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# PROXIMITY EFFECT IN SOLID AND HOLLOW ROUND CONDUCTORS*

## By A. H. M. ARNOLD, Ph.D., D.Eng., Associate Member.

(Paper first received 15th June, and in revised form 30th August, 1940.)

SUMMARY The term ' ' 3-phase, triangular spacing ' ' refers to a
A new formula is developed for the proximity effect in single- system of three equal parallel conductors of a 3-phase
phase systems of solid and hollow round conductors to replace system arranged so that the centres of their cross-sections
the two formulae developed by the author and published in lie at the points of an equilateral triangle.
1935 and 1936 respectively. The term ' ' 3-phase,flatspacing ' ' refers to a system of
Two independent formulae for the cases of solid and hollow three equal parallel conductors of a 3-phase system
conductors are replaced by a single formula for hollow con- arranged in the same plane with the middle conductor
ductors, including the solid conductor as a particular case.
The new formula is simpler and can be evaluated numerically equidistant from the two outer conductors.
in a shorter time. It is more accurate and is valid for all
possible values of the independent variables. The earlier solid- (1.4) Proximity Factor
conductor formula failed for certain ranges of the independent The proximity factor of any system or part of a system
variables. Improved formulae are also given for 3-phase of conductors is the ratio of the a.c. resistance /actor of
systems. the system or part of the system to the a.c. resistance factor
The discrepancies between values calculated by the new of an equal isolated conductor (in symbols, P K/Ko).
formulae and values obtained from experimental measurements
are little, if any, greater than possible experimental errors.
(2) THE SINGLE - PHASE ALTERNATING - CURRENT
RESISTANCE FACTOR FOR SOLID ROUND
CONTENTS CONDUCTORS
(1) Definition of Terms. J. R. Carson,1 S. Butterworth2 and H. B. Dwight3 have
(2) The Single-phase Alternating-current Resistance Factor independently established a general solution for the single-
for Solid Round Conductors. phase a.c. resistance factor of solid round conductors,
(3) The Single-phase Alternating-current Resistance Factor based on the following initial conditions:
for Hollow Round Conductors. (a) The conductor is non-magnetic.
(4) The 3-phase Alternating-current Resistance Factors. (b) The magnetic field is perpendicular to the axis of the
(5) Working Formulae and Tables. conductor and does not vary along the axis: otherwise its
(6) Experimental Results. form is general.
(7) References. (c) The field alternates so slowly that the dielectric
(8) Appendix. current can be neglected in comparison with the conduct-
ance current. This means that the wavelength of the
(1) DEFINITION OF TERMS disturbance producing the field is large compared with the
(1.1) A.C. Resistance Factor dimensions of the conductor. On the other hand, the
The a.c. resistance factor of any system or part of a conductor is supposed to be long enough for its end effects
system of conductors is the ratio of the alternating-current to be negligible.
resistance to the direct-current resistance of that system or This solution is given below as equation (1).
part of that system of conductors (in symbols, K = R'lR). Let x and a be as defined in Section (5) of this paper.
Let ks = single-phase a.c. resistance factor of solid round
(1.2) Round Conductor conductors.
A round conductor is a solid or hollow straight con-
ductor of circular cross-section. The inner perimeter of And let
the cross-section of the hollow conductor is a circle coaxial where J {xj-^j) is the Bessel function of the first kind, of
n
with the outer perimeter. order n, and with the argument xjy/j\ andy = y/( 1).
(1.3) Systems of Conductors
The term " isolated conductor " refers to a conductor Then ks = j^fH{x) (1)
remote from all other conductors. = 1
The term'' single-phase ' ' refers to a system of two equal where
parallel conductors forming the lead and return of a single- (la)
phase system. /o(*) =
Transmission Section paper. Official communication from the National
Physical Laboratory.
Written communications are invited, for consideration with a view to 0*)
publication, on papers published in the Journal without being read at a
meeting. Communications (except those from abroad) should reach the
C)
Secretary of The Institution not later than one month after publication of
the paper to which they relate.
VOL. 88, PART II. [349]
25

350 ARNOLD: PROXIMITY EFFECT IN SOLID AND HOLLOW ROUND CONDUCTORS

## Table 1 shows a few values of the functions ht(x) and

h2(x).
. (id) Table 1

2048 AiC*)

^ 0 ( \ e ) 0 008 000
etc. 1 007 000
If the separation between the conductors is small (a near 2 007 001
to unity) a very large number of terms of the series in 3 013 002
equation (1) must be evaluated, and this is a task of such 4 0-39 002
magnitude that this equation is unsuited to numerical 5 0-71 -007
evaluation.
6 0-79 -007
Carson and Butterworth developed approximate for- 7 0-78 -002
mulae from this general solution which have been widely 8 0-80 -001
used for particular applications. Both these formulae
suffered, however, from the defect that they were subject
oo 1 0
to large errors for certain values of the arguments. In the
present paper, an approximate formula is developed which
It may be seen that the convergence of the series is very
is more accurate than Carson's or Butterworth's formula
rapid, and little error is involved if only two terms of the
for any values of the arguments. It is simple to evaluate,
series are evaluated. Moreover, since h2(x) is small com-
and it is believed that its error does not exceed 1 % for any
pared with h{{x), 0L4h2(x) is negligible compared with
values of the arguments.
v?hx(x) except when a is near to unity. When a is near to
The function fo(x) in equation (1) is the a.c. resistance unity, a 4 is near to a2, and therefore
factor of an isolated round conductor, and has been deter-
mined by Kelvin, Rayleigh, Heaviside4 and others. <x2//i(x) + a.4h2(x) = cf.2[hi(x) + h2(x)] approximately
Numerical values of this function to 5 places of decimals = OL2C(X) approximately
have been published.5
71=00 where c(x) = h{(x) + h2(x) (4)
The quantity 2 a /(*) is the increase in the value of
=i Equation (3) may now be converted to equation (5) as an
the single-phase a.c. resistance factor, caused by the field approximation.
of the return conductor, above the value of the isolated- Ps = 7F *,, s -, approximately (5)
conductor a.c. resistance factor.
Using the symbol/^ to denote the single-phase proximity
factor for solid conductors, we have
Equation (5) is an excellent approximation for all values
of x and a, except when x is near to 1 42. At this value
of x the function b(x) passes through zero and consequently
n 1
. . . . (2) the function c(x) becomes infinite. This irregularity is
overcome by using artificial values for c(x) in this range.
The function c(x) is tabulated in Table 4, and for four
Equation (2) may be transformed to equation (3), namely values of the argument an artificial value is tabulated, the
true value being added in brackets. Since the numerator
(3) of the expression <x.4b(x)l[l a 2 c(x)] is near zero when
1- aV x is near 1-42, the exact value employed for <x2c(x) near
this point is of little importance provided it is appreciably
less than unity, and the accuracy of equation (5) for
evaluating the proximity factor is not impaired by the
where use of these artificial values over this critical range.
(*) = V-,
/oto
(3a) The functions a{x) and b(x) are tabulated in Tables
2 and 3.*
* In Tables 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8 and 9 the dot notation is used to indicate
Ob) approximately an additional decimal figure. A high dot indicates that the
next decimal figure lies between 1J and 5. A low dot indicates that the
next decimal figure lies between If and 5. The absence of a dot
indicates that the next decimal figure lies between 1] and + If. For
most work, sufficient accuracy will be obtained if the dots are ignored.
Examples:
0 1234' = 0 12343 (approx.)
(3c) 0 1234 =0-12340 (approx.)
0 1234. = 0-12337 (approx.)

64^
~[a(x)]2[b(x)] + l[
~W)
etc.
ARNOLD: PROXIMITY EFFECT IN SOLID AND HOLLOW ROUND CONDUCTORS 351

Table 2

## 0-2 0000 0-000 3-4 0-661. 0-233.

0-3 o-ooo- o-ooo* 3-5 0-668* 0-235-
0-4 0001. 0001. 3-6 0-675 0-238
0-5 0 002 0002 3-7 0-681 0-240-
0-6 0004 0004 3-8 0-687 0-242
0-7 0-007' 0-007- 3-9 0-692. 0-244.
0-8 0013. 0-012- 40 0-696' 0-245
0-9 0 020 0-019- 4-2 0-705* 0-246
10 0-030- 0 029. 4-4 0-714. 0-245-
1-1 0 044. 0-040- 4-6 0-722* 0-243-
1-2 0061. 0-054' 4-8 0-731. 0-240
1-3 0-081' 0 070 50 0-739' 0-236
1-4 0 106 0 088. 5-5 0-760. 0-223
1-5 0135. 0106. 60 0-778- 0-209-
1-6 0167 0-123- 6-5 0-795. 0-196'
1-7 0-203. 0-140- 70 0-809. 0185.
1-8 0-240- 0156. 7-5 0-821 0 174
1-9 0-280. 0169 80 0-832. 0165.
20 0-320 0180 9 0-849- 0-148"
2-1 0-360. 0189 10 0-864. 0135.
2-2 0-399. 0196. 11 0-876. 0-123-
2-3 0-436. 0-201. 12 0-886. 0113-
2-4 0-470 0-205. 14 0-902. 0 098
2-5 0-502. 0-208. 16 0-914. 0-086-
2-6 0-530- 0-210' 18 0-923 0 077
2-7 0-556 0-213. 20 0-931. 0-069-
2-8 0-578' 0-215- 25 0-944* 0 056.
2-9 0-598. 0-218. 30 0-953* 0 047.
30 0-614- 0-221. 35 0-960 0 040
3-1 0-629. 0-224. 40 0-965 0 035
3-2 0-641 0-227. 50 0-972 0 028
3-3 0-652. 0-230. Above 50 1 - (V2/x) VVx

Table 3

## 0-5 0-000 0 000 3-6 0-053- - 0 026.

10 -0-001 -0002 3-8 0 046. -0-021*
1-2 - 0001 - 0-003* 40 0 039. -0-017*
1-4 - o-ooo- - 0005. 4-2 0033. - 0014.
1-6 + 0-003' - 0006. 4-4 0-027- -0011
1-8 0011. - 0-007. 4-6 0-023- -0009
20 0 022- -0010 4-8 0 020 - 0 008.
2-2 0 037. -0-015* 50 0018. - 0007.
2-4 0051. - 0-022- 5-5 0014. - 0006
2-6 0 062. - 0-028* 60 0012 - 0-006-
2-8 0 068. - 0033. 7 . 0-009- -0-006'
30 0 069 - 0-034- 8 0-007- - 0-005-
3-2 0 066 - 0033 10 0005. - 4 0004
3-4 0-060- - 0030 Above 10 1/C2*2) 8/.* - ll(2x2)
352 ARNOLD: PROXIMITY EFFECT IN SOLID AND HOLLOW ROUND CONDUCTORS

If a is less than 0-5, equation (5) may be simplified to within 0-2 % for any values of the independent variables
equation (6) with an error of less than 1 % for any value and to within a few parts in 10 000 for the sizes of tubes
of x. most commonly used. This formula is given in the Appen-
dix to this paper and may be used as an alternative to the
(6)
precise Bessel-function formula.
A formula for the proximity factor, Ps, will now be
(3) THE SINGLE-PHASE ALTERNATING-CURRENT developed.
RESISTANCE FACTOR FOR HOLLOW ROUND
(3.2) The Proximity Factor for Thin Tubes (y = 0)
CONDUCTORS
For thin tubes the isolated-conductor a.c. resistance
(3.1) General factor is unity, and therefore the a.c. resistance factor for
S. P. Mead6 has developed a general solution for the the single-phase system is equal to the proximity factor.
single-phase proximity factor (Ps) of hollow conductors. Using the symbol pss to denote the single-phase proximity
This solution, involving Bessel functions of the first and factor of a thin tube (y = 0), equation (8) may be developed
second kinds and of orders from zero to infinity, is even from H. B. Dwight's formula for thin tubes.3 The
more unsuited to numerical evaluation than the general development of equation (8) from Dwight's formula was
solution for solid conductors. From this general solution, given in the author's earlier paper.*
Mead develops an approximate solution, but unfortunately
this solution is, like Carson's solution for solid conductors, pss = (8)
subject to serious errors for certain values of the arguments. where
It is also difficult to evaluate.
It is possible, however, to develop simple and accurate (8a)
formulae for the following asymptotic conditions. 4
\2
(a) Solid conductors (y 1). The solution for solid . . . . (86)
conductors is given as equation (5) in this paper. ) f-64)
(b) Hollow conductors with very thin walls (y = 0).
(c) Hollow conductors having any value of y, carrying d\x) =
144)
JC4 \3 1/r x*4 \V
4 2

## high-frequency currents. (The argument x is 3 32\x< + \6)

4. a
large.)
(8c)
(d) Hollow conductors having any value of y, carrying Te\x^+w ( F T M /
low-frequency currents. (The argument x is etc.
small.) Equation (8) may be transformed to equation (9), namely
From these four formulae it is possible to construct a 1
single formula which agrees with each asymptotic formula Pss =r W
over its particular range. There is little scope for such a
formula to develop serious errors at intermediate values
of the arguments, but in order to test the accuracy of the
formula the whole of the intermediate range of the inde-
pendent variables has been investigated experimentally, Equation (9) is similar in form to equation (3), and since
and the experimental results show that the formula =00

developed is free from large errors. the series S cr"en(x) is rapidly convergent for all values
The greatest discrepancy between the values of the a.c. of x and a, we may write
resistance factor calculated by the formula and the experi-
mentally observed values was 3 6 %, and the average dis- a.2nen(x) = a2C!(x) approximately . (10)
crepancy for 110 observations was only 0-9%. The
n=l
formula developed simplifies to the equation for solid
conductors [equation (5)] when y is put equal to unity, where q(x) = ^(x) + e2(x) . . . (11)
and for this particular case the greatest discrepancy Therefore, equation (9) may be written
between the calculated values of the a.c. resistance factor
and the experimental values was only 0 5 % and the 1
Pss = approximately (12)
average discrepancy for 36 observations was 0-1 %.
The author developed an approximate formula for
hollow conductors in an earlier paper,7 but the present The functions a^x), b^x) and c^x) may be expressed in
formula is simpler and more accurate. terms of x as follows:
By definition,
KS = KOPS (7) = (x/2)4. Then
z
The value of Ko may be calculated with any desired pre- (12a)
cision by a well-known formula involving Bessel functions z+
of the first and second kinds of order zero.8'9 The (126)
calculations are somewhat lengthy and a simple formula
has been developed by the author which is accurate to * Sec Reference (7), equation (18).
ARNOLD: PROXIMITY EFFECT IN SOLID AND HOLLOW ROUND CONDUCTORS 353

## - \){z + 4) and therefore

4(2z- 9)
+ 2520z3 + 3164z2 + 3144z- 144 l-<
16(2* 16)
(12c)

## (3.3) The Proximity Factor of Hollow Conductors when

x is Large
Let . p(x) = a,(x) - a{x) (14)
q(x) = A,(x) - (*)
and r(x) = ct(x) c(x) (3.4) The Proximity Factor of Hollow Conductors when
x is Small
As in the case of the function c(x), a few artificial values When x tends to zero we have, from equation (23) of
are given to the function r(x) in order to avoid an infinite Reference (7),
point. In the tabulation of the function r(x) the artificial
values are marked with an asterisk and the true values
added in brackets for reference purposes.
where ft = 2t\d.
When oo,
Therefore,
(16)

## and since, when x is small, p(x) a(x),

c(x)->l- 1
(17)
P(x) V
(3.5) The General Formula for the Proximity Factor
Noticing that when x is near zero, b(x) is negligibly
small compared with a(x), a general formula may be
V2 written down satisfying the asymptotic formulae, equa-
r(x) tions (5), (12), (14) and (17), and this is given below as
-v approximately
equation (18).
JQK
' 2 A /2 Ps TB approximately . (18)

## Also, the a.c. resistance of a conductor of given diameter

is unaffected by the size of the central aperture since the where A = a(x) + [1 - y2 - y (l - y)d(x)]p{x) . (18a)
current will not penetrate to the inner surface of the
conductor. B = b{x) + (1 - y2)q(x) (186)
The d.c. resistance of a solid conductor having the same C = c(x) + (1 - y)r(x) (18c)
diameter as the hollow conductor under consideration is
equal to y2R, while the argument 87r//(d.c. resistance) for The function d(x) is equal to zero when x is small and is
the solid conductor is equal to x/y, where x is the argument equal to unity when x is large. These conditions are
for the hollow conductor. satisfied by an equation of the type of equation (19),
Substituting these values into equation (5), we have namely
(19)
R' = 4 (13)
0L b(
Now the high-frequency asymptotic formula, equation (14),
is fairly accurate for values of x greater than 25, while the
low-frequency asymptotic formula, equation (17), is fairly
and inserting the asymptotic values of the functions accurate for values of x less than 2; so that d(x) should be
foixly), a(x/y), b(x/y) and c{xjy), we have approximately equal to unity for values of x greater than
25 and approximately equal to zero for values of x less
yR
than 2. We may therefore write, from equation (19),
2V2 25"
R'
i_ a2 (i_rvA = 1 b, where b is small compared with unity,
25"
V x ) 2B
- a2 and = b
x J a+ 2n
354 ARNOLD: PROXIMITY EFFECT IN SOLID AND HOLLOW ROUND CONDUCTORS

Solving these equations, we find that for spacing. For 3-phase system, flat spacing,
s = spacing between axis of each outer conductor
n 1, b 0-22 and a = 7 approximately. and axis of middle conductor.
n = 2, 6 = 0-07 and a 50 approximately. / = frequency, in cycles per sec.
n 3, b = 0 02 and a = 350 approximately. A = conductivity of conductor, in c.g.s. units.
n 4, b = 0-006 and a = 2 500 approximately, etc. = l/(resistivity of conductor, in ohms, for a centimetre
cube x 109).
It may be seen that the lowest value of the index n which R = d.c. resistance of conductor.
gives a reasonably small value of b, is 3. Adopting this R' = a.c. resistance of conductor.
value and rounding up the value of a to the nearest 100, K = a.c. resistance factor.
we have P = proximity factor.
rfW
= 405T-* (20) Small-letter suffixes are added to the last four symbols
in order to indicate a particular system of conductors;
Using equation (20) for d(x), equation (18) may be used to thus: KO,PS, etc.
evaluate the single-phase proximity factor for hollow
conductors having any values of the independent argu- The significance of the suffixes is as follows:
ments with an error which is believed not to exceed 4 % o stands for isolated conductor.
and which decreases rapidly as the separation between the s stands for single-phase system.
conductors is increased, i.e. as the value of a decreases. / stands for 3-phase system, triangular spacing.
If a is less than 0-5, equation (18) may be simplified to /stands for the average of the three conductors of a
equation (21): 3-phase system, flat spacing.
f stands for the outer conductor of a 3-phase system,
Ps = /(1 2jf) approximately . . (21) flat spacing.
fm stands for the middle conductor of a 3-phase system,
flat spacing.
(4) THE 3-PHASE ALTERNATING-CURRENT RESIS-
TANCE FACTORS (5.2) The Independent Variables
The 3-phase a.c. resistance factor may be expressed as a = d/s
a product of the single-phase a.c. resistance factor and a
new factor.
In the author's earlier paper7 expressions were given in
this manner for the 3-phase a.c. resistance factor, for x =
triangular spacing and for flat spacing.
J. C. Costello10 pointed out certain defects in the (5.3) Derived Functions
triangular-spacing formula, and in the light of this criticism a(x), b(x), c(x), p(x), q(x) and r(x) are functions of x
and with the aid of additional experimental results the which are defined in the paper and are tabulated in
author now puts forward new formulae for these systems. Tables 2, 3 and 4. A, B and C are functions of x and y.
The theory underlying the formulae is fully outlined in the jx is a function of x, y and a.
earlier paper and in Costello's discussion, and the new
formulae tend asymptotically to the rigid solution at both (5.4) Working Formulae
high and low values of the independent variable x. They 3
~] from (18a)
are an improvement on the old formulae, but are not so A = a(x) + p(x)^l - y a n d (20)
accurate as the single-phase formulae. Over the somewhat
2
limited range of values of the independent variables for B = b(x) + (1 - y )q(x) (186)
which experimental tests were possible, very good agree- C = c(x) + (1 - y)r(x) (18c)
ment was obtained. For solid conductors the maximum
fJL = OL2A
discrepancy between experimental values and calculated
values was 0 8 %, and the average discrepancy (11 observa- For single-phase,
tions) was 0-4%.
For hollow conductors the maximum discrepancy (18)
between experimental values and calculated values was 1 -
2 8 % and the average discrepancy (40 observations)
0-7%. (These values compare with 4-9% and 1-4% [If a is less than 0-5, Ps = 1/yXl o?A) approxi-
respectively for the earlier formulae.) mately.]
The formulae are given in the next section. For 3-phase, triangular spacing,

## (5) WORKING FORMULAE AND TABLES (22)

(5.1) Symbols
d = outside diameter of conductor, in cm. For 3-phase, flat spacing (average for three conductors),
/ = thickness of wall of conductor, in cm.
.v spacing (cm.) between axes of conductors in single-
phase system and in 3-phase system, triangular - - (23)
ARNOLD: PROXIMITY EFFECT IN SOLID AND HOLLOW ROUND CONDUCTORS 355

Table 4

## 00 0 09. 003. 40 0-41. . 0-33 1-81 011

0-2 0 09. 0 03. 42 0-46- 0-30. 1-82 018
0-4 0 09. 003. 44 0-51' 0-27. 1-83 0-24
0-6 0 08' 0 02* 46 0-56. 0-24. 1-84 0-28
0-8 0 08. 0 02. 48 0-60 0-21 1-85 0-31
10 0 06- 000 50 0-64. 019. 1-85 0-34.
1-2 0 02- 00 (- 005)
*o 00 (0-91) 52 0-67. 017. 1-87 0-36.
1-4
1-6
*o 00
02
(- 1-2)
(017)
*o 00 (-3-2) 54
56
0-69
0-70'
016.
015
1-88
1-89
0-37-
0-39
1-8
*o 05 (0-11) *o 00 (- 009) 58 0-71- 015. 1-90 0-40
20
*o
*007 (0 09)
*o 0-44. 6 0-72* 014' 1-92 0-41-
2-2 008 0-44. 7 0-76 013 1-94 0-42-
2-4 0-08' 0-44 8 0-79' 011 1-96 0-43
2-6 010. 0-44- 9 0-83. 0 08- 1-98 0-43*
2-8 0-12 0-44- 10 0-85. 0 07.
30 015* 0-44 12 0-87- 005.
3-2 019' 0-43" 14 0-89. 003*
3-4 0-24 0-42. 16 0-90- 002
3-6 0-29' 0-39- 18 0-93. 000
3-8 0-35 0-36- 20 0-93- *000
Above 20 1-<V2/*) *000

Values marked with an asterisk are artificial values, which should be used in the formula. The true values are
/2 5
shown in brackets for reference purposes. When x is over 20 the true value of r(x) is -

For 3-phase, flat spacing, middle conductor, (4) References to the works of Kelvin, Rayleigh and
P/OT = P , ( l + / x ) . . . . (24) Heaviside are given in Butterworth's paper,
Reference (2).
F o r 3-phase, flat spacing, outer conductor, (5) E. B. ROSA and F. W. GROVER: Bureau of Standards
Bulletin, 1912, 8, p. 226, Table 22.
(25) (6) S. P. MEAD: Bell System Technical Journal, 1925, 4,
p. 327.
For all systems, (7) A. H. M. ARNOLD: Journal I.E.E., 1936, 78, p. 580.
K = K0P (26) (8) A. RUSSELL: " Alternating Currents," 1, p. 205
R' = KR^ (27) (2nd ed.).
(9) H. B. DWIGHT: Journal of the American I.E.E., 1923,
(6) EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS 42, p. 827.
Adequate experimental results have already been (10) J. C. COSTELLO: Journal I.E.E., 1936, 79, p. 595.
published in the author's two earlier papers,7'11 with the (11) A. H. M. ARNOLD: ibid., 1935, 77, p. 49.
exception of results of 3-phase tests of solid conductors.
These tests have now been made, and the complete set of (8) APPENDIX 1
results has been compared with the new formulae. The
A Simple Formula for the Isolated-Conductor A.C.
ratio of the experimental value of the a.c. resistance factor
to the calculated value for nearly 200 observations is shown Resistance Factor of Hollow Conductors
in Table 5. The experimental values of K have been In the author's earlier paper7 a simple formula for the
omitted with a view to saving space, but these can be a.c. resistance factor of hollow conductors, having a
obtained from the earlier papers. They range from a little
maximum error of 0-6%, was developed from H. B.
over unity up to 8 27. Dwight's formula.3 By the addition of one extra term,
a new formula has been obtained with a maximum error
(7) REFERENCES of less than 0-2%.
(1) J. R. CARSON: Philosophical Magazine, 1921, 41, The development of the new formula is similar to the
p. 607. development of the earlier formula, and it will be sufficient
(2) S. BUTTERWORTH: Philosophical Transactions of the to write down the results. The formula is given as
Royal Society, 1921, 222, p. 57. equation (28).
(3) H. B. DWIGHT: Transactions of the American I.E.E.,
1923, 42, p. 850. JT0 = (28)
356 ARNOLD: PROXIMITY EFFECT IN SOLID AND HOLLOW ROUND CONDUCTORS

Table 5

## Exp./r/Calc.A" Exp.tf/Calc.tf Exp.KlOdc.K Exp.KlCa.lcK Exp.tf/Calc.AT

(1) Solid Conductors (c) 3-phase, y =0-4434, a=O-33O y=0-6187, a=0-278 y==0-7463, a=0-848
(a) Single-phase flat spacing 10-49 1022 8-773 1007 1-520 1-003
a = 0-983 a = 0-993 1210 1018 1014 1006 2-147 1-007
1-462 0-996 13-53 1022 11-34 1-009 2-632 1-003
1-708 1000 14-82 1036 12-43 1012 3-042 1-004
2-415 1-001 2-073 0-997
2-957 1-002 2-940 1003
4-172 1006 y=0-6211, a=0-974
3-413 1000 y =0-7463, a=0-974 (c) 3-phase,
5-033 1-002 4-620 1-006 657 1-000 flat spacing
0-999
518 002
5-906 1002 (2) Hollow Conductors
344
147 002 y=0-6186, a = 0 986
8-365 1005 314 1-001
(a) Single-phase 836 1014
038 006 2-529 0-996
a = 0-980 y = 0-4400, a=0-982 631 0-997
4-431 012 3-568 0-994
263 001 4-359 0-988
6-857 1005 1-967 1000 119 0-985 0-986
080 5-058 0-987
7-668 1-005 2-778 0-995 792 0-979
y=0-6187, a=0-979
a = 0-800 3-930 1000 444 0-979 y=0-6186, a=O-863
5-733 1-022 8-730 0-969
1-708 1-001 7-864 1-008 10-08 0-969 2-532 1-003
2-417 1-002 y=0-7463, a=0-837 3-589 1008
9-620 0-996 11-27 0-972
961 1001 12-34 0-981 527 1-001 4-397 1011
y =0-4434, a=0-978 5-055 1003
420 1-001 159 1003
021 1000 1210 1016 y=0-6211, a=0-853 049 1010
929 1000 14-82 1027 y=0-6186, a=0-698
657 1000 4-446 1013
6-843 0-999 y =0-4400, a=0-827 272 1005 2-526 1000
7-649 1-000 344 1-002 3-571
311 1007 093 0-994 1-008
8-375 1000 1-967 1-004 808 0-991 4-368 0-997
783 1-009 834 1013 5-072
a = 0-4028 631 0-999 450 0-991 0-994
934 1019
1-719 1-001 742 1025 8-113 0-997 y=0-6186, a=0-499
873 1016 y=0-7463, a=0-697
430 1002 2-526 1007
1000 9-642 1011 y =0-6187, a=0-845
974 516 1000 3-577 0-997
432 1001 ,=0-4434, a=O-8O8 8-736 0-991 145 1-003 4-380 0-980
031 1003 10-09 0-987 033 1-006 5-072 0-984
901 0-999 10-45 1-008 11-28 0-991 428 1011
6-865 1000 1205 1000 12-36 0-994 1-004
13-49
524 =0-7463, a=0-982
7-665 1-000 1-003 6-071 0-999
8-371 1000 14-76 1005 1-518 0-998
y =0-6211, g=0-711 6-792 0-996 2-147 0-995
y =0-4400, a=0-713 7-437 0-996
a = 0-1547 657 1000 2-636 0-998
963 1004 344 1-002 3-049 0-994
1-713 1-001 778 1008 314 a=0-198
1008 y =0-7463,
2-422 1000 930 1016 836 1-010 y=0-7463, a=0-869
965 1-001 1-527 1000
733 1021 631 2-156 1001002 1-524 0-995
423 1002 864 10148 088 002
027 1001 3-049 1003 2-154 0-992
620 1012 4-444 1003 2-627 1001
897 1-000
y=0-6187, a=0-709 3-044 0-998
871 1-002 y =0-4434, a=0-699 5-272 1004
654 1001 8-753 0-997 6-084 1001
10-45 1008 1003 y =0-7463, a=0-703
375 1000 10-12 0-994 6-796
12 06 1008 1004
11-28 0-994 7-439 1-522 1004
(b) 3-phase, 13-50 1006
12-36 1000 2-154 1002
triangular spacing 14-78 1-009
2-645 0-988
a =0-992 y =0-4400, a=O-333 y=0-6211, a=0-201
(b) 3-phase, 3-038 0-995
triangular spacing
029 1003 963 1-005 660 0-999
1-008 y=0-6186, a=0-852 y =0-7463, a=0-496
453 774 1-009 346 001
063 1-005 926 1010 317 -002 2-520 1028 1-524 1003
934 1006 729 1019 842 -006 3-560 1011 2-147 0-998
135 1003 851 1022 631 007 4-394 1018 2-623 1-003
4-614 1-003 620 1025 8-093 009 5-067 1012 3-033 0-985
ARNOLD: PROXIMITY EFFECT IN SOLID AND HOLLOW ROUND CONDUCTORS 357

where y= Here ber y and bei ^ are respectively the real part and the
imaginary parts of the Bessel function of the first kind of
0 = 2t/d
order zero, having for its argument the function yj\/j.
Also ber' y = ber y and bei' y = -r- bei v.
ay ay
Ky)][h3(y)h5(y) + h4(y)h6(y)] - h2(y)h6(y)]

## The functions l(y), m(y) and n(y) are tabulated in

Tables 6 and 7.
bei >> ber' >
and It may be observed that, when j8 = 1, equation (28)
reduces to /To = fo(y), which is the precise equation for the
a.c. resistance factor of an isolated solid conductor.
1 + 2>4 J " 1)"
Table 7
y m(y)

## 0-4 0000 0000

0-6 0001. o-ooo-
0-8 0002 0-001.
10 0 005. 0001
h,{y) =
1-2 0010. 0-002-
1-4 0-017- 0-004-
71=1
n
1-6 0 028 0-007-
4
" 1-8 0-042- o-oir
2-i[Sn + 6J(4n 20 0 060. 0017.
2-2 0 079. 0-023-
11 y4"-2 2-4 0 099. 0031.
~4J(4- 1)!( 2-6 0-118- 0 038'
2-8 0136. 0-045-
Table 6 30 0-150- 0-051-
3-2 0-162- 0-055-
-y /GO y 3-4 0172. 0 057
3-6 0-178- 0 057.
3-8 0-184. 0 055
0-2 0000 2-6 0-714 40 0-187- 0-05i-
0-3 o-ooo- 2-7 0-793- 4-5 0-193- 0041.
0-4 0001. 2-8 0-875. 50 0198 0-031*
0-5 o-oor 2-9 0-957. 6 0-206. 0-022-
0-6 0 003 30 1040. 1 3 3
0-7 0-005- 3-2 1-205- A Hrw/p ^
AUUVC U
0-8 0009 3-4 1-368' 4 S^2y 16^/2^
0-9 0-014- 3-6 1-528.
10 0 022 3-8 1-683.
11 0-032 40 1-833. (9) APPENDIX 2
1-2 0-045- 4-2 1-979- {Received 18th December, 1940.)
1-3 0-062. 4-4 2-123.
1-4 0-082- 4-6 2-264- Butterworth-Bessel Functions
1-5 0-107- 4-8 2-405. S. Butterworth* introduced a function, xn(X), which
1-6 0137 50 2-544 may be defined in terms of Bessel functions of the first
1-7 0172 5-5 2-893. kind by equation (1), namelyf
1-8 0-212- 60 3-243 r CY\
1-9 0-258 6-5 3-596. . . . . (29)
20 0-309 70 3-949
2-1 0-365- 8 4-657.
2-2 0-427 9 5-364 where Jn(X) is the Bessel function of the first kind, of
2-3 0-493 10 6-071- order n, and with the argument X. Butterworth's func-
2-4 0-563- y tion appears in formulae for the a.c. resistance and
2-5 0-637- Above 10 inductance of cylindrical conductors. A reduction
Proceedings of the Physical Society, 1913, 25, p. 294.
t In the original paper the sign of the function was the opposite to that
In the earlier paper the independent variable was y*. adopted here.
358 ARNOLD: PROXIMITY EFFECT IN SOLID AND HOLLOW ROUND CONDUCTORS

formula for evaluating this function when n is greater Let X = xj^/j, where j = y/{ 1) and x is real, and
than unity may be developed from the ordinary Bessel let <f>n(x) + jtfjn(x) = xn(X).
reduction formulae, as follows: Then, from equation (30),

X so that
and Jn(X) + Jn_2(X)] Anifi - 1)
2(n - 1)

and
so that
X2Jn{X) + / B _ 2 (A

Anjn - \)xn_x{X)
- 1 + XW-x^X)] (30)
By means of equations (32) and (33) the functions <f>n(x)
and djn(x) may be calculated for any value of n provided
In alternating-current problems, the argument X is the functions 0i(*) and ifj^x) are known. Butterworth
complex. has shown that these functions may be expressed in terms

Table 8

## 00 000000 -9 000000 1000 0-00000 - 3 000000 334

0-2 0- 00003' 33 0-00500 1001 0-00000' +6 000167. 333
0-4 0 00053 153 001999. 991 0-00007. 18 0-00667. 332
0-6 0-00269 348 0 04483' 954 0-00034. 43 0-01499* 332
0-8 0-00843 604 0-07907' 841 0-00106' 80 0-02662 325
10 0-02023* 878 0-12152' 619 0-00259' 122 0-04149' 315
1-2 0-04070. 1093 0-16993 264 0-00535 171 0-05949. 290
1-4 0-07185. 1 168 0-22081' - 191 0-00983' 228 0-08038' 260
1-6 0-11432 1037 0-26976. -664 001658. 278 0-10384 212
1-8 0-16682 708 0-31227 - 1021 0-02610' 327 0-12937. 145
20 0-22622' 276 0-34490. - 1 187 0-03886* 360 0-15632. 65
2-2 0-28840 - 141 0-36603' - 1 135 005518* 372 0-18390. -27
2-4 0-34935' -449 0-37606. -944 007518* 361 0-21121* - 117
2-6 0-40605' -619 0-37677. -687 0-09874 323 0-23735. - 209
2-8 0-45678' -666 0-37060 -439 0-12549 261 0-26143 -280
30 0-50099 -638 0-35996' -237 0-15483* 188 0-28275 -331
3-2 0-53891* -561 0-34685 -93 0-18603. 101 O-3OO81* - 354
3-4 0-57124. -476 0-33272 +2 0-21825 23 0-31537. 356
3-6 0-59881. - 389 0-31854' 60 0-25071* -48 0-32641 332
3-8 0-62247. -315 0-30490 86 0-28271. - 106 0-33415 - 298
40 0-64296 -250 0-29209 97 0-31368. - 146 0-33893' - 252
4-2 0-66092 - 201 0-28023. 96 0-34322' - 168 0-34119' 207
4-4 0-67685 - 163 0-26932. '89 0-37110 - 181 0-34138' 162
4-6 0-69114' - 131 0-25930 81 0-39719 - 181 0-33994 123
4-8 0-70410 - 112 0-25009* 72 0-42148" - 175 0-33726 90
50 0-71594' -92 0-24160. 62 0-44403' - 165 0-33367' - 62

## 50 0-71594* - 565 0-24160. 386 0-44403' - 1037 0-33367' 374

5-5 0-74173. -409 0-22291' 274 0-49352. -821 0-32236' 108
60 0-76329. - 319 0-20703 203 0-53479' -623 0-30969. +5
6-5 0-78160. - 257 0-19324' 164 0-56974* -482 0-29693 49
70 0-79731 - 208 018112' 138 0-59979 - 385 0-28460* 64
7-5 0-81092 - 171 0-17039. 115 0-62594' - 312 0-27288. 66
80 0-82281. - 141 0-16082' 101 0-64893. -261 0-26181. 65
8-5 0-83328 - 116 0-15226 84 0-66929. - 221 0-25139 66
90 0-84258 -97 0-14455' 74 0-68743' - 184 0-24162. 61
9-5 0-85090. -85 0-13758* 64 0-70371. - 161 0-23246 60
100 0-85837' - 69 013125 55 0-71838 - 137 0-22389. 54
ARNOLD: PROXIMITY EFFECT IN SOLID AND HOLLOW ROUND CONDUCTORS 359

Table 9

## 00 00000 00000 104 00000 | 00000 62

0-5 0 0000* +6 0-0052 104 00000 +3 00031' 63
10 00007 19 0 0208 103 0 0003. 6 0 0125 62
1-5 0 0035 45 0 0466 94 00013 18 00281. 59
20 00109. 76 0-0817' 78 0-0041' 29 0 0496 57
2-5 0 0258. 103 0 1244. 39 0 0099* 46 0 0767. 46
30 0 0507. 114 0-1709' 5 0 0202 57 01083 31
3-5 0 0866' 102 0-2168. - 59 00361. 65 0 1429 11
40 01323 63 0-2571. -96 0 0584 65 01785. - 16
4-5 0 1842 19 0-2883 - 103 00871' 58 0-2126 - 36
50 0-2381 - 19 0-3095. -94 01214. 37 0-2432. - 53
5-5 0-2904" - 39 0-3215. - 73 0 1594' 21 0-2687. -60
60 0-3390. -50 0 3263' -46 0 1994. __ 2 0-2884' -56
6-5 0-3828 -46 0-3263. -33 0-2394' - 11 0-3026 -49
70 0-4220 44 0-3230 - 18 0-2783 -22 0-3119. -42
7-5 0-4569 -"37 0-3178 - 12 0-3151 -26 0-3171' -28
80 0-4881 - 32 0-3114* - 5 0-3494' -25 0-3194. -25
8-5 0-5161 -28 0-3044 3 0-3812 -25 0-3193 - 15
90 0-5413 -24 0-2971. - 2 0-4105' -23 0-3176. - 13
9-5 0-5641' -20 0-2896' +1 0-4375' -21 0-3146' - 8
100 0-5849. - 19 0-2822 +1 0-4624' - 19 0-3108' 5

of Kelvin's ber and bei functions* by equations (34) and _ n-\/2 _ n(2n - 1) - DC" " 3)
(35), namely 8X3
2[~berxbei'x b e i x b e r ' x l ,_ 9)(2 - 7)
(37)
xLl x) 2 + (bei x) 2
(ber,)2+(bei*y
(ber J ' (34) 128x5
2 f ber x ber' x + bei x bei' x"
~Y\ (her y">2 J_ ( h e i Y\1
(35) Interpolation in Tables 8 and 9 may be performed by
Everett's formula, which is
Equations (6) and (7) may also be readily deduced from
equation (1) and the Bessel reduction formulae. - jS2)M"(x0)
The functions fax) and ifjn(x) are tabulated in Tables 8
and "9 for values of x up to 10 and for values of n up to 4. a 2 )M"(x,)
For values of x above 10 the series formulae given by
Butterworth in his paper will usually be sufficiently accu- /(x 0 ) and/(xj) are two consecutive values in the table of
rate. These formulae are reproduced here as equations the function/(x) for the arguments x ~ x 0 and x = xx.
(36) and (37): M"(x 0 ) and M"(x{) are the corresponding values of M".
i , s , A / 2 n\/2(2n 1)(2 3) [The function M" is equal to the second difference of
fax) -- 1 - ^ - + 8x3 the function/(x) minus 0-184 times the fourth difference.]
/(x a ) is the value of the function /(x) for the argument x a ,
n(2n - 1X2 - 3) where x a lies between x 0 and xv
' 4x4
x
a ~~ x0
tiy/2(2n 1)(4/;2 - 7) Also and j8
(36) Xj X 0
128x5
* Tables of these functions to 9 decimal places were published in the The correct values are as follows:
British Association Report for 1912 (page 56). An error was made in the
calculation of bei' x, and a corrected table of this function to 6 decimal bei'3-7 = 0 1 3 1 486 760
places for values of the argument from 6 r 5 to 10-5 was published in the b e i ' 6 - 4 = - 13-535 754 776
British Association Report for 1916 (page 122). For values of the argument
less than 6-5 the original table is correct to within one unit in the sixth For values of the argument less than 4-6 the original table is correct to
decimal place, with the exception of the figures given for bei' 3-7 and bei' 6-4. 9 decimal places.