = 0 , y = cos 0 = 1 ;

Ox ( ): cos x = 0 , x = + k .
2
6. y = cos x , .

47

. cos x = sin x + , y = cos x
2
y = sin x /2
Ox .

1 y = cos x

3/2 /2 0 /2 3/2 x

x ( , + ) ; y [ 1, 1] ; cos( x ) = cos x ; cos(x + 2k ) = cos x , k Z .

y = tg x
1. ,
+ k , k Z .
2
2. y R .
3. tg x .
4. y = tg x k , k Z .
5. : Oy : x = 0 y = tg 0 = 0 ;
Ox ( ): tg x = 0 , sin x = 0 , .. x = k , k Z .
6. , .

y y

1
-/2 -/4
0 /8 /4 /2 x -3/2 - -/2 0 /2 3/2 x
1


x + k , k Z ; y ( , + ) ; tg ( x ) = tgx ; tg ( x + n ) = tgx , n Z .
2

48
y = ctgx

1. ,
k , k Z .
2. y R .
3. ctg x .
4. y = ctg x k , k Z .
5. : Oy ;
Ox ( ): ctgx = 0 ,
cos x = 0 , .. x = + k , k Z .
2
8. ,
.
.

ctg x = tg x + ,
2
y = ctgx
y = tgx
/ 2
Ox Ox .
x k , k Z ; y ( , + ) ; ctg ( x ) = ctgx ; ctg ( x + n ) = ctgx , n Z .

12.4.

a > 1 x ,
1. sin x = a
a 1 x = ( 1)k arcsin a + k ,

arcsin a , , k Z .
2 2
a > 1 x ,
2. cos x = a
a 1 x = arccos a + 2k ,

arccosa [ 0,
], k Z .
3. tg x = a x = arctg a + k ,

arctg a , , k Z , aR .
2 2
4. ctg x = a x = arcctg a + k ,
arcctg a ( 0, ) , k Z , a R .

49
a sin x = a cos x = a
0 x = k
x = + k
2
1 x = 2k
x= + 2k
2
1 x = + 2 k
x = + 2k
2
1
x = ( 1)k + k x= + 2k
2 6 3
1 2
x = ( 1)k +1 + k x= + 2k
2 6 3
k
3 x = ( 1) + k x = + 2k
2 3 6
5

3 x = ( 1)k +1 + k x= + 2 k
2 3 6

2 x = ( 1)k + k x= + 2k
2 4 4
3

2 x = ( 1)k +1 + k x= + 2 k
2 4 4

a tg x = a ctg x = a
0 x = k
x= + k
2
1
x= + k x = + k
4 4
1 3
x = + k x= + k
4 4
3
x = + k x = + k
3 6
3 5
x = + k x= + k
3 6
3
x = + k x = + k
3 6 6
3 2
x= + k x= + k
3 6 3

3 3
. sin 5 x + = .
8 2
3 3
5x + y, sin y = .
8 2
3 3
: y = k + ( 1)k arcsin , k Z . arcsin = , , y = ( 1)k + k ,
2 2 3 3
k Z .
3 3
= ( 1)k + k , k Z ,
x: 5x + 5 x = + ( 1)k + k , k Z ,
8 3 8 3
3 k
x = ( 1)k + , k Z .
15 40 5
k 3 k
. ( 1) + , k Z .
15 40 5

50
. 2 cos x cos 2 x = cos x .
: cos x (2 cos 2 x 1) = 0 .


cos x = 0, x = 2 + n, n Z ,
1
cos 2 x = 2
2 x = + 2k , k Z , .. x = + k , k Z .
3 6

. + n , + k (n, k Z ) .
2 6
. 2 sin 2 x cos x 1 = 0 .
: 2(1 cos 2 x ) cos x 1 = 0 ; 2 cos 2 x + cos x 1 = 0 .
cos x = t , t 1 . : 2t 2 + t 1 = 0 .
1 1
, t1 = 1 , t2 = . , cos x = 1 , cos x = .
2 2
, :
x = 2n + , n Z ,

x = + 2k , k Z .
3

. (2n + 1) , + 2k (n, k Z ) .
3


1. tg x, sin 2 x, cos 2 x , sin 2 x, cos 2 x ,

tg 2 x 1
sin x =
2
; cos 2 x = ;
1 + tg 2 x 1 + tg 2 x
2 tg x 1 tg 2 x
;
sin 2 x = cos 2 x =
1 + tg 2 x 1 + tg 2 x
f ( tg x ) .
x
2. sin x, cos x ,
2
:
x x x
2 tg 1 tg 2 2 tg
sin x = 2 , cos x = 2; tg x = 2
2 x 2 x 1 tg 2 x
1 + tg 1 + tg
2 2
x
f tg = 0 .
2
. sin 2 x cos 2 x = tg x .
: x + m , m Z .
2
2 tg x 1 tg 2 x
= tg x 2 tg x 1 + tg 2 x = tg x (1 + tg 2 x ) .
1 + tg 2 x 1 + tg 2 x
tg 3 x tg 2 x tg x + 1 = 0 . tg x = t ,
t 3 t 2 t + 1 = 0 ; t 2 (t 1) (t 1) = 0 ; (t 1)(t 2 1) = 0 ;
(t 1)2 (t + 1) = 0 ; t1 = 1 , t 2 = 1 .

51

tg x = 1 x = 4 + n, n Z ,

tg x = 1 x = + k , k Z .
4

. + n, + k (n, k Z ) .
4 4
:
b b
a sin x + b cos x = 0 tg x = x = k + arctg , k Z
a a
:
a sin x + b sin x cos x + c cos 2 x = 0 atg 2 x + b tg x + c = 0
2

b b 2 4ac
x = k + arctg , b 2 4ac 0, a, b, c 0,
1, 2 2a
x , b 2 4ac < 0.

.
10 sin 2 x + 6 sin x cos x 4 cos 2 x = 0 .

x= + n cos x 0 ,
2
cos 2 x : 5 tg 2 x + 3 tg x 2 = 0 , tg x = 1 ,
2 2
x1 = + n, n Z tg x = , x2 = arctg + k , k Z .
4 5 5
2
. xx = + n , x2 = arctg + k ( n, k Z ) .
4 5

12.5.
1
. sin x > . y
2
N

, , x 5 1
P , 1/2 1
M ,
6 2
MNP , .. 5 / 6 6 2
/6
5
+ 2n < x < + 2 n, n Z . 0 1 x
6 6
5
. x + 2n, + 2n , n Z .
6 6

y
. sin x + cos 2 x > 1 .
cos 2 x = 1 2 sin 2 x
t = sin x , t 1, 1/2
5 / 6
/6
1
t 2t > 0 t (1 2t ) > 0 0 < t < , ..
2 0 1 x
2
1 5
0 < sin x < 2 n < x < + 2n , + 2k < x < + 2k ,
2 6 6
n, k Z .
5
. x 2n, + 2n + 2k , + 2k , n, k Z .
6 6

52
12.6.


1. x y , ,
2 2
x .

y = arcsin x , x = sin y , x 1 , y , .
2 2
x 0

6 4 3 2
sin x 0 1 2 3
1
2 2 2

arcsin ( x ) = arcsin x ; sin(arcsin x ) = x , x 1 ; arcsin x .

2. x y [0, ] ,
x .
y = arccos x , x = cos y , x 1 , y [0, ] .
x 0
6 4 3 2
cos x 1 3 2 1 0
2 2 2
x 2 3 5
3 4 6
cos x 1 2 3

2 2 2
arccos( x ) = arccos x ; cos(arccos x ) = x , x 1 ; arccos x .

3. x
y
y , , /2
2 2
x . /4

y = arctg x , x = tg y , y , , x R . 1 0 1 x
2 2
arctg ( x ) = arctg x ;
/2
tg ( arctg x ) = x , x R ;
arctg x .

4. x y (0, ) ,
x . y
y = arcctg x , x = ctg x , y (0, ) ,

x R . arcctg ( x ) = arcctg x

ctg ( arcctg x ) = x , x R
/2
arcctg x .

1 0 1 x

53

1. 4 arctg ( x 2 3x 3) = 0 .
= arctg ( x 2 3x 3) ,
, ;
2 2

arctg ( x 2 3 x 3) = ; tg arctg = 1 x 2 3 x 3 = 1 ;
4
x1, 2 = 1; 4 .

. x1, 2 = 1; 4 .

2. arcsin x < .
6
: x 1, x 1,
1 1 x [ 1, 12 ).
arcsin x < arcsin 2 x < 2

54
13.
13.1.

1. c = 0 (c = const ) .

2. (x ) = nx x = 1,
n n 1 1
= 2 ,
x
x
1
x =

( )
1
2 x
.

3. x (a ) = a ln a .
x
( )
4. e x = e x .
1
5. (log a x ) = .
x ln a
6. (ln x ) = 1 . 7. (sin x ) = cos x .
x
8.
(cos x ) = sin x .
1 1
9. ( tg x ) = . 10. ( ctg x ) = .
cos 2 x sin 2 x
1 1
11. (arcsin x ) = . 12. (arccos x ) = .
1 x2 1 x2
1 1
13. ( arctg x ) = . 14. ( arcctg x ) = .
1 + x2 1 + x2

13.2.

1. (cu ) = cu , c = const . 2. (u v ) = u v .
3. (uv ) = u v + v u .

u u v uv c cv
4. = = .
v v2 v v2
5. y = f (u ), u = u (x ) y x = f u u x .

13.3.

y y = f (x )
y = f (x ) (x 0 , y 0 ) :
y = f (x 0 ) + f (x 0 )(x x 0 ) .
f (x 0 ) M 0 (x 0 , f (x 0 ))
k1 k 2 :
1
k 1 k 2 = 1 k 2 = . k
k1 T
, 0 x0 x

(x 0 , y 0 )
y = f (x ) :
1
y f (x 0 ) = (x x 0 ) .
f (x 0 )
s(t ) ,
v (t ) = s (t ) , a (t ) = v (t ) .

55
13.4.
,
, .
.
.

: f (x 0 ) = 0 (
).
, f (x )
x .
x 0
.
x 0
,
x < x 0 x > x 0 .
13.5.
1. . .
2. , () .
3. f (x ) = 0 .
4. , f (x ) = 0 ,
.
5. ,
.
6. ,
. .
7. ,
.

14.
A
B : aG = AB .
AB , AB ,
A B .
G
0 .
,G .
G
aG b cG , G c
, a
G G K G
:G
c =a+b .
b
G G

G
a b c ,
G G G G
b a : c = a b G
a
G
c
( b ) b ,
G G
G G
b , b
.
56
aG aG .

.
:
5. (aG + b ) = aG + b ;
G G G G
1. aG + b = b + aG ;
2. (aG + b )+ cG = aG + (b + cG ) ;
G G
6. ( + ) aG = aG + aG ;
G
3. aG : aG + 0 = aG ; 7. ( aG ) = ( ) aG ;
G
4. aG : aG : aG + ( aG ) = 0 ; 8. aG : 1 aG = aG .
,
. G
aG = b .
G G
i, j ,
G G G G
: i j , i = j = 1 . y
G G M
AB = { x2 x1, y2 y1 } .
AB = x i + y j y2 B
, N
G
, i = {1, 0 }, y1 A
G
j = {0, 1 } . K
j P Q
() aG G
O i x1 x2 x
G
G a
: a0 = .
a

d= (x B x A )2 + ( y B y A )2 - d y
A B.
yB B(xB , y B )

yA C
A( x A , y A )

O xA xB x

(x x0 )2 + ( y y0 )2 = R 2 - y
C (x0 , y0 ) R . M ( x, y )
y C ( x0 , y0 )
0
O (0, 0) , :
x2 + y2 = R2 .
O x0 x
{i , j , k }, i = {1, 0, 0 } , j = {0, 1, 0 } ,
G G G G G
G
k = {0, 0, 1 } , OA { x, y, z },

OA = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 . z
z
AB , A
A(x1, y1, z1 ) B(x2 , y2 , z2 ) :
G G
AB = {(x2 x1 ), ( y2 y1 ), (z2 z1 ) } , k j y
G
i O y
x A1
AB = (x2 x1 )2 + ( y2 y1 )2 + (z2 z1 )2 .
x

57
G
aG = {a x , a y , a z } b = {bx , by , bz }
.
G
aG = b , a x = bx , a y = b y , a z = bz
ax a y az
= = =.
bx by bz


G
: aG b = {a x bx , a y by , a z bz }.

,
.
G
aG b ,
:
(aG bG ) = G G
a b cos , 0 ,

(aG bG ) = aG a bG = bG baG ,
G
a
G G G
G a b
b b a = G
( ),
b

cos = G
(aG bGG) .
a b


1. (aG bG ) = (bG aG ) ; 2. (aG, bG ) = (aG bG ) ;
3. ((aG + bG ) cG ) = (aG cG ) + (bG cG ) ; 4. (aG aG ) = G
a
2
.


: (aG b ) = 0 , cos = 0 = .
G
2
G G

,
a b
G G G G G G G G
a = x1 i + y1 j + z1 k , b = x2 i + y 2 j + z2 k ,

: (aG b ) = x1x2 + y1 y2 + z1z2 .
G

G
a = (aG aG ) = x12 + y12 + z12 ;
x1x2 + y1 y2 + z1z2
cos = .
x12 + y12 + z12 x22 + y22 + z22

: (aG bG ) = x1x2 + y1 y2 + z1z2 = 0

58
15.

a+b+c A
a, b, c ABC ; p =
2
; S ; r R b c
; ha , a ,ma ha ma
a
, , .
a. C a B
A = , B = , C = .
.
180 .

, .
.
:
a b c
= = .
sin sin sin
.

:
a 2 = b 2 + c 2 2bc cos .
1 1 abc
S = p ( p a )( p b )( p c ) ; S = aha ; S = ab sinC ; S = p r ; S = ;
2 2 4R
c 2 sina sin
S = 2 R 2sin sin sin ; S = .
2sin

.
, ,
.

, .
S ( p a )( p b )( p c ) = p tg tg tg = p c tg = 4 R sin sin sin
r= = ( )
p p 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

ab ( a + b + c )( a + b c )
2ab cos ( /2 )
lc = = .
a+b a+b

, , ,
, .

59


2 : 1, .
.
.
1
ma = 2b 2 + 2 c 2 a 2 .
2 A
,
R
O ;
abc C B
R= .
4S R O R
A
a b ; c ; ac bc
bc
; a 2 + b2 = c 2
O
1 1 a+bc c b c
; S = ab ; S = chc ; r = ; R= ; mc
2 2 2 2 hc ac
hc = ac bc ; a = cac ; b = cbc ;
2 2 2

C a B
a = csinA = ccosB = b tgA = b ctgB ;
1
ab = chc ; mc = c = R . B
2
RR
2
a 3 a r r a
S= ; a = R 3;
4 R r

a 3 a 3 A a C
a = 2r 3 ; r = ; R= .
6 3
, r
r ; C ; O
S ; C = 2 r ; S = r 2 .
,
r ; l ,
; S ; n A
R l
; ; O
r n r 2 n 1 2 B
l= = r ; S = = r ;
180 360 2
2
r
S = S AlB = S AOBl S AOB = ( sin ) .
2
AOB ,

: AOB = AB = .

60

, , C
180 .
A O
B
C
A B
.
D O

:
A
AS BS = DS CS . C
S
D B



, B
: CP 2 = AP BP .
A

C P
: AP BP = DP EP . B

A E

:
 
  F
AC DE DM + AF A D
ABC = ; DKM = . K
2 2 B
C E
M


d1 d 2 ; B
;
a d2 b
S .
1 A d1 C
A + B + C + D = 360 ; S = d1d 2sin . d c
2 D

61

d 1 = d 2 = d ; d1 d 2 ;
B a C
d2 R
S =a = 2
;
2 a
r
a
a d O
r= ; R= .
2 2 A a D
B C
d1
a b ABCD ; b
A ; ha , ha O d2
a ; d1 , d 2 ; A a D
S ;
ha = b sinA ; d12 = a 2 + b 2 2abcosABC ; d12 + d 22 = 2 ( a 2 + b2 ) ; S = a ha ;
1
S = absinBAD ; S = d1d 2sinAOB ; S = AC BD tgA = AB AD tg AOD .
2 2 2 2

2 4 2
B
1 h a a
d1 d 2 ; S = a ha ; S = a sinB ;2
S = d1d 2 ; r= a ; ha r
2 2
A O C
d12 + d 22 = 4a 2 ; a a

O ;
D

d1 = 2asin ; d 2 = 2acos , = ADC .
2 2

a b ;
B b C
c d ;
h ; d1 d 2 ;
c d
l ; h d1
l
d2
;
S ; A a D

a+b a+b dd
l= ; S= h ; S = 1 2 sin .
2 2 2
a + b = c + d , .
, c = d .

n ;
( n 2 )1800 ;
n ( n 3)
.
2

62
16.

l ; B1 C1
P ; D1
A1
S ;
F1
H ; E1
l
P ; b c
d
S ; a

V ; C
B e
f
S . A D

S l ; V = S l ; E
F
V = S H ; S = P l .

S = P l ; A1 B1
ABCD d A1 B1
; D1 C1
C1
V = SH ; d l D1
S = P l ; d O
l
A B
A
V = S l . B D C

D C

ABCD ; A1 B1
ABCD ; A1 B1
C1
S = 2 ( a + b ) c ; D1
D1 C1
S = 4a ;2
A
d
B d
c
a
S = 6a 2 ; b A
B a
a
V = abc ; D a C
a C
D
d 2 = a 2 + b2 + c 2 .
V = a3 ;
d = a 3.

63

S
S ;
H ;
V ; B
S ; H
l
; C
A O

;
E D
l ( -
);
P ;
1
V = S H ;
3 S
r
V= ( S + S ) ,
3
r . l
B C
ABCD ; l
S = S cos ; O
1 A
S = P l . D
2

B1 C1
S1 S2 ;
h ; V ; A1
D1 l
l ; B h
C
a1,a2 , P1 P2 ;
h1 ,h2 ; O
1 A
S = ( P1 + P2 ) l ; D
2
1
(
V = h S1 + S1 S2 + S2 ;
3
)
S1 a12 h12
= = .
S2 a22 h22

O1

R ;
S ;
H
S ;
V ; R
S = 2RH ; S = 2R ( R + H ) ; V = R 2 H . O

64

S
S = Rl ; S = R ( R + l ) ;

1
V = R 2 H . l l
3 H

R R A
O


1
V = H ( R 2 + Rr + r 2 ) ; r
3
S = l ( R + r ) ; l
H
S = l ( R + r ) + R 2 + r 2 .
R

.
S ;
R ; R
h ;
O
V ;
4
S = 4R 2 ; V = R 3 .
3
:
2
S. = R ( 2h + a ) ; V. = R 2 h .
3
:
S = ( 2 RH + r12 + r22 ) ; R
h

( )
1 O 2a
V = H 3 ( r12 + r22 ) + H 2 ,
6 R
r1 r2 .
:
1
S. = S + S = 2Rh + a 2 ; V. = h 2 R h .
3

65

1.

1 2

1. : 1. :
1 3 3 1 1 1
26,7 13 : 1,8 + 0,1251,88 + 2 + 22 . 4 0,004 300 : 29,25 + 4 3 : 70.
5 25 5,5 8 5 2

: 20. : 0,11.
2. 41 17 18 + 8 23 : 99 + 7 . 2. 10 + 3 17 : 17 + 3,75 : 5 .
18 36 65 7 49 49 6 16 2 4 6

: 2. : 5,5.
25
2,3 + 5 : 7 3. 16 1,7 : 0,05
3. 4
.
5 .
0,8 0,125 + 6,9 33
1,5 : 1,5
20
: 3,1. : 300.
4. x : 4. x :
108
9 + 0,56 0,25 : 5 4 94 53 3
75 = 6 25 . +
5x 33 124 50 25 16 = x
.
2 9 5 13 1 2 99
+ 7,7 :
72 18 26 15 4
: 70.
: 8.
5. , 8%
5. , 140%
24.
182.
: 300.
: 130.
6. :
2 6. :
0

8 6 5 . 3 3 4 1 2 1 0
2 + : 12 3 3 18.
18 6
4 2
: 0,25. : 29,65.
7. (2 1 / 2 ) 6 (0,125) 1 + (21 / 2 ) 0 . 7. (3 ) + 3 .
1 / 4 8
0 2

: 1. 2

2 5
1
3 27 45 +
2
: 0,81.
8. 32 4
245
.
8. 7 56 1 160
2
4
2

: 1,6. 16
1
49
1
.

9. 12 63 27
3
2 2
.
13

2 5 : 48.
: 6. 9. 12
3
244
.
25 15(38 2 23 2 )
10. (10 7 1/ 3 1/ 3
)(3 100 + 3 70 + 3 49 )
.
16 6
2 : 0,4.
(3 16 3 6 ) + 2
10. (7 27 7 8 )(27 + 81 / 2 )
1/ 2

3 3 .
27 64 2

: 0,03. : 0,2.

66
2.

1 2

1. : 1. :
a 3 + 3a 2 b + 3ab 2 + b 3 (a 2 b 2 )(a 2 ab + b 2 )
.
a2 b2 .
ab
: ( a + b) 2
a b
. : a + b . 3 3

2. : 2. :
b 2 + 2b 3
a 2 + 4a + 2 2 b.
a . b 1
a a
: 4. : 3.
3. a b a
2 2
b3
3

3. 2 x + 1
. ab a b2
2
.
a + ax a+x ab
1
: .
: . a+b
a 4. 1
+
2
+
1
.
4. b2
+
4a 2 b ab 2
+
a
.
x 2 + 3 xy 9 y 2 x 2 2 x 6 y
a + ab + b
2 2
b3 a3 ab
: x2
.
: (b a ) 2
. 2 x( x 3 y )
a + ab + b 2
2

5. c + 5 + c + 5 : c + 5c c 2 + 5
2

5. 9a a 12a 9a
2
9
+ .
1 : + + 2 . 5c 1 c + 1 1 5c c +1
(3 a) 2 a 3 27 a 3
a + 3 a + 9
: c 1.
: 1. 1
6. ( x b 2
) + ( x 2 + b 2 ) 1 1 b 2
2 1


.
6. 1 + (a + x) 1 1 (a
1
+ x )
2 2
. ( x b ) ( x 2 + b 2 ) 1 2 x 2
2 2 1

1 (a + x ) 1 2ax
+ +
: x2 .
:
2
( a x 1)
. 2b 2
2ax
7. 1 a 1 / 2
1 + a 1 / 2 a + 1
7. a1,5 + b1,5 a 0,5b 0,5 : (a b) + 2b 0,5 . 1 + a 1 / 2 + 1 a 1 / 2 : a 1 .
a 0,5 + b 0,5
a 0,5 + b 0, 5
: 2
: 1.
8. a + x + ax

1
a + x a x + 1 : ( a + x a x ) a + x .
8. 1 + 1 : 2 a .
a b a + b a b : 2(a + x) .
: 2. 9.
9.
:
: 3
n n + n3 n 5
3m + 15 n= .
( m m + 5 m + m 18 + 15 2 ) :
3 3

4n n (1 + 6 n ) 64
2 m 6 2
3

m = 3. : 3,2.
: 6. 10. ( a 3

3 3
) a 2 + 9 (a 3) 1
27 a 3 : + 1 3 1 / 2

3a (6a )
10. a + a 18 + 6
3
a +2 2
1
a = 2.
a +2 a +a 2+ 8
3 a = 18 2 .
: 1. : 36.

65
3.

1 2
. .
1. y = 2 x. 1. y = 2x 1.

2. y = x2 + 2x + 3 . 2. y = 2 ( x 3 )2 .

2 3x + 4
3. y = 1 . 3. y= .
x x1
3
4. y= x3 . 4. y= x4 .

5. y=
3
x . 5. y = x2 3 .

x 6. y = 32 x .
12
6. y= .
3 7. y = 2 log( 1 2 ) x .

7. y = log 2 x (2 ) . 8. y = 3cos ( 2x ) .
8. y = sin2 x . 9. y = tg 3x .
9. y = 2 + ctg x . 10. y = arctg x .
10. y = arccosx .

66
4.

1. :
(a + 5)(a 2 5a + 25).

: a 3 + 125.

2. :
5a ( 2 x 3) 3 x ( 2 x 3) + (3 2 x ).

: (2 x 3)(5a 3 x 1).
3. :
( x + 3) 2 = 4 x + x + 9.

: = 2 , = 12.
4. :
(2c + 1) 3 27.

: 2(c 1)(4c 2 + 10c + 13).

5. :
x 2 2 x + 5.

: ( x 1) 2 + 4.

6. :
(2 x + x 2 x + 2 x 3 ) : ( x + 1).

: 2 x 2 x 1.

7. x 2 :
( x 2)(2 3 x)(2 x + 5) + 2( x 2 1).
: 3.
8. a , x :
8 x 35a 3 7 1 x
= + ( x 1) + .
15a 3 5a 3
: 0,125.
9. a b ,
x : (3x + 4) = (3b 4a) x + 12 (17 a) x + 16.
2 2

b
: 3; 7.
10. A, B, C , :
1 A B C
= + + .
x( x 1)( x + 2) x x 1 x + 2
: 1 1 1
; ; .
2 3 6

67
2

1. :
(2b 1)(1 + 2b + 4b 2 ).

: 8b 3 1.

2. :
135a 12 x 8 + 90 a 10 x 11 36 a 6 x 16 .
: 9a 6 x 8 (15a 4 + 10a 4 x 3 4 x 8 ).

3. :
1
(3 x + ) 2 = 9 x 2 + x + .
2

: =
1
, =
1
.
12 144

4. :
( p 2) 3 + 27.

: ( p + 1)( p 2 7 p + 19).

5. :
1
a2 + a + 3.
2
2
: 1 47
a + + .
4 4

6. :
(1 x 2 3 x + 6 x 3 ) : (2 x 1).

: 3x 2 + x 1.

7. x2 :
1
x (4 x 2) + (1 x)( 2 x + 5) x.
4

: 1.
8. a , x :
( 2 x + 5)( 2a + 7) = (6a + 1) x + 10 a + 35.
: 6,5.
9. a b ,
x :
( x + 7)( x + 8) = x 2 + (4a + b) x + 2a b + 56.
: 2,5; 5.
10. A, B, C , :
x A B C
= + + .
( x 1)( x + 2)( x + 3) x 1 x + 2 x + 3
: 1 2 3
; ; .
12 3 4

68
5.

1 2

1 : 1. :
71 3 x 1 17 7
= . = 2 .
6x 9 3 5x x

: 14,8. : 5,2.
2. : 2. :
24 x( x + 1) = 4 x 2 7. 61x( x + 1) = 31x 2 30.

: 0,7. : 1,2.
3. : 3. :
2 15 16 .
15 = 8 x. 1 =
x x x2

: 2; 0,125. : 1; 16.
4. 5 x 6x
4. ax b + a + bx = (a2 + b)2 .
2
= .
a+b a b a b b + 3 3 b b2 9

: 2ab
. : 5.
a2 + b2
5. 4 x 4 + 3x 3 + 32 x + 24 = 0.
5. 3 + 27 + x 2 + 813 = 0.
x x : 2; -0,75.
: 3. 6. ( x 2 0,01)(2 x 5) = ( x 2,5)( x + 0,1) 2 .
6. ( x + 0,5)( x 2 9) = (2 x + 1)( x + 3) 2 . : 0,1; 0,3; 2,5.
: 9; -3; -0,5. 7. x 256
4
= 2(7 x + 12).
8
3 16 x 2
7. x = 12 x 8.
2x 4 : -10.
: 20. 8. :
8. : 15 x + 2 y = 2
2 x + 11 y = 2
13 x 3 y = 3
x 3 y = 1
: (0; 1).
: (-1; 0).
1 8
7 x + 24 y = 65 + =0
9. 3 9. x 191 35 y
1 19 x + 12 y = 22
4 x + 13 y = 0

: (-1; 3). : (-2; 5).
x + y + z = 1 4 x 7 y + 8 z = 0
10. 2 x + 2 y + z = 1 10. x 2 y z = 3
x + 3 y + 2z = 3 6 x + 2 y + 3 z = 9

: (-0,5; 0,5; 1). : (-2; 0; 1).
69
6. ,

1 2

1. : 1. :
5 4 x = 1. 2 5 x = 16.

: 1; 1,5. : 2,8; 3,6.


2. 2.
: :
x 2 3 x + 2 x 2 = 0. x 2 + 2 x 3 5 x = 0.

: 1. : 5.
3. : 3. :
0,5 x < 3. x 3 < 1.

: (-2,5; 3,5). : (2; 4).


4. x, 4. x,
: :
5 x 3 > 6 x 2. x 3 > 2 x.

: 0. : 0.
5. x, 5. x,
: :
2x + 5 3x 4
> 1. > 2.
x +1 x3

: 0. : 4.
6. : 6. :
1 x 1 3. 2 x + 1 4.

: x [2,0] [2,4]. : x [5,3] [1,3].

69
7.

1 2

1. : 1. :
x +1+ 2 = 4 2 . 3x =4 3.
: 1. : 0.
9 5x 1 4 x 1
2. = . 2. = .
3 8x 2 x+2 3
: 5. : 2,5.
3. x + 2 = 2 + x 6 . 3. x + 25 x = 5.
: 7. : 0; 25.
4. ( x 2 + 4 x) x 3 = 0. 4. ( x 2 1) 2 x + 1 = 0.
: 3. : 0,5; 1.
5. x + 1 = 11 x. 5. 4 x = x + 2.
: 8. : 0.
4 6
6. 2 x + 1 + 7 = 0. 6. 10 x + 3 + 17 = .
x +1 x+3
: 0,75. : 2,91.
8 4
7. 10 x = 2. 7. x + 3 + = 2.
10 x x+3+3
: 6. : -2.
8. x 7 = x 1. 8. x 10 = x + 2.
: 3. : 1.
9. 4 x 2 1 + x = x 2 . 9. 1 x 2 x = 2 x + 1.
: 0,625. : 0; 0,6.
10. : 10. :
x + x + y = 4 2 x + y + 1 x + y = 1

y x = 7 3x + 2 y = 4
: (1; 8). : (2; -1).

71
8.

1 2

: :
1. log 2 0,25. 1. log1 / 9 3.
: 2. : 0,5.
2. log 32 9. 2. log 32 8.
: 4. : 27.

3. log 2 27 2 log 2 3 + log 2 .


2 3. log 6 34 log 6 17 + log 6 18.
3
: 2.
: 1.
log 5
4. 6 log 1/ 6
2
.
4. 2 2
.
: 0,25.
: 25.
5. log 9 log 4 (3 4 ).
1
5. log 2 log1 / 3 .
9 : 0,5.
: 2. 3
log 3 3
6
6. 3

1

.
6. 27 3 log16 81
.
: 6.
: 2.
7. 0,8(1 + 9 log 8 ) log 5 . 3 65

7. log1 / 4 (log 2 3 log 3 4).


: 4.
: 0,5.

72
9.

1 2

: :
x +1 9 2x 3

1. 4
1. = .
49 3 25
= .
16 7 5 9

: 5,5. : 3.
2. 2 x 1 = 2 2 . 2. 5 2 x = 125.
: 2,5. : -1.
3. 7 x 1 62 2 x = 0. 3. 53 x 7 2 x = 0.
: 1. : 0.
4. 8 3 x = 243 2 x 2. 4. 17 x 1 = 102 6 x 4.
: 5. : 3.
5. 9 x 75 3 x 1 54 = 0. 5. 4 x +1 15 2 x 1 1 = 0.
: 3. : -3.
1 6. log1 / 4 x = 2.
6. log 4 2 x = .
2
: 16.
: 1.
7. log 3 (2 x) = 2.
7. log 0,5 (3x + 1) = 2.
: -7.
: 1.
8. log1 / 3 3 x + 1 = 1.
8. log 2 x 1 = 1.
:26.
:3.
9. log 8 x 11 0,5 = 0.
9. log 12 x 3 1 = 0.
x
: -113.
: 3.
10. log 3 (2 x 2 + 5 x + 6) = lg100.
10. log 2 ( x 2 + 4 x + 11) = log 0,5 0,125.
: 0,5; -3.
: 3; -1.

73
10.

1 2

1. x, 1. x,
: :
2 x + 1 3x 1 9 x + 2 10 x 2
> 1. > 2.
3 2 10 9
: 1. : 8.
2. 2.
: :
6x 5 2x 3
< 0. < 0.
4x + 1 x +1
: 0. : 0; 1.
3. 3.
: :
2 x 2 9 x + 4 < 0. x 2 6 x + 5 < 0.
: 1; 2; 3. : 2; 3; 4.
4. : 4. :
1 1 2 1
> . > .
x 3 2x + 3 4
: (0; 3). : (-1,5; 2,5).
7 x x 8
5. : > 0. 5. : < .
x 7 2 x
: (,7) (0; 7). : (,4) (0; 4).
6. x, 6. x,
: :
x > 2. 2 2 x < 1.
: 5. : 1.
7. : 7. :
4 + 2 x < 1,5. x 0,5 < 1.
: [-2; -0,875]. : [0,5; 1,5].
8. : 8. :
14 x > 2 x. 2 x 1 > x 4.
: (-2; 14]. : [1; 10].

74
11.

1 2

1. x, 1. x,
: :
x / 3
2x < 2 . 1
> 7.

: 0. 7
2. x, : 4.
: 2. x,
3 2x
< 3 3. :
: 0. 4 x / 3 < 16.
3. x, : 5.
: 3. x,
81 :
3 5 x +1 + 6 5 ( x +1) < .
5 x +1 162 35 x 2 3 x 5 > 0.
: 1. : 6.
4. : 4. :
6 x +10 x 2 x2 +2 x 16 x
3 27 1 1
< . > .
4 64 3 9
: (-1; 7). : (-8; 4).
2 x +1
6 5 x 3
5. 1 > 1 .
1 x

5.
2 2+5 x 25
> . 5 5
5 4
: (1; 4).
: (-2; -0,4).
6. x,
6. x,
:
:
x 1 2 x+4 lg 8 + lg 20 < lg 5 + lg 2 2 x 5.
lg 3 lg 3 < lg 3.
: 6.
: 5.
7. x,
7. x,
:
:
x
log 3,1 (2 x 8) log 3,1 6 < 0. log 2 4 log 2 8 < 0.
2
: 6. : 7.
8. x , 8. x ,
: :
log1 / 2 (2 x 1) + log1 / 2 12 > log1 / 2 10 + log1 / 2 6. log 2 / 3 (3x + 6) > log 2 / 3 3 + 2 log 2 / 3 2.
: 1; 2. : -1; 0; 1.
9. : 9. :
log1 / 5 ( x 5) > 2. log1 / 9 ( x + 3) > 0,5.
: (5; 30). : (-3; 0).
9. log 5 ( x + 1) < 2. 10. log 3 ( x + 20) < 3.
: (-13; 12). : (-20; 7).

74
12.

1 2

1. : 1. :
cos x = 1. cos x = 1.
: + 2k , k Z . : 2k , k Z .
2. : 2. :
sin x = 1 / 2. tgx = 3.
: + 2k ; 5 + 2k , k Z . :

+ k ; k Z .
6 6 3
3. : 3. :
tgx = 3 . sin x = 1 / 2.
: + k , k Z . : + 2k , k Z .
3 6
4. 4.
: :
sin(( x 2)) = 0, 0 < x < 4. cos(( x 3)) = 0, 4 < x < 6.
: 1; 2; 3. : 5.
5. 3 + 2 cos x = 0, 8 < x < 20.
5.1 + 2sin x = 0, 2 < x < 4.
9 3
: 10,5. : 3,5.
6. : 6. :
x 3
tg = 1. sin 4 x = .
2 2
:
+ k , k Z .
:
k
+ ; + n , k , n Z .
2 12 2 6
7. : 7. :
1 1
cos 2 x =
. ctg 2 x = .
2 3
: +
k
, k Z.
:

+ k , k Z .
4 2 3
8. : 8. :
2 cos 2 x + 5 sin x 4 = 0. 2 sin 2 2 x + 7 sin 2 x 4 = 0.
:
+ 2k ,
5
+ 2n, k , n Z . :
+ k ,
5
+ n, k , n Z
.
6 6 12 12

9. : 9. :
x
sin 2 x = sin 3x. cos
3
= cos 2 x.

: 2k ,

+
2n
, k, n Z . : 6k 6n
; , k, n Z .
5 5 7 5
10. : 10. :
3 3
cos x < . sin x > .
2 2
: 5 7 : 2
2k + ; 2k + , k Z . 2k + ; 2k + , k Z .
6 6 3 3
11. : 11. :
tgx < 1. ctgx < 1.
:
k , k + , k Z . : 3
2 4 k + , k + , k Z .
4

75
13.

1
1. ,
23, 81.
: 25.
2. ,
: 2 5 4 .
: 2; 6.
3. 2,5
281
.
2
: 10.
4. 2( 2 1) .
.
: 2.
5. 3
. , ,
4 2 .
: 3.
6. 21, 123.
, .
: 40,5.
7. , 9
6,
2
60 D . ,
45D .
: 13,5.
8. 5:7. ,
, .
: 75 D
9. 6 3
120 D . .
: 18.
1
10. , ,
12
.
: 15D.
81
2

1. 156. ,
.
: 78.
2. ,
: 5 4.
: 3; 41 .
3. 7 ( 4 3 ) .
.
: 49.
4. 25,
20. .
: 80.
5. 4, ,
, 2,5. .
: 12.
6. , 60 D , 11,2.
.
: 44,8.
7. 2 3 , 8.
,
60 D .
: 75.
8. , ,
40 20. 8. .
: 17.
9. 40 D .
,
, .
: 80 D
10. , 15,
6.
: 5.

77
14.

1. 3. ?
: 1,5.
2. 2 30 D .
, 3.
: 6.
3. ,
8, 5.
, ,
.
: 54.
4. 7,
8. .
: 9.
5. 6,
45 D . .
: 9.
2048
6. , .
3
: 16.
156
7. . , .

: 26.
8. , 48 ,
3
.
2
: 768.
9. 172 .
, 8.
: 140.
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81