Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 34

OFFICIAL COPY - ES45000 - PECEPIPF999003A1 - ABS Letter T1299428 - 09-Feb-15 - PDF Generated on

16-Feb-2015 4:37PM
CLIENT:

SBM OPERATIONS

PROJECT:

GROUP TECHNICAL STANDARDS

ES45000 PECEPIPF999003 A1
DOCUMENT TITLE:

PIPING

VALVE SELECTION

DESIGN STANDARD

TECHNICAL AUTHORITY: R. BOSSELAAR

SBM Monaco SBM Schiedam SBM Houston SBM Kuala Lumpur SBM Operations
Technical Expert Technical Expert Technical Expert Technical Expert Technical Expert

D Chabaneix H Koenders W Danab Shaharudin Hamidun E. da Passano

PURPOSE OF THE DOCUMENT:


This standard provides guidelines for the selection of generic types of isolation valves for Topsides as well Vessel areas, with
requirements for FPSOs, FSOs, MOPUs, FSRUs and FPUs Process and Utility Plant Facilities. This standard applies only
to the piping on the Floating Installation and does not apply to subsea pipelines or risers.

o
Status/ Date N of
Written by Reviewed by Checked by Approved by
Revision (DD-MMM-YYYY) Pages

C1 06-May-2013 30 R. van Meenen Technical Experts - J.L. Isnard

A1 9-Dec-14 34 H. Koenders Technical Experts R. Bosselaar J.L. Isnard

INFORMATION ON STATUS:
P Preliminary for Information
I Inter Discipline Checking
C For Comments and Approval
V Valid for Construction
A Approved for Construction
D Deleted

Copyright SBM Offshore N.V. 2014


Copyright by SBM Offshore N.V. or any of its subsidiaries. This document is the property of SBM Offshore N.V. or any of its subsidiaries. This document or any part thereof
is CONFIDENTIAL and may not be made known, copied, multiplied, or used in any other way without the permission of SBM Offshore N.V. or any of its subsidiaries
OFFICIAL COPY - ES45000 - PECEPIPF999003A1 - ABS Letter T1299428 - 09-Feb-15 - PDF Generated on
16-Feb-2015 4:37PM
PIPING
VALVE SELECTION
DESIGN STANDARD

ES45000 PECEPIPF999003 A1 PAGE 2 of 34

REVISION STATUS / SUMMARY OF CHANGES

REVISION REVISED CHAPTERS REVISION DESCRIPTION REASON FOR REVISION

C1 For comments and approval First issue


Incorporation of CES rebranding to
All sections updated in line with 2014 GTS
A1 Approved for Construction
workshop Incorporation of comments from 2014
workshops
OFFICIAL COPY - ES45000 - PECEPIPF999003A1 - ABS Letter T1299428 - 09-Feb-15 - PDF Generated on
16-Feb-2015 4:37PM
PIPING
VALVE SELECTION
DESIGN STANDARD

ES45000 PECEPIPF999003 A1 PAGE 3 of 34

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. SCOPE .............................................................................................................................. 5
1.1 EXCLUSIONS ...................................................................................................... 5
1.2 GROUP TECHNICAL STANDARDS .................................................................... 5
2. ABBREVIATIONS ............................................................................................................. 6
2.1 ABBREVIATIONS ................................................................................................ 6
3. SELECTION OF VALVES ................................................................................................. 7
3.1 GENERAL ............................................................................................................ 7
3.2 TYPE OF VALVES ............................................................................................... 8
3.3 SELECTION GUIDE ............................................................................................ 8
3.4 ISOLATION .......................................................................................................... 8
3.4.1 Single isolation ....................................................................................... 8
3.4.2 Block and Bleed isolation........................................................................ 9
3.4.3 Double Block and Bleed isolation ........................................................... 9
4. VALVE TYPE SPECIFICATIONS .................................................................................... 14
4.1 BALL VALVES ................................................................................................... 14
4.1.1 Ball Valve Design ................................................................................. 15
4.1.2 Body construction ................................................................................. 15
4.1.3 Ball Design ........................................................................................... 15
4.1.4 Seat Design .......................................................................................... 16
4.1.5 Seal Design .......................................................................................... 16
4.2 GATE, GLOBE AND CHECK VALVES .............................................................. 17
4.2.1 Gate Valves .......................................................................................... 17
4.2.2 Globe and Needle Valves ..................................................................... 22
4.2.3 Check Valves ....................................................................................... 23
4.3 BUTTERFLY VALVES ....................................................................................... 26
4.3.1 Butterfly Valves (Rubber lined) ............................................................. 26
4.3.2 High-performance Butterfly Valves ....................................................... 27
4.4 DOUBLE BLOCK AND BLEED VALVES ........................................................... 29
4.4.1 In-Line application of DB&B valves ....................................................... 29
4.4.2 DB&B valves for Instrumentation application ........................................ 30
4.5 DIAPHRAGM VALVES....................................................................................... 31
5. MATERIAL SELECTION OF VALVE INTERNALS ......................................................... 32
5.1 SEAT AND SEAL MATERIALS .......................................................................... 32
5.2 END CONNECTIONS ........................................................................................ 32
6. ADDITIONAL DESIGN FEATURES ................................................................................ 34
6.1 FIRE SAFETY .................................................................................................... 34
6.1.1 Failure of wafer type valves in case of fire ............................................ 34
6.2 PIGGABLE VALVES .......................................................................................... 34
OFFICIAL COPY - ES45000 - PECEPIPF999003A1 - ABS Letter T1299428 - 09-Feb-15 - PDF Generated on
16-Feb-2015 4:37PM
PIPING
VALVE SELECTION
DESIGN STANDARD

ES45000 PECEPIPF999003 A1 PAGE 4 of 34

FOREWORD

This document forms part of the suite of SBM Offshore Group Technical Standards (GTS).

The use of GTS is mandatory on all SBM leased Production Unit projects, and on projects for other
Clients where they have been accepted. As such, all Execution Centres within the SBM Offshore
Group, and their nominated subcontractors, shall use them. The management of the GTS documents is
governed by the Group Management System (GMS) Working Procedure (WP) PE 202.

The objective of the GTS is to provide a fit-for-purpose set of minimum design philosophies, design
standards and standard specifications, which incorporate project execution feedback from recent SBM
projects as well as the operational experience from the SBM Operations fleet of production units.

The GTS are intended to be general, not project specific, they will have a lower order of precedence
than Client Specifications, Class Rules, Flag State Regulations and Local Legislation. It is therefore
intended that when GTS have been selected for use on a project, they are supplemented by a project
specification that clarifies their use, identifies changes needed to comply with project requirements and
defines any higher precedence specifications, codes, standards or regulations. In any case, deviations
to the GTS have to be raised and submitted to the approval of the relevant Group Technical Authorities,
or their substitutes, duly mandated.

This GTS has been reviewed and found compliant with the requirements of the applicable ABS Rules,
Guides and IMO Code listed below:

ABS Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels (SV Rules), publ. 2, 2014
ABS Rules for Building and Classing Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODU Rules), publ. 6, 2014
ABS Rules for Building and Classing Facilities on Offshore Installations, publ. 63, 2014
ABS Rules for Building and Classing Floating Production Installations (FPI Rules), pub 82, 2014
IMO Code for the Construction and Equipment of Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (IMO MODU Code),
2010.

ABS Approval for revision A1: Letter number T1299428 dated 09 February 2015.

- SBM Offshore Asbestos Policy

It is SBM Offshore policy not to use asbestos in any form, or materials containing asbestos, in its
working environments or products. For more details, reference can be made to the SBM Offshore
Group Asbestos Policy.
OFFICIAL COPY - ES45000 - PECEPIPF999003A1 - ABS Letter T1299428 - 09-Feb-15 - PDF Generated on
16-Feb-2015 4:37PM
PIPING
VALVE SELECTION
DESIGN STANDARD

ES45000 PECEPIPF999003 A1 PAGE 5 of 34

1. SCOPE

This standard provides guidelines for the selection of the types of isolation valves and internals
for Topsides as well as Vessel areas. This standard applies only to the piping systems on the
Floating Installations. It does not apply to subsea pipelines, nor risers or to refurbishment of
existing vessel piping.

Note: Valve type selection in SBM is under the responsibility of the Process and Marine
Department. This document is a guideline for inter-discipline use.

1.1 EXCLUSIONS
No guidance is provided in this specification for the selection of the following:

Control valves,
Hydrants and deluge valves for fire water services, see ref [5]
Instrumentation valves downstream of the piping/instrumentation break, see ref [4]
Safety and relief valves,
Valve actuators,
Wellhead valves and production chokes,
Valves in living quarters,
Valves in existing vessel systems, which are refurbished/retained after vessel
conversion.

1.2 GROUP TECHNICAL STANDARDS


Below is the list of Group Technical Standards, under project ES45000, which are listed as
reference in this document:

[1] PECEPITS999004 Piping Material Classes Standard Specification


[2] PECEPIVE999001 Piping Vessel System Material Classes Standard Specification
[3] PECEPITS999005 Piping Manual Valves Standard Specification
[4] PECEPITS999002 Piping Detail Standard Specification
[5] PECEPIPF331001 Piping Foam and Deluge Valves Standard Specification
[6] PECEPRPF999001 Process & Marine Mechanical Isolation Design Philosophy.
OFFICIAL COPY - ES45000 - PECEPIPF999003A1 - ABS Letter T1299428 - 09-Feb-15 - PDF Generated on
16-Feb-2015 4:37PM
PIPING
VALVE SELECTION
DESIGN STANDARD

ES45000 PECEPIPF999003 A1 PAGE 6 of 34

2. ABBREVIATIONS

2.1 ABBREVIATIONS

ABS American Bureau of Shipping


AED Anti-Explosive Decompression
ANSI American National Standards Institute
API American Petroleum Institute
ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers
ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials
BDV Blow Down Valve
BS British Standards
BW Butt Welded
CL Class
DIN Deutsches Institute fr Normung
DFT Dry Film Thickness
EPDM Ethylene-Propylene Diene Monomer
FF Flat Face
FPSO Floating Production Storage and Offloading
FPU Floating Production Unit
FSO Floating Storage and Offloading
FSRU Floating Storage Re-gasification Unit
HNBR Hydrogenated Nitrile Buna Rubber
ISO International Organization for Standardization
MDS Material Data Sheet
MOPU Mobile Offshore Production Unit
MPE Magnetic Particle Examination
MSS Manufacturers Standardization Society for the Valve and Fittings
Industry (USA)
N/A Not Applicable
NACE National Association of Corrosion Engineers
NDE Non Destructive Examination
NPS Nominal Pipe Size (in inches)
NPT Nominal Pipe Thread
PCTFE Poly Chloro Tri Fluoro Ethylene (Kel-F)
PEEK Poly Ether Ether Ketone
PWHT Post Weld Heat Treatment
PO Purchase Order
P&ID Piping and Instrumentation diagram
PTFE Poly Tetra Fluoro Ethylene (Teflon)
RF Raised face
RFQ Request for Quotation
RTJ Ring Type Joint
SDV Shut Down Valve
SS Stainless Steel
TCC Tungsten Carbide Coated
VDS Valve Data Sheet
OFFICIAL COPY - ES45000 - PECEPIPF999003A1 - ABS Letter T1299428 - 09-Feb-15 - PDF Generated on
16-Feb-2015 4:37PM
PIPING
VALVE SELECTION
DESIGN STANDARD

ES45000 PECEPIPF999003 A1 PAGE 7 of 34

3. SELECTION OF VALVES

3.1 GENERAL

Valves shall be selected from the piping classes in specifications ref. [1] & [2]. Each valve in
a piping class is identified by a unique VDS code. This VDS code relates to the purchase
requirements for type, nominal bore, pressure class, design, material, fabrication,
inspection and testing. These VDS requirements are specified as datasheets and can be
found in ref. [3]

The valve selection process must take into consideration the following parameters:

1. Process fluid factors:

Design pressure and temperature,


Type of medium, whether the fluid is a liquid, gas or vapor and its physical and chemical
properties (i.e. corrosive, erosive, sands, slurries, sour service),
Hazardous services.

2. Process design factors:

Throttling or open/close service,


Fluid flow rate,
Multi-turn or quarter turn valve,
Frequency of operation,
Isolation requirements,
Past experience in the same conditions.
Fail safe position (see note 1)

3. Piping design factors:

Size and weight of valves, (not all sizes for a specific type are available),
Ease of operation (manual operated or power operated) (see note 1),
Type of end connection (flanged, butt welded or wafer),
Maintenance requirements.
Installation (horizontal/ vertical)

4. Economic factors:

Cost of valves.

5. Safety factors:

Environmental considerations,
Requirements in the event of fire (fire safe design/fire safe testing),

1
Actuators are not specified in this specification.
OFFICIAL COPY - ES45000 - PECEPIPF999003A1 - ABS Letter T1299428 - 09-Feb-15 - PDF Generated on
16-Feb-2015 4:37PM
PIPING
VALVE SELECTION
DESIGN STANDARD

ES45000 PECEPIPF999003 A1 PAGE 8 of 34

3.2 TYPE OF VALVES

Valves can be classified in two main groups. The below table gives an overview of the most
commonly used valves. For each type of valve, several designs are available; they are
further explained in chapter 4.

A. Operated manually or by instrumentation device (power, pneumatic, etc.):

Open / Close (On-Off) Service


Lifting / Multi turn Gate valves, Expanding gate
Monoflange
Diaphragm valves
Globe standard disc
Quarter turn Ball valves
Integral double block and bleed valve
Butterfly valves

Throttling Service
Lifting / Multi turn Globe valves (spherical, parabolic disc)
Needle valves
Quarter turn Butterfly valves

B. Check valves

Slam type Lift check valves < 2 piston- or stop check type
Swing check valves 2
Non-slam type Dual plates check valves
Non-slam check valve (special Item)

3.3 SELECTION GUIDE

To enable consistent design across the company fleet, the Valve Selection Table provides
guidance for each valve selection. These recommendations cover different process and
utility systems on floating production facilities. Selection criteria, like maximum size and
temperature ranges, are also given.

This standard should be the basis for valve selection, and the piping specification should
follow these criteria in all circumstances.

3.4 ISOLATION

3.4.1 Single isolation

Soft seated block valves, such as ball valves, as well as soft seated gate and butterfly
valves can provide a tight shut-off, for most clean services.

Metal seated valves generally cannot provide zero leakage; instead they will provide certain
leakage pending on the size of the valve; reference is made to the relevant valve design
standard.
OFFICIAL COPY - ES45000 - PECEPIPF999003A1 - ABS Letter T1299428 - 09-Feb-15 - PDF Generated on
16-Feb-2015 4:37PM
PIPING
VALVE SELECTION
DESIGN STANDARD

ES45000 PECEPIPF999003 A1 PAGE 9 of 34

3.4.2 Block and Bleed isolation

This term describes the provision of a tapping point, either integral with the valve or located
in the downstream pipe work, which permits any leakage past a block valve to be bled off.

3.4.3 Double Block and Bleed isolation

This term is used to describe the provision of two isolation points (either two separate block
valves or a single block valve having two seats, each of which makes a seal) with a tapping
point located between them.

The arrangement can be described as follows: where two valves or valve seats need to be
sealed, against a single source of flow or pressure. Any leakage from the first valve, or
valve seat, can be bled off through the tapping point, thus ensuring the integrity of the
second seal.

When a single valve is used for this duty, it should ideally be of a type where the seat load
is applied mechanically so that it is independent of variations in line pressure. Suitable
valve types are:

Parallel double disc gate valve with expanding wedge,


High integrity versions of the wedge gate valve (e.g. soft seated),
Trunnion mounted ball valves with double piston effect seats.

Such valves (when provided with appropriate tapping) are suitable for the application
described above; nevertheless, arrangements for pressure relief of the valve cavity must be
made where liquids subject to temperature increase are likely to be trapped.

Both Trunnion mounted ball valves and through conduit slab gate valves can be used in
single valve arrangements, where sealing against both upstream and downstream pressure
is required. It should be noted that these designs rely on the line pressure to make an
effective seal and the use of springs etc., to provide supplementary mechanical loading at
low pressure, is not always effective.
OFFICIAL COPY - ES45000 - PECEPIPF999003A1 - ABS Letter T1299428 - 09-Feb-15 - PDF Generated on
16-Feb-2015 4:37PM
PIPING
VALVE SELECTION
DESIGN STANDARD

ES45000 PECEPIPF999003 A1 PAGE 10 of 34

VALVE SELECTION TABLE

TOPSIDES
SERVICE VALVE VALVE
VALVE TYPE & VALVE APPLICATION COMMENTS
CODES FUNCTION SIZE
Relief Valve isolation and other Full Bore applications - Full
All sizes
Bore Ball Valve
Single Block Isolation
Fluid Ranking 2 and 3 - Other services for Reduced Bore
2
application Regular / Reduced Bore Ball Valve
Fluid Ranking 1 - Relief Valve isolation and other Full Bore
applications All sizes
Integral Full Bore Double Ball Valve Block and Bleed
Assembly
Double Block Isolation
Fluid Ranking 1 Other Services for Reduced Bore
use integral double
applications
block & bleed valve
PG, FG, PL All sizes
(including
Fluid Ranking 1 Instruments isolation
Condensate,
Open Drains &
Closed Drains)
SDV / BDV Ball Valve All sizes

Instrument Valves Ball Valve


For services 150 C and below: Drain - Ball Valve
2 note 12
Vent - Globe
Piping Vents & Drains
For services 151 C and above: Drain - Gate valve
2
Vent - Globe
Dual Plate type Check Valve 2"
Check valves
Swing type Check Valve Full Bore 2" note 11
Pressurization /
Depressurization Globe valve All sizes
bypasses
Double Offset Butterfly Valve 3 note 6
Single Block Isolation
Ball Valve 2 note 1
Diaphragm Valves Class 150
Instrument Valves
Ball Valve Class 300 and above
WS, WI Drain Diaphragm Class 150
Piping Vents & Drains Ball Valve Class 300 and above
Vent - Globe note 12
Check valves Dual Plate type Check Valve 2"
Single Block Isolation Ball Valve note 1
Drain - Ball Valve
Piping Vents & Drains 2 note 1, note 12
WZ, DW Vent - Globe
Dual Plate type Check Valve 2"
Check valves
Swing type Check Valve Full Bore 2" note 10
All Full Bore applications - Full Bore Ball Valve All sizes
Single Block Isolation
Fluid Ranking 2 and 3 - Regular / Reduced Bore Ball Valve 2"
CA, CB, CC, Fluid Ranking 1 Other Services for Reduced Bore
CD, CE, CG, applications
Double Block Isolation All sizes
CH, CI, CK, Integral Double Ball Valve Block and Bleed Assembly
CL, CM, CP, (Flanged)
CR, CS, CW, SDV / BDV Ball Valve All sizes
CX, CY, DO, FA Drain - Ball Valve
Piping Vents & Drains 2 note 1, note 12
Vent - Globe
Check valves Dual Plate type Check Valve 2"
All Isolations / Vents &
All applications - Regular / Reduced Bore Ball Valve All sizes*
Drains
AA, AI, AP, AS,
AU, GN Dual Plate type Check Valve 2"
Check valves
Swing type Check Valve Full Bore 2" note 10
Full Bore applications - Full Bore Ball Valve All sizes note 2
Single Block Isolation Reduced Bore applications Gate Valves All Sizes
Applications where reducing pressure drop is critical 3 note 2
MC
Instrument Valves Gate Valves
Drain - Ball Valve
Piping Vents & Drains 2 note 1, note 12
Vent - Globe
Check valves Dual Plate type Check Valve 2"
OFFICIAL COPY - ES45000 - PECEPIPF999003A1 - ABS Letter T1299428 - 09-Feb-15 - PDF Generated on
16-Feb-2015 4:37PM
PIPING
VALVE SELECTION
DESIGN STANDARD

ES45000 PECEPIPF999003 A1 PAGE 11 of 34

SERVICE VALVE VALVE


VALVE TYPE & VALVE APPLICATION COMMENTS
CODES FUNCTION SIZE
Full Bore applications - Full Bore Ball Valve All sizes note 2
Single Block Isolation Applications where reducing pressure drop is critical 3 note 2
Gate Valve All sizes
MH Instrument Valves Gate Valves
Drain - Gate Valve
Piping Vents & Drains 2 note 12
Vent - Globe
Check valves Dual Plate type Check Valve 2"
Fluid Ranking 1 - Relief Valve isolation and other Full Bore
applications
All Sizes
Integral Full Bore Double Ball Valve Block and Bleed
Double Block Isolation Assembly
use integrated double Fluid Ranking 1 Other Services for Reduced Bore
block & bleed valve applications
All Sizes
Fluid Ranking 1 Instruments isolation
Integral Double Ball Valve Block and Bleed Assembly
(Flanged)
SDV / BDV Ball Valve
WP
Relief Valve isolation and other Full Bore applications - Full
Single Block Isolation Bore Ball Valve All Sizes
Gate Valves

Instrument Valves Gate Valves


Drain - Ball Valve
Piping Vents & Drains 2 note 1, note 12
Vent - Globe

Check valves Dual Plate type Check Valve 2"

Single Block Isolation Full Bore Ball Valves All Sizes


BL, BH Drain - Ball Valve
Piping Vents & Drains 2 note 1, note 12
Vent - Globe
OFFICIAL COPY - ES45000 - PECEPIPF999003A1 - ABS Letter T1299428 - 09-Feb-15 - PDF Generated on
16-Feb-2015 4:37PM
PIPING
VALVE SELECTION
DESIGN STANDARD

ES45000 PECEPIPF999003 A1 PAGE 12 of 34

VESSEL
SERVICE VALVE VALVE
VALVE TYPE & VALVE APPLICATION COMMENTS
& CODES FUNCTION SIZE
Double Offset Butterfly Valve 3 note 5
Single Block Isolation
Ball Valve 2 note 1
Piping Vents & Drains Globe and Diaphragm Valves 2
WF
Dual Plate type Check Valve 2"
Check valves
Swing type Check Valve Full Bore 2" Note 10

Single Block Isolation Lined Butterfly Valves All Sizes Note 4

GI Piping Vents & Drains Diaphragm Valves 2

Instrument Valves Diaphragm Valves 2


Single Block Isolation Gate valve 2"
SL Piping Vents & Drains Globe valve 2
Check valves Swing type Check Valve Full Bore 2"
Single Block Isolation Gate valve 2" Note 7
SH (MP, IP) Piping Vents & Drains Globe valve 2 Note 8
Check valves Dual Plate type Check Valve 2"
Double Block Isolation Gate valve Note 7
2"
(two separate valves)
SH (HP) Piping Vents & Drains Globe valve 2
Check valves Dual Plate type Check Valve 2"
Single Block Isolation Gate valve 2"
DS Piping Vents & Drains Globe valve 2
Check valves Swing type Check Valve Full Bore 2"
Single Block Isolation Rubber lined Butterfly Valve 3 Note 6

DB Piping Vents & Drains Diaphragm Valves 2


Check valves Swing type Check Valve Full Bore 2"
Single Block Isolation Rubber lined Butterfly Valve 3 Note 6

DO / MGO Piping Vents & Drains Ball Valve 2


Check valves Swing type Check Valve Full Bore 2"
Single Block Isolation Double Offset Butterfly Valve 10 Note 5
Gate valve 8
PL
Piping Vents & Drains Ball valve 2
Check valves Swing type Check Valve Full Bore 2"
Single Block Isolation Double Offset Butterfly Valve 10 Note 5

WP / Slop Gate valve 8


Water (Marine
Piping Vents & Drains Diaphragm Valves 2
Systems)
Check valves Swing type Check Valve Full Bore 2"
Single Block Isolation Butterfly Valve 2 note 1

WB Piping Vents & Drains Globe and Diaphragm Valves 2


Check valves Swing type Check Valve Full Bore 2"

Notes:
1. All ball valves 2 are standardized as full bore.
2. For pressure drop critical applications, to be determined by process engineer.
3. Instrument connections as per Piping detail design standard ref. [4].
4. Lining must be specially coated with extreme wear proof system and polished to have a change of
long term survival, e.g. lining with ecospeed or equal.
5. Pressure rating minimum ASME Class 150, based on API 609 category B.
6. Maximum pressure to be verified with the valve manufacturer.
OFFICIAL COPY - ES45000 - PECEPIPF999003A1 - ABS Letter T1299428 - 09-Feb-15 - PDF Generated on
16-Feb-2015 4:37PM
PIPING
VALVE SELECTION
DESIGN STANDARD

ES45000 PECEPIPF999003 A1 PAGE 13 of 34

7. Butt welded ends recommended.


8. Butt welded ends required.
9. For definition of fluid ranking see ref. [6].
10. To be determined by process.
11. Only used in API 10,000 pipe classes.
12. Ball valves may be used for vent applications where service temperature allows.
OFFICIAL COPY - ES45000 - PECEPIPF999003A1 - ABS Letter T1299428 - 09-Feb-15 - PDF Generated on
16-Feb-2015 4:37PM
PIPING
VALVE SELECTION
DESIGN STANDARD

ES45000 PECEPIPF999003 A1 PAGE 14 of 34

4. VALVE TYPE SPECIFICATIONS

4.1 BALL VALVES

A ball valve is basically a ported sphere in a housing. Rotation of the sphere by 90 changes
the position from open to closed, and vice versa. Ball valves can be full or reduced bore. This
depends on the operational needs. Selection of reduced bore valves is preferred above full
bore valves. The reason for this is cost-related.

If a full bore valve is required (e.g. due to flow restrictions) this should be indicated on the
P&ID.

Soft seated valves are preferred; unless design conditions are such (design temperature > 150
C, services containing sand), then metal seated va lves are preferred.

Full bore valves are generally selected for the following services:

Pigging flowlines,
Relief valve inlet / outlet,
Pump and compressor suction,
Services where pressure drop is critical,

Reduced bore valve can be used as long as below criterias are met:

Pressure drop is not critical,


The valve must not be used in the horizontal lines sloped for draining,
They must not be used in erosive services.

Ball valves shall be used for on-off service only. They are suited to use in all pressure classes
and sizes, gas and liquid services, and where fast opening and closing times are required.

Advantages:

Ball valves are bi-directional,


Minimum pressure drop, especially for full bore valves,
Minimum leakage, if soft seated,
Minimum turbulence,
Easier to make than other valve types (many manufacturers from which to choose),
Quick operation, easy to automate for on/off service,
Relatively low cost.

Disadvantages:

Not suitable for throttling,


Limited working temperature (determined by seal and seat materials,
Fluid trapped in the cavity (unless vented),
Water hammer can appear if valve is quickly operated,
OFFICIAL COPY - ES45000 - PECEPIPF999003A1 - ABS Letter T1299428 - 09-Feb-15 - PDF Generated on
16-Feb-2015 4:37PM
PIPING
VALVE SELECTION
DESIGN STANDARD

ES45000 PECEPIPF999003 A1 PAGE 15 of 34

Soft seat can be damaged by construction debris, solids in fluids, etc.

Ball valves can be selected based on the following standards e.g. (see ref. [3] for detailed
standards):

ISO 17292,
API 6D,
ASME B16.34.

4.1.1 Ball Valve Design


4.1.2 Body construction
Ball valves have a single design configuration with different designs based on how the ball is
inserted (or loaded) into the body.

The different designs are as follows:

Side entry design, which contains split body, one piece body and three piece design.
Split body design consists of two body parts: The body and the cap (off-center) which
have mating flanges held together with studs, or bolts and nuts.
For one-piece body design, the assembly of this design is similar to that of the split body,
except that the body is a single piece. The ball is installed from the appropriate end and
is retained by an insert screwed into the body.
Three-piece design, the ball and seats are inserted in the body. Then two-end caps are
fastened to the body with bolts that pass through holes in all three pieces.
Top-entry design, which is also a one (single) piece body with removable bonnet, with
the ball inserted from the top. The main advantage of this design is that ball valve can be
serviced by removing the bonnet, without removing the valve from the piping system.
This design reduces the number of potential leak paths. Disadvantages are the need for
a special tool to remove the ball and are generally more expensive than end-entry types.
These can be used as alternative for heavy weight three-piece-body valves, when there
are problems with mechanical handling and/or maintenance, and when alternative
valves are not acceptable.
Fully-welded design: ball and inserts are fully encapsulated inside the body and
therefore not maintainable. These valves are used in services where potential leak paths
must be minimized, like toxic services, gasses which are inert, LNG. Other applications
are subsea, pipelines etc..

4.1.3 Ball Design


There are primarily two ways to support the ball in the valve body: the floating-ball design and
the trunnion-mounted ball design. Reference is made to documents [1] and [2], regarding
pressure class and diameters:

In the floating-ball design, the ball is supported only by two-seat-rings. A slot in top of the
ball that is perpendicular to the hole accepts the shaft, which is machined to fit into the
slot. This arrangement enables the shaft to turn the ball and also allows the ball to move
(or float) in the direction of the slot. Consequently, when the valve is closed upstream,
fluid pressure pushes the ball against the downstream seat ring, enhancing the seal.
OFFICIAL COPY - ES45000 - PECEPIPF999003A1 - ABS Letter T1299428 - 09-Feb-15 - PDF Generated on
16-Feb-2015 4:37PM
PIPING
VALVE SELECTION
DESIGN STANDARD

ES45000 PECEPIPF999003 A1 PAGE 16 of 34

Depending on the seat design, movement of the ball downstream may relieve the
pressure at the upstream seat ring.
In the trunnion-mounted design, the ball is made with integral short-shaft extensions (or
trunnions) at the top and bottom. These trunnions fit into bearings that, in turn, are held
in the body or in the transition pieces that are inserted into the body. The shaft fits into a
slot in the top trunnion. In this design, the ball is held firmly in place and is not moved by
fluid pressure. The tightness of seal is solely dependent on the seat design and the
spring force.

4.1.4 Seat Design


The different seat designs are based on the material used to make the seat rings. There are
two classifications: soft seats made of resilient, non-metallic materials and metal seats
made of stainless steel or a coated base material. Properly designed soft seats rings are very
effective and produce leak-tight seals that are referred as bubble tight: however, seat rings are
limited to process conditions and services. Chapter 5 describes the different type of seat
materials.

Where soft-seating material is specified in the VDS, the CONTRACTOR shall confirm
suitability for the specified pressure, temperature and service conditions, and give advice on
any aging and/or service limitations.

Attention shall be paid to hardness, pressure- temperature rating and chemical resistance of
seats. Solids/particles (e.g. sand) may damage soft seats and may lead to fouling the body
cavity.

Metal seated valves should generally be used in high temperature services, high pressure,
piggable lines and services containing sand.

4.1.5 Seal Design


Lip seal type packings expand laterally because of the flexibility of their lips, which are forced
against the restraining side walls by the fluid pressure. This mode of expansion of the packing
permits the use of relatively rigid construction materials, which would not perform as well in
compression packings. On the debit site, the sealing action of lip-type packings is in one
direction only.

Application of lip seals is normally in higher pressure rating ( class 900) and in a temperature
range of 0 down to minus 40 C.

The seals in a ball valve are classified under the group of seals, typically these are:

Stem seal (dynamic),


Seal between seats and body closures,
Seals between body and closure/ bonnet (static)
Fire seals (for stem, seats, body closures).

For seal materials, see section 5.1; for application of fire seals see further section 6.1.
OFFICIAL COPY - ES45000 - PECEPIPF999003A1 - ABS Letter T1299428 - 09-Feb-15 - PDF Generated on
16-Feb-2015 4:37PM
PIPING
VALVE SELECTION
DESIGN STANDARD

ES45000 PECEPIPF999003 A1 PAGE 17 of 34

4.2 GATE, GLOBE AND CHECK VALVES

4.2.1 Gate Valves

A gate valve is a linear motion valve used to start or stop fluid flow; however, it does not
regulate or throttle flow (used for gas and liquid in pipe systems where no flow control is
required and closing/opening times are not important).
The reliability of this type of valve is high. Due to its simple construction, a high differential
pressure may require power actuation or a bypass. When the valve is fully closed, a disc-to-
seal ring contact surface exists for 360, and good sealing is provided. With the proper
mating of a disc to the seal ring, very little or no leakage occurs across the disc when the
gate valve is closed.

Gate valves can be selected based on the following standards (see ref. [3] for detailed
standards):

API 600 / API 602 / ISO 10434,


API 6D / ISO 14313,
ASME B16.34,
API 6A / ISO 10423.

4.2.1.1 Gate Valve Design

A. Body construction

There are mainly 5 types of body bonnet joint for gate valves namely:

Screwed bonnet,
Union bonnet,
Bolted-bonnet,
Pressure seal bonnet,
Welded bonnet.
OFFICIAL COPY - ES45000 - PECEPIPF999003A1 - ABS Letter T1299428 - 09-Feb-15 - PDF Generated on
16-Feb-2015 4:37PM
PIPING
VALVE SELECTION
DESIGN STANDARD

ES45000 PECEPIPF999003 A1 PAGE 18 of 34

Screwed bonnet Union bonnet

Bolted-bonnet Pressure seal bonnet


OFFICIAL COPY - ES45000 - PECEPIPF999003A1 - ABS Letter T1299428 - 09-Feb-15 - PDF Generated on
16-Feb-2015 4:37PM
PIPING
VALVE SELECTION
DESIGN STANDARD

ES45000 PECEPIPF999003 A1 PAGE 19 of 34

Welded bonnet

B. Stem design

Gate valves are available with three stem designs:

Inside screw rising stem (ISRS),


Non-rising stem (NRS), inside screw non rising stem (ISNRS),
Outside screw and yoke (OS&Y).

A major disadvantage of the first two options is that the fluid flowing through the valve wets
the stem threads. This result in corrosion and erosion and thus possible failure will appear.
For high temperatures the first two options are not recommended, therefore the OS&Y is
preferred.

C. Gate design

Of the various types of gate valves available, there are two main types:

1) Those of a wedge type are the most common. This type can be split into three designs,
namely:
o Solid wedge,
o Flexible wedge,
o Split (2 piece) wedge
o The first two applications are the most used types, the solid wedge for small bore (<2)
and the flexible for valves 2.
OFFICIAL COPY - ES45000 - PECEPIPF999003A1 - ABS Letter T1299428 - 09-Feb-15 - PDF Generated on
16-Feb-2015 4:37PM
PIPING
VALVE SELECTION
DESIGN STANDARD

ES45000 PECEPIPF999003 A1 PAGE 20 of 34

SOLID WEDGE FLEXIBLE WEDGE SPLIT WEDGE

2) Further, there are the parallel type gate valves. This type can be split up into two
designs:
o Conventional (Knife gate, Parallel slide gate)
o Conduit (Slab gate, Expanding gate)
OFFICIAL COPY - ES45000 - PECEPIPF999003A1 - ABS Letter T1299428 - 09-Feb-15 - PDF Generated on
16-Feb-2015 4:37PM
PIPING
VALVE SELECTION
DESIGN STANDARD

ES45000 PECEPIPF999003 A1 PAGE 21 of 34


OFFICIAL COPY - ES45000 - PECEPIPF999003A1 - ABS Letter T1299428 - 09-Feb-15 - PDF Generated on
16-Feb-2015 4:37PM
PIPING
VALVE SELECTION
DESIGN STANDARD

ES45000 PECEPIPF999003 A1 PAGE 22 of 34

4.2.2 Globe and Needle Valves

A globe valve or needle valve is used for gas and liquid in pipe systems where the product
flow has to be controlled, or where cavity free valves are required.

A globe valve is a linear motion valve used to stop, start, and throttle fluid flow.

The disc of the globe valve can be totally removed from the flow path or it can completely
close the flow path. The essential principle of globe valve operation is the perpendicular
movement of the disc away from the seat. This causes the annular space between the disc
and seat ring to gradually close as the valve is closed. This characteristic gives the globe
valve good throttling ability, which permits its use in regulating flow. Therefore, the globe
valve may be used for both stopping and starting fluid flow and for regulating flow.

Straight pattern globe valves have a limited flow coefficient due to the 90 angle of the flow
passage. A differential pressure drop occurs, see below picture for detail.

Due to the high pressure drop they introduce, globe valves should not be used in services
where minimizing pressure drop is critical.

Needle valves which are basically of the globe valve design, have their disc of a pointed
(needle) shape end. These valves should not be considered for fouling service or where
wax/ hydrate formation could occur. Needle valves are limited by the size. The available
sizes are 2.

Globe valves can be selected based on the following standards (see ref [3] for detailed
standards):

ISO 15761 & BS 1873,


ASME B16.34.
OFFICIAL COPY - ES45000 - PECEPIPF999003A1 - ABS Letter T1299428 - 09-Feb-15 - PDF Generated on
16-Feb-2015 4:37PM
PIPING
VALVE SELECTION
DESIGN STANDARD

ES45000 PECEPIPF999003 A1 PAGE 23 of 34

4.2.2.1 Globe Valve Design

A. Body construction

The body-bonnet joint used for globe valves are the same as those used for gate valves.

B. Valve body patterns

Three basic body configurations are available and are as follows:

Standard design with inlet and outlet ports in line,


Angle design with inlet and outlet at 90 degrees to each other,
Y pattern with the inlet and outlet parts in line but the orifice at an angle to the normal
flow line.
The standard pattern is the most common one, but offers, by its tortuous flow passage, the
highest resistance to flow.
The other two options have a lower resistance to flow and reduced disturbance. Of course, the
angle valve is installed where the pipe makes a 90 bend, although this is not always possible.

C. Stem design

Globe valves are available with two stem designs:

Inside screw rising stem (ISRS),


Outside screw and yoke (OS&Y).

The OS&Y design is preferred for the same reasons as for the gate valves.

D. Disc design

Several different disc seating-surface geometries are used:

Flat seat can be easily modified to use non-metallic disc inserts, which are common on
small, low-pressure valves. These disc inserts make dependable, tight seats when used
with air and other gases and are suitable for most other low-temperature fluid services.
Spherical seat provides virtual line contact and lower closing force for tight seating. The
narrow seating area on the disc is subject to erosion in high velocity flow.
Conical seat: the width contact area requires a high closing force to seal the conical
seat. However, this makes it less susceptible to leakage from particles in the fluid.

All three seat geometries are used with body seats that are either integral with the body
(machined surfaces on the body), separate seat rings pressed or screwed into the body, or
hard material weld overlaid in the valve body and then machined as an integral seat.

4.2.3 Check Valves

Check valves are designed to prevent the reverse flow of liquid or gaseous products.

Check valves shall not be relied upon for positive isolation purposes.
OFFICIAL COPY - ES45000 - PECEPIPF999003A1 - ABS Letter T1299428 - 09-Feb-15 - PDF Generated on
16-Feb-2015 4:37PM
PIPING
VALVE SELECTION
DESIGN STANDARD

ES45000 PECEPIPF999003 A1 PAGE 24 of 34

There is a wide variety of check valves available in the market but the most commonly used
are: piston check, swing check, dual plate check, and non-slam check valves.

Check valves can be selected based on the following standards (see ref. [3] for detailed
standards):

ISO 15761 for piston,


API 6D for swing,
API 594 wafer and wafer lug check valves,
ASME B16.34.

4.2.3.1 Piston Check Valves

Piston check valves shall be metal to metal seating surfaces and spring loaded.

A Piston check valve has fewer tendencies to slam as a swing type check valve.

Pressure drop across the piston check valve is higher than swing or dual plate valves.
Size should be limited to max 2 and smaller. Horizontal installation is preferred for piston
check valves.

4.2.3.2 Swing Type Check Valves

The valve allows full, unobstructed flow and automatically closes as pressure decreases.

These valves are fully closed when the flow reaches zero and prevent back flow.

Turbulence and pressure drop within the valve are very low.

A swing type check valve shall be used in non-pulsating service. Pulsating flow and chattering
at low flow velocities resulting in damage of the sealing surface, can occur.

Swing check valves shall be regular type, straight-through port with metal to metal seating
surfaces unless specified otherwise. Swing-type check valves shall be used in horizontal lines
and can only be used in vertical lines after acceptance of the responsible engineer.

Compared to dual plate check valves these valves are heavy and large.

4.2.3.3 Dual Plate Check Valves

A dual check valve is generally a wafer type. However the following types also exist:
flanged, (solid) lugs, hubbed ends and butt welded ends.

Dual-plate check valves shall be retainer-less design, spring loaded, metal to metal seating
and suitable for vertical and horizontal installation.

Advantages:
Compact design,
OFFICIAL COPY - ES45000 - PECEPIPF999003A1 - ABS Letter T1299428 - 09-Feb-15 - PDF Generated on
16-Feb-2015 4:37PM
PIPING
VALVE SELECTION
DESIGN STANDARD

ES45000 PECEPIPF999003 A1 PAGE 25 of 34

Light weight,
Low pressure drop.

Disadvantages:
Subject to external leakage due to exposed bolting during a fire,
If the valve fails, pieces of the spring could travel down the line and end up in other
equipment.
For installation of dual plate check valves, the following points must be taken into account:

1. In a horizontal pipe, the valve must be installed with the pin vertical,

2. Horizontal installation is preferred. When vertical installation is unavoidable the following


is governing:

o In a vertical pipe with flow down, application of valve with standard spring to be
checked with the responsible engineer,
o In a vertical pipe with the flow up should be no problem, but specific system
dynamics will be required.

3. Dual plate check valves should be installed a minimum of 5 diameters downstream of a


reducer/expander and a bend/elbow to ensure a laminar of and not turbulent flow at the
valve.

4. Dual plate check valves should be installed a minimum of 2 diameters upstream a


bend/elbow.

5. Dual plate check valves to be installed upstream 2 diameters minimum and downstream 5
diameters minimum of an isolation valve, if this valve is of a throttling type.

4.2.3.4 Non-Slam Check Valves

These valves are not specified in the piping class, because process data is required and
therefore these valves are specified as Special Item.

Non-slam check valves or also known as, axial disc check valves, tilting disc or "feather"
type check valves shall be used where unacceptable pressure surges are present, such as:

a. High pressure systems,


b. Compressor discharge,
c. Low pressure systems (fire water pump discharge).

The valves are used where low pressure drop and stable operation is essential and are
very reliable in clean service. These check valves shall not be used in fouling services due
to the close tolerances of the moving parts. Process data and the installation position must
be specified for spring sizing and eventually purchase.
OFFICIAL COPY - ES45000 - PECEPIPF999003A1 - ABS Letter T1299428 - 09-Feb-15 - PDF Generated on
16-Feb-2015 4:37PM
PIPING
VALVE SELECTION
DESIGN STANDARD

ES45000 PECEPIPF999003 A1 PAGE 26 of 34

4.3 BUTTERFLY VALVES

There are different kinds of butterfly valves, each adapted for different pressures and different
usage. Butterfly valves are available in flanged and wafer type configurations and can be
divided into four (4) types:

1. Conventional concentric, resilient type,


2. Single offset or single eccentric,
3. Double offset or double eccentric,
4. Triple offset or triple eccentric.

The resilient butterfly valve, which uses the flexibility of rubber, has the lowest pressure
rating. Valves type - 3 and 4 are high performance butterfly valves, used in higher-pressure
systems. They feature a slight offset in the way the disc is positioned, which increases the
valve's sealing ability and decreases its tendency to wear. The single offset/eccentric is not
used often. The double offset/eccentric is also available with a metal seat.

The valve best suited for high-pressure systems (pressure classes upto and including Class
900) is the triple eccentric butterfly valve, which makes use of a metal seat, and is therefore
able to withstand a greater amount of pressure.

Butterfly valves can be selected based on the following standards e.g. (see ref. [3] for detailed
standards):

API 609 lug and wafer type butterfly valves.

4.3.1 Butterfly Valves (Rubber lined)

Use of rubber lined butterfly valves is generally restricted to low pressure/temperature


applications due to limitations of the lining (16 bar(g) at maximum 80C). They are most
commonly available in cast and ductile iron material. Other materials are available.

The suitability of the lining material of the standard valves, as specified on the datasheets in
spec ref. [3], should always be checked against the actual fluid properties. This internal
lining of these is also overlapping the flange facing, this means when the valves are
installed no additional gasket is required. Large size valves should be equipped with self-
locking gearing. These valves are not fire safe.

Concentric Design
OFFICIAL COPY - ES45000 - PECEPIPF999003A1 - ABS Letter T1299428 - 09-Feb-15 - PDF Generated on
16-Feb-2015 4:37PM
PIPING
VALVE SELECTION
DESIGN STANDARD

ES45000 PECEPIPF999003 A1 PAGE 27 of 34

4.3.2 High-performance Butterfly Valves

If the application of high-performance butterfly valves is proposed then the following


aspects shall be taken into account:

a) Application should be restricted to "special occasions indicated on the P&IDs, therefore


these valves are not specified in the piping classes and should be handled as special
Items.
b) Economic advantage over other valve types generally applies for diameters larger than
DN 200.
c) The pressure and temperature limitations may dictate the application of the valve
(especially the soft-seated type).
d) Metal-to-metal seated valves should at least be designed for the full range of piping
class service limits.

High performance butterfly valves can be subdivided based on their seat material, either non-
metallic or metallic:

Non-metallic seats:
These are limited in temperature. Reference is made to seat pressure ratings of API
609 category B: this is specifically for RPTFE (reinforced PTFE).

Metallic seats:
These valves are not limited in temperature and can be used at the same pressure
rating of the valve body. Reference is made to body pressure ratings of ASME
B16.34.

4.3.2.1 Types of High Performance Butterfly Valves

DOUBLE OFFSET or DOUBLE ECCENTRIC

The centre of rotation is moved from the centerline of the valve body. The seat and seal
design remains conical and on centre. This design again relies on a frictional, interference
seal, but the length of rotation over which this friction occurs is reduced, allowing a larger
range of process resistant seat materials to be used. However these materials must be
relatively soft or highly elastic to prevent jamming.
This type can be used for pressure classes ASME 150, 300 and 600.
OFFICIAL COPY - ES45000 - PECEPIPF999003A1 - ABS Letter T1299428 - 09-Feb-15 - PDF Generated on
16-Feb-2015 4:37PM
PIPING
VALVE SELECTION
DESIGN STANDARD

ES45000 PECEPIPF999003 A1 PAGE 28 of 34

The construction of the Double Offset provides the following:

1- Excellent controllability,
2- Bubble tight shutoff, equally suitable for control and tight shut off applications.
3- Minimizes galling between seat and disc thus affording longer seat life as well as a
smooth operation.
4- Body is usually fully rated, heavy duty construction.
5- Optimal disc geometry and cavity free flow passage offers minimum flow resistance.
6- Heavy duty pins connecting valve shaft to disc avoids lost motion under high torque
conditions.

TRIPLE OFFSET or TRIPLE ECCENTRIC

The centerline of the cone is rotated away from the valve centerline resulting in an
ellipsoidal profile and providing the third offset. With this geometry, seat seal interference is
completely eliminated ensuring long sealing life. The result is a torque seated, process
pressure aided frictionless seal. The geometry allows the body seat to be used as the
closed limit stop, aiding operator adjustment. The triple offset design is ideally suited to
metal seated valves providing bubble-tight performance on high temperature, high pressure
and fire safe applications.
This type can be used for pressure classes ASME 150 up to and including 1500.

Advantages triple offset:


Triple offset and ellipsoidal sealing geometry,
Bi-directional bubble tight shut-off,
Inherently fire safe by design,
Developed geometry results in:
- Zero seat/ seal friction
- Low torques
- Extended service life
- Continued seal through thermal cycling torque seating,

Excellent flow and throttling characteristics covering services from Cryogenic to high
temperature,
Excellent control of fugitive emission by virtue of rotary stems movement and advanced
packing materials.
OFFICIAL COPY - ES45000 - PECEPIPF999003A1 - ABS Letter T1299428 - 09-Feb-15 - PDF Generated on
16-Feb-2015 4:37PM
PIPING
VALVE SELECTION
DESIGN STANDARD

ES45000 PECEPIPF999003 A1 PAGE 29 of 34

4.4 DOUBLE BLOCK AND BLEED VALVES

4.4.1 In-Line application of DB&B valves

The ancient double block and bleed valve existed in the past of 2 valves with in between a
spool and a bleed valve. This way of sealing the line take a big amount of space, by using a
compact integral DB&B valve, the required space can be reduced significantly.

These integral valves consist of two ball valves and 1 bleed (needle) valve in one body
(assembly). The inlet- and outlet consist both of flanges.

These valves are not standardised and the requirements for the design shall be according the
ball valves codes. The bore of the valves shall be reduced bore or same bore as the pipe
when indicated on the P&ID.

These valves are normally starting at 3 and go up to 24 in pressure classes 300 up to and
including 2500.

Typical In-line DB&B Valve


OFFICIAL COPY - ES45000 - PECEPIPF999003A1 - ABS Letter T1299428 - 09-Feb-15 - PDF Generated on
16-Feb-2015 4:37PM
PIPING
VALVE SELECTION
DESIGN STANDARD

ES45000 PECEPIPF999003 A1 PAGE 30 of 34

4.4.2 DB&B valves for Instrumentation application

For this subject 2 (two) type of double block and bleed valves are used, see next paragraphs
for details.

4.4.2.1 Modular DB&B valve (mono-block)

Machined from a single piece forging, this valve features two in-line ball pattern for primary
and secondary isolating. These isolations are of an, in-line, floating ball design, hand operable
via turn (90) levers. The ball valve further inc orporates separate stem & ball configuration,
with the stem being anti-blowout design. The primary & secondary isolation through bores are
10mm (minimum).

The vent facility is to be fitted with a heavy-duty needle pattern, with an inside screw and rising
stem arrangement. The stem is of an anti-blowout design, fitted with a non-rotating tip, giving
positive metal to metal seating.

The end connections are as follows: the inlet is (-3) flanged and the outlet (instrument)
connection is screwed (FNPT).

Typical Modular DB&B Valve


OFFICIAL COPY - ES45000 - PECEPIPF999003A1 - ABS Letter T1299428 - 09-Feb-15 - PDF Generated on
16-Feb-2015 4:37PM
PIPING
VALVE SELECTION
DESIGN STANDARD

ES45000 PECEPIPF999003 A1 PAGE 31 of 34

4.4.2.2 Mono-flange

Machined from a single piece forging, this valve features a primary needle isolation valve with
an outside screw and yoke arrangement. The secondary isolation valve and vent/bleed are a
heavy duty type needle valve arrangement with an inside screw and rising stem, all are
operable via a tee-bar. The stem is of an anti-blowout design, fitted with a non-rotating tip,
giving positive metal to metal seating.

The primary & secondary isolation through bores are minimum 10mm.

The end connections are as follows: the inlet is (-3) flanged and the outlet (instrument)
connection flanged or screwed (FNPT).

Typical Mono-flange DB&B Valve

4.5 DIAPHRAGM VALVES

A diaphragm valve is a linear motion valve that is used to start, regulate, and stop fluid flow.
The name is derived from its flexible disc, which mates with a seat located in the open area
at the top of the valve body to form a seal.

Diaphragm valves are, in effect, simple "pinch clamp" valves. A resilient, flexible diaphragm
is connected to a compressor by a stud molded into the diaphragm. The compressor is
moved up and down by the valve stem. Hence, the diaphragm lifts when the compressor is
raised. As the compressor is lowered, the diaphragm is pressed against the contoured
bottom in the straight through valve.

Diaphragm valves can also be used for throttling service. Its throttling characteristics are
essentially those of a quick opening valve because of the large shutoff area along the seat.

Diaphragm valves are particularly suited for the handling of corrosive fluids, fibrous slurries,
or other fluids that must remain free from contamination.

The material for the diaphragm is rubber type (e.g. EPDM, NBR), due to this material the
maximum temperature of the valve is limited to 95C .
OFFICIAL COPY - ES45000 - PECEPIPF999003A1 - ABS Letter T1299428 - 09-Feb-15 - PDF Generated on
16-Feb-2015 4:37PM
PIPING
VALVE SELECTION
DESIGN STANDARD

ES45000 PECEPIPF999003 A1 PAGE 32 of 34

5. MATERIAL SELECTION OF VALVE INTERNALS


5.1 SEAT AND SEAL MATERIALS

Materials used for valve seals and seats shall be suitable for the pressure, temperature and
service conditions as specified in the VDS and/or project specific requirements. Special
attention shall be given to materials for seals, seats, O-rings and other parts, which provide
positive isolation.
In manual valve spec ref. [3] are 2 tables specified which gives an overview of chemical
resistance, seal- and seat material properties.

Trim definition shall be in accordance with the design standard referenced on the VDS.
All stem-packing shall be compatible with the stem material and made from non-asbestos
material. Graphite or carbon-type packing shall contain corrosion inhibitor.
Alternatives to seals/seat may be acceptable subject to PURCHASER approval, in accordance
with tables from manual valve spec ref. [3].

The O-rings in a valve are classified under the group of Seal materials, and in particular:

Stem seal,
Seal between seats and body closures,
Seals between body and closures/bonnet.

For applications where elastomeric O-rings are not reliable, lip seals are to be used. These lip
seals are self-energized seal systems, made of a Teflon cover and a metallic spring (inside).
The spring provides the initial load (due to the low elasticity of Teflon), while the fluid pressure
provides the load to force the lips on the sealing surface.

5.2 END CONNECTIONS


Generally flanged valves shall be used. Flanges shall be in accordance with ASME B16.5,
up to and including class 600, flanges shall have raised face (R.F.). Valves rated class 900
and up shall have ring type joint (RTJ) flanges. Flange face finish shall be suitable for the
specified type of gasket.

Deviations from the above are:

Valves in turrets may be connected by pipe clamps as mentioned in the VDS. Clamps
shall be provided for valve size NPS 3 and above for pressure classes 900 and higher.
Any deviation resulting from project specific requirements will be identified in writing by
the PURCHASER.
Valves requiring special hub ends on the bodies for the fitting of pipe clamp connection
as per VDS shall be machined according to clamp CONTRACTOR specification. It shall
be the responsibility of the valve CONTRACTOR to acquire the clamp technical details.
Clamp bolting material shall be in accordance with VDS.

Screwed valves are only allowed if specified in a pipe class.


Valves in steam service may be butt welded.
Socket weld valves are preferred to be purchased with 100 mm nipples welded in by
manufacturer to minimize seat damage during field fabrication.
OFFICIAL COPY - ES45000 - PECEPIPF999003A1 - ABS Letter T1299428 - 09-Feb-15 - PDF Generated on
16-Feb-2015 4:37PM
PIPING
VALVE SELECTION
DESIGN STANDARD

ES45000 PECEPIPF999003 A1 PAGE 33 of 34

Butterfly valves and dual plate check valves are mainly executed in two end styles, wafer-
or lug-type, both of which are designed to be used with flanges (the valves are used
between mating flanges).

The wafer-type has a circular body fitting just inside the circular bolting pattern of the
flanges. When tightened, the extended-length flange stud bolts cause the flanges to seal
the ends of the valve and hold the valve in position. In this design, the valve does not
contribute to hold the pipeline together.
Note: Special attention must be given at the length of the bolts in case of fires;
additional info can be found in chapter 6.

The lug-type valve is also circular but has projections (called lugs) with threaded or
drilled through holes spaced around its perimeter. The most near located holes next to
the stem/shaft are always threaded; otherwise, the shaft/stem will be perforated. The
locations of the holes match those of the mating flanges. If the lugs are all threaded,
then the valves can be situated between flanges by using short stud bolts with each
flange, with the valve body acting to hold the pipeline together. Or the lug can be bolted
to a single flange at the end of a pipeline (dead end service).
Note: threads are cut from both sides of the valve.

Butterfly valves can also be executed with flanges (double flanged), these type of valves will
be used in the vessel on the hull.
OFFICIAL COPY - ES45000 - PECEPIPF999003A1 - ABS Letter T1299428 - 09-Feb-15 - PDF Generated on
16-Feb-2015 4:37PM
PIPING
VALVE SELECTION
DESIGN STANDARD

ES45000 PECEPIPF999003 A1 PAGE 34 of 34

6. ADDITIONAL DESIGN FEATURES

6.1 FIRE SAFETY

The following shall be understood when reference is made to a fire safe design or a fire tested
design:

Fire safe design = a design, which by nature of its features/ properties is capable of passing a
fire test.

Fire tested design = a design successfully subjected to prototype fire testing.

Fire testing shall be in accordance with BS 6755 part 2, API Spec 6FA or API Std. 607.
Existing certifications in accordance with BS 5146 part 1 Appendix A or API RP 6F are
acceptable.

Fire safe valves shall comply with the following requirements:

Soft seated: Fire tested design,


Metal seated: Fire safe design.

6.1.1 Failure of wafer type valves in case of fire

In case of a fire in hydrocarbon services wafer type valves with long bolted flanges can cause
additional fires due to failure of the bolts. This failure can result hydrocarbon leakage and
escalation of the incident from prolonged fires.

The reason for this is that flangeless valves in hydrocarbon service with bolts more than 2
inches (50mm) thickness exposed between adjacent flanges can begin to leak seriously within
a short time period (10 min.) of severe fire exposure, while a flanged valve under identical
circumstances did not leak within the same time period. Fires became self-sustaining when the
bolts reached their yield point by direct flame impingement.

During design phase valves must be identified if wafer type valves are located in a fire
exposed area. If this is the case, then a different valve must be specified, e.g. lugged-type or a
swing type.

6.2 PIGGABLE VALVES

Valves located in a pipeline which is subject to pigging, should have the same internal bore as
the matching pipe.

Application should be restricted to "special occasions indicated on the P&IDs, therefore are
these valves not specified in the piping classes and should be handled as special item. The
requirements of these piggable valves are to be covered in a data sheet.